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Sample records for monostachia perform distinct

  1. Specific leaf areas of the tank bromeliad Guzmania monostachia perform distinct functions in response to water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Cambui, Camila Aguetoni; Semprebom, Thais Ribeiro; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Mioto, Paulo Tamoso; de Melo Versieux, Leonardo; Calvente, Alice; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-05-01

    Leaves comprise most of the vegetative body of tank bromeliads and are usually subjected to strong longitudinal gradients. For instance, while the leaf base is in contact with the water accumulated in the tank, the more light-exposed middle and upper leaf sections have no direct access to this water reservoir. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate whether different leaf portions of Guzmania monostachia, a tank-forming C(3)-CAM bromeliad, play distinct physiological roles in response to water shortage, which is a major abiotic constraint in the epiphytic habitat. Internal and external morphological features, relative water content, pigment composition and the degree of CAM expression were evaluated in basal, middle and apical leaf portions in order to allow the establishment of correlations between the structure and the functional importance of each leaf region. Results indicated that besides marked structural differences, a high level of functional specialization is also present along the leaves of this bromeliad. When the tank water was depleted, the abundant hydrenchyma of basal leaf portions was the main reservoir for maintaining a stable water status in the photosynthetic tissues of the apical region. In contrast, the CAM pathway was intensified specifically in the upper leaf section, which is in agreement with the presence of features more suitable for the occurrence of photosynthesis at this portion. Gas exchange data indicated that internal recycling of respiratory CO(2) accounted for virtually all nighttime acid accumulation, characterizing a typical CAM-idling pathway in the drought-exposed plants. Altogether, these data reveal a remarkable physiological complexity along the leaves of G. monostachia, which might be a key adaptation to the intermittent water supply of the epiphytic niche. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Adjustments in CAM and enzymatic scavenging of H2O2 in juvenile plants of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia as affected by drought and rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Victória; Abreu, Maria E; Mercier, Helenice; Nievola, Catarina C

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile plants of epiphytes such as bromeliads are highly prone to dehydration under drought conditions. It is likely that young epiphytes evolved mostly metabolic strategies to resist drought, which may include the plastic modulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Few studies have investigated such strategies in juvenile epiphytes, although such research is important to understand how these plants might face drought intensification derived from potential climatic alterations. The epiphytic CAM bromeliad Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez var. monostachia is known to have plastic responses to drought, but no reports have focused on the metabolism of juvenile plants to drought and recovery. Hence, we aimed to verify how juvenile G. monostachia plants adjust malate (indicative of CAM), H2O2 content and enzymatic scavenging in response to drought (eight days without irrigation) and rewatering (six days of irrigation post-drought). Interestingly, drought decreased H2O2 content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the pre-dusk period, although glutathione reductase (GR) and CAM activity increased. Rewatering restored H2O2, but activities of APX, CAT and GR exceeded pre-stress levels in the pre-dusk and/or pre-dawn periods. Results suggest that recovery from a first drought redefines the homeostatic balance of H2O2 scavenging, in which rewatered plants stimulate the enzymatic antioxidant system while drought-exposed plants intensify CAM activity to regulate H2O2 content, a photosynthetic pathway known to prevent oxidative stress. Such data show that young G. monostachia plants adjust CAM and H2O2 scavenging to adapt to water availability.

  3. Beyond Gender Performance in Accounting: Does Personality Distinction Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2014-01-01

    This study questions whether the contradictory results from previous studies of gender and performance in accounting is because gender has no mutually homogeneous groups. A combination of gender and personality types will provide a more balanced picture of academic performance in accounting. There are three main findings in this study: the…

  4. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  5. The effect of visual distinctiveness on multiple object tracking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Piers D L; Holcombe, Alex O

    2012-01-01

    Observers often need to attentively track moving objects. In everyday life, such objects are often visually distinctive. Previous studies have shown that tracking accuracy is increased when the targets contain a visual feature (e.g., a color) not possessed by the distractors. Conversely, a gain in tracking accuracy was not observed when the targets differed from the distractors by only a conjunction of features (Makovski and Jiang, 2009a). In this study we confirm that some conjunction targets have relatively little effect on tracking accuracy, but show that other conjunction targets can significantly aid tracking. For example, tracking accuracy is relatively high when the targets are small red squares and half the distractors are large red squares while the remaining distractors are small green squares. This seems to occur because the targets have a set of features (small and red) not shared by any one distractor. Attending to these features directs attention more to the targets than the distractors, thereby making the targets easier to track. Existing theories of attentive tracking cannot explain these results.

  6. Distinctive research patterns on public sector performance measurement of public administration and accounting disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, G. Jan; Johnsen, Age; Vakkuri, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    This article explores distinctive research patterns of public administration and accounting disciplines concerning public sector performance measurement (PSPM). Our review shows that accounting researchers from Europe investigate reasons for limited PM use and factors explaining a rational or symbol

  7. Competitively Distinct Operations as a Key for Superior and Sustainable Business Performance: An Example from Walmart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Timilsina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing research on the resource-based view (RBV has provided limited evidence on how firms achieve superior and sustainable business performance; this failure is because current literature de-emphasizes the importance of operations. This paper argues that to gain and sustain superior business performance, a firm’s sustainable competitive advantage is not enough, its operations also needs to be competitively distinct. Therefore, through unifying the necessary conditions of superior and sustainable business performance the paper presents a better understanding of the RBV. The success story of Walmart, from existing literature, is considered as an example to support the proposed framework. The paper concludes that the cost of operations, opportunity cost, cost of resources and possible output are the crucial factors in resource choice and operations decision to secure competitively distinct operations. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications, research limitations and future research possibilities are discussed.

  8. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs’ functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers.

  9. Complexity of Scrambling A New Twist to the Competence; Performance Distinction

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, A K

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the following issue: How do we decide whether a certain property of language is a competence property or a performance property? Our claim is that the answer to this question is not given a-priori. The answer depends on the formal devices (formal grammars and machines) available to us for describing language. We discuss this issue in the context of the complexity of processing of center embedding (of relative clauses in English) and scrambling (in German, for example) from arbitrary depths of embedding.

  10. The distinct role of performing euthanasia on depression and suicide in veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lily; Crane, Monique F; Phillips, Jacqueline K

    2014-04-01

    Veterinarians are more likely to experience mood disorders and suicide than other occupational groups (Fritschi, Morrison, Shirangi & Day, 2009; Platt, Hawton, Simkin, & Mellanby, 2010). The performance of euthanasia has been implicated as contributing determinately to the prevalence of suicide risk and psychological distress in veterinarians (Bartram & Baldwin, 2008, 2010). In contrast, the application of psychological approaches would suggest a possible protective role for euthanasia administration. This paper is the first to investigate the association between euthanasia-administration frequency and depressed mood and suicide risk. A cross-sectional survey sampled 540 Australia-registered veterinarians (63.8% women), ranging in age from 23 to 74. Results revealed that the administration of objectionable euthanasia (i.e., euthanasia that the veterinarian disagreed with) was not related to our mental health variables. In contrast, overall euthanasia frequency had a weak positive linear relationship with depression. Moreover, overall euthanasia frequency moderated the impact of depression on suicide risk. The nature of this moderation suggested that average frequency per week of performing euthanasia attenuated the relationship between depressed mood and suicide risk. The implications of these findings and directions for further research are discussed.

  11. Distinct effects of positive and negative music on older adults' auditory target identification performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target).

  12. Striatal lesions produce distinctive impairments in reaction time performance in two different operant chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasted, P J; Döbrössy, M D; Robbins, T W; Dunnett, S B

    1998-08-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in mediating voluntary movement. Excitotoxic striatal lesions in rats have previously been shown to impair the initiation but not the execution of movement in a choice reaction time task in an automated lateralised nose-poke apparatus (the "nine-hole box"). Conversely, when a conceptually similar reaction time task has been applied in a conventional operant chamber (or "Skinner box"), striatal lesions have been seen to impair the execution rather than the initiation of the lateralised movement. The present study was undertaken to compare directly these two results by training the same group of rats to perform a choice reaction time task in the two chambers and then comparing the effects of a unilateral excitotoxic striatal lesion in both chambers in parallel. Particular attention was paid to adopting similar parameters and contingencies in the control of the task in the two test chambers. After striatal lesions, the rats showed predominantly contralateral impairments in both tasks. However, they showed a deficit in reaction time in the nine-hole box but an apparent deficit in response execution in the Skinner box. This finding confirms the previous studies and indicates that differences in outcome are not simply attributable to procedural differences in the lesions, training conditions or tasks parameters. Rather, the pattern of reaction time deficit after striatal lesions depends critically on the apparatus used and the precise response requirements for each task.

  13. Analysis of DC and analog/RF performance on Cyl-GAA-TFET using distinct device geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishvakarma, S. K.; Beohar, Ankur; Vijayvargiya, Vikas; Trivedi, Priyal

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, analysis of DC and analog/RF performance on cylindrical gate-all-around tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) has been made using distinct device geometry. Firstly, performance parameters of GAA-TFET are analyzed in terms of drain current, gate capacitances, transconductance, source-drain conductance at different radii and channel length. Furthermore, we also produce the geometrical analysis towards the optimized investigation of radio frequency parameters like cut-off frequency, maximum oscillation frequency and gain bandwidth product using a 3D technology computer-aided design ATLAS. Due to band-to-band tunneling based current mechanism unlike MOSFET, gate-bias dependence values as primary parameters of TFET differ. We also analyze that the maximum current occurs when radii of Si is around 8 nm due to high gate controllability over channel with reduced fringing effects and also there is no change in the current of TFET on varying its length from 100 to 40 nm. However current starts to increase when channel length is further reduced for 40 to 30 nm. Both of these trades-offs affect the RF performance of the device. Project supported by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Funded Research Project, Grant No. 22/0651/14/EMR-II, Government of India.

  14. MHF1–2/CENP-S-X performs distinct roles in centromere metabolism and genetic recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sonali; Osman, Fekret; Feeney, Laura; Lorenz, Alexander; Bryer, Claire; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    The histone-fold proteins Mhf1/CENP-S and Mhf2/CENP-X perform two important functions in vertebrate cells. First, they are components of the constitutive centromere-associated network, aiding kinetochore assembly and function. Second, they work with the FANCM DNA translocase to promote DNA repair. However, it has been unclear whether there is crosstalk between these roles. We show that Mhf1 and Mhf2 in fission yeast, as in vertebrates, serve a dual function, aiding DNA repair/recombination and localizing to centromeres to promote chromosome segregation. Importantly, these functions are distinct, with the former being dependent on their interaction with the FANCM orthologue Fml1 and the latter not. Together with Fml1, they play a second role in aiding chromosome segregation by processing sister chromatid junctions. However, a failure of this activity does not manifest dramatically increased levels of chromosome missegregation due to the Mus81–Eme1 endonuclease, which acts as a failsafe to resolve DNA junctions before the end of mitosis. PMID:24026537

  15. Recursive Distinctioning

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Recursive distinctioning (RD) is a name coined by Joel Isaacson in his original patent document describing how fundamental patterns of process arise from the systematic application of operations of distinction and description upon themselves. Recursive distinctioning means just what it says. A pattern of distinctions is given in a space based on a graphical structure (such as a line of print or a planar lattice or given graph). Each node of the graph is occupied by a letter from some arbitrary alphabet. A specialized alphabet is given that can indicate distinctions about neighbors of a given node. The neighbors of a node are all nodes that are connected to the given node by edges in the graph. The letters in the specialized alphabet (call it SA) are used to describe the states of the letters in the given graph and at each stage in the recursion, letters in SA are written at all nodes in the graph, describing its previous state. The recursive structure that results from the iteration of descriptions is called ...

  16. The movements made by performers in a skilled quartet: a distinctive pattern, and the function that it serves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGlowinski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available When people perform a task as part of a joint action, their behavior is not the same as it would be if they were performing the same task alone, since it has to be adapted to facilitate shared understanding (or sometimes to prevent it. Joint performance of music offers a test bed for ecologically valid investigations of the way non-verbal behavior facilitates joint action. Here we compare the expressive movement of violinists when playing in solo and ensemble conditions. The first violinists of two string quartets, professional and student, were asked to play the same musical fragments in a solo condition and with the quartet. Synchronized multimodal recordings were created from the performances, using a specially developed software platform. Different patterns of head movement were observed. By quantifying them using an appropriate measure of entropy, we showed that head movements are more predictable in the quartet scenario. Rater evaluations showed that the change does not, as might be assumed, entail markedly reduced expression. They showed some ability to discriminate between solo and ensemble performances, but did not distinguish them in terms of emotional content or expressiveness. The data raise provocative questions about joint action in realistically complex scenarios.

  17. The movements made by performers in a skilled quartet: a distinctive pattern, and the function that it serves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowinski, Donald; Mancini, Maurizio; Cowie, Roddy; Camurri, Antonio; Chiorri, Carlo; Doherty, Cian

    2013-01-01

    When people perform a task as part of a joint action, their behavior is not the same as it would be if they were performing the same task alone, since it has to be adapted to facilitate shared understanding (or sometimes to prevent it). Joint performance of music offers a test bed for ecologically valid investigations of the way non-verbal behavior facilitates joint action. Here we compare the expressive movement of violinists when playing in solo and ensemble conditions. The first violinists of two string quartets (SQs), professional and student, were asked to play the same musical fragments in a solo condition and with the quartet. Synchronized multimodal recordings were created from the performances, using a specially developed software platform. Different patterns of head movement were observed. By quantifying them using an appropriate measure of entropy, we showed that head movements are more predictable in the quartet scenario. Rater evaluations showed that the change does not, as might be assumed, entail markedly reduced expression. They showed some ability to discriminate between solo and ensemble performances, but did not distinguish them in terms of emotional content or expressiveness. The data raise provocative questions about joint action in realistically complex scenarios. PMID:24312065

  18. Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

  19. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  20. Performance Analysis of Post-Detection Combining for NFSK and DPSK Systems over Arbitrarily Correlated Nakagami Channels with Distinct Fading Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and noncoherent frequency shift keying (NFSK) systems over fading channels, the post-detection combining method is a popular means for improving the bit error performance. However, the bit error performance of such systems over Nakagami channels with an arbitrary covariance matrix and real distinct fading parameters has been seldom described in the literature. This paper studies the problem using a generic correlated Nakagami fading model and presents a closed form solution which is used to study the influence of the fading parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) distribution ratios among all the branches on the bit error performance. Moreover, the average SNRs of each branch are not restricted to one value in the analysis. The closed form solution developed for the problem can be used to study the influence of the fading parameters and the SNR distribution ratios on the error performance.

  1. Size control of SBA-15 by tuning the stirring speed for the formation of CMK-3 with distinct adsorption performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wang; Zhencai Wang; Tianhao Zheng; Xiongping Zhou; Wei Chen; Dekun Ma; Yun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the size of SBA-15 can be beneficial for exploiting CMK-3,which has excellent structural parameters,for better performance in adsorption and/or catalytic processes.In this study,the width of freestanding SBA-15 rods was readily and successfully regulated by simply altering the stirring power during the synthesis.A higher stirring rate produced SBA-15 rods with larger width.Then,the size of the CMK-3 rods was adjusted by duplication of the differentsized SBA-15.The results show that the larger sized CMK-3 has higher specific surface area and pore volume,which led to a higher adsorption capacity and a faster adsorption rate.It is believed that the synthetic method reported here is powerful for developing better mesoporous carbon for application in water purification and catalysis.

  2. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    no trees; 2 - 30% of radiation restriction, using 15 × 3 m spacing between trees (222 trees/ha, and; 3 - 60% of radiation restriction, using 9 × 3 m between trees (370 trees/ha. It was performed evaluations of forage production, chemical composition and structural component of plants, water potential of the plants, soil moisture, microclimate variables and production of needles. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, in split-plots and three replicates. Ryegrass was the most productive species at all brightness levels, although hairy vetch showed the lowest reduction on production under shading. There was higher water potential in the plants and higher soil moisture under shading, however, forage production was significantly reduced in the most intense shading (81%. Chemical composition and structural components of all studied forage species are also affected by brightness restriction increase.

  3. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  4. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    -colonial citizenship within the mass of refugees. The core principle of the official resettlement policy was self-rehabilitation, that is, the ability to become a productive citizen of the new nation state without state intervention. Thus, the onus of performing a successful transition - from refugee to citizen - lay...

  5. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    -colonial citizenship within the mass of refugees. The core principle of the official resettlement policy was self-rehabilitation, that is, the ability to become a productive citizen of the new nation state without state intervention. Thus, the onus of performing a successful transition - from refugee to citizen - lay...

  6. Cortical inhibition of distinct mechanisms in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is related to working memory performance: a TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogasch, Nigel C; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a method for studying cortical inhibition from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying TMS-evoked cortical potentials (TEPs) from this region, let alone inhibition of these components. The aim of this study was to assess cortical inhibition of distinct TEPs and oscillations in the DLPFC using TMS-EEG and to investigate the relationship of these mechanisms to working memory. 30 healthy volunteers received single and paired (interstimulus interval = 100 msec) TMS to the left DLPFC. Variations in long-interval cortical inhibition (LICI) of different TEP peaks (N40, P60, N100) and different TMS-evoked oscillations (alpha, lower beta, upper beta, gamma) were compared between individuals. Variation in N100 slope following single pulse TMS, another putative marker of inhibition, was also compared with LICI of each measure. Finally, these measures were correlated with performance of a working memory task. LICI resulted in significant suppression of all TEP peaks and TMS-evoked oscillations (all p working memory performance. The results suggest that both the LICI paradigm and N100 following single pulse TMS reflect complementary methods for assessing GABAB-mediated cortical inhibition in the DLPFC. Furthermore, these measures demonstrate the importance of prefrontal GABAB-mediated inhibitory control for working memory performance.

  7. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  8. High educational performance is a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder : A study on cognition in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia patients, relatives and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, A.; Boks, M. P M; Abramovic, L.; Verkooijen, S.; Van Bergen, A. H.; Hillegers, M. H J; Spijker, A. T.; Hoencamp, E.; Regeer, E. J.; Riemersma-Van Der Lek, R. F.; Stevens, A. W M M; Schulte, P. F J; Vonk, R.; Hoekstra, R.; Van Beveren, N. J M; Kupka, R. W.; Brouwer, R. M.; Bearden, C. E.; MacCabe, J. H.; Ophoff, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with lower intelligence and poor educational performance relative to the general population. This is, to a lesser degree, also found in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. It is unclear whether bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and their relative

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu₂O nanorod films: the distinct role of Ag NPs in the visible light and UV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shoutian; Zhao, Guoliang; Wang, Yingying; Wang, Benyang; Wang, Qiang

    2015-03-27

    Sandwiched ZnO@Ag@Cu2O nanorod films were synthesized by successive electrodeposition, magnetron sputtering and the second electrodeposition. The as-synthesized composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Their photocatalytic performance was estimated by the degradation of a methyl orange solution under UV or visible-light irradiation, respectively. In the visible region, due to localized surface plasmon resonance absorption of Ag NPs, ZnO@Ag@Cu2O showed a significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance. The enhancement factor of Ag NPs on the catalytic performance of ZnO@Ag@Cu2O was estimated as a function of the Cu2O deposition time, and the corresponding enhancement mechanism was also evaluated by the monochromatic photocatalytic experiment and discrete dipole approximation simulation. In the UV region, due to the formation of a Schottky junction (e.g. Ag/ZnO, Ag/Cu2O), a limited enhanced photocatalytic performance was also realized for ZnO@Ag@Cu2O photocatalysts.

  10. Distinct changes in CREB phosphorylation in frontal cortex and striatum during contingent and non-contingent performance of a visual attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana eCarli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB family of transcription factors has been implicated in numerous forms of behavioural plasticity. We investigated CREB phosphorylation along some nodes of corticostriatal circuitry such as frontal cortex (FC and dorsal (caudate putamen, CPu and ventral (nucleus accumbens, NAC striatum in response to the contingent or non-contingent performance of the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT used to assess visuospatial attention. Three experimental manipulations were used; an attentional performance group (contingent, master, a group trained previously on the task but for whom the instrumental contingency coupling responding with stimulus detection and reward was abolished (non-contingent, yoked and a control group matched for food deprivation and exposure to the test apparatus (untrained. Rats trained on the 5-CSRTT (both master and yoked had higher levels of CREB protein in the FC, CPu and NAC compared to untrained controls. Despite the divergent behaviour of master and yoked rats CREB activity in the FC was not substantially different. In rats performing the 5-CSRTT (master, CREB activity was completely abolished in the CPu whereas in the NAC it remained unchanged. In contrast, CREB phosphorylation in CPu and NAC increased only when the contingency changed from goal-dependent to goal-independent reinforcement (yoked. The present results indicate that up-regulation of CREB protein expression across cortical and striatal regions possibly reflects the extensive instrumental learning and performance whereas increased CREB activity in striatal regions may signal the unexpected change in the relationship between instrumental action and reinforcement.

  11. Computational visual distinctness metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Baena, J.; Toet, A.; Fdez-Vidal, X.R.; Garrido, A.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, R.

    1998-01-01

    A new computational visual distinctness metric based on principles of the early human visual system is presented. The metric is applied to quantify (1) the visual distinctness of targets in complex natural scenes and (2) the perceptual differences between compressed and uncompressed images. The new

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography based chemical fingerprint analysis and chemometric approaches for the identification and distinction of three endangered Panax plants in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengguo; Bai, Zhenqing; Liang, Tongyao; Yang, Dongfeng; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; Liu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Among Panax genus, only three endangered species Panax notoginseng, P. vietnamensis, and P. stipuleanatus that have a similar morphology are mainly distributed in Southeast Asia. These three plants are usually misidentified or adulterated. To identify them well, their chemical chromatographic fingerprints were established by an effective high-performance liquid chromatography method. By comparing the chromatograms, the three Panax species could be distinguished easily using the 22 characteristic peaks. Besides, the data of the chromatographic fingerprints aided by chemometric approaches were applied for the identification and investigation the relationship of different samples and species. Using similarity analysis, the chemical components revealed higher similarity between P. vietnamensis and P. stipuleanatus. The results of hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that samples belonging to the same species could be clustered together. The result of principal component analysis was similar with hierarchical clustering analysis and the three principal components accounted for >80.5% of total variability.

  13. Substance, Reality, and Distinctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Hennig

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claims that God is a substance, and that mind and body are two different and separable substances. This paper provides some background that renders these claims intelligible. For Descartes, that something is real means it can exist in separation, and something is a substance if it does not depend on other substances for its existence. Further, separable objects are correlates of distinct ideas, for an idea is distinct (in an objective sense if its object may be easily and clearly separated from everything that is not its object. It follows that if our idea of God is our most distinct idea, as Descartes claims, then God must be a substance in the Cartesian sense of the term. Also, if we can have an idea of a thinking subject which does not in any sense refer to bodily things, and if bodily things are substances, then mind and body must be two different substances.

  14. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Bringing distinctive TV drama?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Raats, Tim

    roles of PSB. (2) Comparing public service media strategies for TV drama financing and distribution in two markets: the Flemish (i.e. Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) and the Danish market. Both cases are characterized by huge popularity of domestic tv drama and both markets are non......-Anglophone with a limited market size and hence, theoretically, limited capacity for production and export. Both cases furthermore show a crucial role of the public broadcasters as part of developing and sustaining tv drama in those markets. However, the underlying policy impetus reflect clearly different views on TV drama...... strategies, with policymakers employing TV drama in Flanders as a driver for a ‘healthy’ independent production sector (especially in VRT’s most recent management contract) and DR drama clearly driven by distinct public service characteristics. Having the said that, the latter case in recently proved its...

  16. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  17. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  18. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  19. Optimal Distinctiveness Signals Membership Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Loyd, Denise Lewin

    2016-07-01

    According to optimal distinctiveness theory, sufficiently small minority groups are associated with greater membership trust, even among members otherwise unknown, because the groups are seen as optimally distinctive. This article elaborates on the prediction's motivational and cognitive processes and tests whether sufficiently small minorities (defined by relative size; for example, 20%) are associated with greater membership trust relative to mere minorities (45%), and whether such trust is a function of optimal distinctiveness. Two experiments, examining observers' perceptions of minority and majority groups and using minimal groups and (in Experiment 2) a trust game, revealed greater membership trust in minorities than majorities. In Experiment 2, participants also preferred joining minorities over more powerful majorities. Both effects occurred only when minorities were 20% rather than 45%. In both studies, perceptions of optimal distinctiveness mediated effects. Discussion focuses on the value of relative size and optimal distinctiveness, and when membership trust manifests.

  20. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  1. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  2. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  3. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  4. The path to memory is guided by strategy: distinct networks are engaged in associative encoding under visual and verbal strategy and influence memory performance in healthy and impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B; Brewer, James B

    2012-06-01

    Given the diversity of stimuli encountered in daily life, a variety of strategies must be used for learning new information. Relating and encoding visual and verbal stimuli into memory has been probed using various tasks and stimulus types. Engagement of specific subsequent memory and cortical processing regions depends on the stimulus modality of studied material; however, it remains unclear whether different encoding strategies similarly influence regional activity when stimulus type is held constant. In this study, participants encoded object pairs using a visual or verbal associative strategy during fMRI, and subsequent memory was assessed for pairs encoded under each strategy. Each strategy elicited distinct regional processing and subsequent memory effects: middle/superior frontal, lateral parietal, and lateral occipital for visually associated pairs and inferior frontal, medial frontal, and medial occipital for verbally associated pairs. This regional selectivity mimics the effects of stimulus modality, suggesting that cortical involvement in associative encoding is driven by strategy and not simply by stimulus type. The clinical relevance of these findings, probed in a patient with a recent aphasic stroke, suggest that training with strategies utilizing unaffected cortical regions might improve memory ability in patients with brain damage.

  5. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  6. Grima: A Distinct Emotion Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Keil, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    People experience an unpleasant sensation when hearing a scratch on a board or plate. The present research focuses on this aversive experience known in Spanish as ‘grima’ with no equivalent term in English and German. We hypothesized that this aversive experience constitutes a distinctive, separate emotional concept. In Study 1, we found that the affective meaning of ‘grima’ was closer to disgust than to other emotion concepts. Thus, in Study 2 we explored the features of grima and compared them with disgust. As grima was reported to be predominantly elicited by certain auditory stimuli and associated with a distinctive physiological pattern, Study 3 used direct measures of physiological arousal to test the assumption of a distinctive pattern of physiological responses elicited by auditory stimuli of grima and disgust, and found different effects on heart rate but not on skin conductance. In Study 4, we hypothesized that only participants with an implementation intention geared toward down-regulating grima would be able to successfully weaken the grima- but not disgust- experience. Importantly, this effect was specific as it held true for the grima-eliciting sounds only, but did not affect disgust-related sounds. Finally, Study 5 found that English and German speakers lack a single accessible linguistic label for the pattern of aversive reactions termed by Spanish speaking individuals as ‘grima’, whereas the elicitors of other emotions were accessible and accurately identified by German, English, as well as Spanish speakers. PMID:28217102

  7. The Distinction Between English Synonyms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段佳

    2012-01-01

      A large number of new words and terms flock in the English vocabulary and English has a variety of expressive methods making it possible to express the same meaning by different words. Therefore English synonyms are so abundant that it is possible to describe the colorful world and to express the complicated, delicate human thought and emotions. But they bring people many problems such as the correct choice of words from synonyms. The reason for this problem is the insufficient knowledge of the distinction of English synonyms, which have differences in many aspects. This paper offers three main aspects in distinguishing English synonyms that include words’ meaning, coloring and usage.

  8. The four different types of internal hernia occurring after laparascopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass performed for morbid obesity: are there any multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features permitting their distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawkabani Marchini, Aida; Denys, Alban; Paroz, Alexandre; Romy, Sébastien; Suter, Michel; Desmartines, Nicolas; Meuli, Reto; Schmidt, Sabine

    2011-04-01

    Four different types of internal hernias (IH) are known to occur after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP) performed for morbid obesity. We evaluate multidetector row helical computed tomography (MDCT) features for their differentiation. From a prospectively collected database including 349 patients with LRYGBP, 34 acutely symptomatic patients (28 women, mean age 32.6), operated on for IH immediately after undergoing MDCT, were selected. Surgery confirmed 4 (11.6%) patients with transmesocolic, 10 (29.4%) with Petersen's, 15 (44.2%) with mesojejunal, and 5 (14.8%) with jejunojejunal IH. In consensus, 2 radiologists analyzed 13 MDCT features to distinguish the four types of IH. Statistical significance was calculated (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test, chi-square test). MDCT features of small bowel obstruction (SBO) (n=25, 73.5%), volvulus (n=22, 64.7%), or a cluster of small bowel loops (SBL) (n=27, 79.4%) were inconsistently present and overlapped between the four IH. The following features allowed for IH differentiation: left upper quadrant clustered small bowel loops (p<0.0001) and a mesocolic hernial orifice (p=0.0003) suggested transmesocolic IH. SBL abutting onto the left abdominal wall (p=0.0021) and left abdominal shift of the superior mesenteric vessels (SMV) (p=0.0045) suggested Petersen's hernia. The SMV predominantly shifted towards the right anterior abdominal wall in mesojejunal hernia (p=0.0033). Location of the hernial orifice near the distal anastomosis (p=0.0431) and jejunojejunal suture widening (p=0.0005) indicated jejunojejunal hernia. None of the four IH seems associated with a higher risk of SBO. Certain MDCT features, such as the position of clustered SBL and hernial orifice, help distinguish between the four IH and may permit straightforward surgery.

  9. ngravs: Distinct gravitational interactions in GADGET-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, K. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss an extension of the massively parallel cosmological simulation code GADGET-2, which now enables investigation of multiple and distinct gravitational force laws, provided they are dominated by a constant scaling of the Newtonian force. In addition to simplifying investigations of a universally modified force law, the ngravs extension provides a foundation for state-of-the-art collisionless cosmological simulations of exotic gravitational scenarios. We briefly review the algorithms used by GADGET-2, and present our extension to multiple gravities, highlighting additional features that facilitate consideration of exotic force laws. We discuss the accuracy and performance of the ngravs extension, both internally and with an unaltered GADGET-2, in the relevant operational modes. The ngravs extension is publicly released to the research community.

  10. Penoscrotal porokeratosis: A distinct entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old man presented with five months history of redness associated with itching and burning over the scrotum and shaft of the penis with a persistent rash on those sites. There had been no response to topical steroid and antifungal creams. Clinical examination revealed a large well-circumscribed erythematous plaque with a thready raised border with a tiny groove at its summit that involved almost two-thirds of the ventral part of the shaft of the penis. Ill-defined erythema with a granular surface was seen over the anterior scrotal skin. A 4 mm punch biopsy of the plaque on the penile shaft revealed multiple cornoid lamellae located adjacent to one another. The patient was treated with topical emollients. Follow up after four months revealed almost complete resolution of the plaque on the penile shaft. Penoscrotal porokeratosis appears to be a distinct entity in the family of porokeratotic diseases, described only in young males in their twenties with involvement of the penile shaft and anterior scrotum with severe burning and itching and histologically associated with multiple cornoid lamellae. It may represent an unusual epidermal porokeratotic reaction pattern and may be a self-resolving condition.

  11. Distinctiveness of Ugandapithecus from Proconsul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gommery, D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision to create the genus Ugandapithecus by Senut et al., 2000 has been criticised, either directly and in detail by MacLatchy & Rossie (2005b who argued that it is a junior synonym of Proconsul, or indirectly without providing reasons, firstly by Harrison (2001 who wrote that he did not retain it as a genus distinct from Proconsul, and then by Suwa et al., (2007 who employed the name “Ugandapithecus” with inverted commas, implying some degree of doubt about its validity as a genus, but without providing details. More recently Harrison & Andrews (2009 have recognised the Meswa sample as a separate species but they argue that it should be maintained within Proconsul, despite the morphological differences that it has from other species of the genus. We here re-examine the question by comparing, on the one hand, the holotype maxilla of Proconsul africanus, the type species of the genus, with the upper dentition of Ugandapithecus major, and, on the other hand, the holotype mandible of Ugandapithecus major with the lower dentition and mandibles previously attributed to Proconsul africanus. We conclude that the differences between the known upper and lower dentitions of P. africanus and U. major are of such a degree that the two taxa warrant generic separation, and that the differences are not related to sexual dimorphism. Where Proconsul africanus differs from Ugandapithecus major, it approaches Proconsul nyanzae and Proconsul heseloni from Rusinga.Furthermore, the range of morphometric variation within the fossil samples previously attributed to Ugandapithecus major is so great that it far surpasses variation in any other hominoid, fossil or extant. Previously this great amount of variation was interpreted to mean that U. major was extremely dimorphic, with huge males and small females, but if this is true, then U. major would be unique among hominoids in having females in which the cheek teeth fall completely outside the range of

  12. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  13. Killing and letting die: a defensible distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, W

    1996-04-01

    The distinction between killing and letting die is investigated and clarified. It is then argued that in most cases, though not in all, it is worse to kill than to let die. In euthanasia the significance of the distinction is diminished, but still important.

  14. Phylogenetic autocorrelation under distinct evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, J A

    2001-06-01

    I show how phylogenetic correlograms track distinct microevolutionary processes and can be used as empirical descriptors of the relationship between interspecific covariance (V(B)) and time since divergence (t). Data were simulated under models of gradual and speciational change, using increasing levels of stabilizing selection in a stochastic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) process, on a phylogeny of 42 species. For each simulated dataset, correlograms were constructed using Moran's I coefficients estimated at five time slices, established at constant intervals. The correlograms generated under different evolutionary models differ significantly according to F-values derived from analysis of variance comparing Moran's I at each time slice and based on Wilks' lambda from multivariate analysis of variance comparing their overall profiles in a two-way design. Under Brownian motion or with small restraining forces in the O-U process, correlograms were better fit by a linear model. However, increasing restraining forces in the O-U process cause a lack of linear fit, and correlograms are better described by exponential models. These patterns are better fit for gradual than for speciational modes of change. Correlograms can be used as a diagnostic method and to describe the V(B)/t relationship before using methods to analyze correlated evolution that assume (or perform statistically better when) this relationship is linear.

  15. HYSTERESIS BETWEEN DISTINCT MODES OF TURBULENT DYNAMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kitchatinov, Leonid L., E-mail: bbkarak@nordita.org [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 291, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-20

    Nonlinear mean-field models of the solar dynamo show long-term variability, which may be relevant to different states of activity inferred from long-term radiocarbon data. This paper is aimed at probing the dynamo hysteresis predicted by the recent mean-field models of Kitchatinov and Olemskoy with direct numerical simulations. We perform three-dimensional (3D) simulations of large-scale dynamos in a shearing box with helically forced turbulence. As an initial condition, we either take a weak random magnetic field or we start from a snapshot of an earlier simulation. Two quasi-stable states are found to coexist in a certain range of parameters close to the onset of the large-scale dynamo. The simulations converge to one of these states depending on the initial conditions. When either the fractional helicity or the magnetic Prandtl number is increased between successive runs above the critical value for onset of the dynamo, the field strength jumps to a finite value. However, when the fractional helicity or the magnetic Prandtl number is then decreased again, the field strength stays at a similar value (strong field branch) even below the original onset. We also observe intermittent decaying phases away from the strong field branch close to the point where large-scale dynamo action is just possible. The dynamo hysteresis seen previously in mean-field models is thus reproduced by 3D simulations. Its possible relation to distinct modes of solar activity such as grand minima is discussed.

  16. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  17. The distinctive features for standard Chinese (Putonghua)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jialu

    2006-01-01

    The distinctive features, which are one of the important research subjects in Phonetics and Phonology and in speech technology also, are the ultimate units of speech. Firstly a phoneme system of the standard Chinese-Putonghua was determined based on the results of cluster analysis of perceptual confusion of speech sounds of Putonghua. Then according to the principle of choice between the two opposites proposed by Jakobson, Fant and Halle, considering the characteristics of Putonghua the distinctive feature values for Initials, Finals and Tones were determined in this paper. And the features have been formulated at both acoustic level and genetic level. The distinctive feature trees of Chinese initials and finals were drawn in addition to the feature tables, in order to understand the distinctive features for individual phoneme easily.

  18. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  19. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  20. On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupoli Agostino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.

  1. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  2. Intraosseous myoepithelioma: A rare, distinct tumor entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Rekhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary musculoskeletal myoepithelial tumors (METs are distinctly rare tumors and are being increasingly recognized as a result of improved diagnostic criteria and objective confirmation with immunohistochemical markers, including epithelial markers. Recent studies have unraveled distinct molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors. Herein, we present our second diagnosed case of an intraosseous MET that occurred in the tibia of a 37-year-old lady. The case is discussed with regards to current clinicopathological perspectives on these rather uncommon tumors, including our personal experience.

  3. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  4. Distinct counting with a self-learning bitmap

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Aiyou; Shepp, Larry; Nguyen, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Counting the number of distinct elements (cardinality) in a dataset is a fundamental problem in database management. In recent years, due to many of its modern applications, there has been significant interest to address the distinct counting problem in a data stream setting, where each incoming data can be seen only once and cannot be stored for long periods of time. Many probabilistic approaches based on either sampling or sketching have been proposed in the computer science literature, that only require limited computing and memory resources. However, the performances of these methods are not scale-invariant, in the sense that their relative root mean square estimation errors (RRMSE) depend on the unknown cardinalities. This is not desirable in many applications where cardinalities can be very dynamic or inhomogeneous and many cardinalities need to be estimated. In this paper, we develop a novel approach, called self-learning bitmap (S-bitmap) that is scale-invariant for cardinalities in a specified range....

  5. A Note on Two Basic Semantic Distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celce, Marianne; Schwarcz, Robert M.

    This paper discusses the nature of two basic semantic distinctions--intensional/extensional, and mental/physical (mental/physical being similar to abstract/concrete but more concrete)--and how an understanding of their interaction is an essential preliminary to writing a semantically motivated grammar of English. (Author/FWB)

  6. Simultaneous occurrence of distinct symmetries in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2015-01-01

    We show that distinct emergent symmetries, such as partial dynamical symmetry and quasi dynamical symmetry, can occur simultaneously in the same or different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Implications for nuclear spectroscopy in the rare-earth region and for first-order quantum phase transitions between spherical and deformed shapes, are considered.

  7. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of t

  8. Common and Distinct Components in Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age K.; Mage, Ingrid; Naes, Tormod;

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  9. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...

  10. Intergroup distinctiveness and differentiation : A meta-analytic integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J; Spears, R; Postmes, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between perceptions of intergroup distinctiveness and intergroup differentiation in a meta-analysis. They tested the social identity theory prediction that low intergroup distinctiveness underlies differentiation (the "reactive distinctiveness" hypothesis) for effec

  11. Knowledge-making distinctions in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Powell, Alexander; Davies, Jonathan F; Calvert, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an increasingly high-profile area of research that can be understood as encompassing three broad approaches towards the synthesis of living systems: DNA-based device construction, genome-driven cell engineering and protocell creation. Each approach is characterized by different aims, methods and constructs, in addition to a range of positions on intellectual property and regulatory regimes. We identify subtle but important differences between the schools in relation to their treatments of genetic determinism, cellular context and complexity. These distinctions tie into two broader issues that define synthetic biology: the relationships between biology and engineering, and between synthesis and analysis. These themes also illuminate synthetic biology's connections to genetic and other forms of biological engineering, as well as to systems biology. We suggest that all these knowledge-making distinctions in synthetic biology raise fundamental questions about the nature of biological investigation and its relationship to the construction of biological components and systems.

  12. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of node's centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution $P(q) \\sim q^{-\\gamma}$, localization occurs on the largest hub if $\\gamma>5/2$; for $\\gamma<5/2$ a new type of localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated to the shell with the largest index in the $K$-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix.

  13. Distinct Presentations of Hernia of Umbilical Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Bilal; Ali, Waqas

    2016-01-01

    Hernia of umbilical cord is a well-known entity which presents with herniation of small bowel into the proximal part of umbilical cord. It has very good prognosis after surgical repair. Occasionally, it can have distinct presentations and varied malformations at the umbilicus which have bearing on the course of treatment and final outcome. Herein, we describe various presentations and malformations associated with hernia of umbilical cord. Embryological extrapolation is attempted for the malformations at umbilicus. PMID:27896161

  14. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    OpenAIRE

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main e...

  15. Create three distinct career paths for innovators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gina Colarelli; Corbett, Andrew; Pierantozzi, Ron

    2009-12-01

    Large companies say they Create Three Distinct want to be Career Paths for Innovators innovative, but they fundamentally mismanage their talent. Expecting innovators to grow along with their projects-from discovery to incubation to acceleration--sets them up to fail. Most people excel at one of the phases, not all three. By allowing innovation employees to develop career paths suited to their strengths, companies will create a sustainable innovation function.

  16. Distinctive skeletal dysplasia in Cockayne syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silengo, M.C.; Franceschini, P.; Bianco, R.; Biagioli, M.; Pastorin, L.; Vista, N.; Baldassar, A.; Benso, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a well-known autosomal recessive form of dwarfism with senile-like appearance. Skeletal changes such as flattening of vertebral bodies, ivory epiphyses and thickening of cranial vault, have been observed in some patients with this condition. We describe here a 5.5-year-old girl with the typical clinical signs of Cockayne syndrome and a distinctive form of bone dysplasia with major involvement of the spine.

  17. Epistemological Distinctions Between Science and History

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes epistemological distinctions between science and history. Science investigates models of natural law using repeatable experiments as the ultimate arbiter. In contrast, history investigates past events by considering physical evidence, documentary evidence, and eyewitness testimony. Because questions of natural law are repeatably testable by any audience that exercises due experimental care, models of natural law are inherently more objective and testable with greater certainty than theories of past events.

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Distinctive Features

    OpenAIRE

    Flaxman, Paul E.; Blackledge, J. T.; Bond, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    What are the distinctive theoretical and practical features of acceptance and commitment therapy? Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern behaviour therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness interventions alongside commitment and behaviour change strategies to enhance psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility refers to the ability to contact the present moment and change or persist in behaviour that serves one’s personally chosen values. Divided into two secti...

  19. The directionality of distinctively mathematical explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Povich, Mark

    2017-06-01

    In "What Makes a Scientific Explanation Distinctively Mathematical?" (2013b), Lange uses several compelling examples to argue that certain explanations for natural phenomena appeal primarily to mathematical, rather than natural, facts. In such explanations, the core explanatory facts are modally stronger than facts about causation, regularity, and other natural relations. We show that Lange's account of distinctively mathematical explanation is flawed in that it fails to account for the implicit directionality in each of his examples. This inadequacy is remediable in each case by appeal to ontic facts that account for why the explanation is acceptable in one direction and unacceptable in the other direction. The mathematics involved in these examples cannot play this crucial normative role. While Lange's examples fail to demonstrate the existence of distinctively mathematical explanations, they help to emphasize that many superficially natural scientific explanations rely for their explanatory force on relations of stronger-than-natural necessity. These are not opposing kinds of scientific explanations; they are different aspects of scientific explanation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum information sharing between topologically distinct platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Refael, Gil; Shtengel, Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Can topological quantum entanglement between anyons in one topological medium "stray" into a different, topologically distinct medium? In other words, can quantum information encoded nonlocally in the combined state of non-Abelian anyons be shared between two distinct topological media? For one-dimensional topological superconductors with Majorana bound states at the end of system, the quantum information store in those Majorana bound states can be transfered by directly coupling nearby Majorana bound states. However, coupling of two one-dimensional Majorana states will produce a gap, indicating that distinct topological regions of one-dimensional wires unite into a single topological region through the information transfer process. In this paper, we consider a setup with two two-dimensional p -wave superconductors of opposite chirality adjacent to each other. Even two comoving chiral modes at the domain wall between them cannot be gapped through interactions; we demonstrate that information encoded in the fermionic parity of two Majorana zero modes, originally within the same superconducting domain, can be shared between the domains or moved entirely from one domain to another provided that vortices can tunnel between them in a controlled fashion.

  1. Phonological and visual distinctiveness effects in syllogistic reasoning: implications for mental models theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Linden J; Quayle, Jeremy D

    2009-09-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the representational distinctiveness of terms within categorical syllogisms was manipulated in order to examine the assumption of mental models theory that abstract, spatially based representations underpin deduction. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated conclusion validity for syllogisms containing either phonologically distinctive terms (e.g., harks, paps, and fids) or phonologically nondistinctive terms (e.g., fuds, fods, and feds). Logical performance was enhanced with the distinctive contents, suggesting that the phonological properties of syllogism terms can play an important role in deduction. In Experiment 2, participants received either the phonological materials from Experiment 1 or syllogisms involving distinctive or nondistinctive visual contents. Logical inference was again enhanced for the distinctive contents, whether phonological or visual in nature. Our findings suggest a broad involvement of multimodal information in syllogistic reasoning and question the assumed primacy of abstract, spatially organized representations in deduction, as is claimed by mental models theorists.

  2. Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence

    KAUST Repository

    Thill, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data transmission, to spacetime codes for MIMO communications, and to measurement operators in quantum sensing. High-performance codes usually arise from designing frames whose elements have mutually low coherence. Building off the original “group frame” design of Slepian which has since been elaborated in the works of Vale and Waldron, we present several new frame constructions based on cyclic and generalized dihedral groups. Slepian\\'s original construction was based on the premise that group structure allows one to reduce the number of distinct inner pairwise inner products in a frame with n elements from [(n(n-1))/2] to n-1. All of our constructions further utilize the group structure to produce tight frames with even fewer distinct inner product values between the frame elements. When n is prime, for example, we use cyclic groups to construct m-dimensional frame vectors with at most [(n-1)/m] distinct inner products. We use this behavior to bound the coherence of our frames via arguments based on the frame potential, and derive even tighter bounds from combinatorial and algebraic arguments using the group structure alone. In certain cases, we recover well-known Welch bound achieving frames. In cases where the Welch bound has not been achieved, and is not known to be achievable, we obtain frames with close to Welch bound performance.

  3. Genetically Distinct Subsets within ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul A.; Rayner, Tim F.; Trivedi, Sapna; Holle, Julia U.; Watts, Richard A.; Jayne, David R.W.; Baslund, Bo; Brenchley, Paul; Bruchfeld, Annette; Chaudhry, Afzal N.; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen; Deloukas, Panos; Feighery, Conleth; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Guillevin, Loic; Gunnarsson, Iva; P, Lorraine Harper M.R.C; Hrušková, Zdenka; Little, Mark A.; Martorana, Davide; Neumann, Thomas; Ohlsson, Sophie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pusey, Charles D.; Salama, Alan D.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Savage, Caroline O.; Segelmark, Mårten; Stegeman, Coen A.; Tesař, Vladimir; Vaglio, Augusto; Wieczorek, Stefan; Wilde, Benjamin; Zwerina, Jochen; Rees, Andrew J.; Clayton, David G.; Smith, Kenneth G.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)–associated vasculitis is a severe condition encompassing two major syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis) and microscopic polyangiitis. Its cause is unknown, and there is debate about whether it is a single disease entity and what role ANCA plays in its pathogenesis. We investigated its genetic basis. METHODS A genomewide association study was performed in a discovery cohort of 1233 U.K. patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and 5884 controls and was replicated in 1454 Northern European case patients and 1666 controls. Quality control, population stratification, and statistical analyses were performed according to standard criteria. RESULTS We found both major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) and non-MHC associations with ANCA-associated vasculitis and also that granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis were genetically distinct. The strongest genetic associations were with the antigenic specificity of ANCA, not with the clinical syndrome. Anti–proteinase 3 ANCA was associated with HLA-DP and the genes encoding α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and proteinase 3 (PRTN3) (P = 6.2×10−89, P = 5.6×10−12, and P = 2.6×10−7, respectively). Anti–myeloperoxidase ANCA was associated with HLA-DQ (P = 2.1×10−8). CONCLUSIONS This study confirms that the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis has a genetic component, shows genetic distinctions between granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis that are associated with ANCA specificity, and suggests that the response against the autoantigen proteinase 3 is a central pathogenic feature of proteinase 3 ANCA–associated vasculitis. These data provide preliminary support for the concept that proteinase 3 ANCA–associated vasculitis and myeloperoxidase ANCA–associated vasculitis are distinct autoimmune syndromes. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others.) PMID

  4. A new sieve for distinct coordinate counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present a new sieve for the distinct coordinate counting problem.This significantly improves the classical inclusion-exclusion sieve for this problem,in the sense that the number of terms is reduced from 2(k 2) to k!,and reduced further to p(k) in the symmetric case,where p(k) denotes the number of partitions of k.As an illustration of applications,we give an in-depth study of a basic example arising from coding theory and graph theory.

  5. Euthanasia and the active-passive distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Bruce R

    1987-01-01

    The author examines various claimed differences between active and passive euthanasia and, if there are differences, whether they are morally significant. He refutes arguments based on acting vs. not acting, intention, double effect, cause of death, and natural law theory. Reichenbach proposes that the most helpful distinction is the one between intentional killing (active euthanasia) and appropriate treatment for the dying or terminally ill (passive euthanasia). Significant moral difference, however, rests on the contention that intentional killing is always wrong and that, all else being equal, dying by natural means is intrinsically good, whereas dying by unnatural means is not.

  6. ON GRAPHS WITH THREE DISTINCT LAPLACIAN EIGENVALUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an equivalent condition of a graph G with t (2 ≤ t ≤ n) distinct Laplacian eigenvalues is established. By applying this condition to t = 3, if G is regular (necessarily be strongly regular), an equivalent condition of G being Laplacian integral is given. Also for the case of t = 3, if G is non-regular, it is found that G has diameter 2 and girth at most 5 if G is not a tree. Graph G is characterized in the case of its being triangle-free, bipartite and pentagon-free. In both cases, G is Laplacian integral.

  7. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight.

  8. Visual Distinctness Determined by Partially Invariant Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    DISTINCTNESS DETERMINED BY PARTIALLY INVARIANT FEATURES. J.A. Garcia, J. Fdez-Valdivia Departamento de Ciencias de la Computacion e I.A. Univ. de Granada...E.T.S. de Ingenieria Informatica. 18071 Granada. Spain E-mail: jagsadecsai.ugr.es, J.Fdez-Valdivia@decsai.ugr.es Xose R. Fdez-Vidal Departamento de... Fisica Aplicada. Univ. de Santiago de Compostela. Facultad de Fisica . 15706 Santiago de Compostela. Spain E-mail: faxose@usc.es Rosa Rodriguez-Sanchez

  9. Strategy to Improvement Sustainability of Distinctively Local Snacks Based on Evaluation and Profile Mapping of SMEs Distinctively Local Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nurendah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs snacks include in group industries which develop quite progressively in Indonesia. There are typical regional food or local food specialties which have been distinctively long-grown specifically in an area, however there are also some food specialties which are area-based potentially developed. Therefore, efforts to develop and empower SMEs distinctively local snacks should be done to be able to increase its competitiveness in facing the globalization and the free market.The objective of Profile Mapping of SMEs is that the development of distinctively local snacks can be implemented in an integrated, focused way, and on target. If SMEs snacks get special attention with the pattern of development and directed policy, it will become the backbone of the rise of the real sector in the region.  The study of profile mapping of SMEs distinctively local snacks is conducted by combining descriptive research method based on the results of field surveys combined with SWOT analysis Data processing and analysis with Profile Mapping of SMEs Snacks, Performance Analysis and Competitive Strategy of SMEs Snacks, SWOT Analysis, Strategy and Feasibility and concept Development models of SMEs Snacks. Bakpia becomes a top priority as a superior snack product from Jogjakarta (DIY, which can be further developed in the process of production and marketing. The attributes of main and additional ingredients, water supply, and production tools are still in average performance. In this case, the performance measure is based on the perception of bakpia producers in medium scale, while there are expectations on a high scale. Thus, there needs to be an increase in these attributes. After knowing the score of IFA, then a right strategy to be applied for SMEs position is a strategy of growth through horizontal integration which is an activity to expand SMEs by building in another location and increasing the variety of products and services. When referring to the SWOT

  10. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  11. Alternative applications for distinct RNA sequencing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Leng; Vickers, Kasey C.; Samuels, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in RNA library preparation methods, platform accessibility and cost efficiency have allowed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNAseq) to replace conventional hybridization microarray platforms as the method of choice for mRNA profiling and transcriptome analyses. RNAseq is a powerful technique to profile both long and short RNA expression, and the depth of information gained from distinct RNAseq methods is striking and facilitates discovery. In addition to expression analysis, distinct RNAseq approaches also allow investigators the ability to assess transcriptional elongation, DNA variance and exogenous RNA content. Here we review the current state of the art in transcriptome sequencing and address epigenetic regulation, quantification of transcription activation, RNAseq output and a diverse set of applications for RNAseq data. We detail how RNAseq can be used to identify allele-specific expression, single-nucleotide polymorphisms and somatic mutations and discuss the benefits and limitations of using RNAseq to monitor DNA characteristics. Moreover, we highlight the power of combining RNA- and DNAseq methods for genomic analysis. In summary, RNAseq provides the opportunity to gain greater insight into transcriptional regulation and output than simply miRNA and mRNA profiling. PMID:25246237

  12. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis with distinctive facies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sunkara Shree Ramalinga; Radharani, Chitturi; Sinha, Soumya; Kumar, Sv Kiran

    2012-11-01

    Hereditary gingival enlargement also known as gingivitis or familial elephantiasis is a rare type of gingival enlargement. It appears as an isolated autosomal dominant disorder or maybe associated with other conditions. Oral manifestations may vary from minimal involvement of only tuberosity area and the buccal gingiva around the lower molars to a generalized enlargement inhibiting eruption of the teeth. This paper discusses the case of a 13-year-old female patient with distinctive facial characteristics who presented to the department with a chief complaint of swollen gums since 1 year. She had severe diffuse gingival enlargement of the maxilla and mandible. Diagnosis was made based upon clinical examination and family history. Quadrant wise internal bevel gingivectomy procedure was done for the patient to restore her functional and esthetic needs.

  13. Lakshmi Planum: A distinctive highland volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kari M.; Head, James W.

    Lakshmi Planum, a broad smooth plain located in western Ishtar Terra and containing two large oval depressions (Colette and Sacajawea), has been interpreted as a highland plain of volcanic origin. Lakshmi is situated 3 to 5 km above the mean planetary radius and is surrounded on all sides by bands of mountains interpreted to be of compressional tectonic origin. Four primary characteristics distinguish Lakshmi from other volcanic regions known on the planet, such as Beta Regio: (1) high altitude, (2) plateau-like nature, (3) the presence of very large, low volcanic constructs with distinctive central calderas, and (4) its compressional tectonic surroundings. Building on the previous work of Pronin, the objective is to establish the detailed nature of the volcanic deposits on Lakshmi, interpret eruption styles and conditions, sketch out an eruption history, and determine the relationship between volcanism and the tectonic environment of the region.

  14. Evidence for distinct modes of solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Usoskin, I G; Gallet, Y; Roth, R; Licht, A; Joos, F; Kovaltsov, G A; Thebault, E; Khokhlov, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The Sun shows strong variability in its magnetic activity, from Grand minima to Grand maxima, but the nature of the variability is not fully understood, mostly because of the insufficient length of the directly observed solar activity records and of uncertainties related to long-term reconstructions. Here we present a new adjustment-free reconstruction of solar activity over three millennia and study its different modes. Methods. We present a new adjustment-free, physical reconstruction of solar activity over the past three millennia, using the latest verified carbon cycle, 14C production, and archeomagnetic field models. This great improvement allowed us to study different modes of solar activity at an unprecedented level of details. Results. The distribution of solar activity is clearly bi-modal, implying the existence of distinct modes of activity. The main regular activity mode corresponds to moderate activity that varies in a relatively narrow band between sunspot numbers about 20 and 67. The exist...

  15. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  16. Keeler's theorem and products of distinct transpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ron; Nguyen, Tuan

    2012-01-01

    An episode of Futurama features a two-body mind-switching machine which will not work more than once on the same pair of bodies. After the Futurama community indulges in a mind-switching spree, the question is asked, "Can the switching be undone so as to restore all minds to their original bodies?" Ken Keeler found an algorithm that undoes any mind-scrambling permutation with the aid of two "outsiders". We refine Keeler's result by providing a more efficient algorithm that uses the smallest possible number of switches. We also present best possible algorithms for undoing two natural sequences of switches, each sequence effecting a cyclic mind-scrambling permutation in the symmetric group S_n. Finally, we give necessary and sufficient conditions on m and n for the identity permutation to be expressible as a product of m distinct transpositions in S_n.

  17. Poikiloderma Vasculare Atrophicans: A Distinct Clinical Entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karaninder S; Sharma, Anju Lath

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a typical case of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA) in a 48-year-old female. Histologically, the features were suggestive of PVA with the absence of Pautrier's microabscess or atypical lymphoid cells. The biopsy specimen was positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 8 on immunohistochemical staining. Its exact pathogenesis remains obscure, and it remains unclear whether PVA actually is mycosis fungoides (MF), a forme fruste of MF, or a distinct and benign dermatosis with CD8+ phenotype that can perhaps be labeled as PVA. However, it has a long benign clinical course without progression to tumor stage of MF in most cases, and its status within the spectrum of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma remains poorly understood. Yet it is imperative to distinguish PVA from poikilodermic MF. PMID:25814753

  18. Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans: A distinct clinical entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram K Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a typical case of poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans (PVA in a 48-year-old female. Histologically, the features were suggestive of PVA with the absence of Pautrier′s microabscess or atypical lymphoid cells. The biopsy specimen was positive for cluster of differentiation (CD 8 on immunohistochemical staining. Its exact pathogenesis remains obscure, and it remains unclear whether PVA actually is mycosis fungoides (MF, a forme fruste of MF, or a distinct and benign dermatosis with CD8+ phenotype that can perhaps be labeled as PVA. However, it has a long benign clinical course without progression to tumor stage of MF in most cases, and its status within the spectrum of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma remains poorly understood. Yet it is imperative to distinguish PVA from poikilodermic MF.

  19. Familiarity, relative distinctiveness, and the generation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peynircioğlu, Z F; Mungan, E

    1993-05-01

    In Experiment 1, psychology experts and novices showed generation effects with both psychology-related and other words. In Experiment 2, music experts who were sports novices and sports experts who were music novices showed a generation effect in a recognition test for all words regardless of domain (music or sports). Moreover, the effect was greater for words from the subjects' "nonexpertise" area. In Experiments 3A and 3B, music experts showed a greater generation effect for sports words than for music words in a free recall test but only when the sports and music words were studied together. These results are inconsistent with the semantic elaboration requirement for the generation effect that predicts less of an effect, if any, with less familiar materials. Rather, they provide evidence for the idea that the generation effect is influenced by relative distinctiveness of the to-be-remembered items.

  20. The distinction between transudates and exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonlugur, Ugur; Gonlugur, Tanseli Efeoglu

    2005-12-01

    The first step in the diagnosis of pleural effusions is the distinction between exudates and transudates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of various parameters for the differentiation of pleural exudates and transudates. We recorded clinical characteristics, final diagnoses, and measured pleural fluid and serum levels of albumin, protein, LDH, cholesterol, and bilirubin of 381 consecutive patients with pleural effusion. Seventy-one (23%) pleural effusions were transudates and 236 were exudates. As a single criterion, the pleural fluid to serum albumin ratio >0.5 was the most accurate parameter (88.4%). An albumin gradient of 12 g/l had an accuracy of 75% in the whole population but it detected 96% of transudative effusions in patients treated with diuretics. Light's criteria and abbreviated Light's criteria had similar accuracies, 87.8% vs. 88.2%, respectively. In conclusions, different alternatives can be used instead of Light's criteria.

  1. Favourability: concept, distinctive characteristics and potential usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Real, Raimundo

    2012-07-01

    The idea of analysing the general favourability for the occurrence of an event was presented in 2006 through a mathematical function. However, even when favourability has been used in species distribution modelling, the conceptual framework of this function is not yet well perceived among many researchers. The present paper is conceived for providing a wider and more in-depth presentation of the idea of favourability; concretely, we aimed to clarify both the concept and the main distinctive characteristics of the favourability function, especially in relation to probability and suitability, the most common outputs in species distribution modelling. As the capabilities of the favourability function go beyond species distribution modelling, we also illustrate its usefulness for different research disciplines for which this function remains unknown. In particular, we stressed that the favourability function has potential to be applied in all the cases where the probability of occurrence of an event is analysed, such as, for example, habitat selection or epidemiological studies.

  2. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  3. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

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    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin: distinct receptors in myometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, G.; Balestre, M.N.; Roberts, J.M.; Bottari, S.P.

    1987-06-01

    The binding characteristics of (/sup 3/H)oxytocin (( /sup 3/H)OT) and (/sup 3/H)lysine vasopressin (( /sup 3/H)LVP) to nonpregnant human myometrium were investigated. Binding of both radioligands was saturable, time dependent, and reversible. Whereas (/sup 3/H)OT was found to bind to a single class of sites with high affinity (Kd, 1.5 +/- 0.4 (+/- SEM) nM) and low capacity (maximum binding (Bmax), 34 +/- 6 fmol/mg protein), (/sup 3/H)LVP bound to two classes of sites, one with high affinity (Kd, 2.2 +/- 0.1 nM) and low capacity (Bmax, 198 +/- 7 fmol/mg protein) and another with low affinity (Kd, 655 +/- 209 nM) and high capacity (Bmax, 5794 +/- 1616 fmol/mg protein). The binding of the labeled peptides also displayed a marked difference in sensitivity to Mg2+ and guanine nucleotides. These differences in binding characteristics as well as the differences in potency of analogs in competing for (/sup 3/H)OT and (/sup 3/H)LVP binding indicate the presence of distinct receptors for OT and vasopressin in human myometrium. Pharmacological characterization of the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)LVP indicated that these are of the V1 subtype. Although, as suggested by others, vasopressin and OT can bind to the same sites, the presence of distinct receptors for both peptides provides an explanation for the previously reported difference in myometrial responsiveness to OT and vasopressin.

  5. PRODUCTIVITY, FRUIT PHYSICOCHEMICAL QUALITY AND DISTINCTIVENESS OF PASSION FRUIT POPULATIONS

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    NATAN RAMOS CAVALCANTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The productivity and physicochemical quality evaluation is important, as it identifies superior populations. However, launching products requires following the descriptors according to DHE test instructions. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate three passion fruit populations with high productivity and physicochemical quality characteristics for commercial launch. The experiment was conducted at the State University of Mato Grosso experimental area, located in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, MT. The experimental design was complete randomized block design with four replicates and ten plants per plot. The physicochemical characteristics were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by the Tukey test. For the distinctiveness test, 25 descriptors were evaluated, where quantitative data have been converted into multicategoric data to obtain the dissimilarity matrix. From the dissimilarity matrix, groups were formed using the Tocher and UPGMA methods, Livestock and Supply Department. The highest productivity and number of fruits were verified for BRS Rubi Cerrado cultivar and UNEMAT S10 population. Populations and cultivars presented physicochemical characteristics that meet the required quality for both fresh consumption and industry use. Based on the distinction test among genotype, it was observed that the descriptors were effective for population differentiation. UNEMAT S10 population has characteristics that distinguish it from other cultivars and populations evaluated, and presents high agronomic performance; therefore, it can be launched as a commercial cultivar.

  6. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined phonological processing in a subsample of participants, including 21 children with dyslexia only, 43 children with SLI only, 18 children with SLI and dyslexia, and 165 children with typical language/reading development. Measures of phonological awareness and nonword repetition were considered. Results Study 1 showed limited but statistically significant overlap between SLI and dyslexia. Study 2 found that children with dyslexia or a combination of dyslexia and SLI performed significantly less well on measures of phonological processing than did children with SLI only and those with typical development. Children with SLI only showed only mild deficits in phonological processing compared with typical children. Conclusions These results support the view that SLI and dyslexia are distinct but potentially comorbid developmental language disorders. A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with SLI when it occurs in the absence of dyslexia. PMID:16478378

  7. Changes in the lung microbiome following lung transplantation include the emergence of two distinct Pseudomonas species with distinct clinical associations.

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    Robert P Dickson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple independent culture-based studies have identified the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in respiratory samples as a positive risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS. Yet, culture-independent microbiological techniques have identified a negative association between Pseudomonas species and BOS. Our objective was to investigate whether there may be a unifying explanation for these apparently dichotomous results. METHODS: We performed bronchoscopies with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL on lung transplant recipients (46 procedures in 33 patients and 26 non-transplant control subjects. We analyzed bacterial communities in the BAL fluid using qPCR and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and compared the culture-independent data with the clinical metadata and culture results from these subjects. FINDINGS: Route of bronchoscopy (via nose or via mouth was not associated with changes in BAL microbiota (p = 0.90. Among the subjects with positive Pseudomonas bacterial culture, P. aeruginosa was also identified by culture-independent methods. In contrast, a distinct Pseudomonas species, P. fluorescens, was often identified in asymptomatic transplant subjects by pyrosequencing but not detected via standard bacterial culture. The subject populations harboring these two distinct pseudomonads differed significantly with respect to associated symptoms, BAL neutrophilia, bacterial DNA burden and microbial diversity. Despite notable differences in culturability, a global database search of UM Hospital Clinical Microbiology Laboratory records indicated that P. fluorescens is commonly isolated from respiratory specimens. INTERPRETATION: We have reported for the first time that two prominent and distinct Pseudomonas species (P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa exist within the post-transplant lung microbiome, each with unique genomic and microbiologic features and widely divergent clinical associations, including presence during

  8. The Categorical Distinction Between Targets and Distractors Facilitates Tracking in Multiple Identity Tracking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liuqing; Zhang, Xuemin; Lyu, Chuang; Li, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the tracking facilitation effect during categorical distinction between targets and distractors in the Multiple Identity Tracking task. We asked observers to track four targets in a total of eight moving objects, and manipulated categorical distinctions of targets and distractors across four experiments, with different combinations of inter-category and intra-category differences. Results show that tracking performance was significantly better when the targets and distractors were inter-category different, compared to when the targets and distractors were identical or intra-category distinctive. As the inter-category distinction between targets and distractors narrowed, tracking performance improved, but the inter-category facilitation effect decreased. These results may indicate a category-based grouping effect: the observers organized the targets within the same semantic category into one group and made the targets more easily and accurately rediscovered when lost during tracking. Furthermore, the tracking facilitation of categorical distinction diminished when all the objects were inverted. This proved that besides their visual distinctiveness, objects' semantic category information also played an important role during tracking.

  9. Intergroup distinctiveness and differentiation: a meta-analytic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Spears, Russell; Postmes, Tom

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined the relation between perceptions of intergroup distinctiveness and intergroup differentiation in a meta-analysis. They tested the social identity theory prediction that low intergroup distinctiveness underlies differentiation (the "reactive distinctiveness" hypothesis) for effects on behavioral and judgmental differentiation. In addition, they examined the moderating power of 4 variables that H. Tajfel and J. C. Turner (1979) predicted would influence differentiation (group identification, relevance of the dimension of comparison, relevance of the outgroup. and nature of intergroup relations). Analysis of 60 tests revealed that the overall effect of distinctiveness on differentiation was not significantly different from 0, but reactive distinctiveness was found on behavioral differentiation measures, whereas reflective distinctiveness was found on judgmental differentiation measures. Only group identification was a reliable moderator. High identifiers showed reactive distinctiveness, whereas low identifiers showed reflective distinctiveness.

  10. The Asthma Phenotype in the Obese: Distinct or Otherwise?

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    Sherry Farzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogenous disorder that can be classified into several different phenotypes. Recent cluster analyses have identified an “obese-asthma” phenotype which is characterized by late onset, female predominance and lack of atopy. In addition, obesity among early-onset asthmatics clearly exists and heightens the clinical presentation. Observational studies have demonstrated that asthma among the obese has a clinical presentation that is more severe, harder to control, and is not as responsive to standard controller therapies. While weight loss studies have demonstrated improvement in asthma outcomes, further studies need to be performed. The current knowledge of the existence of two obesity-asthma phenotypes (early- versus late-onset asthma should encourage investigators to study these entities separately since just as they have distinct presentations, their course, response to therapies, and weight loss strategies may be different as well.

  11. Proteome adaptation in cell reprogramming proceeds via distinct transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, Marco; Tonge, Peter D; Puri, Mira C; Hussein, Samer M I; Cloonan, Nicole; Wood, David L; Grimmond, Sean M; Nagy, Andras; Munoz, Javier; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-12-10

    The ectopic expression of Oct4, Klf4, c-Myc and Sox2 (OKMS) transcription factors allows reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The reprogramming process, which involves a complex network of molecular events, is not yet fully characterized. Here we perform a quantitative mass spectrometry-based analysis to probe in-depth dynamic proteome changes during somatic cell reprogramming. Our data reveal defined waves of proteome resetting, with the first wave occurring 48 h after the activation of the reprogramming transgenes and involving specific biological processes linked to the c-Myc transcriptional network. A second wave of proteome reorganization occurs in a later stage of reprogramming, where we characterize the proteome of two distinct pluripotent cellular populations. In addition, the overlay of our proteome resource with parallel generated -omics data is explored to identify post-transcriptionally regulated proteins involved in key steps during reprogramming.

  12. Euthanasia: The conceptualization of the problem and important distinctions

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    Đerić Milijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is twofold. On the one hand, the intention is to provide analysis of the issue of euthanasia. On the other hand, this approach necessarily leads to a discussion toward the provision of an adequate definition of euthanasia. Therefore the article, first of all, refers to the multi­layered aspect of the term euthanasia. To avoid ambiguity and other uncer­tainties while providing the definition of euthanasia, the authors carefully perform a conceptual analysis. This leads to the establishment of a clear distinction between actions which, due to their motives or their method of execution, cast a shadow on the meaning of this medical procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dinamički sistemi u prirodi i društvu: filozofski i empirijski aspekti

  13. Is fibromyalgia a distinct clinical syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, C L; Russell, I J

    2000-01-01

    The validity of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) as a distinct clinical entity has been challenged for several reasons. Many skeptics express concern about the subjective nature of chronic pain, the subjectivity of the tender point (TeP) examination, the lack of a gold standard laboratory test, and the absence of a clear pathogenic mechanism by which to define FMS. Another expressed concern has been the relative nature of the pain-distress relationship in the rheumatology clinic. The apparently continuous relationship between TePs and somatic distress across a variety of clinical disorders is said to argue against FMS as a separate clinical disorder. The most aggressive challenges of the FMS concept have been from legal defenses of insurance carriers motivated by economic concerns. Other forms of critique have presented as psychiatric dogma, uninformed posturing, suspicion of malingering, ignorance of nociceptive physiology, and occasionally have resulted from honest misunderstanding. It is not likely that a few paragraphs of data and logic will cause an unbeliever to change an ingrained opinion. Therefore, this review describes the clinical manifestations of FMS, responds to some of the theoretic arguments against it, and discusses some possible pathophysiologic mechanisms by which FMS may develop and persist as a unique syndrome.

  14. Ameloblastoma Phenotypes Reflected in Distinct Transcriptome Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shijia; Parker, Joel; Divaris, Kimon; Padilla, Ricardo; Murrah, Valerie; Wright, John Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive benign neoplasm derived from odontogenic epithelium and presents with diverse phenotypes yet to be characterized molecularly. High recurrence rates of 50–80% with conservative treatment in some sub-types warrants radical surgical resections resulting in high morbidity. The objective of the study was to characterize the transcriptome of ameloblastoma and identify relevant genes and molecular pathways using normal odontogenic tissue (human “dentome”) for comparison. Laser capture microdissection was used to obtain neoplastic epithelial tissue from 17 tumors which were examined using the Agilent 44 k whole genome microarray. Ameloblastoma separated into 2 distinct molecular clusters that were associated with pre-secretory ameloblast and odontoblast. Within the pre-secretory cluster, 9/10 of samples were of the follicular type while 6/7 of the samples in the odontoblast cluster were of the plexiform type (p ameloblastoma sub-types and have implications for the use of tailored treatment. PMID:27491308

  15. Are empathy and concern psychologically distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Matthew R; Amir, Dorsa; Bloom, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between feeling what you believe others feel-often described as empathy-and caring about the welfare of others-often described as compassion or concern. Many propose that empathy is a prerequisite for concern and is therefore the ultimate motivator of prosocial actions. To assess this hypothesis, the authors developed the Empathy Index, which consists of 2 novel scales, and explored their relationship to a measure of concern as well as to measures of cooperative and altruistic behavior. A series of factor analyses reveal that empathy and concern consistently load on different factors. Furthermore, they show that empathy and concern motivate different behaviors: concern for others is a uniquely positive predictor of prosocial action whereas empathy is either not predictive or negatively predictive of prosocial actions. Together these studies suggest that empathy and concern are psychologically distinct and empathy plays a more limited role in our moral lives than many believe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Medical student empathy: interpersonal distinctions and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith

    2016-12-01

    Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.

  17. Modeling the distinct phases of skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R

    2016-05-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems. We find that as participants practice solving math problems they transition through 3 distinct learning states. Each learning state shows some speedup with practice, but the major speedups are produced by transitions between learning states. In examining and comparing the behavioral and neurological profiles of each of these states, we find parallels with the 3 phases of skill acquisition proposed by Fitts and Posner (1967): a cognitive, an associative, and an autonomous phase. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-10-28

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differencesSeasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlledSeasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided.

  19. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. Key Points First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differences Seasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlled Seasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided PMID:25821275

  20. Evaluation and Analysis on the Competitiveness of Guangxi Distinctive Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the developmental status of Guangxi distinctive agriculture,the key selection of developing Guangxi distinctive agriculture is analyzed.Its distinctive agriculture contains distinctive plantation,distinctive forestry and distinctive breeding.Based on the analysis,two display indices,domestic comparative advantages index and domestic competitiveness,are selected to analyze the competitiveness of Guangxi distinctive agriculture.The results show that at present the overall competitiveness of Guangxi distinctive agriculture is strong,but its competitiveness is reflected on resource advantages and most of the resources are primary agro-products.Accordingly,in the future,Guangxi distinctive agriculture should adopt non-equilibrium developmental strategy;take the great-leap-forward developmental path;apply modern production elements to increase the competitiveness of Guangxi distinctive agriculture.It should lay stress on "three innovation",which includes organization innovation,developing distinctive agricultural firms ;technology innovation,enlarging the scope and scale of agricultural listed companies;financial fund-raising innovation,transforming traditional distinctive agriculture by using high and new technology.

  1. Frontal theta activity reflects distinct aspects of mental fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Rasch, Björn; Sänger, Jessica; Hoffmann, Sven; Schneider, Daniel; Rinkenauer, Gerhard; Heuer, Herbert; Gutberlet, Ingmar

    2014-02-01

    Longer lasting performance in cognitively demanding tasks leads to an exhaustion of cognitive resources and to a state commonly described as mental fatigue. More specifically, the allocation and focusing of attention become less efficient with time on task. Additionally, the selection of even simple responses becomes more error prone. With respect to the recorded EEG, mental fatigue has been reported to be associated with an increase in frontal theta and frontal and occipital alpha activity. The present study focused on the time course of changes in behavior and in the EEG to characterize fatigue-related processes. Participants performed a spatial stimulus-response-compatibility task in eight blocks for an overall duration of 4h. Error rates increased continuously with time on task. Total alpha power was larger at the end compared to the beginning of the experiment. However, alpha power increased rapidly and reached its maximal amplitude already after 1h, whereas frontal theta showed a continuous increase with time on task, possibly related to increased effort to keep the performance level high. Time frequency analyses revealed power changes in the theta band induced by task relevant information that might be assigned to a drain of executive control capacities. Thus, frontal theta turned out to be a reliable marker of distinct changes in cognitive processing with increasing fatigue.

  2. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  3. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  4. Statistical conjugated polymers comprising optoelectronically distinct units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Jon; Sun, Jing; Gao, Dong; Karl, Dominik; Seferos, Dwight S

    2013-03-12

    Poly(3-heptylselenophene)-stat-poly(3-hexylthiophene) is synthesized and characterized in terms of its crystallinity and performance in an organic photovoltaic (OPV) cell. Despite the random distribution of units along the polymer main chain, the material is semi-crystalline, as demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Thin-film absorption suggests an increased compatibility than seen with 3-hexylselenophene monomer. Optoelectronic properties are an average of the two homopolymers, and OPV performance is enhanced by a broadened absorption profile and a favorable morphology.

  5. House Dust Mites Confer a Distinct Immunological Feature among Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Baris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a heterogeneous disease with regard to clinical phenotype and natural history. We investigated T cell subtypes and cytokine responses in peripheral blood and skin lesions of AD patients with various sensitivities. Immunological studies were performed in 27 subjects: 9 house dust mite (HDM-sensitized; 6 subjects with sensitizations other than HDM; 7 non-allergic AD patients and 5 healthy controls. Among those, skin biopsy samples of 13 subjects were evaluated for immunohistochemical analyses, as well. The mean age was 8.93±5.17 years. HDM-allergic AD emerged as a distinct immunologic phenotype, with higher production of interleukin (IL-4, -5, -2 both at rest and when stimulated by Der p1 or SEB along with higher Th17. As for TH17 cell percentage, it was increased in all AD groups compared to healthy controls, while HDM-allergic group was distinguished with a significantly lower production of IL-17. Patients with sensitizations other than HDM were mostly similar to non-allergic AD, with increased Th17 and CD4+CD69+interferon-gamma (IFN-γ+ T cells percentage. The biopsy of lesional skin showed that HDM-allergic AD had lower IFN-γ and IFN-γ co-expressing CD8+ T cells compared to patients with other sensitizations (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Among the HDM allergic patients, pairwise comparison of lesional versus non-lesional skin revealed higher CD4+ T cells numbers, expression of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 and T-cell-specific transcription factor (T-bet (p=0.018, p=0.018, p=0.018, respectively. HDM-allergic AD is a distinct subtype with a predominant skewing in Th2 and higher Th17 cell percentage along with a blunted Th1 response in the skin, all of which may have therapeutic implications.

  6. Distinct Motivational Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G.; Finzi, Rebecca Dawn; Drew, Daniel; Husain, Masud

    2017-01-01

    When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency—the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined. Eye movements were faster when the cue indicated that monetary rewards would be contingent on performance than when the cue indicated that rewards would be random. But even when the cue indicated that a reward was guaranteed regardless of speed, movement was still faster than when no reward was available. Motivation by contingent and certain rewards was uncorrelated across individuals, which suggests that there are two separable, independent components of motivation. Contingent motivation generated autonomic arousal, and unlike noncontingent motivation, was effective with penalties as well as rewards. PMID:28488927

  7. Distinct DNA methylomes of newborns and centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyn, Holger; Li, Ning; Ferreira, Humberto J.

    2012-01-01

    Human aging cannot be fully understood in terms of the constrained genetic setting. Epigenetic drift is an alternative means of explaining age-associated alterations. To address this issue, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of newborn and centenarian genomes. The centenarian D......-age individuals demonstrated DNA methylomes in the crossroad between the newborn and the nonagenarian/centenarian groups. Our study constitutes a unique DNA methylation analysis of the extreme points of human life at a single-nucleotide resolution level....

  8. Some conceptual distinctions are more useful than others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Shazer, S

    1982-03-01

    Useful distinctions in conceptual schemes lead to explanatory or descriptive metaphors that have a clear form. Muddles, on the other hand, are created when useful distinctions that could be drawn are not or when an unnecessary distinction is drawn. The field of family therapy, now involved in an explicit epistemological and paradigmatic shift, has various muddles of each kind. The purpose of this essay is to describe some of these muddles and to suggest that making a distinction between "the study of the family-as-a-system" and "the study of family-therapy-as-a-system" leads to some useful and clear metaphors.

  9. National symbols and distinctiveness: rhetorical strategies in creating distinct national identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finell, Eerika; Liebkind, Karmela

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine qualitatively how respondents create national distinctiveness using rhetorical identity strategies in the context of four Finnish national symbols. The data consist of 127 essays written by Finnish secondary school students. Analysis revealed five different strategies used to distinguish between the in-group and the out-group. These strategies differ on two dimensions: the level of polarization, and the extent to which the in-group-out-group relationship is depicted as being active versus passive. Furthermore, the analysis showed that the two dimensions of nationalism, particularism and universalism, have an important role in the differentiation processes and therefore highlighted the importance of taking into consideration ideological issues while studying social identities. The meaning of the contents of national identity in the differentiation processes is also discussed.

  10. The Curious Case of Orthographic Distinctiveness: Disruption of Categorical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Cahill, Michael J.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    How does orthographic distinctiveness affect recall of structured (categorized) word lists? On one theory, enhanced item-specific information (e.g., more distinct encoding) in concert with robust relational information (e.g., categorical information) optimally supports free recall. This predicts that for categorically structured lists,…

  11. Neurobehavioral Perspectives on the Distinction between Fear and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusini, Jennifer N.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the usefulness of the distinction between fear and anxiety. The clinical use of the labels is ambiguous, often defining one in terms of the other. We first consider what a useful, objective, and scientifically valid definition would entail and then evaluate several fear/anxiety distinctions that have been made in the…

  12. Distinct timing mechanisms produce discrete and continuous movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Huys

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of discrete and continuous movement is one of the pillars of motor behavior classification. Discrete movements have a definite beginning and end, whereas continuous movements do not have such discriminable end points. In the past decade there has been vigorous debate whether this classification implies different control processes. This debate up until the present has been empirically based. Here, we present an unambiguous non-empirical classification based on theorems in dynamical system theory that sets discrete and continuous movements apart. Through computational simulations of representative modes of each class and topological analysis of the flow in state space, we show that distinct control mechanisms underwrite discrete and fast rhythmic movements. In particular, we demonstrate that discrete movements require a time keeper while fast rhythmic movements do not. We validate our computational findings experimentally using a behavioral paradigm in which human participants performed finger flexion-extension movements at various movement paces and under different instructions. Our results demonstrate that the human motor system employs different timing control mechanisms (presumably via differential recruitment of neural subsystems to accomplish varying behavioral functions such as speed constraints.

  13. Distinct information critically distinguishes judgments of face familiarity and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie L; Volna, Blanka; Ewing, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Accurately determining the familiarity of another and correctly establishing their identity are vital social skills. A considerable body of work has explored their perceptual and neural underpinnings and debate remains regarding whether they are dissociable, that is, separable parts of a dual process, or different aspects of a common retrieval process. Less is known about the specific visual information that guides familiarity judgments and how this compares to the information used to identify a face by name. Here we sought to establish the critical information underlying participants' judgments of facial familiarity and identification. We created a new standardized stimulus set comprising 6 personally familiar and 12 unfamiliar faces and applied the Bubbles reverse-correlation methodology to establish the information driving correct performance in each task. Results revealed that markedly different information underlies familiarity and identity judgments. When categorizing familiarity, participants relied more upon lower spatial-frequency, broad facial cues (eye and face shape) than when categorizing identity, which relied on fine details in the internal features (eyes and mouth). These results provide novel evidence of qualitatively distinct information use in familiarity and identification judgments and emphasize the importance of considering the task set for participants and their processing strategy when investigating face recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Aramaki, Shingo; Kitazono, Yuhki; Mu, Shenglin; Tanaka, Kanya; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous. PMID:27754326

  15. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  16. Handwritten and printed text distinction by using stroke thickness features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong; Wu, Huiqun; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to identify the handwritten and the printed texts among document images. The characteristic of stroke thickness is used and a kind of calculating method is designed for this feature. The proposed method, which is clearly defined and easily realized, calculates the stroke thickness feature by counting edge pixels in a neighborhood. Document images are generally divided into text lines or characters. However, the line and the character are not conducive to the judgment between handwritten and printed text distinction. The line is too rough and the character is too small. Using the stroke thickness characteristics, combined with layout analysis, the text line in the document image is further divided into the area of uniform thickness. This kind of area is more detailed than text line and larger than a single character. So more stable features can be extracted from it. Last, the features of these regions are divided by using SVM. The proposed algorithm obtained better performance in the document image database including handwritten and printed texts.

  17. Perry Syndrome: A Distinctive Type of TDP-43 Proteinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Takayasu; Koga, Shunsuke; Lin, Wen-Lang; Kasanuki, Koji; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Oh, Shin J; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Dickson, Dennis W

    2017-08-01

    Perry syndrome is a rare atypical parkinsonism with depression, apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventilation caused by mutations in dynactin p150glued (DCTN1). A rare distal hereditary motor neuropathy, HMN7B, also has mutations in DCTN1. Perry syndrome has TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) inclusions as a defining feature. Other TDP-43 proteinopathies include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with and without motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). TDP-43 forms aggregates in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), neuronal intranuclear inclusions, dystrophic neurites (DNs), as well as axonal spheroids, oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions, and perivascular astrocytic inclusions (PVIs). We performed semiquantitative assessment of these lesions and presence of dynactin subunit p50 lesions in 3 cases of Perry syndrome and one of HMN7B. We compared them with 3 cases of FTLD-MND, 3 of ALS, and 3 of hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl). Perry syndrome had NCIs, DNs, and frequent PVIs and spheroids. Perry syndrome cases were similar, but different from ALS, FTLD-MND, and HpScl. TDP-43 pathology was not detected in HMN7B. Dynactin p50 inclusions were observed in both Perry syndrome and HMN7B, but not in the other conditions. These results suggest that Perry syndrome may be distinctive type of TDP-43 proteinopathy. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Autoimmune orchitis, epididymitis, and vasitis are immunogenetically distinct lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, R J; Doerge, R W; Call, S B; Tung, K S; Hickey, W F; Teuscher, C

    1998-05-01

    Experimental allergic orchitis (EAO), the principle animal model of noninfectious testicular inflammatory disease, is a genetically determined phenotype. Classical EAO, induced by inoculation with testicular homogenate and the appropriate adjuvants, is characterized by inflammatory infiltrates in the testis (orchitis), epididymis (epididymitis), and vas deferens (vasitis). In this study, the genetic control of susceptibility and resistance to these three lesions was analyzed in the mouse. The results obtained with independent inbred strains and H2 congenic mice show that the genetic control of all three lesions is complex and involves both H2 and non-H2-linked genes. Whole-genome exclusion mapping was performed on a backcross population segregating for all three phenotypes. Permutation-derived thresholds provided experimentwise, chromosomewise, comparisonwise, and marker-specific chromosomewise thresholds for declaration of significant regions linked to marker loci. Unique loci were identified on chromosome 8 for orchitis, chromosome 16 for epididymitis, and chromosome 1 for vasitis and have been designated as Orch6, Epd1, and Vas1, respectively. These results show that autoimmune orchitis, epididymitis, and vasitis are immunogenetically distinct lesions.

  19. Ritodrine-induced pustular eruptions distinctly resembling impetigo herpetiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Atsuki; Abe, Hiroko; Abe, Sumino; Kawai, Naoki; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    A 27-year-old nulligravida woman without a history of dermatosis was hospitalized for threatened preterm labor at 29 weeks' gestation; therefore, continuous infusion of ritodrine hydrochloride was started. At 31 weeks' gestation, erythematous plaques appeared and spread over the body surface; therefore, a topical steroid preparation was applied. At 32 weeks' gestation, the eruptions developed into irregular annular areas of erythema with multiple pustules accompanied by severe itching, and oral prednisolone treatment was started. Bacterial cultures of the pustules were negative, and a crural cutaneous biopsy revealed Kogoj's spongiform pustules. Based on the clinicopathological findings, the most likely diagnosis was impetigo herpetiformis, which causes cutaneous symptoms closely resembling pustular psoriasis in pregnant females without a history of psoriasis. To rule out ritodrine-induced pustular eruptions, the ritodrine infusion was stopped and treatment with an MgSO(4) preparation was started at 33 weeks' 3 days' gestation; however, the uterine contractions could not be suppressed. Because of the patient's highly edematous, severely painful feet, a cesarean section was performed the same day. Within several days of delivery, the eruptions began to resolve, and no recurrence was observed after treatment with oral prednisolone was stopped 31 days after delivery. On the basis of a positive patch test for ritodrine, we diagnosed pustular drug eruptions caused by ritodrine hydrochloride. Although ritodrine-induced pathognomonic cutaneous eruptions are rare, we would like to emphasize that ritodrine can cause drug-induced pustular eruptions distinctly resembling life-threatening impetigo herpetiformis.

  20. Distinct Functions of Endophilin Isoforms in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophilin isoforms perform distinct characteristics in their interactions with N-type Ca2+ channels and dynamin. However, precise functional differences for the endophilin isoforms on synaptic vesicle (SV endocytosis remain unknown. By coupling RNA interference and electrophysiological recording techniques in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated the functional differences of three isoforms of endophilin in SV endocytosis. The results showed that the amplitude of normalized evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in endophilin1 knockdown neurons decreased significantly for both single train and multiple train stimulations. Similar results were found using endophilin2 knockdown neurons, whereas endophilin3 siRNA exhibited no change compared with control neurons. Endophilin1 and endophilin2 affected SV endocytosis, but the effect of endophilin1 and endophilin2 double knockdown was not different from that of either knockdown alone. This result suggested that endophilin1 and endophilin2 functioned together but not independently during SV endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that SV endocytosis is sustained by endophilin1 and endophilin2 isoforms, but not by endophilin3, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

  1. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  2. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  3. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  4. Accounts of the Count-Mass Distinction: A Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Joosten

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of what is usually, but also misleadingly called the count-mass distinction, i.e. the distinction between nouns that can be counted (e.g. a car, two cars, many cars and nouns that cannot (e.g. *a sand, *two sands, *many sands, sand, much sand, has been addressed and accounted for in different ways. This paper gives a critical survey of four main theoretical views on the distinction and points out that each of them is problematic in some way. It is argued that that the count-mass distinction should not be reduced to an exclusively grammatical, ontological, semantic, or contextual issue. A proper characterisation of the distinction can only be given if its multidimensional character is fully acknowledged and if parameters such as basic count- or masshood, degree of lexicalisation, conceptualisation, and (nonarbitrariness are taken into account.

  5. Dynamic melody recognition: distinctiveness and the role of musical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Freya

    2010-07-01

    The hypothesis that melodies are recognized at moments when they exhibit a distinctive musical pattern was tested. In a melody recognition experiment, point-of-recognition (POR) data were gathered from 32 listeners (16 musicians and 16 nonmusicians) judging 120 melodies. A series of models of melody recognition were developed, resulting from a stepwise multiple regression of two classes of information relating to melodic familiarity and melodic distinctiveness. Melodic distinctiveness measures were assembled through statistical analyses of over 15,000 Western themes and melodies. A significant model, explaining 85% of the variance, entered measures primarily of timing distinctiveness and pitch distinctiveness, but excluding familiarity, as predictors of POR. Differences between nonmusician and musician models suggest a processing shift from momentary to accumulated information with increased exposure to music. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://mc.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  6. Does cognitive dysfunction conform to a distinctive pattern in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele; Marra, Camillo; Salvigni, Bruna Lorena; Petrone, Albino; Gemma, Antonella; Selvaggio, David; Mormile, Flaminio

    2004-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a recognized cause of cognitive dysfunction. By using a cross-sectional comparative study, we aimed to verify whether neuropsychological performance of untreated OSA patients conforms to a distinctive pattern. Forty-nine newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients, 27 with multi-infarctual dementia (MID), 31 with mild to moderate dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and 63 with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), all free from major comorbid dementing conditions were chosen for the study. The groups were matched for age and education. We found a bimodal distribution of cognitive performance in OSA group, which was therefore divided into two clusters having better (OSAb, n = 35) and worse (OSAw, n = 14) performance on a battery of 10 cognitive indexes. Cognitive performances of OSAb, OSAw, MID, DAT and COPD were compared by discriminant analysis. OSAb performed better than OSAw in all but one test. Deductive thinking and verbal attainment were more severely impaired in OSAw than in COPD patients. Constructive ability, deductive thinking and both verbal attainment and immediate memory were comparably impaired in OSAw and DAT. The mean neuropsychological scores of OSAw and MID were comparable, but 71% of OSAw patients had a distinctive cognitive profile, i.e. a group specific pattern of cognitive dysfunction, according to discriminant analysis. One of four newly diagnosed OSA patients had a severe and distinctive neuropsychological dysfunction mainly involving inductive and deductive thinking, and constructive ability. Some analogy with cognitive pattern of MID suggests that a mainly subcortical damage underlies this dysfunction.

  7. Evaluation of Spatial Agreement of Distinct Landslide Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlacchini, Simone; Bordogna, Gloria; Frigerio, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the degree of spatial agreement of different predicted patterns in a majority of coherent landslide prediction maps with almost similar success and prediction rate curves. If two or more models have a similar performance, the choice of the best one is not a trivial operation and cannot be based on success and prediction rate curves only. In fact, it may happen that two or more prediction maps with similar accuracy and predictive power do not have the same degree of agreement in terms of spatial predicted patterns. The selected study area is the high Valtellina valley, in North of Italy, covering a surface of about 450 km2 where mapping of historical landslides is available. In order to assess landslide susceptibility, we applied the Weights of Evidence (WofE) modeling technique implemented by USGS by means of ARC-SDM tool. WofE efficiently investigate the spatial relationships among past events and multiple predisposing factors, providing useful information to identify the most probable location of future landslide occurrences. We have carried out 13 distinct experiments by changing the number of morphometric and geo-environmental explanatory variables in each experiment with the same training set and thus generating distinct models of landslide prediction, computing probability degrees of occurrence of landslides in each pixel. Expert knowledge and previous results from indirect statistically-based methods suggested slope, land use, and geology the best "driving controlling factors". The Success Rate Curve (SRC) was used to estimate how much the results of each model fit the occurrence of landslides used for the training of the models. The Prediction Rate Curve (PRC) was used to estimate how much the model predict the occurrence of landslides in the validation set. We found that the performances were very similar for different models. Also the dendrogram of the Cohen's kappa statistic and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were

  8. Olhares distintos sobre a noção de estabilidade e mudança no desempenho da coordenação motora grossa Ángulos diferentes sobre el concepto de estabilidad y cambio en el rendimiento de la coordinación motora gruesa Distinct views on the notion of stability and change in the performance of gross motor coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Basso

    2012-09-01

    discuten en términos de diferentes trayectorias de desarrollo de la CMG.Studies about gross motor coordination in children (GMC focus on the description of normative values derived from age and sex, and few analyzed the dynamics of change of each child within its group. The goal of the present study is estimate the stability of intra-individual change over inter-individual differences over eighteen months. One hundred and twenty students with seven years old in the city of Muzambinho - MG participated in the study. Data was collected four times, with a six-month interval between each assessment. GMC was evaluated through KTK test battery. Mean values for all tests increased over time, with differences between sex for equilibrium test. The correlation values between initial performance and improvements over eighteen months indicated high heterogeneity. Results of stability estimates were weak for tests. These results were discussed about different trajectories in the development of motor coordination.

  9. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and differential relations. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Job insecurity as a work-related stressor is well established through three ...

  10. Identification of distinct phenotypes of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Teo, Minyuen

    2013-03-01

    A significant number of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma present as locally advanced disease. Optimal treatment remains controversial. We sought to analyze the clinical course of locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) in order to identify potential distinct clinical phenotypes.

  11. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning......Who determines what ideas matter in reform debates? This article examines reform proposals from the expert groups that emerged during the recent international financial crisis. To do so it follows fractal distinctions - distinctions that replicate themselves in subsequent iterations – among...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...

  12. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships......Who determines what ideas matter in reform debates? This contribution examines reform proposals from the expert groups that emerged during the recent international financial crisis. To do so it follows fractal distinctionsdistinctions that replicate themselves in subsequent iterations – among...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...

  13. The rhetorician's craft, distinctions in science, and political morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadler John Z

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In his response to Szasz' Secular Humanism and Scientific Psychiatry, the author considers the use of rhetorical devices in Szasz' work, Szasz' avoidance of acknowledging psychiatry's scientific distinctions, and Szaszian libertarianism versus liberalism.

  14. Distinct contributions by frontal and parietal cortices support working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Wayne E; Curtis, Clayton E

    2017-07-21

    Although subregions of frontal and parietal cortex both contribute and coordinate to support working memory (WM) functions, their distinct contributions remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations to topographically organized human frontal and parietal cortex during WM maintenance cause distinct but systematic distortions in WM. The nature of these distortions supports theories positing that parietal cortex mainly codes for retrospective sensory information, while frontal cortex codes for prospective action.

  15. Bacillus subtilis chromosome organization oscillates between two distinct patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xindan; Montero Llopis, Paula; Rudner, David Z.

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, faithful and efficient DNA segregation is intimately linked to the spatial organization of the chromosome. Two distinct organization patterns have been described for bacterial chromosomes (ori-ter and left-ori-right) that appear to arise from distinct segregation mechanisms. Here, we show that the Bacillus subtilis chromosome oscillates between them during a replication–segregation cycle. Our data further suggest that the highly conserved condensin complex and the parABS partitio...

  16. 29 CFR 549.3 - Distinction between plan and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinction between plan and trust. 549.3 Section 549.3... REQUIREMENTS OF A âBONA FIDE PROFIT-SHARING PLAN OR TRUSTâ § 549.3 Distinction between plan and trust. As used... profits; (b) Profit-sharing trust means any such program or arrangement as qualifies under this part...

  17. Sustained attention and prediction: distinct brain maturation trajectories during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix eThillay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a key period for frontal cortex maturation necessary for the development of cognitive ability. Sustained attention and prediction are cognitive functions critical for optimizing sensory processing, and essential to efficiently adapt behaviors in an ever-changing world. The aim of the current study was to investigate the brain developmental trajectories of attentive and predictive processing through adolescence. We recorded EEG in 36 participants from the age of 12 to 24 years (three age groups: 12-14, 14-17, 18-24 years to target development during early and late adolescence, and early adulthood. We chose a visual target detection task which loaded upon sustained attention, and we manipulated target predictability. Continued maturation of sustained attention after age 12 was evidenced by improved performance (hits, false alarms and sensitivity in a detection task, associated with a frontal shift in the scalp topographies of the CNV and P3 responses, with increasing age. No effect of age was observed on predictive processing, with all ages showing similar benefits in reaction time, increases in P3 amplitude (indexing predictive value encoding and memorization, increases in CNV amplitude (corresponding to prediction implementation and reduction in target-P3 latency (reflecting successful prediction building and use, with increased predictive content. This suggests that adolescents extracted and used predictive information to generate predictions as well as adults.The present results show that predictive and attentive processing follow distinct brain developmental trajectories: prediction abilities seem mature by the age of 12 and sustained attention continues to improve after 12-years of age and is associated with maturational changes in the frontal cortices.

  18. Sustained attention and prediction: distinct brain maturation trajectories during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillay, Alix; Roux, Sylvie; Gissot, Valérie; Carteau-Martin, Isabelle; Knight, Robert T.; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period for frontal cortex maturation necessary for the development of cognitive ability. Sustained attention and prediction are cognitive functions critical for optimizing sensory processing, and essential to efficiently adapt behaviors in an ever-changing world. The aim of the current study was to investigate the brain developmental trajectories of attentive and predictive processing through adolescence. We recorded EEG in 36 participants from the age of 12–24 years (three age groups: 12–14, 14–17, 18–24 years) to target development during early and late adolescence, and early adulthood. We chose a visual target detection task which loaded upon sustained attention, and we manipulated target predictability. Continued maturation of sustained attention after age 12 was evidenced by improved performance (hits, false alarms (FAs) and sensitivity) in a detection task, associated with a frontal shift in the scalp topographies of the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) and P3 responses, with increasing age. No effect of age was observed on predictive processing, with all ages showing similar benefits in reaction time, increases in P3 amplitude (indexing predictive value encoding and memorization), increases in CNV amplitude (corresponding to prediction implementation) and reduction in target-P3 latency (reflecting successful prediction building and use), with increased predictive content. This suggests that adolescents extracted and used predictive information to generate predictions as well as adults. The present results show that predictive and attentive processing follow distinct brain developmental trajectories: prediction abilities seem mature by the age of 12 and sustained attention continues to improve after 12-years of age and is associated with maturational changes in the frontal cortices. PMID:26483653

  19. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: a distinct type of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin; Choi, Min-Gew; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Hye Seung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae Hyung; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2015-04-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare type of gastric carcinoma and has histologic features of intense lymphocytic infiltration. In this study, we attempted to analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcome of patients with LELC compared with those with non-lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (NLELC). We studied 4282 patients who underwent gastrectomies to treat gastric cancer at the Department of Surgery of the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, between January 2008 and December 2010. The clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of patients with LELC (n = 46) were compared with those with NLELC (n = 4236). In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity was performed on the tissue of patients with LELC (n = 46) and NLELC (n = 1247). The patients with LELC are male predominant and had more upper locations, more indeterminate Lauren classifications, lower T stages, less lymphatic invasion, and more positive EBV in situ hybridization compared with those of the NLELC group (80.4% versus 6.5%). Age, histologic type, Lauren type, the location of the tumor, the depth of the invasion, lymph node metastasis, and venous invasion were independent prognostic factors; however, the LELC type itself was not predictive of outcome. The 5-y survival rate of the LELC group (97.7%) was better than that of the NLELC group (89.4%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.127). The results of our study suggest that LELC is a less advanced disease than NLELC in terms of depth of invasion and lymphatic invasion at diagnosis. However, our study does not examine LELC as an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to explore its associations with EBV and a distinct pathway of carcinogenesis from NLELC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two distinct pathways for developmental coordination disorder: persistence and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantell, Marja H; Smyth, Mary M; Ahonen, Timo P

    2003-11-01

    This article describes the perceptual motor, educational and social outcome of early motor delay in a group of 17-18 year old Finnish adolescents who were originally evaluated at age 5. The study group consisted of 65 adolescents: 22 with significant motor problems (or developmental coordination disorder, DCD), 23 with minor motor problems (intermediate group) and 20 controls. The goal of this study was to reassess the results obtained when they were age 15 and to determine whether the variables used earlier could still discriminate the adolescents at age 17. The results showed that at age 17 all perceptual motor tasks differentiated the three groups. The DCD group performed less well than the control group on all tasks, with the intermediate group situated between these two. Discriminant function analyses showed that more classification errors occurred between the control and intermediate groups at age 17 than at age 15, suggesting that the distinction between these groups becomes more difficult with age. In the educational domain, similar to the findings at age 15, the adolescents with DCD had the lowest WAIS scores and shortest school careers of the three groups. In the social domain, as found two years earlier, the DCD group had the lowest perceptions of athletic and scholastic competence while the intermediate and control groups did not differ. In addition, the interview results indicated that the three groups were in different stages of identity development. In sum, the outcome at age 17 was a replication of the results obtained at age 15 and suggests two developmental paths for those with early perceptual motor problems: 'persistence' and 'catching up'.

  1. Benign multiple sclerosis: physical and cognitive impairment follow distinct evolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajofatto, A; Turatti, M; Bianchi, M R; Forlivesi, S; Gobbin, F; Azzarà, A; Monaco, S; Benedetti, M D

    2016-03-01

    Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) definitions rely on physical disability level but do not account sufficiently for cognitive impairment which, however, is not rare. To study the evolution of physical disability and cognitive performance of a group of patients with BMS followed at an University Hospital Multiple Sclerosis Center. A consecutive sample of 24 BMS cases (diagnosis according to 2005 McDonald's criteria, relapsing-remitting course, disease duration ≥ 10 years, and expanded disability status scale [EDSS] score ≤ 2.0) and 13 sex- and age-matched non-BMS patients differing from BMS cases for having EDSS score 2.5-5.5 were included. Main outcome measures were as follows: (i) baseline and 5-year follow-up cognitive impairment defined as failure of at least two tests of the administered neuropsychological battery; (ii) EDSS score worsening defined as confirmed increase ≥ 1 point (or 0.5 point if baseline EDSS score = 5.5). At inclusion, BMS subjects were 41 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 1.5 (range 0-2), while non-BMS patients were 46 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 3.0 (2.5-5.5). At baseline 16% of patients in both groups were cognitively impaired. After 5 years, EDSS score worsened in 8% of BMS and 46% of non-BMS patients (P = 0.008), while the proportion of cognitively impaired subjects increased to 25% in both groups. Patients with BMS had better physical disability outcome at 5 years compared to non-BMS cases. However, cognitive impairment frequency and decline over time appeared similar. Neuropsychological assessment is essential in patients with BMS given the distinct pathways followed by disease progression in cognitive and physical domains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase: indispensability and display of distinct localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornthanakasem Wichai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, plays a vital role in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway in malaria parasites. Two genes have been identified in Plasmodium spp. encoding a cytosolic SHMT (cSHMT and putative mitochondria SHMT (mSHMT, but their roles have not been fully investigated. Methods The presence of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms in the intra-erythrocytic stage was assessed based on their gene expression using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. Localization studies of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms were performed by transfection of fluorescent-tagged gene constructs into P. falciparum and expressions of fluorescent fusion proteins in parasites were observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Genetic targeting through homologous recombination was used to study the essentiality of SHMT in Plasmodium spp. Results Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the expression of these two genes throughout intra-erythrocytic development. Localization studies using P. falciparum expressing fluorescent-tagged SHMT showed that PfcSHMT-red fluorescent fusion protein (PfcSHMT-DsRed is localized in the cytoplasm, while PfmSHMT-green fluorescent fusion protein (PfmSHMT-GFP co-localized with Mitotracker™-labelled mitochondria as predicted. The essentiality of plasmodial cSHMT was inferred from transfection experiments where recovery of viable knock-out parasites was not achieved, unless complemented with a functional equivalent copy of shmt. Conclusions Distinct compartment localizations of PfSHMT were observed between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoforms, and evidence was provided for the indispensable role of plasmodial cSHMT indicating it as a valid target for development of novel anti-malarials.

  3. Performing Performance Design Anglonationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design......Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design...

  4. Performing Performance Design Anglonationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design......Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design...

  5. Naive and primed murine pluripotent stem cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jouneau, A.; Ciaudo, C.; Sismeiro, O.; Brochard, V.; Jouneau, L.; Vandormael-Pournin, S; Coppee, J.-Y.; Zhou, Q.; Heard, E.; Antoniewski, C.; Cohen-Tannoudji, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, the microRNA (miRNA) pathway has emerged as a key component of the regulatory network of pluripotency. Although clearly distinct states of pluripotency have been described in vivo and ex vivo, differences in miRNA expression profiles associated with the developmental modulation of pluripotency have not been extensively studied. Here, the authors performed deep sequencing to profile miRNA expression in naive (embryonic stem cell [ESC]) and primed (epiblast stem cell [EpiSC...

  6. Assessment of wheat variety distinctness using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xin; QIU Jun; CHANG Li-fang; LIU Li-hua; LI Hong-bo; PANG Bin-shuang; ZHAO Chang-ping

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of variety distinctness is important for both the registration and the protection of particular variety. However, the current testing system, which assesses a range of morphological characters of each pair of varieties grown side-by-side, is time-consuming and is not suitable for the assessment of hundreds of samples. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for the assessment of wheat variety distinctness using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A comparison between the molecular and morphological proifle of 797 varieties was made. On the basis of the comparison, pairs of va-rieties with a genetic similarity value (GSV) ≤90% were deemed to be distinct, accounting for ~85% of varieties assessed in wheat regional trials. For the remaining ~15% of varieties, GSVs between different varieties were >90%, among which ~35% were not distinct and the other ~65% were distinct. Therefore, if given a GSV>90%, the pairs of varieties should be morphologicaly assessed in the ifeld. To avoid any errors in the assessments, we proposed the elimination of contaminant plants from the sample before comparing the varietal genotypes, scoring of the genotype at each locus with a pair of alele numbers when constructing a molecular proifle, and faithfuly recording two aleles at a non-homozygous locus. To reduce the workload and cost, a three-grade markers comparison among varieties is suggested. In addition, 80 SSR markers and a technical procedure for assessment of wheat variety distinctness have been proposed. Based on the procedure, the distinctness assessment of ~85% of al wheat varieties is completed in our laboratory annualy. Consequently, total ifeld assessment has been reduced considerably.

  7. Serial recall and presentation schedule: a micro-analysis of local distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Brown, Gordon D A

    2005-01-01

    According to temporal distinctiveness theories, items that are temporally isolated from their neighbours during presentation are more distinct and thus are recalled better. Event-based theories, which deny that elapsed time plays a role at encoding, explain isolation effects by assuming that temporal isolation provides extra time for rehearsal or consolidation of encoding. The two classes of theories can be differentiated by examining the symmetry of isolation effects: Event-based accounts predict that performance should be affected only by pauses following item presentation (because they allow time for rehearsal or consolidation), whereas distinctiveness predicts that items should also benefit from preceding pauses. The first experiment manipulated inter-item intervals and showed an effect of intervals following but not preceding presentation, in line with event-based accounts. The second experiment showed that the effect of following interval was abolished by articulatory suppression. The data are consistent with event-based theories but can be handled by time-based distinctiveness models if they allow for additional encoding during inter-item pauses.

  8. Anterior asymmetrical alpha activity predicts Iowa gambling performance: distinctly but reversed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Honk, E.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Animal research indicates that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in decision making. In concordance, deficits in decision making have been observed in human patients with damage to the PFC. Contemporary accounts of decision making suggest that emotion guides the process of decision

  9. Anterior asymetrical alpha activity predicts Iowa gambling performance: distinctly but reversed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; de Haan, Edward H F; van Honk, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Animal research indicates that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in decision making. In concordance, deficits in decision making have been observed in human patients with damage to the PFC. Contemporary accounts of decision making suggest that emotion guides the process of decision making by ways of providing for reward-punishment contingencies. A task capable of assessing the influence of reward and punishment on decision making is the Iowa gambling task. In this task decisions become motivated by inherent punishment and reward schedules. Insensitivity for punishment together with a strong reward dependency results in risk taking, which is in the gambling task the disadvantageous strategy. Interestingly, the processing of punishment and reward is argued to be lateralized over the right and left PFC, respectively. Here we investigated whether more relative left compared to right-sided frontal brain activity (left-sided dominance) quantified as reduced alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) would lead to a more risky, disadvantageous pattern of decision making. Contrary to what was expected, relatively more right compared to left frontal brain activity was strongly associated with the disadvantageous strategy. The results are discussed in terms of recent theoretical accounts which argue that the functional interpretation of baseline frontal alpha activity depends on the mental operation involved and does not necessarily imply inactivity.

  10. Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Peter; Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2010-01-01

    fully nondominated. A more feasible approach is to discover a low number of solutions within a region of interest on the true Pareto front. Here, a convergent secondary selection criterion guide the search toward optimal regions of interest that may incorporate decision maker preferences. However......, diversity must also be taken into account to ensure that the population does not converge prematurely. In this paper, candidate distinctiveness is measured and controlled based on the novel relaxed objective distance (ROD) measure, which enables the decision maker to control the desired level of diversity...... for each objective. The Many-Objective Distinct Candidates Optimization using Differential Evolution (MODCODE) algorithm takes a novel approach by focusing search using a user-defined number of subpopulations each returning a distinct optimal solution within the preferred region of interest. In this paper...

  11. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  12. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct from Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence from a Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…

  13. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct from Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence from a Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…

  14. Number of distinct sites visited by a subdiffusive random walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, Santos Bravo; Klafter, J; Lindenberg, Katja

    2008-03-01

    The asymptotic mean number of distinct sites visited by a subdiffusive continuous-time random walker in two dimensions seems not to have been explicitly calculated anywhere in the literature. This number has been calculated for other dimensions for only one specific asymptotic behavior of the waiting time distribution between steps. We present an explicit derivation for two cases in all integer dimensions so as to formally complete a tableau of results. In this tableau we include the dominant as well as subdominant contributions in all integer dimensions. Other quantities that can be calculated from the mean number of distinct sites visited are also discussed.

  15. On Hypersurfaces with two Distinct Principal Curvatures in Space Forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bing Ye Wu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the immersed hypersurfaces in space forms $\\mathbb{N}^{n+1}(c),n≥ 4$ with two distinct non-simple principal curvatures without the assumption that the (high order) mean curvature is constant. We prove that any immersed hypersurface in space forms with two distinct non-simple principal curvatures is locally conformal to the Riemannian product of two constant curved manifolds. We also obtain some characterizations for the Clifford hypersurfaces in terms of the trace free part of the second fundamental form.

  16. Radical behaviorism and the subjective—objective distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    1995-01-01

    The distinction between subjective and objective domains is central to traditional psychology, including the various forms of mediational stimulus—organism—response neobehaviorism that treat the elements of a subjective domain as hypothetical constructs. Radical behaviorism has its own unique perspective on the subjective—objective distinction. For radical behaviorism, dichotomies between subjective and objective, knower and known, or observer and agent imply at most unique access to a part of the world, rather than dichotomous ontologies. This perspective leads to unique treatments of such important philosophical matters as (a) dispositions and (b) the difference between first- and third-person psychological sentences. PMID:22478203

  17. Radical behaviorism and the subjective-objective distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J

    1995-01-01

    The distinction between subjective and objective domains is central to traditional psychology, including the various forms of mediational stimulus-organism-response neobehaviorism that treat the elements of a subjective domain as hypothetical constructs. Radical behaviorism has its own unique perspective on the subjective-objective distinction. For radical behaviorism, dichotomies between subjective and objective, knower and known, or observer and agent imply at most unique access to a part of the world, rather than dichotomous ontologies. This perspective leads to unique treatments of such important philosophical matters as (a) dispositions and (b) the difference between first- and third-person psychological sentences.

  18. Insulin Influences Autophagy Response Distinctively in Macrophages of Different Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen K. S. Sunahara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by hyperglycemia, associated to a lack or inefficiency of the insulin to regulate glucose metabolism. DM is also marked by alterations in a diversity of cellular processes that need to be further unraveled. In this study, we examined the autophagy pathway in diabetic rat macrophages before and after treatment with insulin. Methods: Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and splenic tissue of diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/kg, i.v., 10 days and control rats (physiological saline, i.v.. Some diabetic rats were given neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (4 IU, s.c. 8 h before experiments. For characterization of the model and evaluation of the effect of insulin on the autophagic process, the following analyzes were performed: (a concentrations of cytokines: interleukin (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 and CINC-2 in the BAL supernatant was measured by ELISA; (b characterization of alveolar macrophage (AM of the BAL as surface antigens (MHCII, pan-macrophage KiM2R, CD11b and autophagic markers (protein microtubule-associated light chain (LC3, autophagy protein (Atg12 by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy (c study of macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy (d histology of the spleen by immunohistochemistry associated with confocal microscopy. Results: Interestingly, insulin exerted antagonistic effects on macrophages from different tissues. Macrophages from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL enhanced their LC3 autophagosome bound content after treatment with insulin whereas splenic macrophages from red pulp in diabetic rats failed to enhance their Atg 12 levels compared to control animals. Insulin treatment in diabetic rats did not change LC3 content in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM. M1 and M2 macrophages behaved accordingly to the

  19. Occurrence of Two Distinct Types of Tissue Inhibitors of Metallo-proteinases-2 in Fugu rubripes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihiro Yokoyama; Hiroshi Tsukamoto; Tohru Suzuki; Shohshi Mizuta; Reiji Yoshinaka

    2005-01-01

    In this study, genes of two distinct tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) from Japanese puffer fish Fugu rubripes, Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b, were cloned. The open reading frames of Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b cDNAs are composed of 660 and 657 nucleotides and 220 and 219 amino acids, respectively. Both Fugu TIMP-2s contain 12 cysteine residues, whichmight form six disulfide bonds as in other animals TIMP-2s. Reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the mRNAs of Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b to be expressed in some tissues examined with different expression patterns. These findings suggest that the two distinct Fugu TIMP-2s might perform different functions in Fugu tissues.

  20. 'Tasteful' cosmopolitanism - food, consumption and cultural distinction in an ethnic greengrocer in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Maja de

    Based on an ethnographic study in a Lebanese greengrocer in Nørrebro in central Copenhagen, the paper asks about the nature of everyday cosmopolitan culture, as it gets performed through food consumption. The field study shows examples of a transcultural multi-culture among both customers and staff...... shows examples of how middleclass cosmopolitan food consumption can indeed be regarded as means of white middleclass cultural distinction. The argument is, that even if everyday cosmopolitanism does, on the one hand, allow for diversity training and the diminishing of cultural difference it might also...... mosaic and separate. Following this, the paper asks if there is a critical backside to everyday cosmopolitanism. Drawing on Bourdieu’s notion of distinction (1979), which he uses to show how culture and consumption continuously contribute to the reproduction of modern society’s class system, the paper...

  1. Distinct pattern of p53 mutations in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spruck, C H; Rideout, W M; Olumi, A F

    1993-01-01

    A distinct mutational spectrum for the p53 tumor suppressor gene in bladder carcinomas was established in patients with known exposures to cigarette smoke. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of exons 5 through 8 of the p53 gene showed inactivating mutations in 16 of 40 (40%) bladder...

  2. The Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Use with Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A.; Galizio, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is customary in behavior analysis to distinguish between positive and negative reinforcement in terms of whether the reinforcing event involves onset or offset of a stimulus. In a previous article (Baron & Galizio, 2005), we concluded that a distinction of these terms is not only ambiguous but has little if any functional significance. Here, we…

  3. On the Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Brian A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his views on Michael's (1975) and Baron and Galizio's (2005) arguments on eliminating the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. He first discusses Michael's concept of these two types of operations and contrasts it with the notions of Baron and Galizio. The author provides the readers his own…

  4. Distinct cellular states determine calcium signaling response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jason; Pilko, Anna; Wollman, Roy

    2016-12-15

    The heterogeneity in mammalian cells signaling response is largely a result of pre-existing cell-to-cell variability. It is unknown whether cell-to-cell variability rises from biochemical stochastic fluctuations or distinct cellular states. Here, we utilize calcium response to adenosine trisphosphate as a model for investigating the structure of heterogeneity within a population of cells and analyze whether distinct cellular response states coexist. We use a functional definition of cellular state that is based on a mechanistic dynamical systems model of calcium signaling. Using Bayesian parameter inference, we obtain high confidence parameter value distributions for several hundred cells, each fitted individually. Clustering the inferred parameter distributions revealed three major distinct cellular states within the population. The existence of distinct cellular states raises the possibility that the observed variability in response is a result of structured heterogeneity between cells. The inferred parameter distribution predicts, and experiments confirm that variability in IP3R response explains the majority of calcium heterogeneity. Our work shows how mechanistic models and single-cell parameter fitting can uncover hidden population structure and demonstrate the need for parameter inference at the single-cell level. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  5. What makes American Culture Distinct from Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹鑫

    2011-01-01

    Culture is a mirror of real life which can reflect all aspects of people's lives.More and more scholars have begun to study the differences between American culture and Chinese culture As a view to make the differences more clear,and to lay foundations for the further studying this shot paper will discuss the things make American culture distinct from Chinese culture.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa diversity in distinct paediatric patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramper-Stranders, G.A.; Ent, C.K. van der; Wolfs, T.F.;

    2008-01-01

    and further typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Simpson's diversity index was calculated for the five groups. CF-chronic patients carried the highest number of distinct P. aeruginosa phenotypes and genotypes per culture. Isolates from the CF-chronic group were significantly less diverse than those from...

  7. The Distinction Between Merit and Worth in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Valuing in evaluation encompasses two distinct senses of the word, denoted by the terms merit and worth. Merit may be defined as an entity's inherent, intrinsic, context-free value, while an entity's worth is defined as its contextually determined, place-bound value. Determining an entity's merit may take place whenever a number of experts are…

  8. Distinct monocyte Gene-Expression profiles in autoimmune diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Padmos (Roos); N.C. Schloot (Nanette); H. Beyan (Huriya); C. Ruwhof (Cindy); F.J.T. Staal (Frank); D. de Ridder (Dick); H-J. Aanstoot (Henk-Jan); W.K. Lam-Tse; H.J. de Wit (Harm); C. Herder (Christian); R.C. Drexhage (Roos); B. Menart (Barbara); R.D. Leslie

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE-There is evidence that monocytes of patients with type 1 diabetes show proinflammatory activation and disturbed migration/adhesion, but the evidence is inconsistent. Our hypothesis is that monocytes are distinctly activated/disturbed in different subforms of autoimmune diabetes

  9. Blurring Boundaries : Carnap, Quine, and the Internal-External Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Quine is routinely perceived as saving metaphysics from Carnapian positivism. Where Carnap rejects metaphysical existence claims as meaningless, Quine is taken to restore their intelligibility by dismantling the former’s internal–external distinction. The problem with this picture, however, is that

  10. The Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Some Additional Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement and some additional considerations. He states that the concept of negative reinforcement has caused confusion, and he believes that the difficulty stems from conventions of ordinary speech, in which the term "negative" usually denotes the opposite of…

  11. Positive and Negative Reinforcement: Should the Distinction Be Preserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alan; Galizio, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Michael (1975) reviewed efforts to classify reinforcing events in terms of whether stimuli are added (positive reinforcement) or removed (negative reinforcement). He concluded that distinctions in these terms are confusing and ambiguous. Of necessity, adding a stimulus requires its previous absence and removing a stimulus its previous presence.…

  12. Nonlinear behavior of the tarka flute's distinctive sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Arnaud; Yapu-Quispe, Luis; Sakuma, Sachiko; Ghezzi, Flavio; Ramírez-Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    The Andean tarka flute generates multiphonic sounds. Using spectral techniques, we verify two distinctive musical behaviors and the nonlinear nature of the tarka. Through nonlinear time series analysis, we determine chaotic and hyperchaotic behavior. Experimentally, we observe that by increasing the blow pressure on different fingerings, peculiar changes from linear to nonlinear patterns are produced, leading ultimately to quenching.

  13. An Explanation of the Distinction between Developmental Factors and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides five clear, relatable examples that can help students understand the distinction between the term "factors" and "mechanisms" in Developmental Psychology. The examples emphasize the idea that factors are related to changes in ways that moderate development, but are not causal. On the other hand, the term…

  14. Individual distinctiveness in call types of wild western female gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Salmi

    Full Text Available Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo. Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized, suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication.

  15. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeldner, Maria E

    2009-06-01

    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate-acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate-acquired distinction is under attack in contemporary philosophy of biology. Three arguments are then presented to provide a limited and pragmatic defense of the distinction: an epistemic, a conceptual, and a historical argument. If interpreted in a certain manner, and if the pragmatic goals of prevention and treatment (ideally specifying what medicine and health care is all about) are taken into account, then the innate-acquired distinction can be a useful epistemic tool. It can help, first, to understand that genetic determination does not mean fatalism, and, second, to maintain a system of checks and balances in the continuing nature-nurture debates.

  16. An acoustical study of the voicing distinction in Dutch plosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alphen, Petra M.

    2002-05-01

    Dutch has two voiced plosives, namely /b/ and /d/. They are said to have a negative VOT (i.e., are prevoiced), while the voiceless plosives /p/ and /t/ have a small, positive VOT. A production study was designed to investigate two questions. First, how does prevoicing vary in spoken Dutch? Second, what other cues in the acoustic signal might contribute to the perceptual distinction between voiced and voiceless plosives? Ten subjects were asked to produce a list of monosyllabic words which were chosen to study the following factors: place of articulation (labial versus alveolar), following phoneme (vowel versus consonant), lexical status of the carrier stimulus (word versus nonword), and lexical competitor environment of the carrier stimulus. Results will be reported on the relative contribution of various durational, spectral, and energy measures to the voiced-voiceless distinction. The data showed that 25% of all tokens were produced without prevoicing. The prevoicing of the voiced plosive was omitted more often when the plosive was followed by a consonant than when it was followed by a vowel. Although both spectral and energy cues signal the voicing distinction, and although prevoicing is often omitted, VOT appears to be the primary cue to this distinction.

  17. Reliability of information on the Internet : Some distinctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, A.H.; Wachbroit, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    We identify and clarify some distinctions we believe are useful in establishing the reliability of information on the Internet. We begin by examining some of the salient features of information that go into the determination of reliability. In so doing, we argue that we need to distinguish content a

  18. Teaching Creatively and Teaching for Creativity: Distinctions and Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Bob; Craft, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The distinction and relationship between teaching creatively and teaching for creativity identified in the report from the National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education ( NACCCE, 1999), is examined by focusing on empirical research from an early years school, known for its creative approach. The examination uses four…

  19. Different activation signals induce distinct mast cell degranulation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibilano, Riccardo; Marichal, Thomas; Reber, Laurent L.; Cenac, Nicolas; McNeil, Benjamin D.; Dong, Xinzhong; Hernandez, Joseph D.; Sagi-Eisenberg, Ronit; Hammel, Ilan; Roers, Axel; Valitutti, Salvatore; Tsai, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) influence intercellular communication during inflammation by secreting cytoplasmic granules that contain diverse mediators. Here, we have demonstrated that MCs decode different activation stimuli into spatially and temporally distinct patterns of granule secretion. Certain signals, including substance P, the complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, and endothelin 1, induced human MCs rapidly to secrete small and relatively spherical granule structures, a pattern consistent with the secretion of individual granules. Conversely, activating MCs with anti-IgE increased the time partition between signaling and secretion, which was associated with a period of sustained elevation of intracellular calcium and formation of larger and more heterogeneously shaped granule structures that underwent prolonged exteriorization. Pharmacological inhibition of IKK-β during IgE-dependent stimulation strongly reduced the time partition between signaling and secretion, inhibited SNAP23/STX4 complex formation, and switched the degranulation pattern into one that resembled degranulation induced by substance P. IgE-dependent and substance P–dependent activation in vivo also induced different patterns of mouse MC degranulation that were associated with distinct local and systemic pathophysiological responses. These findings show that cytoplasmic granule secretion from MCs that occurs in response to different activating stimuli can exhibit distinct dynamics and features that are associated with distinct patterns of MC-dependent inflammation. PMID:27643442

  20. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method: Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined…

  1. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  2. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  3. Neural correlates of the food/non-food visual distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Shariat, Shahriar; Nejati, Hossein; Gandhi, Tapan K; Cardinaux, Annie; Simons, Christopher T; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    An evolutionarily ancient skill we possess is the ability to distinguish between food and non-food. Our goal here is to identify the neural correlates of visually driven 'edible-inedible' perceptual distinction. We also investigate correlates of the finer-grained likability assessment. Our stimuli depicted food or non-food items with sub-classes of appealing or unappealing exemplars. Using data-classification techniques drawn from machine-learning, as well as evoked-response analyses, we sought to determine whether these four classes of stimuli could be distinguished based on the patterns of brain activity they elicited. Subjects viewed 200 images while in a MEG scanner. Our analyses yielded two successes and a surprising failure. The food/non-food distinction had a robust neural counterpart and emerged as early as 85 ms post-stimulus onset. The likable/non-likable distinction too was evident in the neural signals when food and non-food stimuli were grouped together, or when only the non-food stimuli were included in the analyses. However, we were unable to identify any neural correlates of this distinction when limiting the analyses only to food stimuli. Taken together, these positive and negative results further our understanding of the substrates of a set of ecologically important judgments and have clinical implications for conditions like eating-disorders and anhedonia.

  4. Distinct subtypes of knee osteoarthritis: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Waarsing (Jan); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); H.H. Weinans (Harrie)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective. OA is suspected to be a collection of distinct subtypes, each with different aetiology and clinical characteristics. We aimed to explore the existence of different subtypes of knee OA, using cluster analysis of the data of the OA Initiative. Methods. We used latent class

  5. Distinct subtypes of knee osteoarthritis : data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waarsing, Jan H; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Weinans, Harrie

    OBJECTIVE: OA is suspected to be a collection of distinct subtypes, each with different aetiology and clinical characteristics. We aimed to explore the existence of different subtypes of knee OA, using cluster analysis of the data of the OA Initiative. METHODS: We used latent class cluster analysis

  6. Finance is not the Economy : Reviving the Conceptual Distinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Hudson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Conflation of real capital with finance capital is at the heart of current misunderstandings of economic crisis and recession. We ground this distinction in the classical analysis of rent and the difference between productive and unproductive credit. We then apply it to current conditions, in which

  7. Revitalizing the “civic” and “ethnic” distinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2018-01-01

    This article describes how contemporary publics think about the nation along Kohn’s classic distinction between “civic” and “ethnic” nationalism. The article makes three contributes to the existing literature. Firstly, it introduces a new statistical tool, multi-classification-analysis, to establ...

  8. Preschoolers' Fantasy-Reality Distinctions of Emotional Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Nathalie; Ramirez, Madisenne

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that emotions influence children's ability to discern fantasy from reality; however, reasons for this association remain unknown. The current research sought to better understand the mechanisms underlying children's distinctions by examining the roles discrete emotions and context have in 3- to 5-year-olds' evaluations of fantasy…

  9. Distinct subtypes of knee osteoarthritis : data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waarsing, Jan H; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Weinans, Harrie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: OA is suspected to be a collection of distinct subtypes, each with different aetiology and clinical characteristics. We aimed to explore the existence of different subtypes of knee OA, using cluster analysis of the data of the OA Initiative. METHODS: We used latent class cluster analysis

  10. Distinct Kinesin-14 mitotic mechanisms in spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R; Kenny, Katelyn; Seo, Lan; Moyer, Amanda; Allen, Jessica; Paluh, Janet L

    2009-11-01

    Kinesin-like proteins are integral to formation and function of a conserved mitotic spindle apparatus that directs chromosome segregation and precedes cell division. Ubiquitous to the mechanism of spindle assembly and stability are balanced Kinesin-5 promoting and Kinesin-14 opposing forces. Distinct Kinesin-14 roles in bipolarity in eukaryotes have not been shown, but are suggested by gamma-tubulin-based pole interactions that affect establishment and by microtubule cross-linking and sliding that maintain bipolarity and spindle length. Distinct roles also imply specialized functional domains. By cross-species analysis of compatible mechanisms in establishing mitotic bipolarity we demonstrate that Kinesin-14 human HSET (HsHSET) functionally replaces Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pkl1 and its action is similarly blocked by mutation in a Kinesin-14 binding site on gamma-tubulin. Drosophila DmNcd localizes preferentially to bundled interpolar microtubules in fission yeast and does not replace SpPkl1. Analysis of twenty-six Kinesin-14 derivatives, including Tail, Stalk or Neck-Motor chimeras, for spindle localization, spindle assembly and mitotic progression defined critical domains. The Tail of SpPkl1 contains functional elements enabling its role in spindle assembly that are distinct from but transferable to DmNcd, whereas HsHSET function utilizes both Tail and Stalk features. Our analysis is the first to demonstrate distinct mechanisms between SpPkl1 and DmNcd, and reveal that HsHSET shares functional overlap in spindle pole mechanisms.

  11. Giant neurons in the macaque pulvinar: a distinct relay subpopulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Imura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Calbindin positive (CB+ giant neurons are known to occur within the pulvinar nucleus in subhuman primates. Here, we demonstrate by combined retrograde tracing and immunocytochemistry that at least some of these are pulvinocortical relay neurons, and further report several distinctive features. First, in contrast with non-giant relay neurons, the giant neurons are often solitary and isolated from a main projection focus. The question thus arises of whether their cortical projections may be non-reciprocal or otherwise distinctive. Second, these neurons are positive for GluR4; but third, they are otherwise neurochemically heterogeneous, in that about one-third are positive for both parvalbumin (PV and CB. Presumably, these subpopulations are also functionally heterogeneous. These results provide further evidence for the idea of multiple, interleaved organizations within the pulvinar; and they imply that thalamocortical projections are more disparate than has yet been appreciated. Finally, we found that giant CB+ neurons have a distinctive meshwork of large, PV+ terminations, prominent at the first dendritic branch point. In size and location, these resemble inhibitory terminations from the zona incerta or anterior pretectal nucleus (APT, as recently described in higher order thalamic nuclei in rats. One can speculate that giant neurons in the macaque pulvinar participate in a layer 5-APT-thalamus (giant neuron extrareticular pathway, functionally distinct from the layer 6-reticular nucleus-thalamus network.

  12. Distinct loading conditions reveal various patterns of right ventricular adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Marinus A. J.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Dickinson, Michael G.; Steendijk, Paul; de Vroomen, Maartje; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure due to chronically abnormal loading is a main determinant of outcome in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and congenital heart disease. However, distinct types of RV loading have been associated with different outcomes. To determine whether the adaptive RV response depends o

  13. Motor learning and cross-limb transfer rely upon distinct neural adaptation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J; Hinder, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Performance benefits conferred in the untrained limb after unilateral motor practice are termed cross-limb transfer. Although the effect is robust, the neural mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study we used noninvasive brain stimulation to reveal that the neural adaptations that mediate motor learning in the trained limb are distinct from those that underlie cross-limb transfer to the opposite limb. Thirty-six participants practiced a ballistic motor task with their right index finger (150 trials), followed by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the trained (contralateral) primary motor cortex (cM1 group), the untrained (ipsilateral) M1 (iM1 group), or the vertex (sham group). After stimulation, another 150 training trials were undertaken. Motor performance and corticospinal excitability were assessed before motor training, pre- and post-iTBS, and after the second training bout. For all groups, training significantly increased performance and excitability of the trained hand, and performance, but not excitability, of the untrained hand, indicating transfer at the level of task performance. The typical facilitatory effect of iTBS on MEPs was reversed for cM1, suggesting homeostatic metaplasticity, and prior performance gains in the trained hand were degraded, suggesting that iTBS interfered with learning. In stark contrast, iM1 iTBS facilitated both performance and excitability for the untrained hand. Importantly, the effects of cM1 and iM1 iTBS on behavior were exclusive to the hand contralateral to stimulation, suggesting that adaptations within the untrained M1 contribute to cross-limb transfer. However, the neural processes that mediate learning in the trained hemisphere vs. transfer in the untrained hemisphere appear distinct.

  14. Directed networks' different link formation mechanisms causing degree distribution distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Stefan Kambiz; Turkina, Ekaterina; Cohendet, Patrick; Burger-Helmchen, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Within undirected networks, scientists have shown much interest in presenting power-law features. For instance, Barabási and Albert (1999) claimed that a common property of many large networks is that vertex connectivity follows scale-free power-law distribution, and in another study Barabási et al. (2002) showed power law evolution in the social network of scientific collaboration. At the same time, Jiang et al. (2011) discussed deviation from power-law distribution; others indicated that size effect (Bagrow et al., 2008), information filtering mechanism (Mossa et al., 2002), and birth and death process (Shi et al., 2005) could account for this deviation. Within directed networks, many authors have considered that outlinks follow a similar mechanism of creation as inlinks' (Faloutsos et al., 1999; Krapivsky et al., 2001; Tanimoto, 2009) with link creation rate being the linear function of node degree, resulting in a power-law shape for both indegree and outdegree distribution. Some other authors have made an assumption that directed networks, such as scientific collaboration or citation, behave as undirected, resulting in a power-law degree distribution accordingly (Barabási et al., 2002). At the same time, we claim (1) Outlinks feature different degree distributions than inlinks; where different link formation mechanisms cause the distribution distinctions, (2) in/outdegree distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition; therefore this distribution distinction is a property of directed networks. First, we emphasize in/outlink formation mechanisms as causal factors for distinction between indegree and outdegree distributions (where this distinction has already been noticed in Barker et al. (2010) and Baxter et al. (2006)) within a sample network of OSS projects as well as Java software corpus as a network. Second, we analyze whether this distribution distinction holds for different levels of system decomposition: open

  15. Serial propagation of distinct strains of Aβ prions from Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Condello, Carlo; Stöhr, Jan; Oehler, Abby; Lee, Joanne; DeArmond, Stephen J; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin; Giles, Kurt; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2014-07-15

    An increasing number of studies argues that self-propagating protein conformations (i.e., prions) feature in the pathogenesis of several common neurodegenerative diseases. Mounting evidence contends that aggregates of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide become self-propagating in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. An important characteristic of prions is their ability to replicate distinct strains, the biological information for which is enciphered within different conformations of protein aggregates. To investigate whether distinct strains of Aβ prions can be discerned in AD patients, we performed transmission studies in susceptible transgenic mice using brain homogenates from sporadic or heritable (Arctic and Swedish) AD cases. Mice inoculated with the Arctic AD sample exhibited a pathology that could be distinguished from mice inoculated with the Swedish or sporadic AD samples, which was judged by differential accumulation of Aβ isoforms and the morphology of cerebrovascular Aβ deposition. Unlike Swedish AD- or sporadic AD-inoculated animals, Arctic AD-inoculated mice, like Arctic AD patients, displayed a prominent Aβ38-containing cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The divergent transmission behavior of the Arctic AD sample compared with the Swedish and sporadic AD samples was maintained during second passage in mice, showing that Aβ strains are serially transmissible. We conclude that at least two distinct strains of Aβ prions can be discerned in the brains of AD patients and that strain fidelity was preserved on serial passage in mice. Our results provide a potential explanation for the clinical and pathological heterogeneity observed in AD patients.

  16. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    ethically between these approaches, often relying on ambiguous concepts such as ‘naturalness’. We argue that a virtue-based approach can be used to explicate the assumptions behind such distinctions that are relevant for scientific and public discourse, and support a conclusion that there are ethical......The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... to the dominant scientific view, the main concerns are issues of biosafety that are dealt with through risk assessment. Thus, the techniques are ethically equivalent and only the resulting product is of interest. In parts of the societal and philosophical discourse, however, there are attempts to distinguish...

  17. Allergic and nonallergic asthma in children: are they distinct phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of current study is to describe clinical similarities and differences between atopic and non-atopic asthma in children. In a cross-sectional study, 95 asthmatic children (75 allergics and 20 nonallergics were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and familial history were compared between two groups. There was no significant differences between variables like sex, age of onset (p=0.75, severity (p=0.70, and family history among the two groups (p=0.42. Patients with allergic asthma were significantly older than those with non- allergic asthma (11.28 ± 3.19 and 9.75 ± 2.35 years, respectively, p=0.02. The controversy lingers over the presence of a completely distinct phenotype of non-atopic asthma in children. Our study suggested that phenotypes of allergic and non-allergic asthma in children were not entirely distinct.

  18. Positioning Food Cultures: 'Alternative' Food as Distinctive Consumer Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Many sociological studies to date have explored the role of food in marking distinctions between groups. Less well understood is how 'alternative' means of food consumption become figured in such relations. Drawing on accounts of food practice derived from 20 in-depth interviews and a two-year period of participant observation, this article considers the role of class culture in the practice of alternative food consumption. As participants speak their position, expressions of class arise through discussions of food practice. Having explored how food plays a part in marking boundaries of distinction between foods 'for us' and 'for them', we are reminded that in reproducing certain ideas about proper eating, we confine our imagining of alternative food futures to a limited politics of the possible. The article highlights implications for future development of equitable alternatives to conventional foodways.

  19. Proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia, a distinct disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, William; Zhang, Xuchen

    2014-08-14

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of a patient population with esophageal eosinophilia that responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy. These patients are being referred to as having proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), which is currently classified as a distinct and separate disease entity from both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on PPI-REE is thought to act directly at the level of the esophageal mucosa with an anti-inflammatory capacity, and completely independent of gastric acid suppression. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the mechanistic data of the proposed immune modulation/anti-inflammatory role of the PPI at the esophageal mucosa, and the existence of PPI-REE as a distinct disease entity from GERD and EoE.

  20. Distinctions between the Three Major Native Dialects of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺博闻

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on essential distinctions between the major native dialects of English which are often divided by lin⁃guists into the three general categories of the British Isles dialects, those of North America and those of Australasia. English learn⁃ers might want to learn a standard accent, because maybe they need it in a play or maybe they want to impress their friends, or maybe they want to fit in better in a certain English speaking environment. The paper hopes to help Chinese English learners first⁃ly isolate the distinctions among different but widely-used and officially-accepted accents and then speak good English by means of eliminating incorrect accent by imitating Standard English pronunciation.

  1. Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dragomir; Honigmann, Alf; Koike, Seiichi; Göttfert, Fabian; Pähler, Gesa; Junius, Meike; Müllar, Stefan; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas; Grubmüller, Helmut; Risselada, Herre J.; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; van den Bogaart, Geert; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of proteins and lipids in distinct microdomains is emerging as an important principle for the spatial patterning of biological membranes. Such domain formation can be the result of hydrophobic and ionic interactions with membrane lipids as well as of specific protein-protein interactions. Here using plasma membrane-resident SNARE proteins as model, we show that hydrophobic mismatch between the length of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the thickness of the lipid membrane suffices to induce clustering of proteins. Even when the TMDs differ in length by only a single residue, hydrophobic mismatch can segregate structurally closely homologous membrane proteins in distinct membrane domains. Domain formation is further fine-tuned by interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositides and homo and heterotypic protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch contributes to the structural organization of membranes.

  2. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  3. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  4. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  5. On the conceptual distinction of general causality orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj

    , Schnieber & Tønnesvang, under review). The models were tested using confirmatory factor analyses. Results showed that all three causality orientations were distinct from but closely related to personality traits. Hence, integrative efforts are suggested in relation to comprehensive personality frameworks......This study investigates the conceptual overlap and distinction between individual differences in the Five-Factor Model and Self-determination theory. Participants were 223 adults (age mean=43.74; 60.09% women), who originated in a Danish national probability sample. The participants completed...... electronic questionnaires of dispositional personality traits (NEO-FFI) and general causality orientations (GCOS). Proposed separate latent models and alternative shared latent models of the underlying individual differences constructs had been developed in a previous exploratory study (Olesen, Thomsen...

  6. Marx’s distinction between socialism and communism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Çam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marx’s distinction between socialism and communism is the subject of this study. Even though socialism and communism terms existed before Marx, they are generally remembered with Marx. From his perspective, socialism and communism was comprehensively handled and compared in the paper. Since it is essential to talk about it while discussing the distinction between socialism and communism, the dictatorship of the proletariat that is a political transition period is also explained in this study. Communism has two phases. The first or lower phase of communism is called as socialism that is the phase between capitalism and communism. The second or higher phase of communism is the perfect stage. There is no inequality or injustice in this stage. Communist society is classless society where products are delivered according to individuals needs. Implications were discussed in the work. Without three of the all sources, only Marx’s own works were used during the examination of socialism and communism.

  7. Suicide in India: Distinct epidemiological patterns and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlin Vijay Mythri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a societal crisis which also deeply impacts the personal and family realms. Indian suicidal data present distinctive epidemiological patterns when we compare it with the global suicide rates and trends. Higher proportions of young individuals are resorting to suicide compared to any other country in the world, and Indian suicide rates, especially South Indian rates, are one of the highest in the world. In this article, we present various historical aspects and theories of Indian suicide and review of available Indian research from various sources such as community, hospitals, schools and forensic settings. We discuss our findings which reveal the distinctiveness of Indian data when we compare these with global data and draw implications for practice and policy.

  8. Degree of handedness and priming: further evidence for a distinction between production and identification priming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVoie, Donna J; Olbinski, Brianna; Palmer, Shayna

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between implicit and explicit forms of memory retrieval is long-standing, and important to the extent it reveals how different neural architecture supports different aspects of memory function. Similarly, distinctions have been made between kinds of repetition priming, a form of implicit memory retrieval. This study focuses on the production-identification (ID) priming distinction, which delineates priming tasks involving verification of stimulus features as compared to priming tasks that require use of a cue to guide response retrieval. Studies investigating this dissociation in dementia or similar patient populations indicate that these forms of priming may differ in their neural bases. The current study looks at degree of handedness as a way of investigating inferred neural architecture supporting these two forms of priming. A growing body of research indicates that degree of handedness (consistent, or CH, versus inconsistent, or ICH) is associated with greater interhemispheric interaction and functional access to right hemisphere processing in ICH, with superior performance seen in ICH on memory tasks reliant on this processing. Arguments about the theoretical mechanisms underlying ID and production forms of perceptual priming tasks suggest that performance on these tasks will differ as a function of degree of handedness. We tested this question in a group of CH and ICH young adults, who were asked to study lists of words prior to performing a production priming task (word stem completion, WSC), a perceptual word ID task, and a word stem cued recall task. While both handedness groups exhibited reliable priming across tasks, WSC priming was greater in ICH than CH participants, with ID priming not differing between groups. This dissociation supports the argument that production and ID forms of priming have different underlying neural bases.

  9. The Distinct Affective Consequences of Psychological Distance and Construal Level

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on psychological distance has focused on cognitive outcomes, such as changes in construal level, largely framing affective processes out of the discussion. The current research examines the distinct influences of psychological distance and construal level on affect-based evaluation. In a first set of experiments, psychological distance (vs. closeness) reduces the intensity of felt affect, while abstract (vs. concrete) thinking increases the positivity of one's ...

  10. Parakeratosis pustulosa - a distinct but less familiar disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandhi Deepika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Parakeratosis pustulosa (PP is a distinct but less commonly known skin disease, which is frequently seen, in young girls. We describe the clinical and histological features of PP in a 7 month old female baby. Further, it is stressed that unless carefully looked for, this entity may be easily misdiagnosed as chronic paronychia, acrodermatitis of Hallopeau, pustular psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, tinea pedis or dry fissured eczematoid dermatitis and mistreated subsequently.

  11. Finite Groups with Character Degrees of Two Distinct Primes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It is proved that if the degree of any non-linear irreducible character of a finite group G is a product of powers of two given distinct prime integers p and q, then G has an abelian Hall {p,q}-subgroup H and an Abelian normal {p, q}-complement A, and the centralizer in A of the Sylow p-subgroup of G is equal to the centralizer in A of the Sylow q-subgroup of G.

  12. Distinct genetic regions modify specific muscle groups in muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypic expression in the muscular dystrophies is variable, even with the identical mutation, providing strong evidence that genetic modifiers influence outcome. To identify genetic modifier loci, we used quantitative trait locus mapping in two differentially affected mouse strains with muscular dystrophy. Using the Sgcg model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy that lacks the dystrophin-associated protein γ-sarcoglycan, we evaluated chromosomal regions that segregated with two distinct quan...

  13. [Gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: A distinct entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Rouquette, Alexandre; Brezault, Catherine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRC) is a distinct entity. Their incidence is increasing. The pathologist plays a central role in the identification of this entity. Diagnosis is based on an adenocarcinoma containing a majority of signet ring cells (above 50 %). The prognosis of GSRC is the same as gastric adenocarcinoma while GSRC appeared more aggressive. Signet ring cells present a low sensitivity to chemotherapy. This review aimed to discuss the histological, the prognostic and the therapeutic aspect of this entity.

  14. Distinct Neural Circuits Subserve Interpersonal and Non-interpersonal Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Alla; Wang, Zhishun; Russell, James A.; Posner, Jonathan; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Huo, Yuankai; Fallon, Brian A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Emotions elicited by interpersonal versus non-interpersonal experiences have different effects on neurobiological functioning in both animals and humans. However, the extent to which the brain circuits underlying interpersonal and non-interpersonal emotions are distinct still remains unclear. The goal of our study was to assess whether different neural circuits are implicated in the processing of arousal and valence of interpersonal versus non-interpersonal emotions. During functional magneti...

  15. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Graça Silva; Pereira, Renato B.; Patrícia Valentão; Andrade, Paula B.; Carla Sousa

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic ac...

  16. Distinct types of glial cells populate the Drosophila antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhaveri Dhanisha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of nervous systems involves reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia. In the Drosophila olfactory system, peripheral glial cells arise from sensory lineages specified by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atonal. These glia wrap around the developing olfactory axons early during development and pattern the three distinct fascicles as they exit the antenna. In the moth Manduca sexta, an additional set of central glia migrate to the base of the antennal nerve where axons sort to their glomerular targets. In this work, we have investigated whether similar types of cells exist in the Drosophila antenna. Results We have used different P(Gal4 lines to drive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in distinct populations of cells within the Drosophila antenna. Mz317::GFP, a marker for cell body and perineural glia, labels the majority of peripheral glia. An additional ~30 glial cells detected by GH146::GFP do not derive from any of the sensory lineages and appear to migrate into the antenna from the brain. Their appearance in the third antennal segment is regulated by normal function of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor and small GTPases. We denote these distinct populations of cells as Mz317-glia and GH146-glia respectively. In the adult, processes of GH146-glial cells ensheath the olfactory receptor neurons directly, while those of the Mz317-glia form a peripheral layer. Ablation of GH146-glia does not result in any significant effects on the patterning of the olfactory receptor axons. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of at least two distinct populations of glial cells within the Drosophila antenna. GH146-glial cells originate in the brain and migrate to the antenna along the newly formed olfactory axons. The number of cells populating the third segment of the antenna is regulated by signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor. These glia share several features of the sorting

  17. Escherichia coli Pathotypes Occupy Distinct Niches in the Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica P Meador; Caldwell, Matthew E.; Cohen, Paul S.; Conway, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    Since the first step of the infection process is colonization of the host, it is important to understand how Escherichia coli pathogens successfully colonize the intestine. We previously showed that enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain E. coli EDL933 colonizes a niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine that is distinct from that of human commensal strains, which explains how E. coli EDL933 overcomes colonization resistance imparted by some, but not all, commensal E. coli strains. Here we...

  18. Is the pain worth the gain? The advantages and liabilities of agreeing with socially distinct newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine W; Liljenquist, Katie A; Neale, Margaret A

    2009-03-01

    The impact of diversity on group functioning is multifaceted. Exploring the impact of having a newcomer join a group, the authors conducted a 2 (social similarity of newcomer to oldtimers; in-group or out-group) x 3 (opinion agreement: newcomer has no opinion ally, one opinion ally, or two opinion allies) interacting group experiment with four-person groups. Groups with out-group newcomers (i.e., diverse groups) reported less confidence in their performance and perceived their interactions as less effective, yet they performed better than groups with in-group newcomers (i.e., homogeneous groups). Moreover, performance gains were not due to newcomers bringing new ideas to the group discussion. Instead, the results demonstrate that the mere presence of socially distinct newcomers and the social concerns their presence stimulates among oldtimers motivates behavior that can convert affective pains into cognitive gains.

  19. Mistakes To Avoid In Attacking The Moral/Conventional Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experimental critique of the moral/conventional (M/C distinction, Kelly et al. (2007 present new experimental data about responses to transgressions involving harm, where the novelty is that transgressors are grown-ups, rather than children. Their data do not support the moral/conventional distinction. The contrast between grown-up and schoolyard transgressions does not seem, however, to explain their results: they also use two schoolyard transgressions with similar negative results for the M/C distinction.I here attempt to explain away their results by calling attention to two mistakes in their experimental design. One refers to the use of questionnaire-items of the type that Turiel and collaborators have called mixed-domain situations, which extend over both a moral and a conventional domain. Participants respond to these cases differently than to prototypical moral situations, because some allow the authority rule to override the moral rule. The second mistake emerges in the grown-up transgressions labeled as Whipping/temporal, Whipping/Authority, Spanking/Authority, Prisoner abuse/Authority. These are not the typical transgressions unambiguously “involving a victim who has been harmed, whose rights have been violated, or who has been subject to an injustice”. The victims are also transgressors and harm is inflicted on them as punishment. Plausibly, rules about corporal punishment depend on authority in a way that rules about harming the innocent do not.

  20. Motivational Spiral Models (MSM): common and distinct motivations in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Laurel J

    2013-01-01

    Motivational Spiral Models (MSM) show links over time among self concepts, feelings, strategies, skills and participation in everyday activities. In theory, MSM have many common features, with distinct features in particular contexts. This project examined children's motivation to participate in literacy (MSM-L), social (MSM-S) and physical activities (MSM-P). The participants in Study 1 (N = 32) were 9 to 11 years old, and in Study 2 (N = 73) were 4 to 12 year old children. Locations were close to the Australian national average in socio-economic indicators, and initial screening showed these were representative samples. Analyses used variable-oriented correlational models as well as person-oriented clusters that suggest the standard and alternative motivational pathways. The results of Study 1 suggested bi-directional links between children's self concepts and participation in activities. Study 2 identified the common features as: openness and stability over time; and self concepts that motivate and justify participation in activities. Distinct features of MSM-L show the few negative feelings that may limit reading. In MSM-S, self concepts support the positive feelings, and in MSM-P, positive feelings support the task strategies. In conclusion, findings support MSM theory with common features based on self concepts and distinct features of developing motivations in particular contexts. MSM provide a sound base for future research in the contexts of everyday activities for children. In addition, there are practical applications of the findings to prevention, monitoring and intervention programmes.

  1. Metabolic Context Regulates Distinct Hypothalamic Transcriptional Responses to Antiaging Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis M. Stranahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is an essential relay in the neural circuitry underlying energy metabolism that needs to continually adapt to changes in the energetic environment. The neuroendocrine control of food intake and energy expenditure is associated with, and likely dependent upon, hypothalamic plasticity. Severe disturbances in energy metabolism, such as those that occur in obesity, are therefore likely to be associated with disruption of hypothalamic transcriptomic plasticity. In this paper, we investigated the effects of two well-characterized antiaging interventions, caloric restriction and voluntary wheel running, in two distinct physiological paradigms, that is, diabetic (db/db and nondiabetic wild-type (C57/Bl/6 animals to investigate the contextual sensitivity of hypothalamic transcriptomic responses. We found that, both quantitatively and qualitatively, caloric restriction and physical exercise were associated with distinct transcriptional signatures that differed significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic mice. This suggests that challenges to metabolic homeostasis regulate distinct hypothalamic gene sets in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. A greater understanding of how genetic background contributes to hypothalamic response mechanisms could pave the way for the development of more nuanced therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic disorders that occur in diverse physiological backgrounds.

  2. Organism versus mechanism: Losing our grip on the distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Reitsema

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between organism and mechanism is often subtle or unclear and yet can prove to be fundamental to our understanding of the world. It has been tempting for many thinkers to seek to ‘understand’ all of reality through the lens of either the one or the other of these concepts rather than by giving both a place. This article sets out to argue that there is a substantial loss of understanding when either of these metaphors is absolutised to explain all causal processes and patterns in reality. Clarifying the distinction between the two may provide one more tool to grasp what is reductionist in many of the perspectives that have come to dominate public life and science today. This contention is tested on the quest for the design of self-replicating systems (i.e. synthetic organisms in the nanotech industry. It is common that the concepts of organic functioning and mechanism are used imprecisely and in an overlapping way. This is also true of much scientific debate, especially in the fields of biology, micro-biology and nano-science. This imprecise use signals a reductionist tendency both in the way that the organic is perceived and in terms of the distinctive nature of mechanisms.

  3. Distinctive Feature Extraction for Indian Sign Language (ISL) Gesture using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep Baburao; Sinha, G. R.

    2016-07-01

    India, having less awareness towards the deaf and dumb peoples leads to increase the communication gap between deaf and hard hearing community. Sign language is commonly developed for deaf and hard hearing peoples to convey their message by generating the different sign pattern. The scale invariant feature transform was introduced by David Lowe to perform reliable matching between different images of the same object. This paper implements the various phases of scale invariant feature transform to extract the distinctive features from Indian sign language gestures. The experimental result shows the time constraint for each phase and the number of features extracted for 26 ISL gestures.

  4. Distinctive Feature Extraction for Indian Sign Language (ISL) Gesture using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep Baburao; Sinha, G. R.

    2017-02-01

    India, having less awareness towards the deaf and dumb peoples leads to increase the communication gap between deaf and hard hearing community. Sign language is commonly developed for deaf and hard hearing peoples to convey their message by generating the different sign pattern. The scale invariant feature transform was introduced by David Lowe to perform reliable matching between different images of the same object. This paper implements the various phases of scale invariant feature transform to extract the distinctive features from Indian sign language gestures. The experimental result shows the time constraint for each phase and the number of features extracted for 26 ISL gestures.

  5. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  6. Can taxonomic richness be used as a surrogate for phylogenetic distinctness indices for ranking areas for conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Losada, M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been proposed for evaluating area conservation priorities. Here the performance of traditional approaches (taxonomic richness versus newer methods of phylogenetic distinctness is compared using the results and data from three different molecular studies: crayfish from the central United States and Australia, and Aeglidae freshwater crabs from Chile. To a large extent rankings based on species and genus richness agree with rankings based on taxonomic, phylogenetic and genetic diversity, thus suggesting that taxonomic richness methods may be used as a surrogate for the phylogenetic distinctness methods for the purpose of prioritizing reserve areas for conservation.

  7. Maximizing crossbred performance through purebred genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Bijma, Piter

    2015-01-01

    Background In livestock production, many animals are crossbred, with two distinct advantages: heterosis and breed complementarity. Genomic selection (GS) can be used to select purebred parental lines for crossbred performance (CP). Dominance being the likely genetic basis of heterosis, explicitly...

  8. Performing Nation, Performing Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    , or nation building, on the one side and the stark historical realism of the stolen generations + the backdrop of the second world war bombing of Darwin by the Japanese collectively creates a number of interwoven narratives in the tapestry that forms Australian cultural history.......Baz Luhrmann's Australia is simultaneously a film made for an Australian and an international audience. One of the interesting question this raises is how Luhrmann performs the nation for the national and the international audience. The film's juxtaposition of the national epic of pioneering...

  9. Preserved Self-other Distinction During Empathy in Autism is Linked to Network Integrity of Right Supramarginal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Koehne, Svenja; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Dziobek, Isabel; Singer, Tania

    2016-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows deficits in self-other distinction during theory of mind (ToM). Here we investigated whether ASD patients also show difficulties in self-other distinction during empathy and if potential deficits are linked to dysfunctional resting-state connectivity patterns. In a first study, ASD patients and controls performed an emotional egocentricity paradigm and a ToMtask. In the second study, resting-state connectivity of right temporo-parietal junction and right supramarginal gyrus(rSMG) were analysed using a large-scale fMRI data set. ASD patients exhibited deficient ToM but normal emotional egocentricity, which was paralleled by reduced connectivity of regions of the ToM network and unimpaired rSMG network connectivity. These results suggest spared self-other distinction during empathy and an intact rSMG network in ASD.

  10. Distinct Developmental Origins Manifest in the Specialized Encoding of Movement by Adult Neurons of the External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Paul D.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Duffell, James M.; Garas, Farid N.; Doig, Natalie M.; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Duguid, Ian C.; Bogacz, Rafal; Butt, Simon J.B.; Magill, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional codes initiated during brain development are ultimately realized in adulthood as distinct cell types performing specialized roles in behavior. Focusing on the mouse external globus pallidus (GPe), we demonstrate that the potential contributions of two GABAergic GPe cell types to voluntary action are fated from early life to be distinct. Prototypic GPe neurons derive from the medial ganglionic eminence of the embryonic subpallium and express the transcription factor Nkx2-1. These neurons fire at high rates during alert rest, and encode movements through heterogeneous firing rate changes, with many neurons decreasing their activity. In contrast, arkypallidal GPe neurons originate from lateral/caudal ganglionic eminences, express the transcription factor FoxP2, fire at low rates during rest, and encode movements with robust increases in firing. We conclude that developmental diversity positions prototypic and arkypallidal neurons to fulfil distinct roles in behavior via their disparate regulation of GABA release onto different basal ganglia targets. PMID:25843402

  11. Performance Poolsheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Performance Poolsheet is an MS Access database that captures performance appraisal data for employees eligible for performance awards. Microsoft Access database...

  12. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Q. Clark

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°. A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program.

  13. STRUCTURAL IDENTIFICATION OF DISTINCT INVERSIONS OF PLANAR KINEMATIC CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shubhashis Sanyal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 171 979 International Islamic University 8 2 1148 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Inversions are various structural possibilities of a kinematic chain. The number of inversions depends on the number of links of a kinematic chain. At the stage of structural synthesis, identification of distinct structural inversions of a particular type of kinematic chain is necessary. Various researchers have proposed methods for identification of distinct inversions. Present method based on Link joint connectivity is proposed to identify the distinct inversions of a planar kinematic chain. Method is tested successfully on single degree and multiple degree of freedom planar kinematic chains. ABSTRAK: Penyonsangan merupakan kebarangkalian pelbagai struktur suatu rangkaian kinematik. Jumlah songsangan bergantung kepada jumlah hubungan suatu rangkaian kinematik. Pada peringkat sintesis struktur, pengenalan songsangan struktur yang berbeza untuk suatu jenis rangkaian kinematik adalah perlu. Ramai penyelidik telah mencadangkan pelbagai kaedah pengenalan songsangan yang berbeza. Kaedah terkini berdasarkan hubungan kesambungan bersama telah dicadangkan untuk mengenalpasti songsangan yang berbeza dalam suatu satah rangkaian kinematik.

  14. Peptidomic and transcriptomic profiling of four distinct spider venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldrati, Vera; Koua, Dominique; Allard, Pierre-Marie; Hulo, Nicolas; Arrell, Miriam; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Lisacek, Frédérique; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Stöcklin, Reto

    2017-01-01

    Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples. The present study illustrates a rapid and efficient method developed for the elucidation of venom composition based on NextGen mRNA sequencing of venom glands and LC-MS/MS venom proteome profiling. The analysis of the comprehensive data obtained was focused on cysteine rich peptide toxins from four spider species originating from phylogenetically distant families for comparison purposes. The studied species were Heteropoda davidbowie (Sparassidae), Poecilotheria formosa (Theraphosidae), Viridasius fasciatus (Viridasiidae) and Latrodectus mactans (Theridiidae). This led to a high resolution profiling of 284 characterized cysteine rich peptides, 111 of which belong to the Inhibitor Cysteine Knot (ICK) structural motif. The analysis of H. davidbowie venom revealed a high richness in term of venom diversity: 95 peptide sequences were identified; out of these, 32 peptides presented the ICK structural motif and could be classified in six distinct families. The profiling of P. formosa venom highlighted the presence of 126 peptide sequences, with 52 ICK toxins belonging to three structural distinct families. V. fasciatus venom was shown to contain 49 peptide sequences, out of which 22 presented the ICK structural motif and were attributed to five families. The venom of L. mactans, until now studied for its large neurotoxins (Latrotoxins), revealed the presence of 14 cysteine rich

  15. Statistical tests for taxonomic distinctiveness from observations of monophyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-02-01

    The observation of monophyly for a specified set of genealogical lineages is often used to place the lineages into a distinctive taxonomic entity. However, it is sometimes possible that monophyly of the lineages can occur by chance as an outcome of the random branching of lineages within a single taxon. Thus, especially for small samples, an observation of monophyly for a set of lineages--even if strongly supported statistically--does not necessarily indicate that the lineages are from a distinctive group. Here I develop a test of the null hypothesis that monophyly is a chance outcome of random branching. I also compute the sample size required so that the probability of chance occurrence of monophyly of a specified set of lineages lies below a prescribed tolerance. Under the null model of random branching, the probability that monophyly of the lineages in an index group occurs by chance is substantial if the sample is highly asymmetric, that is, if only a few of the sampled lineages are from the index group, or if only a few lineages are external to the group. If sample sizes are similar inside and outside the group of interest, however, chance occurrence of monophyly can be rejected at stringent significance levels (P < 10(-5)) even for quite small samples (approximately 20 total lineages). For a fixed total sample size, rejection of the null hypothesis of random branching in a single taxon occurs at the most stringent level if samples of nearly equal size inside and outside the index group--with a slightly greater size within the index group--are used. Similar results apply, with smaller sample sizes needed, when reciprocal monophyly of two groups, rather than monophyly of a single group, is of interest. The results suggest minimal sample sizes required for inferences to be made about taxonomic distinctiveness from observations of monophyly.

  16. Distinct DNA methylation profiles in subtypes of orofacial cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma C; Ho, Karen; Davies, Amy; Stergiakouli, Evie; Humphries, Kerry; McArdle, Wendy; Sandy, Jonathan; Davey Smith, George; Lewis, Sarah J; Relton, Caroline L

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic data could help identify risk factors for orofacial clefts, either by revealing a causal role for epigenetic mechanisms in causing clefts or by capturing information about causal genetic or environmental factors. Given the evidence that different subtypes of orofacial cleft have distinct aetiologies, we explored whether children with different cleft subtypes showed distinct epigenetic profiles. In whole-blood samples from 150 children from the Cleft Collective cohort study, we measured DNA methylation at over 450,000 sites on the genome. We then carried out epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) to test the association between methylation at each site and cleft subtype (cleft lip only (CLO) n = 50; cleft palate only (CPO) n = 50; cleft lip and palate (CLP) n = 50). We also compared methylation in the blood to methylation in the lip or palate tissue using genome-wide data from the same 150 children and conducted an EWAS of CLO compared to CLP in lip tissue. We found four genomic regions in blood differentially methylated in CLO compared to CLP, 17 in CPO compared to CLP and 294 in CPO compared to CLO. Several regions mapped to genes that have previously been implicated in the development of orofacial clefts (for example, TBX1, COL11A2, HOXA2, PDGFRA), and over 250 associations were novel. Methylation in blood correlated with that in lip/palate at some regions. There were 14 regions differentially methylated in the lip tissue from children with CLO and CLP, with one region (near KIAA0415) showing up in both the blood and lip EWAS. Our finding of distinct methylation profiles in different orofacial cleft (OFC) subtypes represents a promising first step in exploring the potential role of epigenetic modifications in the aetiology of OFCs and/or as clinically useful biomarkers of OFC subtypes.

  17. Mitochondria Maintain Distinct Ca(2+) Pools in Cone Photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmarco, Michelle M; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Sloat, Stephanie R; Hurley, James B; Brockerhoff, Susan E

    2017-02-22

    Ca(2+) ions have distinct roles in the outer segment, cell body, and synaptic terminal of photoreceptors. We tested the hypothesis that distinct Ca(2+) domains are maintained by Ca(2+) uptake into mitochondria. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy of zebrafish cones revealed that nearly 100 mitochondria cluster at the apical side of the inner segment, directly below the outer segment. The endoplasmic reticulum surrounds the basal and lateral surfaces of this cluster, but does not reach the apical surface or penetrate into the cluster. Using genetically encoded Ca(2+) sensors, we found that mitochondria take up Ca(2+) when it accumulates either in the cone cell body or outer segment. Blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter activity compromises the ability of mitochondria to maintain distinct Ca(2+) domains. Together, our findings indicate that mitochondria can modulate subcellular functional specialization in photoreceptors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ca(2+) homeostasis is essential for the survival and function of retinal photoreceptors. Separate pools of Ca(2+) regulate phototransduction in the outer segment, metabolism in the cell body, and neurotransmitter release at the synaptic terminal. We investigated the role of mitochondria in compartmentalization of Ca(2+) We found that mitochondria form a dense cluster that acts as a diffusion barrier between the outer segment and cell body. The cluster is surprisingly only partially surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum, a key mediator of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Blocking the uptake of Ca(2+) by mitochondria causes redistribution of Ca(2+) throughout the cell. Our results show that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in photoreceptors is complex and plays an essential role in normal function. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372061-12$15.00/0.

  18. Distinct transport regimes for two elastically coupled molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2012-05-18

    Cooperative cargo transport by two molecular motors involves an elastic motor-motor coupling, which can reduce the motors' velocity and/or enhance their unbinding from the filament. We show theoretically that these interference effects lead, in general, to four distinct transport regimes. In addition to a weak coupling regime, kinesin and dynein motors are found to exhibit a strong coupling and an enhanced unbinding regime, whereas myosin motors are predicted to attain a reduced velocity regime. All of these regimes, which we derive by explicit calculations and general time scale arguments, can be explored experimentally by varying the elastic coupling strength.

  19. Valence Parity Renders z•-Type Ions Chemically Distinct

    OpenAIRE

    Hubler, Shane L.; Jue, April; Keith, Jason; McAlister, Graeme C.; Craciun, Gheorghe; Coon, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    Here we report that the odd electron z•-type ions formed by the electron-based peptide dissociation methods (electron capture or transfer, ECD or ETD) have distinctive chemical compositions from other common product ion types. Specifically, b-, c-, and y-type ions have an odd number of atoms with an odd valence (e.g., N and H), while z•-type ions contain an even number of atoms with an odd valence. This tenet, referred to as the valence parity rule, mandates that no c-type ion shall have the ...

  20. Distinctive Design A Practical Guide to a Useful, Beautiful Web

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Learn to produce a web site that stands out from the crowd One of the web designer's greatest challenges is to create a site distinctive enough to get noticed among the millions of sites already on the web. This book examines the bond between code, content and visuals to guide you through the factors that increase your design's visibility, usability and beauty. Using this practical advice, even web designers who lack strong artistic skills can develop super sites that strengthen the message and stand out from the crowd.Most books focus primarily on graphic design principles; this one shows you

  1. A microarray analysis of two distinct lymphatic endothelial cell populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schweighofer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs to form two morphologically different populations, exhibiting significantly different surface protein expression levels of podoplanin, a major surface marker for this cell type. In vitro shockwave treatment (IVSWT of LECs resulted in enrichment of the podoplaninhigh cell population and was accompanied by markedly increased cell proliferation, as well as 2D and 3D migration. Gene expression profiles of these distinct populations were established using Affymetrix microarray analyses. Here we provide additional details about our dataset (NCBI GEO accession number GSE62510 and describe how we analyzed the data to identify differently expressed genes in these two LEC populations.

  2. Distinct phenotype in maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healey, S.; Chenevix-Trench, G. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane (Australia); McGill, J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Battersby, M.

    1994-06-01

    We report on the occurrence of maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 (mUPD14) in a 4-year-old girl with a de novo Robertsonian translocation, 45,XX,t (13q,14q). The child has arrested hydrocephalus, short stature, minor anomalies, small hands with hyperextensible joints, and mild to moderate developmental delay. Comparison of her phenotype with those of three previously described individuals show some common distinct traits which suggest a mUPD14 syndrome. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Rolie-Poly fluid flowing through constrictions: Two distinct instabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Reis, T.

    2013-05-01

    Elastic instabilities of entangled polymer melts are common in industrial processes but the physics responsible is not well understood. We present a numerical linear stability study of a molecular based constitutive model which grants us physical insight into the underlying mechanics involved. Two constriction flows are considered - one shear dominated, the other extension dominated - and two distinct instabilities are found. The influence of the molecular structure and the behaviour of the polymer dynamics are investigated and in both cases chain relaxation and orientation play a crucial role. This suggests a molecular-based physical interpretation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for flow instabilities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Two Distinct Central Serotonin Receptors with Different Physiological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Lebovitz, Richard M.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1981-05-01

    Two distinct serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors designated serotonin 1 and serotonin 2 bind tritium-labeled serotonin and tritium-labeled spiroperidol, respectively. Drug potencies at serotonin 2 sites, but not at serotonin 1 sites, predict their effects on the ``serotonin behavioral syndrome,'' indicating that serotonin 2 sites mediate these behaviors. The limited correlation of drug effects with regulation by guanine nucleotides suggests that serotonin 1 sites might be linked to adenylate cyclase. Drug specificities of serotonin-elicited synaptic inhibition and excitation may reflect serotonin 1 and serotonin 2 receptor interactions, respectively.

  5. The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Archie; Barr, Ronald; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Thomas, David; Ellis, Chad; Anderson, Barry

    2008-04-01

    One explanation for the relative lack of progress in treating cancer in adolescents and young adults is that the biology of malignant diseases in this age group is different than in younger and older persons, not only in the spectrum of cancers but also within individual cancer types and within the patient (host). Molecular, epidemiological and therapeutic outcome comparisons offer clues to this distinctiveness in most of the common cancers of adolescents and young adults. Translational and clinical research should not assume that the biology of cancers and patients is the same as in other age groups, and treatment strategies should be tailored to the differences.

  6. Structural studies of several distinct metastable forms of amorphous ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulk, C A; Benmore, C J; Urquidi, J; Klug, D D; Neuefeind, J; Tomberli, B; Egelstaff, P A

    2002-08-23

    Structural changes during annealing of high-density amorphous ice were studied with both neutron and x-ray diffraction. The first diffraction peak was followed from the high- to the low-density amorphous form. Changes were observed to occur through a series of intermediate forms that appear to be metastable at each anneal temperature. Five distinct amorphous forms were studied with neutron scattering, and many more forms may be possible. Radial distribution functions indicate that the structure evolves systematically between 4 and 8 angstroms. The phase transformations in low-temperature liquid water may be much more complex than currently understood.

  7. Learning acts on distinct processes for visual form perception in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Stephen D; Li, Sheng; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2012-01-18

    Learning is known to facilitate our ability to detect targets in clutter and optimize brain processes for successful visual recognition. Previous brain-imaging studies have focused on identifying spatial patterns (i.e., brain areas) that change with learning, implicating occipitotemporal and frontoparietal areas. However, little is known about the interactions within this network that mediate learning-dependent improvement in complex perceptual tasks (i.e., discrimination of visual forms in clutter). Here we take advantage of the complementary high spatial and temporal resolution of simultaneous EEG-fMRI to identify the learning-dependent changes in spatiotemporal brain patterns that mediate enhanced behavioral sensitivity in the discrimination of global forms after training. We measured the observers' choices when discriminating between concentric and radial patterns presented in noise before and after training. Similarly, we measured the choices of a pattern classifier when predicting each stimulus from EEG-fMRI signals. By comparing the performance of human observers and classifiers, we demonstrated that learning alters sensitivity to visual forms and EEG-fMRI activation patterns related to distinct visual recognition processes. In particular, behavioral improvement after training was associated with changes in (1) early processes involved in the integration of global forms in higher occipitotemporal and parietal areas, and (2) later processes related to categorical judgments in frontal circuits. Thus, our findings provide evidence that learning acts on distinct visual recognition processes and shapes feedforward interactions across brain areas to support performance in complex perceptual tasks.

  8. Proteomic analyses reveal distinct chromatin-associated and soluble transcription factor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Wang, Wenqi; Wang, Jiadong; Malovannaya, Anna; Xi, Yuanxin; Li, Wei; Guerra, Rudy; Hawke, David H; Qin, Jun; Chen, Junjie

    2015-01-21

    The current knowledge on how transcription factors (TFs), the ultimate targets and executors of cellular signalling pathways, are regulated by protein-protein interactions remains limited. Here, we performed proteomics analyses of soluble and chromatin-associated complexes of 56 TFs, including the targets of many signalling pathways involved in development and cancer, and 37 members of the Forkhead box (FOX) TF family. Using tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (TAP/MS), we performed 214 purifications and identified 2,156 high-confident protein-protein interactions. We found that most TFs form very distinct protein complexes on and off chromatin. Using this data set, we categorized the transcription-related or unrelated regulators for general or specific TFs. Our study offers a valuable resource of protein-protein interaction networks for a large number of TFs and underscores the general principle that TFs form distinct location-specific protein complexes that are associated with the different regulation and diverse functions of these TFs.

  9. Temporal Distinctiveness in Task Switching: Assessing the Mixture-Distribution Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Grange

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In task switching, increasing the response--cue interval has been shown to reduce the switch cost. This has been attributed to a time-based decay process influencing the activation of memory representations of tasks (task-sets. Recently, an alternative account based on interference rather than decay has been successfully applied to this data (Horoufchin et al., 2011. In this account, variation of the RCI is thought to influence the temporal distinctiveness (TD of episodic traces in memory, thus affecting their retrieval probability. This can affect performance as retrieval probability influences response time: If retrieval succeeds, responding is fast due to positive priming; if retrieval fails, responding is slow, due to having to perform the task via a slow algorithmic process. This account---and a recent formal model (Grange & Cross, 2015---makes the strong prediction that all RTs are a mixture of one of two processes: a fast process when retrieval succeeds, and a slow process when retrieval fails. The present paper assesses the evidence for this mixture-distribution assumption in TD data. In a first section, statistical evidence for mixture-distributions is found using the fixed-point property test. In a second section, a mathematical process model with mixture-distributions at its core is fitted to the response time distribution data. Both approaches provide good evidence in support of the mixture-distribution assumption, and thus support temporal distinctiveness accounts of the data.

  10. A distinct variant of mixed dysarthria reflects parkinsonism and dystonia due to ephedrone abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Megrelishvili, Marika; Bonnet, Cecilia; Okujava, Michael; Brožová, Hana; Khatiashvili, Irine; Sekhniashvili, Madona; Janelidze, Marina; Tolosa, Eduardo; Růžička, Evžen

    2014-06-01

    A distinctive alteration of speech has been reported in patients suffering from ephedrone-induced parkinsonism. However, an objective assessment of dysarthria has not been performed in ephedrone users. We studied 28 young Caucasian men from Georgia with a previous history of ephedrone abuse and compared them to 25 age-matched healthy controls. Speech examination, brain MRI, and NNIPPS-Parkinson plus scale were performed in all patients. The accurate differential diagnosis of dysarthria subtypes was based on the quantitative acoustic analyses of 15 speech dimensions. We revealed a distinct variant of mixed dysarthria with a combination of hyperkinetic and hypokinetic components representing the altered motor programming of dystonia and bradykinesia in ephedrone-induced parkinsonism. According to acoustic analyses, all patients presented at least one affected speech dimension, whereas dysarthria was moderate in 43% and severe in 36% of patients. Further findings indicated relationships between motor subscores of dystonia and bradykinesia and speech components of loudness (r = -0.54, p dysarthria occurs that appears related to marked dystonia and bradykinesia and probably reflects manganese induced toxic and neurodegenerative damage to the globus pallidus internus and substantia nigra.

  11. Improvement of the Owner Distinction Method for Healing-Type Pet Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Hara, Mirai; Abe, Koji; Tajima, Takuya

    In order to decrease human stress, Animal Assisted Therapy which applies pets to heal humans is attracted. However, since animals are insanitary and unsafe, it is difficult to practically apply animal pets in hospitals. For the reason, on behalf of animal pets, pet robots have been attracted. Since pet robots would have no problems in sanitation and safety, they are able to be applied as a substitute for animal pets in the therapy. In our previous study where pet robots distinguish their owners like an animal pet, we used a puppet type pet robot which has pressure type touch sensors. However, the accuracy of our method was not sufficient to practical use. In this paper, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of the distinction. The proposed method can be applied for capacitive touch sensors such as installed in AIBO in addition to pressure type touch sensors. Besides, this paper shows performance of the proposed method from experimental results and confirms the proposed method has improved performance of the distinction in the conventional method.

  12. Taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices in assessment of weed communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an analysis of taxonomic weed biodiversity in the cultivation of spring barley in the period of 1990-2004, grown in crop rotation after potato with a 25% share of this cereal (potato - spring barley - field pea - winter triticale as well as in crop rotation with its 75% share (potato - spring barley - spring barley - spring barley in which barley was grown once and twice after the same barley crop. No weed control was used in the present experiment. Every year in the spring (at full emergence of the cereal crop and before harvest, the species composition and the numbers of individual weed species were determined, as well as weed biomass before harvest. On this basis, the taxonomic diversity and distinctness indices were calculated. Potato/barley crop rotation with a 25% share of this cereal and growing spring barley once and twice after the same barley crop did not differentiate taxonomic weed biodiversity. However, it was positively correlated with rainfall abundance during the growing season and negatively correlated with mean temperature. The taxonomic diversity indices were positively correlated with species richness and species diversity, whereas the taxonomic distinctness indices did not generally show any relationship with these measures. Spring barley grain yield did not depend on taxonomic biodiversity of weed communities.

  13. Subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria display distinct superoxide production profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochemore, C; Mekki, M; Corbière, C; Karoui, A; Noël, R; Vendeville, C; Vaugeois, J-M; Monteil, C

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) subpopulations display distinct biochemical, morphological, and functional characteristics. Moreover, they appear to be differently influenced during cardiac pathologies or toxic injuries. Although mitochondrial reactive oxygen species seem to play a critical role in cardiac function and diseases, limited information exists about the superoxide production characteristics of these mitochondrial subpopulations. In this work, using direct measurement of superoxide by electron paramagnetic resonance, we showed that differences in superoxide production profiles were present between cardiac IFM and SSM, in terms of intensity and major sites of superoxide generation. In SSM incubated with glutamate plus malate as substrates, the total observed superoxide levels were significantly higher than those observed with IFM, with an important contribution of the NADH-oxidizing site of complex I (site If) and the quinol-oxidizing site of complex III (site IIIQ0). In both IFM and SSM, succinate leads to similar rates of total superoxide levels with a substantial role for contribution of reverse electron transfer. Finally, using two spin probes with different membrane permeabilities, our data on complex III showed direct intra- and extra-mitochondrial superoxide release whereas complex I- and II-dependent superoxide were exclusively released inside the mitochondria, confirming previous studies. Feasibility of this approach to measure intra- and extra-mitochondrial superoxide levels and to characterize distinct superoxide production profiles of cardiac IFM and SSM has been demonstrated.

  14. Distinctive personality profiles of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Ada H.; Zaraya-Blum, Reut; Buskila, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male) reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate). Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107), participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97) showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS), Reward dependence (RD), Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD), social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine. PMID:27672497

  15. Local interneurons define functionally distinct regions within lobster olfactory glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak; Diebel; Ache

    1997-01-01

    Whole-cell recording coupled with biocytin injection revealed four types of interneurons intrinsic to the olfactory lobe (OL) of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Each type of neuron had a distinct pattern of arborization within the three anatomically defined regions of OL glomeruli (cap, subcap and base). Type I interneurons innervated all three regions, while types II, III and IV branched only in the cap, subcap and base, respectively. Type I interneurons responded to electrical stimulation of the antennular (olfactory) nerve with a burst of 1­20 action potentials and a 1­10 s depolarization. Type II (cap) interneurons responded to the same input with a burst of 1­3 action potentials followed by a shorter hyperpolarization. Type III (subcap) interneurons responded with a burst of 1­6 action potentials followed by a delayed, 0.5­4 s depolarization. Type IV (base) interneurons responded with a brief depolarization or a burst of 1­3 action potentials followed by a 1 s hyperpolarization. The regionalized arborization and the different response properties of the type II, III and IV interneurons strongly imply that lobster olfactory glomeruli contain functionally distinct regions, a feature that should be useful in understanding the multiple synaptic pathways involved in processing olfactory input.

  16. Distinct neural patterns of social cognition for cooperation versus competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lily; Dungan, James; Waytz, Adam; Young, Liane

    2016-08-15

    How do people consider other minds during cooperation versus competition? Some accounts predict that theory of mind (ToM) is recruited more for cooperation versus competition or competition versus cooperation, whereas other accounts predict similar recruitment across these two contexts. The present fMRI study examined activity in brain regions for ToM (bilateral temporoparietal junction, precuneus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex) across cooperative and competitive interactions with the same individual within the same paradigm. Although univariate analyses revealed that ToM regions overall were recruited similarly across interaction contexts, multivariate pattern analyses revealed that these regions nevertheless encoded information separating cooperation from competition. Specifically, ToM regions encoded differences between cooperation and competition when people believed the outcome was determined by their and their partner's choices but not when the computer determined the outcome. We propose that, when people are motivated to consider others' mental states, ToM regions encode different aspects of mental states during cooperation versus competition. Given the role of these regions for ToM, these findings reveal distinct patterns of social cognition for distinct motivational contexts.

  17. The mechanism of the emergence of distinct overstretched DNA states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, You-Liang; Sun, Zhao-Yan, E-mail: zysun@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Lu, Zhong-Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2016-01-14

    Although multiple overstretched DNA states were identified in experiments, the mechanism of the emergence of distinct states is still unclear. Molecular dynamics simulation is an ideal tool to clarify the mechanism, but the force loading rates in stretching achieved by conventional all-atom DNA models are much faster, which essentially affect overstretching states. We employed a modified coarse-grained DNA model with an unprecedented low loading rate in simulations to study the overstretching transitions of end-opened double-stranded DNA. We observed two-strand peeling off for DNA with low stability and the S-DNA with high stability under tension. By introducing a melting-forbidden model which prevents base-pair breaking, we still observed the overstretching transition induced by the formation of S-DNA due to the change of dihedral angle. Hence, we confirmed that the competition between the two strain-softening manners, i.e., base-pair breaking and dihedral angle variation, results in the emergence of distinct overstretched DNA states.

  18. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Julie M; Thompson, Timothy; Geskin, Albert; LaFramboise, William; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  19. Distinct human stem cell populations in small and large intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Cramer

    Full Text Available The intestine is composed of an epithelial layer containing rapidly proliferating cells that mature into two regions, the small and the large intestine. Although previous studies have identified stem cells as the cell-of-origin for intestinal epithelial cells, no studies have directly compared stem cells derived from these anatomically distinct regions. Here, we examine intrinsic differences between primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal small and large intestine, after in vitro expansion, using the Wnt agonist R-spondin 2. We utilized flow cytometry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, gene expression analysis and a three-dimensional in vitro differentiation assay to characterize their stem cell properties. We identified stem cell markers that separate subpopulations of colony-forming cells in the small and large intestine and revealed important differences in differentiation, proliferation and disease pathways using gene expression analysis. Single cells from small and large intestine cultures formed organoids that reflect the distinct cellular hierarchy found in vivo and respond differently to identical exogenous cues. Our characterization identified numerous differences between small and large intestine epithelial stem cells suggesting possible connections to intestinal disease.

  20. The distinction between torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Manfred; McArthur, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The present article seeks to clarify the distinction between torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. The author argues that the decisive criteria for distinguishing torture from CIDT is not, as argued by the European Court of Human Rights and many scholars, the intensity of the pain or suffering inflicted, but the purpose of the conduct and the powerlessness of the victim and that as such the distinction is primarily linked to the question of personal liberty. He concludes that the "scope of application" of CIDT is a relative concept, that outside a situation of detention and similar direct control, the prohibition of CIDT is subject to the proportionality principle. Here, only excessive use of police force constitutes CIDT. In a situation of detention or similar direct control, however, no proportionality test may be applied. Any use of physical or mental force against a detainee with the purpose of humiliation constitutes degrading treatment or punishment and any infliction of severe pain or suffering for a specific purpose as expressed in Art.1 CAT amounts to torture.

  1. Distinct populations of inflammatory fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handly-Santana, Abram; Biffi, Giulia; Elyada, Ela; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Lee, Eun Jung; Chio, Iok In Christine; Tiriac, Hervé; Feig, Christine; Kultti, Anne; Crawford, James M.; Clevers, Hans; Park, Youngkyu

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) differentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that produce desmoplastic stroma, thereby modulating disease progression and therapeutic response in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). However, it is unknown whether CAFs uniformly carry out these tasks or if subtypes of CAFs with distinct phenotypes in PDA exist. We identified a CAF subpopulation with elevated expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) located immediately adjacent to neoplastic cells in mouse and human PDA tissue. We recapitulated this finding in co-cultures of murine PSCs and PDA organoids, and demonstrated that organoid-activated CAFs produced desmoplastic stroma. The co-cultures showed cooperative interactions and revealed another distinct subpopulation of CAFs, located more distantly from neoplastic cells, which lacked elevated αSMA expression and instead secreted IL6 and additional inflammatory mediators. These findings were corroborated in mouse and human PDA tissue, providing direct evidence for CAF heterogeneity in PDA tumor biology with implications for disease etiology and therapeutic development. PMID:28232471

  2. Branchial Cilia and Sperm Flagella Recruit Distinct Axonemal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Alu; Shiba, Kogiku; Cai, Chunhua; Inaba, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cilia and flagella have highly conserved 9 + 2 structures. They are functionally diverged to play cell-type-specific roles even in a multicellular organism. Although their structural components are therefore believed to be common, few studies have investigated the molecular diversity of the protein components of the cilia and flagella in a single organism. Here we carried out a proteomic analysis and compared protein components between branchial cilia and sperm flagella in a marine invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Distinct feature of protein recruitment in branchial cilia and sperm flagella has been clarified; (1) Isoforms of α- and β-tubulins as well as those of actins are distinctly used in branchial cilia or sperm flagella. (2) Structural components, such as dynein docking complex, tektins and an outer dense fiber protein, are used differently by the cilia and flagella. (3) Sperm flagella are specialized for the cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein and for energy metabolism by glycolytic enzymes. Our present study clearly demonstrates that flagellar or ciliary proteins are properly recruited according to their function and stability, despite their apparent structural resemblance and conservation. PMID:25962172

  3. Branchial cilia and sperm flagella recruit distinct axonemal components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alu Konno

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cilia and flagella have highly conserved 9 + 2 structures. They are functionally diverged to play cell-type-specific roles even in a multicellular organism. Although their structural components are therefore believed to be common, few studies have investigated the molecular diversity of the protein components of the cilia and flagella in a single organism. Here we carried out a proteomic analysis and compared protein components between branchial cilia and sperm flagella in a marine invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Distinct feature of protein recruitment in branchial cilia and sperm flagella has been clarified; (1 Isoforms of α- and β-tubulins as well as those of actins are distinctly used in branchial cilia or sperm flagella. (2 Structural components, such as dynein docking complex, tektins and an outer dense fiber protein, are used differently by the cilia and flagella. (3 Sperm flagella are specialized for the cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent regulation of outer arm dynein and for energy metabolism by glycolytic enzymes. Our present study clearly demonstrates that flagellar or ciliary proteins are properly recruited according to their function and stability, despite their apparent structural resemblance and conservation.

  4. Categorically distinct types of receptive fields in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Vargha; Baker, Curtis L

    2016-05-01

    In the visual cortex, distinct types of neurons have been identified based on cellular morphology, response to injected current, or expression of specific markers, but neurophysiological studies have revealed visual receptive field (RF) properties that appear to be on a continuum, with only two generally recognized classes: simple and complex. Most previous studies have characterized visual responses of neurons using stereotyped stimuli such as bars, gratings, or white noise and simple system identification approaches (e.g., reverse correlation). Here we estimate visual RF models of cortical neurons using visually rich natural image stimuli and regularized regression system identification methods and characterize their spatial tuning, temporal dynamics, spatiotemporal behavior, and spiking properties. We quantitatively demonstrate the existence of three functionally distinct categories of simple cells, distinguished by their degree of orientation selectivity (isotropic or oriented) and the nature of their output nonlinearity (expansive or compressive). In addition, these three types have differing average values of several other properties. Cells with nonoriented RFs tend to have smaller RFs, shorter response durations, no direction selectivity, and high reliability. Orientation-selective neurons with an expansive output nonlinearity have Gabor-like RFs, lower spontaneous activity and responsivity, and spiking responses with higher sparseness. Oriented RFs with a compressive nonlinearity are spatially nondescript and tend to show longer response latency. Our findings indicate multiple physiologically defined types of RFs beyond the simple/complex dichotomy, suggesting that cortical neurons may have more specialized functional roles rather than lying on a multidimensional continuum.

  5. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed.

  6. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P manatee population.

  7. Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

    2010-10-07

    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.

  8. Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Haensch

    Full Text Available From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.

  9. Three spectrally distinct photoreceptors in diurnal and nocturnal Australian ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuri; Falkowski, Marcin; Narendra, Ajay; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2015-06-07

    Ants are thought to be special among Hymenopterans in having only dichromatic colour vision based on two spectrally distinct photoreceptors. Many ants are highly visual animals, however, and use vision extensively for navigation. We show here that two congeneric day- and night-active Australian ants have three spectrally distinct photoreceptor types, potentially supporting trichromatic colour vision. Electroretinogram recordings show the presence of three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 450 and 550 nm in the night-active Myrmecia vindex and peaks at 370, 470 and 510 nm in the day-active Myrmecia croslandi. Intracellular electrophysiology on individual photoreceptors confirmed that the night-active M. vindex has three spectral sensitivities with peaks (λmax) at 370, 430 and 550 nm. A large number of the intracellular recordings in the night-active M. vindex show unusually broad-band spectral sensitivities, suggesting that photoreceptors may be coupled. Spectral measurements at different temporal frequencies revealed that the ultraviolet receptors are comparatively slow. We discuss the adaptive significance and the probability of trichromacy in Myrmecia ants in the context of dim light vision and visual navigation. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Insights into distinct regulatory modes of nucleosome positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jihua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleosome is the fundamental unit of eukaryotic genomes. Experimental evidence suggests that the genomic DNA sequence and a variety of protein factors contribute to nucleosome positioning in vivo. However, how nucleosome positioning is determined locally is still largely unknown. Results We found that transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs with particular nucleosomal contexts show a preference to reside on specific chromosomes. We identified four typical gene classes associated with distinct regulatory modes of nucleosome positioning, and further showed that they are distinguished by transcriptional regulation patterns. The first mode involves the cooperativity between chromatin remodeling and stable transcription factor (TF-DNA binding that is linked to high intrinsic DNA binding affinities, evicting nucleosomes from favorable DNA sequences. The second is the DNA-encoded low nucleosome occupancy that is associated with high gene activity. The third is through chromatin remodeling and histone acetylation, sliding nucleosomes along DNA. This mode is linked to more cryptic sites for TF binding. The last consists of the nucleosome-enriched organization driven by other factors that overrides nucleosome sequence preferences. In addition, we showed that high polymerase II (Pol II occupancy is associated with high nucleosome occupancy around the transcription start site (TSS. Conclusions We identified four different regulatory modes of nucleosome positioning and gave insights into mechanisms that specify promoter nucleosome location. We suggest two distinct modes of recruitment of Pol II, which are selectively employed by different genes.

  11. Bacillus subtilis chromosome organization oscillates between two distinct patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xindan; Montero Llopis, Paula; Rudner, David Z

    2014-09-02

    Bacterial chromosomes have been found to possess one of two distinct patterns of spatial organization. In the first, called "ori-ter" and exemplified by Caulobacter crescentus, the chromosome arms lie side-by-side, with the replication origin and terminus at opposite cell poles. In the second, observed in slow-growing Escherichia coli ("left-ori-right"), the two chromosome arms reside in separate cell halves, on either side of a centrally located origin. These two patterns, rotated 90° relative to each other, appear to result from different segregation mechanisms. Here, we show that the Bacillus subtilis chromosome alternates between them. For most of the cell cycle, newly replicated origins are maintained at opposite poles with chromosome arms adjacent to each other, in an ori-ter configuration. Shortly after replication initiation, the duplicated origins move as a unit to midcell and the two unreplicated arms resolve into opposite cell halves, generating a left-ori-right pattern. The origins are then actively segregated toward opposite poles, resetting the cycle. Our data suggest that the condensin complex and the parABS partitioning system are the principal driving forces underlying this oscillatory cycle. We propose that the distinct organization patterns observed for bacterial chromosomes reflect a common organization-segregation mechanism, and that simple modifications to it underlie the unique patterns observed in different species.

  12. Four phenotypically and phylogenetically distinct lineages in Phytophthora lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Clive M; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Hansen, Everett M; Green, Sarah; Robin, Cecile; Webber, Joan F; Vannini, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Until recently Phytophthora lateralis was known only as the cause of dieback and mortality of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in its native range in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Since the 1990s however disease outbreaks have occurred increasingly on ornamental C. lawsoniana in Europe; and in 2007 the pathogen was discovered in soil around old growth Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, where it may be endemic. When the phenotypes of over 150 isolates of P. lateralis from Taiwan, across the PNW (British Columbia to California) and from France, the Netherlands and the UK were compared three growth rate groups were resolved: one slow growing from Taiwan, one fast growing from the PNW and Europe, and one of intermediate growth from a small area of the UK. Within these growth groups distinct subtypes were identified based on colony patterns and spore metrics and further discriminated in a multivariate analysis. The assumption that the three main growth groups represented phylogenetic units was tested by comparative sequencing of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. This assumption was confirmed. In addition two phenotype clusters within the Taiwan growth group were also shown to be phylogenetically distinct. These four phenotypically and genotypically unique populations are informally designated as the PNW lineage, the UK lineage, the Taiwan J lineage, and the Taiwan K lineage. Their characteristics and distribution are described and their evolution, taxonomic, and plant health significance is discussed.

  13. BARE retrotransposons are translated and replicated via distinct RNA pools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chang

    Full Text Available The replication of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, which can constitute over 80% of higher plant genomes, resembles that of retroviruses. A major question for retrotransposons and retroviruses is how the two conflicting roles of their transcripts, in translation and reverse transcription, are balanced. Here, we show that the BARE retrotransposon, despite its organization into just one open reading frame, produces three distinct classes of transcripts. One is capped, polyadenylated, and translated, but cannot be copied into cDNA. The second is not capped or polyadenylated, but is destined for packaging and ultimate reverse transcription. The third class is capped, polyadenylated, and spliced to favor production of a subgenomic RNA encoding only Gag, the protein forming virus-like particles. Moreover, the BARE2 subfamily, which cannot synthesize Gag and is parasitic on BARE1, does not produce the spliced sub-genomic RNA for translation but does make the replication competent transcripts, which are packaged into BARE1 particles. To our knowledge, this is first demonstration of distinct RNA pools for translation and transcription for any retrotransposon.

  14. Timing the generation of distinct retinal cells by homeobox proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Decembrini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The reason why different types of vertebrate nerve cells are generated in a particular sequence is still poorly understood. In the vertebrate retina, homeobox genes play a crucial role in establishing different cell identities. Here we provide evidence of a cellular clock that sequentially activates distinct homeobox genes in embryonic retinal cells, linking the identity of a retinal cell to its time of generation. By in situ expression analysis, we found that the three Xenopus homeobox genes Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are initially transcribed but not translated in early retinal progenitors. Their translation requires cell cycle progression and is sequentially activated in photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. Furthermore, by in vivo lipofection of "sensors" in which green fluorescent protein translation is under control of the 3' untranslated region (UTR, we found that the 3' UTRs of Xotx5b, Xvsx1, and Xotx2 are sufficient to drive a spatiotemporal pattern of translation matching that of the corresponding proteins and consistent with the time of generation of photoreceptors (Xotx5b and bipolar cells (Xvsx1 and Xotx2. The block of cell cycle progression of single early retinal progenitors impairs their differentiation as photoreceptors and bipolar cells, but is rescued by the lipofection of Xotx5b and Xvsx1 coding sequences, respectively. This is the first evidence to our knowledge that vertebrate homeobox proteins can work as effectors of a cellular clock to establish distinct cell identities.

  15. Evidence for pharmacologically distinct subsets of GABAB receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, R W; Ferkany, J W; Enna, S J

    1988-09-01

    Activation of GABAB receptors augments neurotransmitter-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation while inhibiting forskolin-mediated second messenger production. Previous studies have revealed that GABAB receptors are associated with a pertussis toxin sensitive G protein, such as Gi. While such a linkage is consistent with the finding that GABAB receptor activation inhibits forskolin-mediated second messenger accumulation, it fails to explain how GABAB agonists are capable of augmenting receptor-mediated cyclic AMP production. The present experiments were undertaken to explore the possible existence of pharmacologically distinct GABAB receptors in an attempt to explain this apparent discrepancy. For the study, a variety of agents were examined for their ability to inhibit GABAB binding to brain membranes and to modify isoproterenol- or forskolin-stimulated second messenger production in rat brain slices. Of the compounds studied, only 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid were found to inhibit GABAB binding. However, 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid failed to influence either isoproterenol- or forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production. On the other hand, while 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid also failed to affect isoproterenol-stimulated second messenger accumulation, it inhibited the forskolin-mediated response. Given this finding, and the fact that some of the agents tested are known to influence GABAB receptor function in other systems, the results indicate a multiplicity of pharmacologically distinct GABAB receptor recognition sites. This discovery paves the way for the development of more selective GABAB receptor agonists and antagonists possessing different therapeutic potentials.

  16. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  17. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  18. Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A.; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072

  19. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  20. Distinctive personality profiles of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob N. Ablin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study is an innovative exploratory investigation, aiming at identifying differences in personality profiles within Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS patients. Method In total, 344 participants (309 female, 35 male reported suffering from FMS and/or CFS and consented to participate in the study. Participants were recruited at an Israeli FM/CFS patient meeting held in May 2013, and through an announcement posted on several social networks. Participants were asked to complete a research questionnaire, which included FMS criteria and severity scales, and measures of personality, emotional functioning, positivity, social support and subjective assessment of general health. In total, 204 participants completed the research questionnaire (40.7% attrition rate. Results A cluster analysis produced two distinct clusters, which differed significantly on psychological variables, but did not differ on demographic variables or illness severity. As compared to cluster number 2 (N = 107, participants classified into cluster number 1 (N = 97 showed a less adaptive pattern, with higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Alexithymia; higher prevalence of Type D personality; and lower levels of Persistence (PS, Reward dependence (RD, Cooperation, Self-directedness (SD, social support and positivity. Conclusion The significant pattern of results indicates at least two distinct personality profiles of FM and CFS patients. Findings from this research may help improve the evaluation and treatment of FM and CFS patients, based on each patient’s unique needs, psychological resources and weaknesses, as proposed by the current trend of personalized medicine.

  1. Reward and punishment act as distinct factors in guiding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, Jan; Snyder, Lawrence H; Abrams, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Behavior rests on the experience of reinforcement and punishment. It has been unclear whether reinforcement and punishment act as oppositely valenced components of a single behavioral factor, or whether these two kinds of outcomes play fundamentally distinct behavioral roles. To this end, we varied the magnitude of a reward or a penalty experienced following a choice using monetary tokens. The outcome of each trial was independent of the outcome of the previous trial, which enabled us to isolate and study the effect on behavior of each outcome magnitude in single trials. We found that a reward led to a repetition of the previous choice, whereas a penalty led to an avoidance of the previous choice. Surprisingly, the effects of the reward magnitude and the penalty magnitude revealed a pronounced asymmetry. The choice repetition effect of a reward scaled with the magnitude of the reward. In a marked contrast, the avoidance effect of a penalty was flat, not influenced by the magnitude of the penalty. These effects were mechanistically described using a reinforcement learning model after the model was updated to account for the penalty-based asymmetry. The asymmetry in the effects of the reward magnitude and the punishment magnitude was so striking that it is difficult to conceive that one factor is just a weighted or transformed form of the other factor. Instead, the data suggest that rewards and penalties are fundamentally distinct factors in governing behavior.

  2. Etiological Distinction of Working Memory Components in Relation to Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Sarah L.; Soden, Brooke; Hart, Sara A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been consistently associated with mathematics achievement, although the etiology of these relations remains poorly understood. The present study examined the genetic and environmental underpinnings of math story problem solving, timed calculation, and untimed calculation alongside working memory components in 12-year-old monozygotic (n = 105) and same-sex dizygotic (n = 143) twin pairs. Results indicated significant phenotypic correlation between each working memory component and all mathematics outcomes (r = 0.18 – 0.33). Additive genetic influences shared between the visuo-spatial sketchpad and mathematics achievement was significant, accounting for roughly 89% of the observed correlation. In addition, genetic covariance was found between the phonological loop and math story problem solving. In contrast, despite there being a significant observed relationship between phonological loop and timed and untimed calculation, there was no significant genetic or environmental covariance between the phonological loop and timed or untimed calculation skills. Further analyses indicated that genetic overlap between the visuo-spatial sketchpad and math story problem solving and math fluency was distinct from general genetic factors, whereas g, phonological loop, and mathematics shared generalist genes. Thus, although each working memory component was related to mathematics, the etiology of their relationships may be distinct. PMID:25477699

  3. Distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatia M C Lee

    Full Text Available This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline and expertise (expert vs. novice separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing.

  4. Distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M C; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C Y; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing.

  5. Distinct Neural Activity Associated with Focused-Attention Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C. Y.; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing. PMID:22905090

  6. Performance in Public Organizations: Clarifying the Conceptual Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Performance in public organizations is a key concept that requires clarification. Based on a conceptual review of research published in 10 public administration journals, this article proposes six distinctions to describe the systematic differences in performance criteria: From which stakeholder'...

  7. Peptidomic and transcriptomic profiling of four distinct spider venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldrati, Vera; Koua, Dominique; Allard, Pierre-Marie; Hulo, Nicolas; Arrell, Miriam; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Lisacek, Frédérique; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Stöcklin, Reto

    2017-01-01

    Venom based research is exploited to find novel candidates for the development of innovative pharmacological tools, drug candidates and new ingredients for cosmetic and agrochemical industries. Moreover, venomics, as a well-established approach in systems biology, helps to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of the production of such a great molecular biodiversity. Today the advances made in the proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics fields, favor venomics, allowing the in depth study of complex matrices and the elucidation even of minor compounds present in minute biological samples. The present study illustrates a rapid and efficient method developed for the elucidation of venom composition based on NextGen mRNA sequencing of venom glands and LC-MS/MS venom proteome profiling. The analysis of the comprehensive data obtained was focused on cysteine rich peptide toxins from four spider species originating from phylogenetically distant families for comparison purposes. The studied species were Heteropoda davidbowie (Sparassidae), Poecilotheria formosa (Theraphosidae), Viridasius fasciatus (Viridasiidae) and Latrodectus mactans (Theridiidae). This led to a high resolution profiling of 284 characterized cysteine rich peptides, 111 of which belong to the Inhibitor Cysteine Knot (ICK) structural motif. The analysis of H. davidbowie venom revealed a high richness in term of venom diversity: 95 peptide sequences were identified; out of these, 32 peptides presented the ICK structural motif and could be classified in six distinct families. The profiling of P. formosa venom highlighted the presence of 126 peptide sequences, with 52 ICK toxins belonging to three structural distinct families. V. fasciatus venom was shown to contain 49 peptide sequences, out of which 22 presented the ICK structural motif and were attributed to five families. The venom of L. mactans, until now studied for its large neurotoxins (Latrotoxins), revealed the presence of 14 cysteine rich

  8. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Aeron C; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Butler, Jeffrey; Baas, Chantal; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Silva-de-la-Fuente, M Carolina; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Olsen, Bjorn; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2014-05-06

    ABSTRACT Distinct lineages of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are harbored by spatially segregated birds, yet significant surveillance gaps exist around the globe. Virtually nothing is known from the Antarctic. Using virus culture, molecular analysis, full genome sequencing, and serology of samples from Adélie penguins in Antarctica, we confirmed infection by H11N2 subtype AIVs. Their genetic segments were distinct from all known contemporary influenza viruses, including South American AIVs, suggesting spatial separation from other lineages. Only in the matrix and polymerase acidic gene phylogenies did the Antarctic sequences form a sister relationship to South American AIVs, whereas distant phylogenetic relationships were evident in all other gene segments. Interestingly, their neuraminidase genes formed a distant relationship to all avian and human influenza lineages, and the polymerase basic 1 and polymerase acidic formed a sister relationship to the equine H3N8 influenza virus lineage that emerged during 1963 and whose avian origins were previously unknown. We also estimated that each gene segment had diverged for 49 to 80 years from its most closely related sequences, highlighting a significant gap in our AIV knowledge in the region. We also show that the receptor binding properties of the H11N2 viruses are predominantly avian and that they were unable to replicate efficiently in experimentally inoculated ferrets, suggesting their continuous evolution in avian hosts. These findings add substantially to our understanding of both the ecology and the intra- and intercontinental movement of Antarctic AIVs and highlight the potential risk of an incursion of highly pathogenic AIVs into this fragile environment. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are typically maintained and spread by migratory birds, resulting in the existence of distinctly different viruses around the world. However, AIVs have not previously been detected in Antarctica. In this study, we

  9. Lamellar self-assemblies of single-chain amphiphiles and sterols and their derived liposomes: distinct compositions and distinct properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhong-Kai; Lafleur, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Typically, single-chain amphiphiles and sterols do not form fluid lamellar phases once hydrated individually. Most of the single-chain amphiphiles form actually micelles in aqueous environments, while sterols display a very limited solubility in water. However, under certain conditions, mixtures of single-chain amphiphiles and sterols lead to the formation of stable fluid bilayers. Over the past decade, several of these systems leading to fluid lamellar self-assemblies have been identified and this article reviews the current knowledge relative to these non-phospholipid bilayers made of single-chain amphiphiles and sterols. It presents an integrated view about the molecular features that are required for their stability, the properties they share, and the origin of these characteristics. It was also shown that these lamellar systems could lead to the formation of unilamellar vesicles, similar to phospholipid based liposomes. These vesicles display distinct properties that make them potentially appealing for technological applications; they display a limited permeability, they are stable, they are formed with molecules that are relatively chemically inert (and relatively cheap), and they can be readily functionalized. The features of these distinct liposomes and their technological applications are reviewed. Finally, the putative biological implications of these non-phospholipid fluid bilayers are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Disease Severity and Immune Activity Relate to Distinct Interkingdom Gut Microbiome States in Ethnically Distinct Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan S. Mar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant gut microbiota heterogeneity exists among ulcerative colitis (UC patients, though the clinical implications of this variance are unknown. We hypothesized that ethnically distinct UC patients exhibit discrete gut microbiotas with unique metabolic programming that differentially influence immune activity and clinical status. Using parallel 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequencing of fecal samples (UC, 30; healthy, 13, we corroborated previous observations of UC-associated bacterial diversity depletion and demonstrated significant Saccharomycetales expansion as characteristic of UC gut dysbiosis. Furthermore, we identified four distinct microbial community states (MCSs within our cohort, confirmed their existence in an independent UC cohort, and demonstrated their coassociation with both patient ethnicity and disease severity. Each MCS was uniquely enriched for specific amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism pathways and exhibited significant luminal enrichment of the metabolic products of these pathways. Using a novel ex vivo human dendritic cell and T-cell coculture assay, we showed that exposure to fecal water from UC patients caused significant Th2 skewing in CD4+ T-cell populations compared to that of healthy participants. In addition, fecal water from patients in whom their MCS was associated with the highest level of disease severity induced the most dramatic Th2 skewing. Combined with future investigations, these observations could lead to the identification of highly resolved UC subsets based on defined microbial gradients or discrete microbial features that may be exploited for the development of novel, more effective therapies.

  11. Distinct Neurocognitive Strategies for Comprehensions of Human and Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianqiao; Han, Shihui

    2008-01-01

    Although humans have inevitably interacted with both human and artificial intelligence in real life situations, it is unknown whether the human brain engages homologous neurocognitive strategies to cope with both forms of intelligence. To investigate this, we scanned subjects, using functional MRI, while they inferred the reasoning processes conducted by human agents or by computers. We found that the inference of reasoning processes conducted by human agents but not by computers induced increased activity in the precuneus but decreased activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and enhanced functional connectivity between the two brain areas. The findings provide evidence for distinct neurocognitive strategies of taking others' perspective and inhibiting the process referenced to the self that are specific to the comprehension of human intelligence. PMID:18665211

  12. Distinct neurocognitive strategies for comprehensions of human and artificial intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiao Ge

    Full Text Available Although humans have inevitably interacted with both human and artificial intelligence in real life situations, it is unknown whether the human brain engages homologous neurocognitive strategies to cope with both forms of intelligence. To investigate this, we scanned subjects, using functional MRI, while they inferred the reasoning processes conducted by human agents or by computers. We found that the inference of reasoning processes conducted by human agents but not by computers induced increased activity in the precuneus but decreased activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and enhanced functional connectivity between the two brain areas. The findings provide evidence for distinct neurocognitive strategies of taking others' perspective and inhibiting the process referenced to the self that are specific to the comprehension of human intelligence.

  13. Two distinct hemolysins in Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, E; Yamamoto, A; Igarashi, T; Goto, N; Sasa, R

    2000-12-01

    An oral protist Trichomonas tenax ATCC 30207 was investigated for the ability to lyse erythrocytes of sheep, rabbits, horses and humans. Five fractions, including intact cells, culture supernatant, culture filtrate, cell debris and lipid-enriched fractions, were prepared from the protozoan cells, and their hemolytic activities were assayed under various conditions. All the samples except culture supernatant had hemolytic activities, which were due to two different kinds of hemolysins. One hemolysin was protein-like and mainly found in cell-free fractions: culture supernatant and culture filtrate. It was heat-labile and inhibited by various cysteine-proteinase inhibitors. The other hemolysin was lipid-like and found in cell-associated fractions: intact cells, cell-debris and lipid-enriched fractions. It was heat-stable, organic solvent-tolerant and unaffected by various proteinase inhibitors and stimulators. These results suggested that T. tenax ATCC 30207 possessed two distinct hemolysins, protein and lipid.

  14. Long term stability and individual distinctiveness in captive orca vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael; Suchak, Malini

    2005-04-01

    With focus on the question of signature calling in killer whales, recordings from five captive orcas (of Icelandic origin) held at Marineland of Canada were compared. For the present analysis, samples of three different call syllables were selected from recordings made five years apart and from instances in which the identity of the calling whale was unambiguous due to temporary isolation, concomitant bubbling, and/or head nodding. The Raven software package was used to ascertain the frequency range, frequency (max), duration, and timing of maximum and minimum power within each sample. For two of the three call syllables, statistically significant differences were found among the five whales for call length and for the timing of maximums and minimums (porcas are distinct from one another in ways that are stable over the course of multiple years.

  15. Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdelsalam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.

  16. Seronegative necrolytic acral erythema: A distinct clinical subset?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient was referred to us with asymptomatic, erythematous, nonitchy, scaly lesions present bilaterally on the dorsa of his feet and toes since the last 2 months. Both the legs had pitting edema as well. There were hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, acanthosis and scattered spongiosis in the epidermis, and proliferation of capillaries with perivascular infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells in the dermis. There was no serological evidence of hepatitis C virus. Laboratory investigations revealed hypoalbuminemia and low-normal serum zinc. On clinicopathological correlation, we made a diagnosis of necrolytic acral erythema (NAE. The lesions responded dramatically to oral zinc sulfate and topical clobetasol propionate within 3 weeks with disappearance of edema and scaling and only a minimal residual erythema. This is the first reported case of NAE from Eastern India. NAE with negative serology for hepatitis C may be viewed as a distinct subset of the condition that had been originally described.

  17. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing/technology relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    1999-09-01

    I consider the discursive practices that have served conceptually and ontologically to trouble the boundaries between nursing and technology: between nurse/human/subject and machine/non-human/object. Nursing and technology have been semiotically related largely by two processes: (a) by the metaphor that depicts nursing as technology and (b) by opposition, or as not like and even in conflict with technology. Less frequently but no less significantly, nursing and technology have been semiotically linked (c) by the metaphor that depicts technology as nursing and (d) by metonymy, or by word or picture juxtapositions of nursing with technology. The troubling distinctions between nursing and technology suggest yet another reason why the construction of difference continues to elude nursing.

  18. Metal transport across biomembranes: emerging models for a distinct chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, José M; Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2012-04-20

    Transition metals are essential components of important biomolecules, and their homeostasis is central to many life processes. Transmembrane transporters are key elements controlling the distribution of metals in various compartments. However, due to their chemical properties, transition elements require transporters with different structural-functional characteristics from those of alkali and alkali earth ions. Emerging structural information and functional studies have revealed distinctive features of metal transport. Among these are the relevance of multifaceted events involving metal transfer among participating proteins, the importance of coordination geometry at transmembrane transport sites, and the presence of the largely irreversible steps associated with vectorial transport. Here, we discuss how these characteristics shape novel transition metal ion transport models.

  19. Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lawrence; Kelly, Meagan; Coutlee, Christopher G; Carter, R McKell; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Huettel, Scott A

    2015-12-04

    Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge actions leading to negative consequences as being more intentional than those leading to positive ones. The implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms leads to the denial of intentionality for positive consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among others.

  20. Cloudy with low visibility: Clarifying terminology and addressing distinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    This paper presents the argument that a theory of structural discrimination (discursive and hegemonic) can be used methodologically to address and acknowledge microdiscrimination which can otherwise be difficult to identify. The particular focus is on how discrimination is naturalized, and thereby...... hidden, in daily interactions, and how such concealment complicates recognition of racial discrimination. Further, the paper explores differences and overlaps between discrimination and racism. The use of the term racism in regard to different, complex forms of discrimination is discussed. It is argued...... that conflating terms such as racism and discrimination may reinforce or exacerbate discrimination. These terms have distinct meanings that have a potential to contribute to identifying, acknowledging, and perhaps even mitigating, racial discrimination....

  1. Aortic intramural hemorrhage: A distinct disease entity with mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Fei, Aihua; Wu, Zengbin; Wang, Hairong; Pan, Shuming

    2017-05-01

    Aortic intramural hemorrhage (IMH) is one of the disease processes that comprise the spectrum of acute aortic syndrome (AAS) with clinical manifestations and a mortality rate similar to those of classic aortic dissection (AD). However, IMH should be considered as a distinct disease entity rather than a precursor to classic dissection because of differences in their pathology, etiology, natural history, and imaging findings. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) is recommended as the first-line diagnostic imaging modality for IMH, but transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also helpful. There is still debate over the appropriate treatment of IMH. Medical treatment of type B IMH appears effective and safe, while surgical treatment is recommended for type A IMH. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a promising treatment for selected patients, and more clinical evidence needs to be assembled.

  2. Assembly processes in oligomers containing structurally distinct subunits. [Hemoglobin, Hemocyanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaventura, C. (Duke Univ. Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, NC); Bonaventura, J.; Brouwer, M.

    1980-10-01

    There are two major classes of oxygen carrying proteins: the hemoglobins and the hemocyanins. Thetrameric hemoglobin is an oxygen carrier that has long served as a model in the analysis of allostery in proteins. In assembly processes as well, the oxygen carrying proteins appear to be good model systems which illustrate the distinct roles played by structurally diverse subunits. Thetrameric human hemoglobin shows definite differences in assembly and tetrameric stability depending on alpha-beta, alpha-alpha, beta-beta, alpha-gamma, etc., interactions. The blue-colored hemocyanins are found in the hemolymph of many molluscs and arthropods. In these molecules, oxygen binds at dimeric copper centers. Te reactivity toward oxygen is typically modulated by external factors such as pH and sodium chloride. Because of their extremely large size and subunit diversity, the hemocyanins may be particularly useful as assembly models.

  3. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  4. Distinctive Facial Cues Predict Leadership Rank and Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Rule, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Facial appearance correlates with leadership, both in terms of who is chosen (leader selection) and how they do (leader success). Leadership theories suggest that exceptional individuals acquire positions as leaders. Exceptional traits can differ between domains, however, and so the qualities valued in leaders in one occupation may not match those valued among leaders in another. To test this, we compared the relationship between facial appearance and leadership across two domains: law firms and mafia families. Perceptions of power correlated with leadership among law executives whereas social skill correlated with leadership in organized crime. Critically, these traits were distinctive within their respective groups. Furthermore, an experimental test showed that the relative frequency of facial traits in a group can render them either an asset or liability. Perceived leadership ability is therefore enhanced by characteristics that appear unique among individuals who satisfy the basic criteria for their group.

  5. Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Make Distinct Contributions to Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D; Dal Monte, Olga; Lucas, Daniel R; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2016-10-19

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with an RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys' choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy trade-off that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL.

  6. Distinction of gem spinels from the himalayan mountain belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Anna; Klemmb, Leonhard

    2010-01-01

    Gem spinel deposits in Myanmar, Vietnam and Tajikistan have their formation in association with Himalayan orogenesis. Gem-quality orange, pink, red and purple spinels from deposits at Mogok (Myanmar), Luc Yen (Vietnam), and Kuh-i-Lal (Tajikistan) have been investigated by 'standard' gemological testing and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Microscopic examination yielded apatite and calcite inclusions together with octahedral negative crystals to be most frequently present in Mogok spinels. The presence of dislocation systems and titanite inclusions are indicative inclusion features for spinels from Luc Yen. Trace elements such as Ti, Fe, Ni, Zn, Zr and Sn differ slightly in spinels from the sources investigated. A distinction of spinels from these deposits is therefore possible by trace element chemistry. This is especially helpful for gem spinels, which often show few inclusions or completely lack inclusion features.

  7. Three distinct begomoviruses associated with soybean in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda R; Cruz, A R R; Faria, J C; Zerbini, F M; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2009-01-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequences of geminiviruses of the genus Begomovirus infecting soybean (Glycine max) in central Brazil. Samples obtained from soybean plants collected at Santo Antonio de Goiás, Goiás State, showing typical symptoms of viral infection, were analyzed. Infection was confirmed by PCR-based amplification of a DNA-A fragment with universal begomovirus primers. Total DNA from infected plants was then subjected to rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and 2.6-kb molecules were cloned into plasmid vectors. Sequencing of the three DNA-A and two DNA-B clones thus obtained confirmed infection by three distinct begomoviruses: bean golden mosaic virus, Sida micrantha mosaic virus and okra mottle virus, the last of which was reported recently to be a novel virus infecting okra plants in Brazil. Begomovirus infection of soybean plants has been reported sporadically in Brazil and has generally not been considered to be of economic relevance.

  8. Frequency locking in hair cells: Distinguishing between distinct resonant mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Edri, Yuval; Yochelis, Arik

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays remarkable mechanical sensitivity and frequency discrimination. These attributes have been shown to rely on an amplification process, which requires biochemical feedback loops. In some systems, the active process was shown to lead to spontaneous oscillations of hair cell bundles. In the last decade, models that display proximity to an oscillatory onset (a.k.a. Hopf bifurcation) have gained increasing support due to many advantages in explaining the hearing phenomenology. Particularly, they exhibit resonant responses to distinct frequencies of incoming sound waves. Unlike previous studies, two types of driving forces are being examined: additive, in which the external forcing term does not couple directly on the systems observable (passive coupling), and parametric, in which the forcing term directly affects the observable and thus intrinsically modifies the systems properties (active coupling). By applying universal principles near the Hopf bifurcation onset, we find several funda...

  9. Three distinct cases of copper deficiency in hospitalized pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Karolina; Gargasz, Anne Elizabeth; Dabrow, Sharon; Rodriguez, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Although copper deficiency is a rare occurrence in the developed world, attention should be given to the proper supplementation of minerals to at-risk pediatric patients. This study presents 3 distinct cases of copper deficiency in hospitalized patients aged 14 months, 6 years, and 12 years. Two patients had short bowel syndrome, requiring prolonged parenteral nutrition or complex intravenous fluid supplementation. The third patient was severely malnourished. Copper deficiency manifested in all of our patients as either microcytic anemia or pancytopenia with myelodysplastic syndrome. Copper deficiency is an important diagnosis to be considered in patients with prematurity, parenteral nutrition dependency, malabsorption, and/or those with malnutrition. More studies are needed to establish appropriate amounts of copper supplementation to replenish copper stores in deficient patients.

  10. Toward Distinct Element Method Simulations of Carbon Nanotube Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatyeva, Evgeniya; Anderson, Tyler; Nikiforov, Ilia; Potyondy, David; Ballarini, Roberto; Dumitrica, Traian

    2011-03-01

    We propose distinct element method modeling of carbon nanotube systems. The atomic-level description of an individual nanotube is coarse-grained into a chain of spherical elements that interact by parallel bonds located at their contacts. The spherical elements can lump multiple translational unit cells of the carbon nanotube and have both translational and rotational degrees of freedom. The discrete long ranged interaction between nanotubes is included in a van der Waals contact of nonmechanical nature that acts simultaneously with the parallel bonds. The created mesoscopic model is put into service by simulating a realistic carbon nanotube ring. The ring morphology arises from the energy balance stored in both parallel and van der Waals bonds. We thank NSF CAREER under Grant No. CMMI-0747684, NSF under Grant No. CMMI 0800896.

  11. The distinctiveness heuristic in false recognition and false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P; Smith, Anderson D

    2006-07-01

    The effects of generative processing on false recognition and recall were examined in four experiments using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In each experiment, a Generate condition in which subjects generated studied words from audio anagrams was compared to a Control condition in which subjects simply listened to studied words presented normally. Rates of false recognition and false recall were lower for critical lures associated with generated lists, than for critical lures associated with control lists, but only in between-subjects designs. False recall and recognition did not differ when generate and control conditions were manipulated within-subjects. This pattern of results is consistent with the distinctiveness heuristic (Schacter, Israel, & Racine, 1999), a metamemorial decision-based strategy whereby global changes in decision criteria lead to reductions of false memories. This retrieval-based monitoring mechanism appears to operate in a similar fashion in reducing false recognition and false recall.

  12. Distinct magnetic signatures of fractional vortex configurations in multiband superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R. M. da [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, s/n, 50670-901 Recife-PE (Brazil); Milošević, M. V.; Peeters, F. M. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Domínguez, D. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Aguiar, J. Albino, E-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, s/n, 50670-901 Recife-PE (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, s/n, 50670-901 Recife-PE (Brazil)

    2014-12-08

    Vortices carrying fractions of a flux quantum are predicted to exist in multiband superconductors, where vortex core can split between multiple band-specific components of the superconducting condensate. Using the two-component Ginzburg-Landau model, we examine such vortex configurations in a two-band superconducting slab in parallel magnetic field. The fractional vortices appear due to the band-selective vortex penetration caused by different thresholds for vortex entry within each band-condensate, and stabilize near the edges of the sample. We show that the resulting fractional vortex configurations leave distinct fingerprints in the static measurements of the magnetization, as well as in ac dynamic measurements of the magnetic susceptibility, both of which can be readily used for the detection of these fascinating vortex states in several existing multiband superconductors.

  13. Pediatric schwannomatosis, a rare but distinct form of neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Anna K. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Egelhoff, John C.; Curran, John G. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Thomas, Bobby

    2016-03-15

    Schwannomatosis is the third major form of neurofibromatosis, distinct from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and type 1 (NF1). This condition is rare with a variable phenotypic presentation and complex molecular and genetic findings. In this case, a previously healthy teenager was found to have multiple spinal lesions and an enhancing right parotid mass on MRI. On extensive further work-up, this patient met the existing clinical criteria for schwannomatosis. This case report aims to review the clinical features and current diagnostic criteria for schwannomatosis and compare it to NF1 and NF2. Special emphasis will be placed on imaging features that should prompt the radiologist to suggest this rare diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. The Distinct Element Method - Application to Structures in Jointed Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.P.; Glen, L.; Blair, S.; Heuze, F.

    2001-11-30

    The Distinct Element Method (DEM) is a meshfree method with applications to rock mechanics, mining sciences, simulations of nuclear repositories, and the stability of underground structures. Continuum mesh-based methods have been applied successfully to many problems in geophysics. Even if the geology includes fractures and faults, when sufficiently large length scales are considered a continuum approximation may be sufficient. However, a large class of problems exist where individual rock joints must be taken into account. This includes problems where the structures of interest have sizes comparable with the block size. In addition, it is possible that while the structure may experience loads which do no measurable damage to individual blocks, some joints may fail. This may launch smaller blocks as dangerous projectiles or even cause total failure of a tunnel. Traditional grid-based continuum approaches are wholly unsuited to this class of problem. It is possible to introduce discontinuities or slide lines into existing grid-based methods, however, such limited approaches can break down when new contacts form between blocks. The distinct element method (DEM) is an alternative, meshfree approach. The DEM can directly approximate the block structure of the jointed rock using arbitrary polyhedra. Using this approach, preexisting joints are readily incorporated into the DEM model. In addition, the method detects all new contacts between blocks resulting from relative block motion. We will describe the background of the DEM and review previous application of the DEM to geophysical problems. Finally we present preliminary results from a investigation into the stability of underground structures subjected to dynamic loading.

  15. Common and distinct brain networks underlying verbal and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfeng; Chen, Qunlin; Xia, Lingxiang; Beaty, Roger E; Yang, Wenjing; Tian, Fang; Sun, Jiangzhou; Cao, Guikang; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Xu; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Creativity is imperative to the progression of human civilization, prosperity, and well-being. Past creative researches tends to emphasize the default mode network (DMN) or the frontoparietal network (FPN) somewhat exclusively. However, little is known about how these networks interact to contribute to creativity and whether common or distinct brain networks are responsible for visual and verbal creativity. Here, we use functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate visual and verbal creativity-related regions and networks in 282 healthy subjects. We found that functional connectivity within the bilateral superior parietal cortex of the FPN was negatively associated with visual and verbal creativity. The strength of connectivity between the DMN and FPN was positively related to both creative domains. Visual creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the precuneus of the pDMN and right middle frontal gyrus of the FPN, and verbal creativity was negatively correlated with functional connectivity within the medial prefrontal cortex of the aDMN. Critically, the FPN mediated the relationship between the aDMN and verbal creativity, and it also mediated the relationship between the pDMN and visual creativity. Taken together, decreased within-network connectivity of the FPN and DMN may allow for flexible between-network coupling in the highly creative brain. These findings provide indirect evidence for the cooperative role of the default and executive control networks in creativity, extending past research by revealing common and distinct brain systems underlying verbal and visual creative cognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2094-2111, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy

  17. The Role of Techne in the Authenticity-Inauthenticity Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lebedeva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose to do the following: I will discuss the notions of intentionality and self-understanding of Dasein as developed in Heidegger's Basic Problems of Phenomenology. In doing so, I will try to show the interrelation of Dasein's always being intentionally directed towards something and its self-interpretation. As we will see, the everyday world has, for Heidegger, a character of "equipmental contexture." This means that Dasein returns to itself from out of things, equipment, tools, or - quite differently - the work of art. In a word, Dasein is mirrored back toward itself from the things made, from the products of techne. From this will follow the important distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity. There is a sense in which the following pairings could be discerned: tools or pieces of equipment link up with inauthenticity, while the work of art links up with authenticity. I will say more on the subject of tools a bit later in the essay. Both kinds of things are things insofar as they are entrenched in techne. The common root seems almost inexplicable in the light of the vast difference between tools and the artwork. Moreover, both Dasein and techne seem to have another equally enigmatic common root: that of temporality. Temporality is the essential bond between Dasein and the double sense of techne, which suggests the double-sidedness of temporality itself. It is precisely this doublesidedness that I would like to have as the backdrop to my discussion as a whole. Finally, I will turn to a few pages of Heidegger's Being and Time and Bernard Stiegler's book Technics and Time I in order to complicate this notion of the two senses of temporality, the owned and disowned, originary and everyday, and its relation to work and techne. The overarching question here will be: Can the distinction between authenticity and inauthenticity be sustained?

  18. Mesogranulation as A Distinct Scale of Convection in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; Hathaway, David H.; Khatri, Gaurav; Petitto, Joshua M.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence for the existence of mesogranulation as a scale of convection distinct from granulation and supergranulation through analysis of full-disk Doppler velocity images of the Sun collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Our analysis procedures isolate nearly steady flows in the solar photosphere and yield power spectra of convection for spherical harmonic degrees up to I = 1000. Each spectrum exhibits an obvious supergranulation peak at I approximately 130 and a broad secondary peak at I approximately 600 with a distinct break in the spectrum between these peaks at I approximately 300. We believe that this secondary peak is a signature of mesogranulation with typical cell diameters of about 7 Mm. Our standard analysis procedure is to first remove the p-mode oscillation signal by averaging individual Dopplergrams over 17-minute intervals. Next, by fitting to standard functional forms we remove Doppler signals due to the motion of the spacecraft, the convective blueshift, solar rotation including differential rotation, and the meridional circulation in order to produce Dopplergrams dominated by convective motions. By mapping these processed images onto heliographic coordinates and projecting onto spherical harmonics, we produce a power spectrum of solar convection for each 17-minute period. We construct synthetic images and pass them through the same analysis procedure in order to determine the actual solar convection spectrum that reproduces the analyzed results. We find that a small but increasing percentage of high-degree convective power is lost in the analysis as we approach the limit of resolution of the detector but'that the broad, mesogranulation peak at I approximately 600 must be included in the convection spectrum of the synthetic images.

  19. Characterization of a distinct arabinofuranosyltransferase in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Wu, Sz-Wei; Chatterjee, Delphi

    2007-08-08

    The D-arabinans in Mycobacterium are essential, extraordinarily complex entity comprised of d-arabinofuranose residues which are rarely found in nature. Despite the well-recognized importance of the mycobacterial arabinan, delineation of the arabinosylation process has been severely hampered due to lack of positively identified arabinosyltransferases. Identification of genes involved in arabinan biosynthesis entailed the use of ethambutol (EMB), a first-line antituberculosis agent that is known to inhibit cell wall arabinan synthesis. The three genes (embA, embB, and embC) encode novel membrane proteins, implicated as the only known mycobacterial arabinosyltransferases to this date. We have now adapted a multifaceted approach involving development of convenient arabinosyltransferase assay using novel synthetic acceptors to identify arabinosyltransferase/s that will be distinct from the Emb proteins. In our present work, Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 (WTMsm) was used as a model to study the biosynthesis of cell wall arabinan. In an in vitro assay, we demonstrate that transfer of only alpha-Araf had occurred from decaprenylphosphoryl-D-arabinofuranose (DPA) on a newly synthesized branched acceptor [alpha-D-Araf](2)-3,5-alpha-D-Araf-(1-->5)-alpha-d-Araf-(1-->5)-alpha-D-Araf with an octyl aglycon. Higher molecular weight (up to Ara(10)) oligomers were also detected in a parallel reaction using cold phosphoribosepyrophosphate (pRpp). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) analysis of these products revealed that isomeric products were formed and initiation and elongation of arabinan can occur either on the 5-arm or 3-arm of the branched 3,5-alpha-D-Araf. Individual embA, embB, and embC knockout strains retained this alpha-1,5 arabinosyltransferase activity, and the activity was partially inhibited by ethambutol. This particular enzyme function is distinct from the function of the Emb proteins.

  20. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior cruciate

  1. Genetic and Modeling Approaches Reveal Distinct Components of Impulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Wall, Melanie M; Wang, Shuai; Magalong, Valerie M; Ahmari, Susanne E; Balsam, Peter D; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René

    2017-01-18

    Impulsivity is an endophenotype found in many psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, pathological gambling, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two behavioral features often considered in impulsive behavior are behavioral inhibition (impulsive action) and delayed gratification (impulsive choice). However, the extent to which these behavioral constructs represent distinct facets of behavior with discrete biological bases is unclear. To test the hypothesis that impulsive action and impulsive choice represent statistically independent behavioral constructs in mice, we collected behavioral measures of impulsivity in a single cohort of mice using well-validated operant behavioral paradigms. Mice with manipulation of serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) expression were included as a model of disordered impulsivity. A factor analysis was used to characterize correlations between the measures of impulsivity and to identify covariates. Using two approaches, we dissociated impulsive action from impulsive choice. First, the absence of 5-HT1BRs caused increased impulsive action, but not impulsive choice. Second, based on an exploratory factor analysis, a two-factor model described the data well, with measures of impulsive action and choice separating into two independent factors. A multiple-indicator multiple-causes analysis showed that 5-HT1BR expression and sex were significant covariates of impulsivity. Males displayed increased impulsivity in both dimensions, whereas 5-HT1BR expression was a predictor of increased impulsive action only. These data support the conclusion that impulsive action and impulsive choice are distinct behavioral phenotypes with dissociable biological influences that can be modeled in mice. Our work may help inform better classification, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders, which present with disordered impulsivity.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 18 January 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.277.

  2. Survival of mountain quail translocated from two distinct source populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Ronald J.; Coates, Peter S.; Connelly, John W.; Gillette, Gifford; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Translocation of mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) to restore viable populations to their former range has become a common practice. Because differences in post-release vital rates between animals from multiple source populations has not been well studied, wildlife and land managers may arbitrarily choose the source population or base the source population on immediate availability when planning translocation projects. Similarly, an understanding of the optimal proportion of individuals from different age and sex classes for translocation would benefit translocation planning. During 2006 and 2007, we captured and translocated 125 mountain quail from 2 ecologically distinct areas: 38 from southern California and 87 from southwestern Oregon. We released mountain quail in the Bennett Hills of south-central Idaho. We radio-marked and monitored a subsample of 58 quail and used them for a 2-part survival analysis. Cumulative survival probability was 0.23 ± 0.05 (SE) at 150 days post-release. We first examined an a priori hypothesis (model) that survival varied between the 2 distinct source populations. We found that source population did not explain variation in survival. This result suggests that wildlife managers have flexibility in selecting source populations for mountain quail translocation efforts. In a post hoc examination, we pooled the quail across source populations and evaluated differences in survival probabilities between sex and age classes. The most parsimonious model indicated that adult male survival was substantially less than survival rates of other mountain quail age and sex classes (i.e., interaction between sex and age). This result suggests that translocation success could benefit by translocating yearling males rather than adult males, perhaps because adult male breeding behavior results in vulnerability to predators

  3. Expression and evolution of functionally distinct haemoglobin genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, P W; Watts, R A; Trevaskis, B; Llewelyn, D J; Burnell, J; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    2001-11-01

    Haemoglobin genes have been found in a number of plant species, but the number of genes known has been too small to allow effective evolutionary inferences. We present nine new non-symbiotic haemoglobin sequences from a range of plants, including class 1 haemoglobins from cotton, Citrus and tomato, class 2 haemoglobins from cotton, tomato, sugar beet and canola and two haemoglobins from the non-vascular plants, Marchantia polymorpha (a liverwort) and Physcomitrella patens (a moss). Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of all currently known non-symbiotic haemoglobin genes and a selection of symbiotic haemoglobins have confirmed the existence of two distinct classes of haemoglobin genes in the dicots. It is likely that all dicots have both class 1 and class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobin genes whereas in monocots we have detected only class 1 genes. The symbiotic haemoglobins from legumes and Casuarina are related to the class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobins, whilst the symbiotic haemoglobin from Parasponia groups with the class 1 non-symbiotic genes. Probably, there have been two independent recruitments of symbiotic haemoglobins. Although the functions of the two non-symbiotic haemoglobins remain unknown, their patterns of expression within plants suggest different functions. We examined the expression in transgenic plants of the two non-symbiotic haemoglobins from Arabidopsis using promoter fusions to a GUS reporter gene. The Arabidopsis GLB1 and GLB2 genes are likely to be functionally distinct. The class 2 haemoglobin gene (GLB2) is expressed in the roots, leaves and inflorescence and can be induced in young plants by cytokinin treatment in contrast to the class 1 gene (GLB1) which is active in germinating seedlings and can be induced by hypoxia and increased sucrose supply, but not by cytokinin treatment.

  4. Distinct temporal recruitment of Plasmodium alveolins to the subpellicular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremp, Annie Z; Al-Khattaf, Fatimah S; Dessens, Johannes T

    2014-11-01

    The zoite stages of malaria parasites (merozoite, ookinete and sporozoite) possess a distinctive cortical structure termed the pellicle, which is defined by a double membrane layer named the inner membrane complex (IMC). The IMC is supported by a cytoskeleton of intermediate filaments, termed the subpellicular network (SPN). Plasmodium IMC1 proteins, or alveolins, make up a conserved family of structurally related proteins that comprise building blocks of the SPN. Here, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging in P. berghei, we show that the alveolins PbIMC1c and PbIMC1e are expressed in all three zoite stages. Our data reveal that PbIMC1e is assembled into the SPN concurrent with pellicle development, while PbIMC1c is assembled after pellicle formation. In the sexual stages, these processes are accompanied by different gene expressions from maternal and paternal alleles: PbIMC1e is expressed uniquely from the maternal allele, while PbIMC1c is expressed from the maternal allele in gametocytes, but from both parental alleles during ookinete development. These findings establish biogenesis of the cortical cytoskeleton in Plasmodium to be a complex and dynamic process, involving distinct parental gene expression and chronological recruitment of its protein constituents. While allelic replacement of the pbimc1c and pbimc1e genes with GFP-tagged versions was readily achieved using double crossover homologous recombination, attempts to disrupt these genes by this strategy only resulted in the integration of the selectable marker and GFP reporter into non-specific genomic locations. The recurrent inability to disrupt these genes provides the first genetic evidence that alveolins are necessary for asexual blood-stage parasite development in Plasmodium.

  5. Distinct properties of the triplet pair state from singlet fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, M Tuan; Pinkard, Andrew; Pun, Andrew B; Sanders, Samuel N; Kumarasamy, Elango; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Campos, Luis M; Roy, Xavier; Zhu, X-Y

    2017-07-01

    Singlet fission, the conversion of a singlet exciton (S1) to two triplets (2 × T1), may increase the solar energy conversion efficiency beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. This process is believed to involve the correlated triplet pair state (1)(TT). Despite extensive research, the nature of the (1)(TT) state and its spectroscopic signature remain actively debated. We use an end-connected pentacene dimer (BP0) as a model system and show evidence for a tightly bound (1)(TT) state. It is characterized in the near-infrared (IR) region (~1.0 eV) by a distinct excited-state absorption (ESA) spectral feature, which closely resembles that of the S1 state; both show vibronic progressions of the aromatic ring breathing mode. We assign these near-IR spectra to (1)(TT)→Sn and S1→Sn' transitions; Sn and Sn' likely come from the antisymmetric and symmetric linear combinations, respectively, of the S2 state localized on each pentacene unit in the dimer molecule. The (1)(TT)→Sn transition is an indicator of the intertriplet electronic coupling strength, because inserting a phenylene spacer or twisting the dihedral angle between the two pentacene chromophores decreases the intertriplet electronic coupling and diminishes this ESA peak. In addition to spectroscopic signature, the tightly bound (1)(TT) state also shows chemical reactivity that is distinctively different from that of an individual T1 state. Using an electron-accepting iron oxide molecular cluster [Fe8O4] linked to the pentacene or pentacene dimer (BP0), we show that electron transfer to the cluster occurs efficiently from an individual T1 in pentacene but not from the tightly bound (1)(TT) state. Thus, reducing intertriplet electronic coupling in (1)(TT) via molecular design might be necessary for the efficient harvesting of triplets from intramolecular singlet fission.

  6. Distinct transcriptome profiles differentiate NSAID-dependent from NSAID-independent food anaphylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cano, Rosa; Pascal, Mariona; Bartra, Joan; Picado, Cesar; Valero, Antonio; Kim, Do-Kyun; Brooks, Stephen; Ombrello, Michael; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Rivera, Juan; Olivera, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipid transfer protein (LTP), an abundant protein in fruits, vegetables and nuts, is a common food allergen in Mediterranean areas causing diverse allergic reactions. Approximately 40% of food anaphylaxis induced by LTP require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a triggering cofactor. Objective To better understand the determinants of NSAID-dependent (NSAID-LTP-A) and NSAID-independent LTP-anaphylaxis (LTP-A) Methods Selection of patients was based on a proven clinical history of NSAID-dependent or -independent anaphylaxis to LTP, positive skin prick test to LTP and serum LTP-IgE. Whole transcriptome (RNA-Seq) analysis of blood cells from 14 individuals with NSAID-LTP-A, 7 with LTP-A and 13 healthy controls was performed to identify distinct gene expression signatures. Results Expression of genes regulating gastrointestinal epithelium renewal was altered in both patient sets, particularly in LTP-A, who also presented gene expression profiles characteristic of an inflammatory syndrome. These included altered B cell pathways, increased neutrophil activation markers and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species. Increased expression of the IgG receptor (CD64) in LTP-A patients was mirrored by the presence of LTP-specific IgG1 and 3. Conversely, NSAID-LTP-A patients were characterized by reduced expression of IFN-γ-regulated genes and IFN-γ levels as well as up-regulated adenosine receptor 3 (ADORA3) expression and genes related to adenosine metabolism. Conclusions Gene ontology analysis suggests disturbances in gut epithelium homeostasis in both LTP-related anaphylaxis groups with potential integrity breaches in LTP-A that may explain their distinct inflammatory signature. Differential regulation in LTP-A and NSAID-LTP-A of the IFN-γ pathway, IgG receptors and ADORA3 may provide the pathogenic basis of their distinct responses. PMID:26194548

  7. Names will never hurt me: racially distinct names and identity in the undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gigi

    2008-09-01

    Recent researchers (Fryer Jr., R.G., Levitt, S.D., 2004. The causes and consequences of distinctly black names. Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (3); Figlio, D.N., 2003. Names, expectations, and black children's achievement. Working Paper; Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S., 2004. Are Emily and George more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review 94 (4); Hess, G., Aura, S., 2004. What's in a name? Working Paper) have shown that people with racially identifiable names tend to have worse economic outcomes, and have tried to explain why. This paper extends this recent literature by deepening the psychological underpinnings of possible answers to this question in the context of undergraduate grades. Using a rich student-level administrative data set, I explore the effects on performance of both first and last name racial identifiability. I test for the presence of effects from either black or Asian names due to differential teacher expectations (Figlio, 2003), conventional teacher discrimination (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004), or differences in unobserved ability or racial identity that are correlated with name type and directly affect performance (Fryer and Levitt, 2004; Hess and Aura, 2004). A conceptual and empirical distinction is drawn in the paper between unobserved ability effects and racial identity effects. Name type is found to have little direct influence on performance via any channel. Mild evidence suggests that racial identity may be salient in predicting undergraduate grades. The paper contributes to the literatures in social effects, discrimination, and the burgeoning subfield of economics and identity.

  8. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of genetically distinct rabies viruses in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mariko; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Orbina, Jun Ryan C; Tohma, Kentaro; de Guzman, Alice S; Kamigaki, Taro; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Quiambao, Beatriz P

    2013-01-01

    Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200-300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao). Partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G) gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1-L9) and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2). With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.

  9. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of genetically distinct rabies viruses in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200-300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. METHODS: We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. RESULTS: The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1-L9 and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2. With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. CONCLUSION: We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.

  10. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  11. Performance Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary Louise

    1988-01-01

    Reviews general facets of performance appraisal pointing out the similarities and differences in methods and instruments used to assess the performance of administrative, academic, and nonacademic personnel. Relates the concepts of merit pay and tenure to performance appraisal. (DMM)

  12. Caffeine and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Angela M; Deuster, Patricia A

    The role of caffeine in enhancing performance has been studied for years, and there is no doubt that caffeine can be performance enhancing. Also, a wealth of information allows for an interesting distinction between physical and cognitive performance. Most adults in America consume moderate doses of caffeine in various forms on a daily basis as caffeine is typically found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, dietary supplements, energy drinks, energy shots, and chocolate, as well as over-the-counter pills and gums. Although caffeine is readily available and widely consumed, when using it to enhance performance, a few factors should be considered. The authors discuss caffeine use among Servicemembers, its properties and effects on physical and cognitive performance, how to use it to optimize performance, and, finally, some of safety and regulatory considerations. The bottom line is that all individuals do not respond the same way to caffeine and their response depends on how the body uses and breaks down caffeine. Thus, as a user, you should monitor your own responses and performance changes when using caffeine based on the general recommendations provided. 2016.

  13. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE DISCRETE PARTICLE MODEL BY DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD : APPLICATION TO CALCULATION OF COEFFICIENT OF EARTH PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    大西, 泰史

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform to earth pressure coefficient calculation simulation using the Distinct Element Method (DEM). Earth pressure theory has been established since long ago and is still in use. Therefore, simulation based on Coulomb and Rankine's theory of earth pressure is carried out to confirm usability of DEM. As a result of the static earth pressure coefficient calculation simulation, good results were obtained. However, in the passive earth pressure coefficient calcul...

  14. MIB1/Ki-67 labelling index can classify grade 2 breast cancer into two clinically distinct subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Aleskandarany, Mohammed A.; Rakha, Emad A.; MacMillan, R. Douglas; Desmond G. Powe; Ellis, Ian O.; Green, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Histological grade is recognized as one of the strongest prognostic factors in operable breast cancer (BC). Although grade 1 and grade 3 tumours are biologically and clinically distinct, grade 2 tumours bear considerable difficulty in outcome prediction and planning therapies. Several attempts such as genomic grade index have been performed to subclassify grade 2 into two subgroups with clinical relevance. Here, we present evidence that the routinely evaluable immunohistoc...

  15. An overexpression screen of Toxoplasma gondii Rab-GTPases reveals distinct transport routes to the micronemes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kremer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic organisation of the endomembrane system is conserved in all eukaryotes and comparative genome analyses provides compelling evidence that the endomembrane system of the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA is complex with many genes required for regulated traffic being present. Although apicomplexan parasites, causative agents of severe human and animal diseases, appear to have only a basic set of trafficking factors such as Rab-GTPases, they evolved unique secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules that are sequentially secreted during invasion of the host cell. In order to define the secretory pathway of apicomplexans, we performed an overexpression screen of Rabs in Toxoplasma gondii and identified Rab5A and Rab5C as important regulators of traffic to micronemes and rhoptries. Intriguingly, we found that not all microneme proteins traffic depends on functional Rab5A and Rab5C, indicating the existence of redundant microneme targeting pathways. Using two-colour super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED we verified distinct localisations of independent microneme proteins and demonstrate that micronemal organelles are organised in distinct subsets or subcompartments. Our results suggest that apicomplexan parasites modify classical regulators of the endocytic system to carryout essential parasite-specific roles in the biogenesis of their unique secretory organelles.

  16. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Features Derived From the Distinct LBP and GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorti Satyanarayana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important component of natural human-machine interfaces; it may also be used in behavioural science and in clinical practice. Although humans recognise facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. This paper, presents recognition of facial expression by integrating the features derived from Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM with a new structural approach derived from distinct LBP’s (DLBP ona 3 x 3 First order Compressed Image (FCI. The proposed method precisely recognizes the 7 categories of expressions i.e.: neutral, happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust and fear. The proposed method contains three phases. In the first phase each 5 x 5 sub image is compressed into a 3 x 3 sub image. The second phase derives two distinct LBP’s (DLBP using the Triangular patterns between the upper and lower parts of the 3 x 3 sub image. In the third phase GLCM is constructed based on the DLBP’s and feature parameters are evaluated for precise facial expression recognition. The derived DLBP is effective because it integrated with GLCM and provides better classification performance. The proposed method overcomes the disadvantages of statistical and formal LBP methods in estimating the facial expressions. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on facial expression recognition.

  17. Distinct regions of prefrontal cortex are associated with the controlled retrieval and selection of social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-05-01

    Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments.

  18. Cell-SELEX-based selection of aptamers that recognize distinct targets on metastatic colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Ming; Bing, Tao; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chen, Zhe-Zhou; Shangguan, Di-Hua; Fang, Jin

    2014-08-01

    The development of diagnostic/therapeutic strategies against metastasis-related molecular targets is critical for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. Subtractive Cell-SELEX was performed using highly metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) LoVo cells and non-metastatic HCT-8 cells as the target and negative cells, respectively, for the selection of metastatic-specific aptamers. This process generated seven aptamers that displayed highly specific binding to the target cells with Kds in the nanomolar range. Based on the distinct chemical/biological properties of their individual cell surface targets, the aptamers were separately functionalized: the receptor-targeting aptamer W14 was used as a carrier for doxorubicin, resulting in the specific delivery of the drug to the target cells and a significant reduction of its cytotoxicity to non-target cells, and the non-receptor-binding aptamer W3 was used as a molecular probe conjugated to quantum dots for the targeted imaging of metastatic cancer cell lines, spontaneous lung metastasis murine tissue, and metastatic CRC patient tissues. In addition, these aptamers can be used in combination due to their lack of detectable mutual-binding interference. The study demonstrates that a panel of aptamers that recognize distinct features of target molecules can be obtained through single Cell-SELEX selection, and the selected aptamers may be individually functionalized for specific applications and/or utilized in combination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Voltage-gated proton currents in microglia of distinct morphology and functional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, R; Heinemann, U; Eder, C

    1999-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements were performed to investigate voltage-gated proton currents (I(PR)) in cultured murine microglia of distinct morphology and functional state. We studied I(PR) in ameboid microglia of untreated cultures, in ameboid microglia which had been activated by lipopolysaccharide, and in ramified microglia which had been exposed to astrocyte-conditioned medium. Proton currents of these three microglia populations did not differ regarding their activation threshold or the voltage dependence of steady-state activation. Moreover, pharmacological properties of I(PR) were similar: proton currents were sensitive to extracellularly applied Zn2+ or La3+, and could be abolished by each of those at a concentration of 100 microM. In the presence of extracellular Na+, I(PR) was decreased to a similar small extent due to activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger in all microglial populations. In contrast, proton currents of microglia differed between the three cell populations with respect to their current density and their time-course of activation: in comparison with untreated microglia, the current density of I(PR) was reduced by about 50% in microglia after their treatment with either lipopolysaccharide or astrocyte-conditioned medium. Moreover, I(PR) activated significantly more slowly in cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide or astrocyte-conditioned medium than in untreated cells. It can be concluded that the distinct H+ current characteristics of the three microglial populations do not correlate with the functional state of the cells.

  20. Evaluation of genotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans using distinct arbitrary primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia Pereira Machado Tabchoury

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans has been considered one of the main etiological agents of dental caries and the genotypic diversity rather than its salivary counts may be considered as a virulence factor of this bacterium. For genotyping with polymerase chain reaction (PCR with arbitrary primers, several primers have been used in order to improve complexity and specificity of amplicon patterns. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement of genotypic identification among AP-PCR reactions performed with 5 distinct arbitrary primers of S. mutans isolated from saliva. Stimulated saliva was collected from 11 adult volunteers for isolation of S. mutans, and a total of 88 isolates were genotyped with arbitrary primers OPA 02, 03, 05, 13 and 18. Fourteen distinct genotypes were identified in the saliva samples. Most volunteers (9 out of 11 presented only one genotype. The results of the present study suggest that primers OPA 02, 03, 05 and 13 were suitable for genotypic identification of S. mutans isolates of saliva from adult volunteers.

  1. Distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by myoglobin with a designed heme active center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Du, Ke-Jie; Gao, Shu-Qin; He, Bo; Wen, Ge-Bo; Tan, Xiangshi; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Heme proteins perform diverse biological functions, of which myoglobin (Mb) is a representative protein. In this study, the O2 carrier Mb was shown to cleave double stranded DNA upon aerobic dithiothreitol-induced reduction, which is fine-tuned by an additional distal histidine, His29 or His43, engineered in the heme active center. Spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and inhibition studies suggested that free radicals including singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are responsible for efficient DNA cleavage via an oxidative cleavage mechanism. On the other hand, L29E Mb, with a distinct heme active center involving three water molecules in the met form, was found to exhibit an excellent DNA cleavage activity that was not depending on O2. Inhibition and ligation studies demonstrated for the first time that L29E Mb cleaves double stranded DNA into both the nicked circular and linear forms via a hydrolytic cleavage mechanism, which resembles native endonucleases. This study provides valuable insights into the distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by heme proteins, and lays down a base for creating artificial DNA endonucleases by rational design of heme proteins. Moreover, this study suggests that the diverse functions of heme proteins can be fine-tuned by rational design of the heme active center with a hydrogen-bonding network.

  2. Signature proteins that are distinctive of alpha proteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Radhey S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alpha (α proteobacteria, a very large and diverse group, are presently characterized solely on the basis of 16S rRNA trees, with no known molecular characteristic that is unique to this group. The genomes of three α-proteobacteria, Rickettsia prowazekii (RP, Caulobacter crescentus (CC and Bartonella quintana (BQ, were analyzed in order to search for proteins that are unique to this group. Results Blast analyses of protein sequences from the above genomes have led to the identification of 61 proteins which are distinctive characteristics of α-proteobacteria and are generally not found in any other bacteria. These α-proteobacterial signature proteins are generally of hypothetical functions and they can be classified as follows: (i Six proteins (CC2102, CC3292, CC3319, CC1887, CC1725 and CC1365 which are uniquely present in most sequenced α-proteobacterial genomes; (ii Ten proteins (CC1211, CC1886, CC2245, CC3470, CC0520, CC0365, CC0366, CC1977, CC3010 and CC0100 which are present in all α-proteobacteria except the Rickettsiales; (iii Five proteins (CC2345, CC3115, CC3401, CC3467 and CC1021 not found in the intracellular bacteria belonging to the order Rickettsiales and the Bartonellaceae family; (iv Four proteins (CC1652, CC2247, CC3295 and CC1035 that are absent from various Rickettsiales as well as Rhodobacterales; (v Three proteins (RP104, RP105 and RP106 that are unique to the order Rickettsiales and four proteins (RP766, RP192, RP030 and RP187 which are specific for the Rickettsiaceae family; (vi Six proteins (BQ00140, BQ00720, BQ03880, BQ12030, BQ07670 and BQ11900 which are specific to the order Rhizobiales; (vii Four proteins (BQ01660, BQ02450, BQ03770 and BQ13470 which are specific for the order Rhizobiales excluding the family Bradyrhizobiaceae; (viii Nine proteins (BQ12190, BQ11460, BQ11450, BQ11430, BQ11380, BQ11160, BQ11120, BQ11100 and BQ11030 which are distinctive of the Bartonellaceae family;(ix Six

  3. 'Visual snow' - a disorder distinct from persistent migraine aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schankin, Christoph J; Maniyar, Farooq H; Digre, Kathleen B; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    were common comorbidities over time. Eight patients had first degree relatives with visual snow. Clinical investigations were not contributory. Only a few treatment trials have been successful in individual patients. Our data suggest that 'visual snow' is a unique visual disturbance clinically distinct from migraine aura that can be disabling for patients. Migraine is a common concomitant although standard migraine treatments are often unhelpful. 'Visual snow' should be considered a distinct disorder and systematic studies of its clinical features, biology and treatment responses need to be commenced to begin to understand what has been an almost completely ignored problem.

  4. Computing visual target distinctness through selective filtering, statistical features, and visual patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fdez-Vidal, X.R.; Toet, A.; Garcia, J.A.; Fdez-Valdivia, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents three computational visual distinctness measures, computed from image representational models based on selective filtering, statistical features, and visual patterns, respectively. They are applied to quantify the visual distinctness of targets in complex natural scenes. The

  5. Structure-mechanism-based engineering of chemical regulators targeting distinct pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael W.; Derrick, Jeffrey S.; Kerr, Richard A.; Oh, Shin Bi; Cho, Woo Jong; Lee, Shin Jung C.; Ji, Yonghwan; Han, Jiyeon; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, Sujeong; Larsen, Scott D.; Kim, Kwang S.; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ruotolo, Brandon T.; Lim, Mi Hee

    2016-10-01

    The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy. We performed structural variations of small molecules for fine-tuning their electronic properties, such as ionization potentials and mechanistic pathways for reactivity towards different targets. We established in vitro and/or in vivo efficacies of the regulators for modulating their targets' reactivities, ameliorating toxicity, reducing amyloid pathology, and improving cognitive deficits. Our chemical tools show promise for deciphering AD pathogenesis and discovering effective drugs.

  6. A Ninth Planet Would Produce a Distinctly Different Distant Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, S M; Kaib, N; Bannister, M T; Gladman, B; Kavelaars, J J

    2016-01-01

    The orbital element distribution of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with large pericenters has been suggested to be influenced by the presence of an undetected, large planet at 200 or more AU from the Sun. We perform 4 Gyr N-body simulations with the currently known Solar System planetary architecture, plus a 10 Earth mass planet with similar orbital parameters to those suggested by Batygin and Brown (2016) or Trujillo and Sheppard (2014), and a hundred thousand test particles in an initial planetesimal disk. We find that including a distant superearth-mass ninth planet produces a substantially different orbital distribution for the scattering and detached TNOs, raising the pericenters and inclinations of moderate semimajor axis (50 < a < 500 AU) objects. We test whether this signature is detectable via a simulator with the observational characteristics of four precisely characterized TNO surveys. We find that the qualitatively very distinct Solar System models that include a ninth planet are essentially...

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans selects distinct crawling and swimming gaits via dopamine and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Gadea, Andrés; Topper, Stephen; Young, Layla; Crisp, Ashley; Kressin, Leah; Elbel, Erin; Maples, Thomas; Brauner, Martin; Erbguth, Karen; Axelrod, Abram; Gottschalk, Alexander; Siegel, Dionicio; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2011-10-18

    Many animals, including humans, select alternate forms of motion (gaits) to move efficiently in different environments. However, it is unclear whether primitive animals, such as nematodes, also use this strategy. We used a multifaceted approach to study how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans freely moves into and out of water. We demonstrate that C. elegans uses biogenic amines to switch between distinct crawling and swimming gaits. Dopamine is necessary and sufficient to initiate and maintain crawling after swimming. Serotonin is necessary and sufficient to transition from crawling to swimming and to inhibit a set of crawl-specific behaviors. Further study of locomotory switching in C. elegans and its dependence on biogenic amines may provide insight into how gait transitions are performed in other animals.

  8. An integrated framework including distinct algorithms for optimization of offshore towers under uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togan, Vedat [Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Karadeniz, Halil, E-mail: h.karadeniz@tudelft.n [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Daloglu, Ayse T. [Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    A reliability analysis is usually required to carry out design optimization of large structural systems to incorporate the uncertainties on the parameters such as material properties, external loads, manufacturing condition, etc. This procedure is called Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO), and requires a structural analysis program, a reliability analysis and optimization tools to couple effectively. In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers. It has two distinct approaches to evaluate the probabilistic constraints; namely Reliability-Index based Approach (RIA) and Performance Measure Approach (PMA). The proposed framework also suggests Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) and Differential Evolution (DE) as optimization methods. Examples of monopod, tripod, and jacket towers under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling, and the natural frequency are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the implemented algorithm to realistic structural systems.

  9. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes.

  10. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous vs. sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, V; Tripple, V; Aasbjerg, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    injections or SLIT tablets or neither. PBMCs were tested for Timothy grass (TG)-specific cytokine production by ELISPOT after in vitro expansion with TG-peptide pools. Phenotypic characterization of cytokine-producing cells was performed by FACS. RESULTS: In the SCIT group, decreased IL-5 production...... was observed starting 10 months after treatment commenced. At 24 months, T cell responses showed IL-5 levels significantly below the before-treatment baseline. No significant reduction of IL-5 was observed in the SLIT or untreated group. However, a significant transient increase in IL-10 production after 10......: The most dominant immunological changes on a cellular level were a decrease in IL-5 in the SCIT group and a significant, transient increase of IL-10 observed after 10 months of treatment in both treated groups. The distinct routes of AIT administration may induce different immunomodulatory mechanisms...

  11. A cosmopolitan return to nature: How combining aesthetization and moralization processes expresses distinction in food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Georgi, Carina

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how foodies’ adoption of New Nordic Food enables them to combine aesthetic and moral cosmopolitanism ideals. It demonstrates that consumers integrate aesthetic and moral cosmopolitan discourses through two complementary processes: the re-aesthetization of nature and the re......-moralization of the exotic. These processes combine in a cosmopolitan interest for one of the last unexplored foreign contexts: nature. The findings of this paper contribute to existing research by showing that moral cosmopolitanism reflects a more individualized and less engaged form of consumption than ethical consumption....... They illustrate how urban consumers perform distinction in contexts where nature is the most exotic unexplored context, highlighting further the reterritorialization of global cosmopolitan consumption, where food trends can only be consumed authentically in their context of origin. Finally, this paper shows how...

  12. Structure-mechanism-based engineering of chemical regulators targeting distinct pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael W; Derrick, Jeffrey S; Kerr, Richard A; Oh, Shin Bi; Cho, Woo Jong; Lee, Shin Jung C; Ji, Yonghwan; Han, Jiyeon; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, Sujeong; Larsen, Scott D; Kim, Kwang S; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Lim, Mi Hee

    2016-10-13

    The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy. We performed structural variations of small molecules for fine-tuning their electronic properties, such as ionization potentials and mechanistic pathways for reactivity towards different targets. We established in vitro and/or in vivo efficacies of the regulators for modulating their targets' reactivities, ameliorating toxicity, reducing amyloid pathology, and improving cognitive deficits. Our chemical tools show promise for deciphering AD pathogenesis and discovering effective drugs.

  13. Distinct neural mechanisms of distractor suppression in the frontal and parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mototaka; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex are associated with eye movements and visual attention, but their specific contributions are poorly understood. We compared the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in monkeys using a memory saccade task in which a salient distractor flashed at a variable timing and location during the memory delay. We found that the two areas had similar responses to target selection, but made distinct contributions to distractor suppression. Distractor responses were more strongly suppressed and more closely correlated with performance in the dlPFC relative to LIP. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the dlPFC produced much larger increases in distractibility than inactivation of LIP. These findings suggest that LIP and dlPFC mediate different aspects of selective attention. Although both areas can contribute to the perceptual selection of salient information, the dlPFC has a decisive influence on whether and how attended stimulus is linked with actions.

  14. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies distinct mouse medial ganglionic eminence cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jiun J.; Friedman, Brad A.; Ha, Connie; Durinck, Steffen; Liu, Jinfeng; Rubenstein, John L.; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Modrusan, Zora

    2017-01-01

    Many subtypes of cortical interneurons (CINs) are found in adult mouse cortices, but the mechanism generating their diversity remains elusive. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the mouse embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the major birthplace for CINs, and on MGE-like cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Two distinct cell types were identified as proliferating neural progenitors and immature neurons, both of which comprised sub-populations. Although lineage development of MGE progenitors was reconstructed and immature neurons were characterized as GABAergic, cells that might correspond to precursors of different CINs were not identified. A few non-neuronal cell types were detected, including microglia. In vitro MGE-like cells resembled bona fide MGE cells but expressed lower levels of Foxg1 and Epha4. Together, our data provide detailed understanding of the embryonic MGE developmental program and suggest how CINs are specified. PMID:28361918

  15. Cell-Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Distinctive Markers of Progenitor Cells in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Uezumi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle contains two distinct stem/progenitor populations. One is the satellite cell, which acts as a muscle stem cell, and the other is the mesenchymal progenitor, which contributes to muscle pathogeneses such as fat infiltration and fibrosis. Detailed and accurate characterization of these progenitors in humans remains elusive. Here, we performed comprehensive cell-surface protein profiling of the two progenitor populations residing in human skeletal muscle and identified three previously unrecognized markers: CD82 and CD318 for satellite cells and CD201 for mesenchymal progenitors. These markers distinguish myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors, and enable efficient isolation of the two types of progenitors. Functional study revealed that CD82 ensures expansion and preservation of myogenic progenitors by suppressing excessive differentiation, and CD201 signaling favors adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, cell-surface proteins identified here are not only useful markers but also functionally important molecules, and provide valuable insight into human muscle biology and diseases.

  16. Multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness for outdoor robotic saliency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S. A.; Scharfenberger, C.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Wong, A.; Clausi, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile robots that rely on vision, for navigation and object detection, use saliency approaches to identify a set of potential candidates to recognize. The state of the art in saliency detection for mobile robotics often rely upon visible light imaging, using conventional camera setups, to distinguish an object against its surroundings based on factors such as feature compactness, heterogeneity and/or homogeneity. We are demonstrating a novel multi- polarimetric saliency detection approach which uses multiple measured polarization states of a scene. We leverage the light-material interaction known as Fresnel reflections to extract rotationally invariant multi-polarimetric textural representations to then train a high dimensional sparse texture model. The multi-polarimetric textural distinctiveness is characterized using a conditional probability framework based on the sparse texture model which is then used to determine the saliency at each pixel of the scene. It was observed that through the inclusion of additional polarized states into the saliency analysis, we were able to compute noticeably improved saliency maps in scenes where objects are difficult to distinguish from their background due to color intensity similarities between the object and its surroundings.

  17. Distinct Grammars and their Role in Interlanguage Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida de Araújo Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The expression of temporality encompasses the concepts of tense and aspect, typically conveyed by lexical and inflectional morphemes that usually vary from language to language. This kind of cross-linguistic distinctions often affects L2 learning. In this paper I discuss the role of the Portuguese grammar in the acquisition of the English present perfect tense by eighteen Brazilian EFL learners. I compared patterns found in interlanguage data to L2 patterns, and, as expected, L1 phonology affected learners’ production of regular past tenses, especially in early interlanguage. As for form-function mappings, besides L2 patterns, learners created two major meaning categories of current relevance, based on persisting / non-persisting situations, which were systematically conveyed by forms that resembled their L1 grammar. Durative events and states (imperfective situations persisting into the present were expressed by present tenses, while all aspectual categories of concluded (perfective situations were encoded by past tenses. Specific adverbials were used in each category

  18. Valence parity renders z(*)-type ions chemically distinct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Shane L; Jue, April; Keith, Jason; McAlister, Graeme C; Craciun, Gheorghe; Coon, Joshua J

    2008-05-21

    Here we report that the odd electron z (*) -type ions formed by the electron-based peptide dissociation methods (electron capture or transfer, ECD or ETD) have distinctive chemical compositions from other common product ion types. Specifically, b-, c-, and y-type ions have an odd number of atoms with an odd valence (e.g., N and H), while z (*)-type ions contain an even number of atoms with an odd valence. This tenet, referred to as the valence parity rule, mandates that no c-type ion shall have the same chemical composition, and by extension mass, as a z (*) -type ion. By experiment we demonstrate that nearly half of all observed c- and z (*) -type product ions resulting from 226 ETD product ion spectra can be assigned to a single, correct, chemical composition and ion type by simple inspection of the m/ z peaks. The assignments provide (1) a platform to directly determine amino acid composition, (2) an input for database search algorithms, or (3) a basis for de novo sequence analysis.

  19. TWO DISTINCT COURSE FORMATS IN THE DELIVERY OF CONNECTIVIST MOOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Osvaldo RODRIGUEZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Massive Open Online Courses based on the principles of connectivist educational pedagogy known as connectivist MOOCs (c-MOOCs have been carried out with great success during the last years with hundreds of registered participants. Examples are CCK08 (2008, PLENK2010 (2010, MobiMOOC (2011, EduMOOC (2011, Change11 (2011/12, and LAK12 (2012. Their implementation required conceptual changes in perspective from both “facilitators” (tutors and learners. They are so novel that much research needs to be done for their understanding and improvement. Basically two very distinct delivery formats have been used: Ø Those that use what’s referred to as an aggregator, an emailed daily newsletter, called “The Daily” that captures contributions from tutors and participants mainly from their blogs: Format A. Ø Those where all events go through a “centralizing” web page or wiki and discussions happen with the use of a mailing list, in most cases using Google Groups: Format B. In this paper we study in detail representative courses. From their comparison we establish that connectivist MOOCs delivered with formats A and B share many common features but that their differences are such that the learner’s experience and the outcome of the courses are very different depending on the format used.

  20. Speech intelligibility of deaf speakers and distinctive feature usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencke, E O; Ochsner, G J; Testut, E W

    1984-01-01

    Speech samples (41 CNC monosyllables) of 22 deaf children were analyzed using two distinctive-feature systems, one acoustic and one physiologic. Moderate to high correlations between intelligibility scores by listener judges vs correct feature usage were obtained for positive as well as negative features of both systems. Further, higher correlations between percent-correct feature usage scores vs listener intelligibility scores were observed for phonemes in the initial vs final position-in-work regardless of listener-judge experience, feature system, or presentation mode. These findings suggest that either acoustic or physiologic feature analysis can be employed in describing the articulation of deaf talkers. In general, either of these feature systems also predicts with fair to good accuracy the intelligibility of deaf speakers as judged by either experienced or inexperienced listeners. In view of the appreciably higher correlations obtained between feature use and intelligibility scores in initial compared to final position-in-word, however, caution should be exercised with either of the feature systems studied in predicting the intelligibility of a deaf speaker's final phoneme.

  1. Distinctive-feature analyses of the speech of deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencke, E O; Ochsner, G J; Testut, E W

    1985-07-01

    22 children aged 8.5 through 15.5 yrs with HTLs greater than or equal to 90 db in the better ear spoke a carrier phrase before each of 41 monosyllables containing each an initial and a final consonant (23 consonants were represented). Each S repeated the 41-word list 10 times. Speech samples were recorded simultaneously but independently in audio-only and in audio-visual modes, and transcribed by 3 judges using each mode separately. Percent correct speaker-subjects' utterances of target consonants in initial and in final word-positions were scored for presence or absence of distinctive features according to the systems of Chomsky and Halle (1968) and of Fisher and Logemann (1971). Consistently higher correct feature usage was noted for target consonants in the initial rather than in the final word-position for both systems. Further, higher scores were obtained when transcribers could see as well as hear the speaker, but correct usage of a feature was not uniformly a function of the visibility of that feature. Finally, there was no significant increase in correct feature usage as a function of speaker age.

  2. Two distinct transitions in spatially embedded multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Danziger, Michael M; Berezin, Yehiel; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Multilayer infrastructure is often interdependent, with nodes in one layer depending on nearby nodes in another layer to function. The links in each layer are often of limited length, due to the construction cost of longer links. Here, we model such systems as a multiplex network composed of two or more layers, each with links of characteristic geographic length, embedded in 2-dimensional space. This is equivalent to a system of interdependent spatially embedded networks in two dimensions in which the connectivity links are constrained in length but varied while the length of the dependency links is always zero. We find two distinct percolation transition behaviors depending on the characteristic length, $\\zeta$, of the links. When $\\zeta$ is longer than a certain critical value, $\\zeta_c$, abrupt, first-order transitions take place, while for $\\zeta<\\zeta_c$ the transition is continuous. We show that, though in single-layer networks increasing $\\zeta$ decreases the percolation threshold $p_c$, in multiple...

  3. Evolutionary distinctiveness of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; John, Uwe; Van Dolah, Frances M; Murray, Shauna A

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids, which are essential cell membrane constituents and fuel storage molecules, are thought to share a common evolutionary origin with polyketide toxins in eukaryotes. While fatty acids are primary metabolic products, polyketide toxins are secondary metabolites that are involved in ecologically relevant processes, such as chemical defence, and produce the adverse effects of harmful algal blooms. Selection pressures on such compounds may be different, resulting in differing evolutionary histories. Surprisingly, some studies of dinoflagellates have suggested that the same enzymes may catalyse these processes. Here we show the presence and evolutionary distinctiveness of genes encoding six key enzymes essential for fatty acid production in 13 eukaryotic lineages for which no previous sequence data were available (alveolates: dinoflagellates, Vitrella, Chromera; stramenopiles: bolidophytes, chrysophytes, pelagophytes, raphidophytes, dictyochophytes, pinguiophytes, xanthophytes; Rhizaria: chlorarachniophytes, haplosporida; euglenids) and 8 other lineages (apicomplexans, bacillariophytes, synurophytes, cryptophytes, haptophytes, chlorophyceans, prasinophytes, trebouxiophytes). The phylogeny of fatty acid synthase genes reflects the evolutionary history of the organism, indicating selection to maintain conserved functionality. In contrast, polyketide synthase gene families are highly expanded in dinoflagellates and haptophytes, suggesting relaxed constraints in their evolutionary history, while completely absent from some protist lineages. This demonstrates a vast potential for the production of bioactive polyketide compounds in some lineages of microbial eukaryotes, indicating that the evolution of these compounds may have played an important role in their ecological success.

  4. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  5. A distinct tymovirus infecting Cassia hoffmannseggii in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, C; Pio-Ribeiro, G; Andrade, G P; Melo, F L; Oliveira, V C; Guimarães, F C; Resende, R O; Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Nagata, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Leaves of Cassia hoffmannseggii, a wild fabaceous species found in the Atlantic Forest, with a severe mosaic symptom were collected in Pernambuco State, Brazil. By transmission electron microscopy, two types of virus particles were found: the first was recognized as particles of a potyvirus, which was later identified as Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus; and the second was isometric and present in high concentration. The observation of vesicles at the periphery of chloroplasts suggested a tymovirus infection, which was confirmed by subsequent assays. A serological assay against several tymovirus antisera resulted in positive reaction of this tymo-like virus with an antiserum of Passion fruit yellow mosaic virus. By means of RT-PCR and using degenerated primers for the conserved region of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of tymoviruses, a specific DNA fragment was amplified and sequenced. Based on this sequence, a specific forward primer was synthesized and successfully used to amplify the 3' terminal genome region, containing the partial RdRp gene and the complete coat protein (CP) sequences. The CP was 188 amino acids (aa) long, and the highest CP aa identity was observed with Kennedya yellow mosaic virus (61 %). Based on the current ICTV demarcation criterion, this isolate was considered as a distinct tymovirus and tentatively named as Cassia yellow mosaic-associated virus.

  6. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  7. Distinct persistence barriers in two types of ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Li; Jin, Fei-Fei; Tian, Ben; Scaife, Adam A.

    2016-10-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is usually subject to a persistence barrier (PB) in boreal spring. This study quantifies the PB and then reveals its distinct features in the two types of ENSO, the eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) types. We suggest that the PB of ENSO can be measured by the maximum rate of autocorrelation decline of Niño sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) indices. Results show that the PB of ENSO generally occurs in boreal late spring to early summer in terms of Niño3.4 index, and the EP ENSO has the PB in late spring, while the CP type has the PB in summer. By defining an index to quantify PB intensity of ENSO, we find that the CP ENSO type features a much weaker PB, compared to the EP type, and the PB intensity of equatorial SSTAs is larger over the EP than the western Pacific and the far EP.

  8. Interdisciplinarity and impact: distinct effects of variety, balance, and disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Thijs, Bart; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is increasingly recognized as the solution to today's challenging scientific and societal problems, but the relationship between interdisciplinary research and scientific impact is still unclear. This paper studies the association between the degree of interdisciplinarity and the number of citations at the paper level. Different from previous studies compositing various aspects of interdisciplinarity into a single indicator, we use factor analysis to uncover distinct dimensions of interdisciplinarity corresponding to variety, balance, and disparity. We estimate Poisson models with journal fixed effects and robust standard errors to analyze the divergent relationships between these three factors and citations. We find that long-term (13-year) citations (1) increase at an increasing rate with variety, (2) decrease with balance, and (3) increase at a decreasing rate with disparity. Furthermore, interdisciplinarity also affects the process of citation accumulation: (1) although variety and disparity have positive effects on long-term citations, they have negative effects on short-term (3-year) citations, and (2) although balance has a negative effect on long-term citations, its negative effect is insignificant in the short run. These findings have important implications for interdisciplinary research and science policy.

  9. Normokalemic periodic paralysis is not a distinct disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Wha; Kim, Sung-Jo; Heo, Tae-Hwe; Kim, Man-Ho; Kim, June-Bum

    2012-12-01

    Recent molecular studies of the original cases of normokalemic periodic paralysis (normoKPP) have raised suspicions that these families actually had hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (hyperKPP) due to mutations in the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene SCN4A. However, there is still a debate about the existence of normoKPP. We screened 230 individuals with primary periodic paralysis for mutations in the SCN4A, CACNA1S, and KCNJ2 genes. All patients had either a hyperKPP or a hypoKPP phenotype, and none had a normoKPP phenotype. In 4 hyperKPP patients from 2 families, molecular analyses revealed Arg675Gly and Arg675Gln mutations of SCN4A, which were previously reported to cause normoKPP. Each patient exhibited the characteristic clinical and laboratory features (including hyperkalemia during spontaneous attacks) of hyperKPP. Our findings support the notion that normoKPP is not a distinct disease. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immunophenotypic distinction between pigmented villonodular synovitis and haemosiderotic synovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, G; Kliskey, K; Athanasou, N A

    2010-01-01

    Haemosiderotic synovitis (HS) is caused by excessive bleeding into a joint. It occurs secondary to a variety of conditions and needs to be distinguished from pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) for the purposes of treatment. The histopathological distinction between these conditions, particularly in biopsy specimens, can be problematic. Immunophenotypic findings in 20 cases of PVNS and 20 cases of HS were analysed using monoclonal antibodies against proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (bcl2), macrophage (CD14, CD68, HLA-DR) and osteoclast (CD51) antigens. Macrophages in PVNS and HS expressed CD14 and HLA-DR. The giant cells in PVNS, but not those in HS, expressed CD51 and were negative for CD14 and HLA-DR, indicating that these cells had an osteoclast phenotype. Considerably more CD51-expressing mononuclear cells were noted in PVNS compared with HS. The Ki-67 proliferation index was higher in PVNS than in HS. The findings indicate that there are immunophenotypic differences in giant cells between PVNS and HS, and that expression of CD51 and a high Ki-67 index effectively distinguishes between these two conditions.

  11. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: two distinct ENG deletions in one family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooderchak, W; Gedge, F; McDonald, M; Krautscheid, P; Wang, X; Malkiewicz, J; Bukjiok, C J; Lewis, T; Bayrak-Toydemir, P

    2010-11-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by aberrant vascular development. Mutations in endoglin (ENG) or activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) account for around 90% of HHT patients, 10% of those are large deletions or duplications. We report here the first observation of two distinct, large ENG deletions segregating in one pedigree. An ENG exon 4-7 deletion was observed in a patient with HHT. This deletion was identified in several affected family members. However, some affected family members had an ENG exon 3 deletion instead. These deletions were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and confirmed by mRNA sequencing and an oligo-CGH array. Linkage analysis revealed that one individual with the exon 3 deletion inherited the same chromosome from his mother who has the exon 4-7 deletion. This finding has important clinical implications because it shows that targeted family-specific mutation analysis for exon deletions could have led to the misdiagnosis of some affected family members. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Delineation of the distinctive nature of Tertiary coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.C.; Moore, T.A.; Demchuk, T.D. [Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand). Research School of Earth Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Together with changes in floral character three aspects of coal character appear to vary sequentially with time and are distinctive in the Tertiary: (1) proportions and thickness of vitrain banding, (2) coal bed thickness and (3) proportions of carbonized material. Data from the literature showed that only Tertiary coals contain significant proportions of coal devoid of vitrain bands. Tertiary coals are the thickest recorded coal beds and contain low percentages of carbonised material compared to older coals. Palaeocene coal beds are similar to Cretaceous coals in that they tend to be thinner and contain higher proportions of carbonised material than younger Tertiary coals. The absence of vitrain bands in some Tertiary coal beds is thought to result from the floras dominated by angiosperms, which are relatively easily degraded as compared to gymnosperms. The thickness of Tertiary coals may be related to an increase in biomass production from the Carboniferous through to the Tertiary. Also, with less lignin in plants, earlier degradation of biomass may have facilitated nutrient recycling which led to greater biomass production. Increased biomass production may have also diluted the carbonised materials present in some Tertiary peats, leading to lower proportions in the coal. Other possible causes for decreased carbonised carbon content are discussed. It is not clear which of these mechanisms may have affected carbonised material in peat and coal but it is clear that lignin type and content has had an important role in determining peat and coal character since the Paleozoic. 154 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Distinct management issues with Crohn's disease of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Steven C M; Irving, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Small bowel Crohn's disease can present with clinical challenges that are specific to its location. In this review, we address some of the areas that present particular problems in small bowel Crohn's disease. A key issue specific to small bowel Crohn's disease relates to its diagnosis given that access to the small bowel is limited. Radiological advances, particularly in small bowel ultrasonography and MRI, as well as the introduction of capsule endoscopy and balloon enteroscopy are helping to address this. In addition, our ability to differentiate small bowel Crohn's disease from other causes of inflammation, such as tuberculosis, is improving on the basis of better understanding of the features that differentiate these conditions. It is also becoming apparent that jejunal Crohn's disease represents a distinct disease phenotype with potentially worse clinical outcomes. Finally, because it is a rare complication, our understanding of small bowel cancer associated with Crohn's disease remains limited. Recent publications are, however, starting to improve our knowledge of this condition. Although small bowel Crohn's disease presents specific management issues not seen in patients with Crohn's disease elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, our knowledge of how to manage these is improving.

  14. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a distinct disease entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a distinct subtype of pulmonary hypertension (PH. One disease hypothesis is that CTEPH results from the non-resolution of venous thromboembolism. CTEPH is characterised by the presence of obstructive fibrotic thromboembolic material in the major pulmonary vessels, with concomitant microvascular arteriopathy, resulting in progressive PH. The clinical presentation of CTEPH is similar to pulmonary arterial hypertension with nonspecific symptoms, but it is distinguished from pulmonary arterial hypertension by the presence of mismatched segmental defects on the ventilation/perfusion scan. The exact prevalence and incidence of CTEPH are unknown, but are thought to have been underestimated in the past. CTEPH is unique among the subgroups of PH in that it is potentially curable with pulmonary endarterectomy, a surgical intervention intended to remove the occlusive material from the pulmonary vasculature. However, in some patients the obstructions are technically inaccessible or the risk/benefit ratios are unfavourable, making the condition inoperable. It is thought that the involvement of the smaller, more distal vessels is a target for medical treatment. Untreated, CTEPH may result in right heart failure and death. The pathophysiological mechanisms which cause CTEPH are complex and have not yet been fully elucidated.

  15. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  16. Distinct Habitats Select Particular Bacterial Communities in Mangrove Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidianne L. Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship among environmental variables, composition, and structure of bacterial communities in different habitats in a mangrove located nearby to an oil exploitation area, aiming to retrieve the natural pattern of bacterial communities in this ecosystem. The T-RFLP analysis showed a high diversity of bacterial populations and an increase in the bacterial richness from habitats closer to the sea and without vegetation (S1 to habitats covered by Avicennia schaueriana (S2 and Rhizophora mangle (S3. Environmental variables in S1 and S2 were more similar than in S3; however, when comparing the bacterial compositions, S2 and S3 shared more OTUs between them, suggesting that the presence of vegetation is an important factor in shaping these bacterial communities. In silico analyses of the fragments revealed a high diversity of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the 3 sites, although in general they presented quite different bacterial composition, which is probably shaped by the specificities of each habitat. This study shows that microhabitats inside of a mangrove ecosystem harbor diverse and distinct microbiota, reinforcing the need to conserve these ecosystems as a whole.

  17. Distinct Species Exist Within the Cercospora apii Morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2005-08-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Cercospora is one of the largest genera of hyphomycetes. Cercospora apii sensu lato is the oldest name for a large complex of morphologically indistinguishable Cercospora spp. occurring on a wide host range. There are currently 659 recognized Cercospora spp., and names of another 281 morphologically identical species are included in the synonymy of C. apii sensu lato. Two of the species that belong to the C. apii complex, C. apii and C. beticola, cause Cercospora leaf spot on Apium graveolens (celery) and Beta vulgaris (sugar beet), respectively. In the present study, multilocus sequence data, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, and cultural characteristics were used as additional features to characterize morphologically similar Cercospora strains occurring on celery and sugar beet. From the data obtained, it is shown that C. apii and C. beticola, although morphologically similar and able to cross-infect each others' hosts, are distinct functional species that should be retained as separate entities. Furthermore, a third, as yet undescribed species of Cercospora was detected in celery fields in Korea and Venezuela, suggesting that additional undescribed species also may be found to cause Cercospora leaf spot on celery. A polymerase chain reactionbased diagnostic protocol distinguishes all three Cercospora spp.

  18. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Yoshida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US, MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor.

  19. Microtubule depolymerization induces traction force increase through two distinct pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rape, Andrew; Guo, Wei-hui; Wang, Yu-li

    2011-12-15

    Traction forces increase after microtubule depolymerization; however, the signaling mechanisms underlying this, in particular the dependence upon myosin II, remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism of traction force increase after nocodazole-induced microtubule depolymerization by applying traction force microscopy to cells cultured on micropatterned polyacrylamide hydrogels to obtain samples of homogeneous shape and size. Control cells and cells treated with a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor showed similar increases in traction forces, indicating that the response is independent of FAK. Surprisingly, pharmacological inhibition of myosin II did not prevent the increase of residual traction forces upon nocodazole treatment. This increase was abolished upon pharmacological inhibition of FAK. These results suggest two distinct pathways for the regulation of traction forces. First, microtubule depolymerization activates a myosin-II-dependent mechanism through a FAK-independent pathway. Second, microtubule depolymerization also enhances traction forces through a myosin-II-independent, FAK-regulated pathway. Traction forces are therefore regulated by a complex network of complementary signals and force-generating mechanisms.

  20. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  1. The distinctive nature of adenocarcinoma of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roviello G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Giandomenico RovielloDepartment of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: In recent years, many personalized treatments have been developed for NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Among these, gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patients with EGFR gene mutations, while crizotinib and ceritinib are two new tyrosine kinase inhibitors directed against the echinoderm microtubule-like protein 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation. The possibility of these new molecules being used to treat patients without adenocarcinoma histology is notably small. For example, EGFR mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene rearrangement are rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (generally <1%. Additionally, the benefit of targeted treatment approaches in patients with small-cell lung cancer histology is limited. All of these findings highlight the distinctive nature of adenocarcinoma of the lung among all lung cancer subtypes. Unfortunately, to date, less than 15% of patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung are ideal candidates for these targeted therapies.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, EGFR, ALK

  2. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate.

  3. Rapid evolution of distinct Helicobacter pylori subpopulations in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Jane; Kato, Ikuko; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Falush, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H. pylori of European and African origin throughout the Americas, without substantial input from pre-Columbian (hspAmerind) bacteria. In the US, strains of African and European origin have remained genetically distinct, while in Colombia and Nicaragua, bottlenecks and rampant genetic exchange amongst isolates have led to the formation of national gene pools. We found three outer membrane proteins with atypical levels of Asian ancestry in American strains, as well as alleles that were nearly fixed specifically in South American isolates, suggesting a role for the ethnic makeup of hosts in the colonization of incoming strains. Our results show that new H. pylori subpopulations can rapidly arise, spread and adapt during times of demographic flux, and suggest that differences in transmission ecology between high and low prevalence areas may substantially affect the composition of bacterial populations. PMID:28231283

  4. Autism and specific language impairment: categorical distinction or continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, autism and specific language impairment (SLI) are regarded as distinct disorders, with differential diagnosis hinging on two features. First, in SLI one sees isolated language impairments in the context of otherwise normal development, whereas in autism a triad of impairments is seen, affecting communication, social interaction and behavioural repertoire. Second, there are different communication problems in these two conditions. Children with SLI have particular difficulty with structural aspects of language (phonology and syntax). In contrast, abnormal use of language (pragmatics) is the most striking feature of autism. However, recently, this conventional view has been challenged on three counts. First, children with autism have structural language impairments similar to those in SLI. Second, some children have symptoms intermediate between autism and SLT. Third, there is a high rate of language impairments in relatives of people with autism, suggesting aetiological continuities between SLI and autism. One interpretation of these findings is to regard autism as 'SLI plus', i.e. to assume that the only factor differentiating the disorders is the presence of additional impairments in autism. It is suggested that a more plausible interpretation is to regard structural and pragmatic language impairments as correlated but separable consequences of common underlying risk factors.

  5. Distinct Pattern of Human Vδ1 T Cells Recognizing MICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiang Li; Lianxian Cui; Wei He

    2005-01-01

    γδ T cells represent one unique recognition pattern, the limited recognition, which distinguishes from the specific recognition for αβ T cells and pattern recognition for macrophages. Vδ1 γδ T cell is the major subset of human γδT cells, which predominates in mucosal tissue including the intestinal epithelia. Presently, a few antigens that human Vδ1TCR can recognize have been identified. Among them, MHC class Ⅰ chain-related molecules A (MICA)have been studied most intensively. Besides Vδ1TCR, MICA is also the ligand of NKG2D, a C-type lectin-like activating immunoreceptor. In human, only Vδ1 cells can simultaneously express both types of receptors of MICA while NK cells, αβ T cells and other subsets of γδ T cells likewise express NKG2D. Although the precise mechanisms are still enigmatic, this distinct pattern of Vδ1 cells recognizing MICA predicts unique biological significance of Vδ1 cells in immune defense. Recent years, some progresses have been made in this issue. In this review we summarize the related reports and put forward some novel views based on our group's studies.

  6. Distinct Wnt signaling pathways have opposing roles in appendage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L; Weidinger, Gilbert; Riehle, Kimberly J; Hubbert, Charlotte; Major, Michael B; Fausto, Nelson; Moon, Randall T

    2007-02-01

    In contrast to mammals, lower vertebrates have a remarkable capacity to regenerate complex structures damaged by injury or disease. This process, termed epimorphic regeneration, involves progenitor cells created through the reprogramming of differentiated cells or through the activation of resident stem cells. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates progenitor cell fate and proliferation during embryonic development and stem cell function in adults, but its functional involvement in epimorphic regeneration has not been addressed. Using transgenic fish lines, we show that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in the regenerating zebrafish tail fin and is required for formation and subsequent proliferation of the progenitor cells of the blastema. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling appears to act upstream of FGF signaling, which has recently been found to be essential for fin regeneration. Intriguingly, increased Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient to augment regeneration, as tail fins regenerate faster in fish heterozygous for a loss-of-function mutation in axin1, a negative regulator of the pathway. Likewise, activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by overexpression of wnt8 increases proliferation of progenitor cells in the regenerating fin. By contrast, overexpression of wnt5b (pipetail) reduces expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, impairs proliferation of progenitors and inhibits fin regeneration. Importantly, fin regeneration is accelerated in wnt5b mutant fish. These data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes regeneration, whereas a distinct pathway activated by wnt5b acts in a negative-feedback loop to limit regeneration.

  7. Distinct lower visual field preference for object shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, Gunnar; Logan, Andrew J; Kennedy, Graeme J; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2015-01-01

    Humans manipulate objects chiefly within their lower visual field, a consequence of upright posture and the anatomical position of hands and arms.This study tested the hypothesis of enhanced sensitivity to a range of stimuli within the lower visual field. Following current models of hierarchical processing within the ventral steam, discrimination sensitivity was measured for orientation, curvature, shape (radial frequency patterns), and faces at various para-central locations (horizontal, vertical, and main diagonal meridians) and eccentricities (5° and 10°). Peripheral sensitivity was isotropic for orientation and curvature. By contrast, observers were significantly better at discriminating shapes throughout the lower visual field compared to elsewhere. For faces, however, peak sensitivity was found in the left visual field, corresponding to the right hemispheric localization of human face processing. Presenting head outlines without any internal features (e.g., eyes, mouth) recovered the lower visual field advantage found for simple shapes. A lower visual field preference for the shape of an object, which is absent for more localized information (orientation and curvature) but also for more complex objects (faces), is inconsistent with a strictly feed-forward model and poses a challenge for multistage models of object perception. The distinct lower visual field preference for contour shapes is, however, consistent with an asymmetry at intermediate stages of visual processing, which may play a key role in representing object characteristics that are particularly relevant to visually guided actions.

  8. Establishment of photosynthesis is controlled by two distinct regulatory phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, Carole; Jin, Xu; Barajas-López, Juan de Dios; Hewitt, Timothy Hewitt; Tanz, Sandra; Dobrenel, Thomas; Schröder, Wolfgang; Hanson, Johannes; Pesquet, Edouard; Grönlund, Andreas; Small, Ian D; Strand, Asa

    2017-06-16

    Chloroplasts develop from undifferentiated proplastids present in meristematic tissue. Chloroplast biogenesis is thus closely connected to leaf development, which restricts our ability to study the process of chloroplast biogenesis per se. As a consequence we know relatively little about the regulatory mechanisms behind the establishment of the photosynthetic reactions and how the activities of the two genomes involved are coordinated during chloroplast development. We developed a single-cell-based experimental system from Arabidopsis with high temporal resolution allowing for investigations of the transition from proplastids to functional chloroplasts. Using this unique cell line we could show that establishment of photosynthesis is dependent on a regulatory mechanism involving two distinct phases. The first phase is triggered by rapid light-induced changes in gene expression and the metabolome. The second phase is dependent on the activation of the chloroplast and generates massive changes in nuclear gene expression required for the transition to photosynthetically functional chloroplasts.. The second phase is also associated with a spatial transition of the chloroplasts from clusters around the nucleus to the final position at the cell cortex. Thus, establishment of photosynthesis is a two-phase process with a clear checkpoint associated with the second regulatory phase allowing coordination of the activities of the nuclear and plastid genomes. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct molecular phenotypes in male and female schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In schizophrenia, sex specific dimorphisms related to age of onset, course of illness and response to antipsychotic treatment may be mirrored by sex-related differences in the underlying molecular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we have carried out multiplex immunoassay profiling of sera from 4 independent cohorts of first episode antipsychotic naive schizophrenia patients (n = 133 and controls (n = 133 to identify such sex-specific illness processes in the periphery. The concentrations of 16 molecules associated with hormonal, inflammation and growth factor pathways showed significant sex differences in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. In female patients, the inflammation-related analytes alpha-1-antitrypsin, B lymphocyte chemoattractant BLC and interleukin-15 showed negative associations with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS scores. In male patients, the hormones prolactin and testosterone were negatively associated with PANSS ratings. In addition, we investigated molecular changes in a subset of 33 patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics and found that treatment induced sex-specific changes in the levels of testosterone, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, follicle stimulating hormone, interleukin-13 and macrophage-derived chemokine. Finally, we evaluated overlapping and distinct biomarkers in the sex-specific molecular signatures in schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that future studies should investigate the common and sex-specific aetiologies of schizophrenia, as the current findings suggest that different therapeutic strategies may be required for male and female patients.

  10. Distinct immune response induced by peptidoglycan derived from Lactobacillus sp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Sun; Yong-Hui Shi; Guo-Wei Le; Xi-Yi Ma

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the distinct immune responses induced by Lactobacillus peptidoglycan (PG).METHODS: BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with PG once a day for three consecutive days. Peritoneal macrophage and splenocyte mRNA was extracted and the gene expression profile was studied using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus PG on colon tumor tissue were studied in vitro and in vivo.RESULTS: The gene expression profiles revealed that the TLR-NF-κB and Jak-STAT signaling pathways were highly activated. An inflammatory phenotype was induced when peritoneal macrophages were initially exposed to Lactobacillus PG and switched to a more complex phenotype when BALB/c mice were treated with three doses of Lactobacillus PG. A protective physiological inflammatory response was induced after three consecutive days of PG treatment. It was tending toward Th1 dominant immune response. Lactobacillus PG also appeared to induce a significantin vivo anti-colon tumor effect.CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus PG is responsible for certain immune responses induced by Lactobacilli. Anti-tumor effects of Lactobacilli are likely to attribute to the activation of macrophages by PG expressed on the bacterial cell surface.

  11. Diabetes mellitus in two genetically distinct populations in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eitan, Laith N.; Nassar, Ahmad M.; Dajani, Rana B.; Almomani, Basima A.; Saadeh, Nesreen A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory characteristics in diabetes type 2 patients of 2 genetically-distinct ethnicities living in Jordan, Arabs and Circassians/Chechens. Methods: This cross sectional ethnic comparison study was conducted in King Abdullah University Hospital, Irbid and The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics, Amman, Jordan between June 2013 and February 2014. A sample of 347 (237 Arab and 110 Circassian/Chechen) people living with diabetes were included in the study. Data were collected through direct interviews with the participants. Clinical data were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Laboratory data were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: More Arabs with diabetes had hypertension as a comorbidity than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes. Arabs living with diabetes were generally more obese, whereas Circassians/Chechens living with diabetes had worse lipid control. Arabs with diabetes had higher means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar, and more Arabs with diabetes had unsatisfactory glycemic control (60.6%) than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes (38.2%) (HbA1c ≥7.0%). Most participants (88.8%) had at least one lipid abnormality (dyslipidemia). Conclusion: Multiple discrepancies among the 2 ethnic diabetic populations were found. New diabetes management recommendations and policies should be used when treating people living with diabetes of those ethnicities, particularly in areas of glycemic control, lipid control, and obesity. PMID:28133689

  12. Distinct contribution of the parietal and temporal cortex to hand configuration and contextual judgements about tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Michael; Pelgrims, Barbara; Olivier, Etienne

    2013-09-01

    Neuropsychological studies showed that manipulatory and semantic knowledge can be independently impaired in patients with upper-limb apraxia, leading to different tool use disorders. The present study aimed to dissociate the brain regions involved in judging the hand configuration or the context associated to tool use. We focussed on the left supramarginalis gyrus (SMG) and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), whose activation, as evidenced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, suggests that they may play a critical role in tool use. The distinctive location of SMG in the dorsal visual stream led us to postulate that this parietal region could play a role in processing incoming information about tools to shape hand posture. In contrast, we hypothesized that MTG, because of its interconnections with several cortical areas involved in semantic memory, could contribute to retrieving semantic information necessary to create a contextual representation of tool use. To test these hypotheses, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere transiently with the function of either left SMG or left MTG in healthy participants performing judgement tasks about either hand configuration or context of tool use. We found that SMG virtual lesions impaired hand configuration but not contextual judgements, whereas MTG lesions selectively interfered with judgements about the context of tool use while leaving hand configuration judgements unaffected. This double dissociation demonstrates that the ability to infer a context of use or a hand posture from tool perception relies on distinct processes, performed in the temporal and parietal regions. The present findings suggest that tool use disorders caused by SMG lesions will be characterized by difficulties in selecting the appropriate hand posture for tool use, whereas MTG lesions will yield difficulties in using tools in the appropriate context.

  13. Cyclooxygenase I and II inhibitors distinctly enhance hippocampal- and cortex-dependent cognitive functions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Huma; Ikram, Muhammad Faisal; Yaqinuddin, Ahmed; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2015-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes are expressed in the brain; however, their role in hippocampus-dependent and cortex-dependent cognitive functions remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of piroxicam, a selective COX-I inhibitor, and celecoxib, a selective COX‑II inhibitor, on cognitive functions in an AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity mouse model to understand the specific role of each COX enzyme in the hippocampus and cortex. The AlCl3 (250 mg/kg) was administered to the mice in drinking water and the drugs were administered in feed for 30 days. Assessments of memory, including a Morris water maze, social behavior and nesting behavior were performed in control and treated mice. The RNA expression of the COX enzymes were analyzed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. An ex‑vivo 2,2‑Diphenyl‑1‑picrylhydrazyl assay was performed in the hippocampus and cortex. Following 30 days of treatment with thedrugs, the mice in the celecoxib‑ and piroxicam‑treated groups exhibited enhanced learning (6.84 ± 0.76 and 9.20 ± 1.08, respectively), compared with the AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity group (21.14 ± 0.76) on the fifth day of the Morris water maze test. Celecoxib treatment improved social affiliation in the AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity group, the results of which were superior to piroxicam. Piroxicam led to better improvement in nesting score in the AlCl3‑induced neurotoxicity group. Both drugs decreased the expression levels of COX‑I and COX‑II in the hippocampus and cortex, and rescued oxidative stress levels. These findings suggested that each drug distinctly affected cognitive functions, highlighting the distinctive roles of COX-I and COX-II in learning and memory.

  14. The usefulness of the grammaticality-acceptability distinction in functional approaches to language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between grammaticality and acceptability has been regarded with strong skepticism in functional linguistics because of its origin in Chomskyan linguistics. In this paper I will argue that the distinction is useful in functional linguistics, provided that it is based on a distinction...

  15. Action semantics and movement characteristics engage distinct processing streams during the observation of tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeren, Markus; Kaller, Christoph P; Glauche, Volkmar; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Rijntjes, Michel; Hamzei, Farsin; Weiller, Cornelius

    2013-08-01

    The cortical motor system follows a modular organization in which different features of executed movements are supported by distinct streams. Accordingly, different levels of action recognition, such as movement characteristics or action semantics may be processed within distinct networks. The present study aimed to differentiate areas related to the analysis of action features involving semantic knowledge from regions concerned with the evaluation of movement characteristics determined by structural object properties. To this end, the assessment of (i) tool-associated actions in relation to semantically, but not functionally inappropriate recipients (factor "Semantics"), and the evaluation of (ii) tool-associated movements performed with awkward versus correct hand postures (factor "Hand") were experimentally manipulated in an fMRI study with an event-related 2 × 2 factorial design. The videos used as stimuli displayed actions performed with the right hand in third-person perspective. Conjunction analysis of all four experimental conditions showed that observing videos depicting tool-related actions compared to rest was associated with widespread bilateral activity within the frontal lobes, inferior and superior parietal lobules, parts of the temporal lobes, as well as the occipital lobes. Viewing actions executed with incorrect compared to correct hand postures (factor "Hand") elicited significantly more activity within right primary sensory cortex (Brodmann area 2) and superior parietal lobule. Conversely, tool-associated actions displayed after semantically incorrect compared to correct recipients elicited higher activation within a left-lateralized network comprising the ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), parts of the intraparietal sulcus and the angular gyrus (AG), as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography revealed two distinct fiber connections between AG and the frontal

  16. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  17. Orchestral Performance and the Footprint of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Ellen; Russell, Timothy; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were designed to test the hypothesis that actively creating novel distinctions and sonically portraying them during the performance of orchestral music is preferable to attempting to re-create a past performance. The data suggest that orchestral musicians preferred creating music when they were encouraged to mindfully incorporate…

  18. Orchestral Performance and the Footprint of Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Ellen; Russell, Timothy; Eisenkraft, Noah

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were designed to test the hypothesis that actively creating novel distinctions and sonically portraying them during the performance of orchestral music is preferable to attempting to re-create a past performance. The data suggest that orchestral musicians preferred creating music when they were encouraged to mindfully incorporate…

  19. Inflammatory characteristics of distinct abdominal adipose tissue depots relate differently to metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease Distinct fat depots and vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariette E. G.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Stupkova, Tereza; de Jager, Wilco; Vink, Aryan; Moll, Frans L.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, specific contributions of distinct adipose tissue (AT) depots to metabolic complications of obesity are still unclear. In this study, the inflammatory profile of four distinct abdominal AT-depots and

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC EFFECTS ON PRODUCTION TRAITS OF EWES ORIGINALLY FROM DISTINCT ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Manzoni de Oliveira

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Wool production and reproductive performance components of similar genotypes, brought from distinct production areas, were evaluated during five years trial at similar environments, such as, joining season and stocking rate on winter improved pasture. The least squares means revealed that the origin (breed effect concentrated upon the Corriedale ewes wool production, whereas in Romney females it affected the reproductive performance. In the abscence of interaction between origin (breed and year for most variables, it was assumed that the farm management procedures and/or selection criteria applied on hoggets were determinant of the subsequent lifetime production within each genotype examined. Expecting a better reproductive performance in Romneys, mainly rate of lambs born, weaned and lambs weaning weight, comments were made on the selection criteria employed on this breed over many years. The work has demonstrated that "property of origin (breed" of sheep composing any experiment aiming at breed comparisons, should be considered as a potential factor capable of biasing information on productive aspects.

  1. Effective part-task training as evidence of distinct adaptive processes with different time scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sülzenbrück

    Full Text Available For some types of visuo-motor transformations like large visuo-motor rotations or the complex transformation of a sliding first-order lever, distinct adaptive processes have been hypothesized that produce a rapid, discrete approximation of the transformation and a slow, graded fine tuning, respectively. Here we investigate whether part-task training of only the second of these processes, namely the fine tuning, transfers to the subsequent performance in a condition with the full transformation of the sliding first-order lever. Therefore, we compared performance of three groups with different practice conditions during transfer to the full transformation. While two groups only practiced the fine tuning without the right-left inversion of the lever prior to transfer, a third group practiced the full lever transformation. Our results show a positive, but less than perfect transfer of the isolated practice of the fine tuning on performance with the full transformation. For the fine tuning itself, transfer was not reliably different from being perfect. The observation that the fine tuning can be acquired separately and added to the later adaptation to the left-right inversion of the lever supports the notion that these slow and fast processes progress rather independently. The additional finding that the preceding acquisition of the fine tuning also facilitates the subsequent rapid process could be due to generalized learning-to-learn or to a more precise assignment of movement errors to the process from which they originate.

  2. Distinct structural alterations independently contributing to working memory deficits and symptomatology in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierhut, Kathrin C; Schulte-Kemna, Anna; Kaufmann, Jörn; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schiltz, Kolja

    2013-04-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a brain disease with a quite heterogeneous clinical presentation. Studies in schizophrenia have yielded a wide array of correlations between structural and functional brain changes and clinical and cognitive symptoms. Reductions of grey matter volume (GMV) in the prefrontal and temporal cortex have been described which are crucial for the development of positive and negative symptoms and impaired working memory (WM). Associations between GMV reduction and positive and negative symptoms as well as WM impairment were assessed in schizophrenia patients (symptomatology in 34, WM in 26) and compared to healthy controls (36 total, WM in 26). GMV was determined by voxel-based morphometry and its relation to positive and negative symptoms as well as WM performance was assessed. In schizophrenia patients, reductions of GMV were evident in anterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), superior temporal cortex, and insula. GMV reductions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) were associated with positive symptom severity as well as WM impairment. Furthermore, the absolute GMV of VLPFC was strongly related to negative symptoms. These predicted WM performance as well as processing speed. The present results support the assumption of two distinct pathomechanisms responsible for impaired WM in schizophrenia: (1) GMV reductions in the VLPFC predict the severity of negative symptoms. Increased negative symptoms in turn are associated with a slowing down of processing speed and predict an impaired WM. (2) GMV reductions in the temporal and mediofrontal cortex are involved in the development of positive symptoms and impair WM performance, too.

  3. Modulation of manual preference induced by lateralized practice diffuses over distinct motor tasks: age-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rosana M; Coelho, Daniel B; Teixeira, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of use of the non-preferred left hand to practice different motor tasks on manual preference in children and adults. Manual preference was evaluated before, immediately after and 20 days following practice. Evaluation was made with tasks of distinct levels of complexity requiring reaching and manipulation of cards at different eccentricities in the workspace. Results showed that left hand use in adults induced increased preference of that hand at the central position when performing the simple task, while left hand use by the children induced increased preference of the left hand at the rightmost positions in the performance of the complex task. These effects were retained over the rest period following practice. Kinematic analysis showed that left hand use during practice did not lead to modification of intermanual performance asymmetry. These results indicate that modulation of manual preference was a consequence of higher frequency of use of the left hand during practice rather than of change in motor performance. Findings presented here support the conceptualization that confidence on successful performance when using a particular limb generates a bias in hand selection, which diffuses over distinct motor tasks.

  4. Modulation of manual preference induced by lateralized practice diffuses over distinct motor tasks: age-related effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Machado de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effect of use of the nonpreferred left hand to practice different motor tasks on manual preference in children and adults. Manual preference was evaluated before, immediately after and 20 days following practice. Evaluation was made with tasks of distinct levels of complexity requiring reaching and manipulation of cards at different eccentricities in the workspace. Results showed that left hand use in adults induced increased preference of that hand at the central position when performing the simple task, while left hand use by the children induced increased preference of the left hand at the rightmost positions in the performance of the complex task. These effects were retained over the rest period following practice. Kinematic analysis showed that left hand use during practice did not lead to modification of intermanual performance asymmetry. These results indicate that modulation of manual preference was a consequence of higher frequency of use of the left hand during practice rather than of change in motor performance. Findings presented here support the conceptualization that confidence on successful performance when using a particular limb generates a bias in hand selection, which diffuses over distinct motor tasks.

  5. Multimodal delivery of irinotecan from microparticles with two distinct compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Sahar; Park, Tae-Hong; Dishman, Acacia Frances; Lahann, Joerg

    2013-11-28

    In the last several decades, research in the field of drug delivery has been challenged with the fabrication of carrier systems engineered to deliver therapeutics to the target site with sustained and controlled release kinetics. Herein, we report the fabrication of microparticles composed of two distinct compartments: i) one compartment containing a pH responsive polymer, acetal-modified dextran, and PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide), and ii) one compartment composed entirely of PLGA. We demonstrate the complete release of dextran from the microparticles during a 10-hour period in an acidic pH environment and the complete degradation of one compartment in less than 24h. This is in congruence with the stability of the same microparticles in neutral pH over the 24-hour period. Such microparticles can be used as pH responsive carrier systems for drug delivery applications where their cargo will only be released when the optimum pH window is reached. The feasibility of the microparticle system for such an application was confirmed by encapsulating a cancer therapeutic, irinotecan, in the compartment containing the acetal-modified dextran polymer and the pH dependent release over a 5-day period was studied. It was found that upon pH change to an acidic environment, over 50% of the drug was first released at a rapid rate for 10h, similar to that observed for the dextran release, before continuing at a more controlled rate for 4 days. As such, these microparticles can play an important role in the fabrication of novel drug delivery systems due to the selective, controlled, and pH responsive release of their encapsulated therapeutics.

  6. Distinct Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Cheung, Winnie K. Y.; Wong, Chun Kwok; Sze, Sophia L.; Cheng, Timmy W. S.; Yeung, Michael K.; Chan, Agnes S.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, this research has been conducted almost exclusively in Western contexts, and only a handful of studies on immune measures have been conducted in Asian populations, such as Chinese populations. The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits and problem behaviors in Chinese children with ASD and whether these children show different immunological profiles. Thirteen typically developing (TD) children and 22 children with ASD, aged 6–17 years, participated voluntarily in the study. Executive functions and short-term memory were measured using neuropsychological tests, and behavioral measures were assessed using parent ratings. The children were also assessed on immunological measures, specifically, the levels of cytokines and chemokines in the blood serum. Children with ASD showed greater deficits in cognitive functions, as well as altered levels of immunological measures, including CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL9 levels, compared to TD children, and the cognitive functions and associated behavioral deficits of children with ASD were significantly associated with different immunological measures. The children were further sub-classified into ASD with only autistic features (ASD-only) or ASD comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ASD + ADHD). The comorbidity results showed that there were no differences between the two groups of ASD children in any of the cognitive or behavioral measures. However, the results pertaining to immunological measures showed that the children with ASD-only and ASD + ADHD exhibited distinct cytokine and chemokine profiles and that abnormal immunologic function was associated with cognitive functions and inattention/hyperactivity symptoms. These results support the notion that altered immune functions may play a role in the selective

  7. Berberine stimulates glucose transport through a mechanism distinct from insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libin; Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Shangquan; Shang, Wenbin; Yuan, Guoyue; Li, Fengying; Tang, Jinfeng; Chen, Mingdao; Chen, Jialun

    2007-03-01

    Berberine exerts a hypoglycemic effect, but the mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of berberine on glucose uptake was characterized in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It was revealed that berberine stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner with the maximal effect at 12 hours. Glucose uptake was increased by berberine in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as well. Berberine-stimulated glucose uptake was additive to that of insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, even at the maximal effective concentrations of both components. Unlike insulin, the effect of berberine on glucose uptake was insensitive to wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Berberine activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, but PD98059, an ERK kinase inhibitor, only decreased berberine-stimulated glucose uptake by 32%. Berberine did not induce Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt nor enhance insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt. Meanwhile, the expression and cellular localization of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were not altered by berberine. Berberine did not increase GLUT1 gene expression. However, genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, completely blocked berberine-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and preadipocytes, suggesting that berberine may induce glucose transport via increasing GLUT1 activity. In addition, berberine increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation. These findings suggest that berberine increases glucose uptake through a mechanism distinct from insulin, and activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase seems to be involved in the metabolic effect of berberine.

  8. Distinct neural representations of placebo and nocebo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sonya; Yu, Rongjun; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiaoyan; Kirsch, Irving; Claggett, Brian; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Expectations shape the way we experience the world. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate how positive and negative expectation can changes pain experiences in the same cohort of subjects. We first manipulated subjects’ treatment expectation of the effectiveness of three inert creams, with one cream labeled “Lidocaine” (positive expectancy), one labeled “Capsaicin” (negative expectancy) and one labeled “Neutral” by surreptitiously decreasing, increasing, or not changing respectively, the intensity of the noxious stimuli administered following cream application. We then used fMRI to investigate the signal changes associated with administration of identical pain stimuli before and after the treatment and control creams. Twenty-four healthy adults completed the study. Results showed expectancy significantly modulated subjective pain ratings. After controlling for changes in the neutral condition, the subjective pain rating changes evoked by positive and negative expectancy were significantly associated. fMRI results showed that the expectation of an increase in pain induced significant fMRI signal changes in the insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and periaqueductal gray, whereas the expectation of pain relief evoked significant fMRI signal changes in the striatum. No brain regions were identified as common to both “Capsaicin” and “Lidocaine” conditioning. There was also no significant association between the brain response to identical noxious stimuli in the pain matrix evoked by positive and negative expectancy. Our findings suggest that positive and negative expectancy engage different brain networks to modulate our pain experiences, but, overall, these distinct patterns of neural activation result in a correlated placebo and nocebo behavioral response. PMID:25776211

  9. Distinct metal-exchange pathways of doped Ag25 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Bootharaju, Megalamane Siddaramappa

    2016-09-09

    Atomically precise metal nanoclusters (NCs) containing more than one type of metal atom (i.e., doped or alloyed), due to synergistic effects, open new avenues for engineering the catalytic and optical properties of NCs in a manner that homometal NCs cannot. Unfortunately, it is still a major challenge to controllably introduce multimetallic dopants in NCs, understanding the dopants\\' positions, mechanism, and synergistic effects. To overcome these challenges, we designed a metal-exchange approach involving NCs as molecular templates and metal ions as the source of the incoming dopant. In particular, two structurally similar monodoped silver-rich NCs, [MAg24(SR)(18)](2-) (M = Pd/Pt and SR: thiolate), were synthesized as templates to study their mechanistic transformation in response to the introduction of gold atoms. The controllable incorporation of Au atoms into the MAg24 framework facilitated the elucidation of distinct doping pathways through high-resolution mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Interestingly, gold replaced the central Pd atom of [PdAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters to produce predominantly bimetallic [AuAg24(SR)(18)](-) clusters along with a minor product of an [Au2Ag23(SR)(18)](-) cluster. In contrast, the central Pt atom remained intact in [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) clusters, and gold replaced the noncentral Ag atoms to form trimetallic [AuxPtAg24-x(SR)(18)](2-) NCs, where x = 1-2, with a portion of the starting [PtAg24(SR)(18)](2-) NCs remaining. This study reveals some of the unusual metal-exchange pathways of doped NCs and the important role played by the initial metal dopant in directing the position of a second dopant in the final product.

  10. Distinct neural networks underlying empathy for pleasant and unpleasant touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Claus; Silani, Giorgia; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    In spite of considerable progress in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of empathy, the majority of previous investigations have focused on how we share negative affective states (and in particular pain) of others, whereas only few studies have targeted empathy for positive emotions. This bias has precluded addressing one of the central tenets of the shared representations account of empathy, which is that different networks should be engaged when empathizing with emotions that are represented on different neural levels. The aim of the present study was to overcome this limitation and to test whether empathy for pleasant and unpleasant affective touch is underpinned by different neural networks. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with two independent replication experiments (N = 18, N = 32), and a novel paradigm enabling the joint investigation of first-hand and vicarious responses to pleasant and unpleasant affect induced via visuo-tactile stimulation. This revealed that empathy is subserved by distinct neural networks, with those regions recruited in the first-hand experience of positive or negative affective states also being specifically recruited when empathizing with these respective states in others. More specifically, the first-hand and vicarious experience of pleasant touch commonly recruited medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while unpleasant touch was associated with shared activation in the right fronto-insular cortex. The observation that specifically tailored subsystems of the human brain are engaged to share positive versus negative touch of others brings fresh evidence to one of the major goals of the social neuroscience of empathy: to identify which specific aspects of the affective states of others are shared, and what role this plays in enabling the understanding of the emotions of others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Cuvelier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1 with low diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22 and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25. Hosts’ 28S rDNA sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07% in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5% and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2’s total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters.

  12. Distinctive features arising in maximally random jammed packings of superballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y; Stillinger, F H; Torquato, S

    2010-04-01

    Dense random packings of hard particles are useful models of granular media and are closely related to the structure of nonequilibrium low-temperature amorphous phases of matter. Most work has been done for random jammed packings of spheres and it is only recently that corresponding packings of nonspherical particles (e.g., ellipsoids) have received attention. Here we report a study of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) packings of binary superdisks and monodispersed superballs whose shapes are defined by |x1|2p+...+|xd|2por=0.5) particles with square symmetry (d=2), or octahedral and cubic symmetry (d=3). In particular, for p=1 the particle is a perfect sphere (circular disk) and for p-->infinity the particle is a perfect cube (square). We find that the MRJ densities of such packings increase dramatically and nonanalytically as one moves away from the circular-disk and sphere point (p=1). Moreover, the disordered packings are hypostatic, i.e., the average number of contacting neighbors is less than twice the total number of degrees of freedom per particle, and yet the packings are mechanically stable. As a result, the local arrangements of particles are necessarily nontrivially correlated to achieve jamming. We term such correlated structures "nongeneric." The degree of "nongenericity" of the packings is quantitatively characterized by determining the fraction of local coordination structures in which the central particles have fewer contacting neighbors than average. We also show that such seemingly "special" packing configurations are counterintuitively not rare. As the anisotropy of the particles increases, the fraction of rattlers decreases while the minimal orientational order as measured by the tetratic and cubatic order parameters increases. These characteristics result from the unique manner in which superballs break their rotational symmetry, which also makes the superdisk and superball packings distinctly different from other known nonspherical hard

  13. Genetically distinct coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Masato; Sasaki, Takeshi; Emerson, J J; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mzighani, Semvua I; Budeba, Yohana L; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Iwata, Masamitsu; Abe, Yoshitaka; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-11-01

    Since the sensational discovery of a living coelacanth off the east coast of South Africa, the geographic distribution of viable coelacanth populations has been a subject of debate. In the past, the coelacanths off the African mainland were thought to be strays from the Comoros because most coelacanths captured were caught in the waters surrounding the Comoros archipelagos. However, in recent years, a large number of coelacanths were captured off the coast of Tanzania, including nine living specimens observed in a remotely operated vehicles survey. Thus, it is possible that there is a reproducing population inhabiting waters off the Tanzania coast. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 21 Tanzanian and 2 Comoran coelacanths and analyzed these sequences together with two additional full mitochondrial genomes and 47 d-loop sequences from the literature. We found that the coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast is genetically differentiated from those of the southern Tanzania coast and the Comoros, whereas no significant genetic differentiation occurs between the latter two localities. The differentiation between the northern and southern Tanzanian coast populations is consistent with the hypothesis that the existence of northward-flowing ocean current along the Tanzanian coast may reduce or prevent gene flow from the northern to the southern population. Finally, we estimated that the population localized to the southern Tanzanian coast and the Comoros diverged from other coelacanths at least 200,000 y ago. These results indicate that the coelacanths off the northern Tanzania coast are not strays but a genetically distinct group. Our study provides important information for the conservation of this threatened "living fossil."

  14. Two distinct pools of membrane phosphatidylglycerol in Bacillus megaterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, F.J.; Fulco, A.J.

    1980-02-01

    The predominant membrane lipid in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), is present in two distinct pools, as shown by (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation and chase experiments. One pool (PG/sub t/) undergoes rapid turnover of the phosphate moiety, whereas the second pool (PG/sub s/) exhibits metabolic stability in this group. The phosphate moiety of the other major phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, is stable to turnover. (/sup 32/P)phosphate- and (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol-equilibrated cultures yielded the following glycerolipid composition: 56 mol% PG (34 mol% PG/sub t/ and 22 mol% PG/sub s/), 21 mol% phosphatidylethanolamine, 1 to 2 mol% phosphatidylserine, 20 mol% diglycerides, less than 0.5 mol% cardiolipin, and 0.2 to 0.4 mol% lysophosphatidylglycerol. Accumulation of PG was halted immediately after the addition of cerulenin, an inhibitor of de novo fatty acid synthesis, whereas phosphatidylethanolamine accumulation continued at the expense of the diglyceride and PG pools. Strikingly, initial rates of (/sup 32/P)phosphate incorporation into PG were unaffected by cerulenin. In control cultures at 35/sup 0/C, incorporation of (/sup 32/P)phosphate into PG exhibited a biphasic time course, whereas incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine was concave upward and lagged behind that of PG during the initial rapid phase of PG incorporation. Finally, levels of lysophosphatidylglycerolexpanded rapidly after cerulenin addition at 20/sup 0/C, but not at 35/sup 0/C. Moreover, incorporation of (/sup 32/P)phosphate into lysophosphatidylglycerol lagged behind incorporation into PG in both the presence and absence of cerulenin at 20 and 35/sup 0/C.

  15. Auxin and ethylene induce flavonol accumulation through distinct transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel R; Ramirez, Melissa V; Miller, Nathan D; Vallabhaneni, Prashanthi; Ray, W Keith; Helm, Richard F; Winkel, Brenda S J; Muday, Gloria K

    2011-05-01

    Auxin and ethylene are key regulators of plant growth and development, and thus the transcriptional networks that mediate responses to these hormones have been the subject of intense research. This study dissected the hormonal cross talk regulating the synthesis of flavonols and examined their impact on root growth and development. We analyzed the effects of auxin and an ethylene precursor on roots of wild-type and hormone-insensitive Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants at the transcript, protein, and metabolite levels at high spatial and temporal resolution. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) differentially increased flavonol pathway transcripts and flavonol accumulation, altering the relative abundance of quercetin and kaempferol. The IAA, but not ACC, response is lost in the transport inhibitor response1 (tir1) auxin receptor mutant, while ACC responses, but not IAA responses, are lost in ethylene insensitive2 (ein2) and ethylene resistant1 (etr1) ethylene signaling mutants. A kinetic analysis identified increases in transcripts encoding the transcriptional regulators MYB12, Transparent Testa Glabra1, and Production of Anthocyanin Pigment after hormone treatments, which preceded increases in transcripts encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes. In addition, myb12 mutants were insensitive to the effects of auxin and ethylene on flavonol metabolism. The equivalent phenotypes for transparent testa4 (tt4), which makes no flavonols, and tt7, which makes kaempferol but not quercetin, showed that quercetin derivatives are the inhibitors of basipetal root auxin transport, gravitropism, and elongation growth. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that auxin and ethylene regulate flavonol biosynthesis through distinct signaling networks involving TIR1 and EIN2/ETR1, respectively, both of which converge on MYB12. This study also provides new evidence that quercetin is the flavonol that modulates basipetal auxin transport.

  16. Genetic distinctions between autoimmune hepatitis in Italy and North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Muratori; Marco Lenzi; Francesco B. Bianchi; Albert J. Czaja; Luigi Muratori; Georgios Pappas; Silvana Maccariello; Fabio Cassani; Alessandro Granito; Rodolfo Ferrari; Vilma Mantovani

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Our goals were to analyze the known genetic predispositions for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in AIH Italian population and to compare them with North American counterparts.METHODS: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) B8, C7, DR3,DR4, DR7, DR11, DR13, DQ2 and the B8-DR3-DQ2phenotype were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction in 74 Italian patients (57with type 1 and 17 with type 2 AIH) and 149 North American patients with type 1 AIH, and in adequate controls.RESULTS: B8-DR3-DQ2 occurred more frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH than in Italian controls (30% vs 7%, P<0.0001), but less frequently than in North American counterparts (30% vs48%, P = 0.02). DR4 occurred less frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH (23% vs43%,P= 0.01) and in controls (16% vs34%, P= 0.0003) than in North American counterparts. No differences were found in alleles' frequency between type 1 and type 2Italian AIH patients. DR11 had a frequency lower in type 1 Italian AIH patients than controls (17% vs35%, P= 0.01).CONCLUSION: HLA DR4 is not associated with AIH in Italy. The known HLA risk factors for ATH occur similarly in Italian patients with type 1 and type 2 AIH, and they are less frequent than in North American patients. B8-DR3-DQ2 is the predominant phenotype of type 1 AIH also in Italy, and HLA DR11 may be a regionally distinctive protective factor against type 1 AIH.

  17. Psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits: modest association but distinct genetic architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Manja; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Ried, Janina S.; Rodriguez, Elke; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Volks, Natalie; Gieger, Christian; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Heinrich, Luise; Willenborg, Christina; Smith, Catherine; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Jansen, Henning; Kronenberg, Florian; Seissler, Jochen; Thiery, Joachim; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Barker, Jonathan; Nair, Rajan P; Tsoi, Lam C; Elder, James T; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Weichenthal, Michael; Mucha, Sören; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Schmitt, Jochen; Lieb, Wolfgang; Weidinger, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases, but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. We investigated the association between psoriasis and cardiometabolic outcomes in a German cross-sectional study (n=4.185) and a prospective cohort of German Health Insurance beneficiaries (n=1.811.098). A potential genetic overlap was explored using genome-wide data from >22.000 coronary artery disease (CAD) and >4.000 psoriasis cases, and with a dense genotyping study of cardiometabolic risk loci on 927 psoriasis cases and 3.717 controls. Controlling for major confounders, in the cross-sectional analysis psoriasis was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D, adjusted odd’s ratio OR=2.36; 95% confidence interval CI=1.26–4.41) and myocardial infarction (MI, OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.03–4.96). In the longitudinal study, psoriasis slightly increased the risk for incident T2D (adjusted relative risk RR=1.11; 95%CI=1.08–1.14) and MI (RR=1.14; 95%CI=1.06–1.22), with highest risk increments in systemically treated psoriasis, which accounted for 11 and 17 excess cases of T2D and MI per 10,000 person-years. Except for weak signals from within the MHC, there was no evidence for genetic risk loci shared between psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits. Our findings suggest that psoriasis, in particular severe psoriasis, increases risk for T2D and MI, and that the genetic architecture of psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits is largely distinct. PMID:25599394

  18. Loneliness and Schizotypy Are Distinct Constructs, Separate from General Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Johanna C; Barkus, Emma; Cohen, Alex S; Bucks, Romola; Badcock, David R

    2016-01-01

    Loneliness is common in youth and associated with a significantly increased risk of psychological disorders. Although loneliness is strongly associated with psychosis, its relationship with psychosis proneness is unclear. Our aim in this paper was to test the hypothesis that loneliness and schizotypal traits, conveying risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, are similar but separate constructs. Pooling data from two non-clinical student samples (N = 551) we modeled the structure of the relationship between loneliness and trait schizotypy. Loneliness was assessed with the University of California, Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-3), whilst negative (Social Anhedonia) and positive (Perceptual Aberrations) schizotypal traits were assessed with the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales-Brief (WSS-B). Fit statistics indicated that the best fitting model of UCLA-3 scores comprises three correlated factors (Isolation, Related Connectedness, and Collective Connectedness), consistent with previous reports. Fit statistics for a two factor model of positive and negative schizotypy were excellent. Next, bi-factor analysis was used to model a general psychopatholgy factor (p) across the three loneliness factors and separate negative and positive schizotypy traits. The results showed that all items (except 1) co-loaded on p. However, with the influence of p removed, additional variance remained within separate sub-factors, indicating that loneliness and negative and positive trait schizotypy are distinct and separable constructs. Similarly, once shared variance with p was removed, correlations between sub-factors of loneliness and schizotypal traits were non-significant. These findings have important clinical implications since they suggest that loneliness should not be conflated with the expression of schizotypy. Rather, loneliness needs to be specifically targeted for assessment and treatment in youth at risk for psychosis.

  19. OVCAR-3 spheroid-derived cells display distinct metabolic profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Vermeersch

    in an ovarian cancer stem cell line is distinct from that of more differentiated isogenic cancer cells, supporting the potential importance of metabolism in the differences between cancer cells and cancer stem cells.

  20. Soil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS) across four distinct ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.; Juarez, S.; Kooijmans, L.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.; Chen, H.; Seibt, U.

    2015-12-01

    Soils are additional but poorly resolved sinks of carbonyl sulfide (COS) in terrestrial ecosystems. COS has been proposed as a tracer for quantifying gross photosynthesis based on the coupled stomatal uptake of COS and CO2. But applying this tracer requires the soil COS flux to be subtracted from the ecosystem flux to obtain the actual plant flux. To simulate soil COS fluxes, we have built a 1-D diffusion-reaction model accounting for vertical transport in the soil, microbial sinks and sources, and a litter layer. Uptake and production of COS in the soil column are linked with soil temperature and moisture through empirical functions adapted from enzyme kinetics and lab incubations. We have measured soil COS fluxes and the related soil variables in four distinct ecosystems: a wheat field (Southern Great Plains, OK, USA), an oak woodland (Santa Monica Mountains, CA, USA), a tropical rainforest (La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica) and a boreal pine forest (Hyytiälä, Finland). Across all sites, a lower soil temperature and a humid climate are generally favorable to soil COS uptake. Strong COS emissions were observed in the wheat field at high soil temperatures after harvesting but were absent in other ecosystems, indicating that COS exchange may behave differently in agricultural soils. We simulated the soil fluxes in all ecosystems using the diffusion-reaction model, and optimized the source/sink strength parameters with field data. The optimized model provides insights that are not attainable from data analysis alone: For example, the wheat field soil must have continued uptake activity even when it showed net emissions, and leaf litter contributed dominantly to the COS sink after rain in the oak woodland. We expect the new model to be useful for simulating global soil COS fluxes as field data on soil fluxes from a broader range of ecosystems become available.

  1. Dj Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dj Performance at a late concert at The Hub, Plymouth, in support of Sileni, Superconductor and others.......Dj Performance at a late concert at The Hub, Plymouth, in support of Sileni, Superconductor and others....

  2. Performing Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Hemetsberger, Andrea; Espersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    performative approaches to branding, this study applies a performativity theory perspective. Brand performances—encompassing playing and liking, basement building and showcasing, creating and innovating, community building and facilitating, storytelling, missionizing, and marketplace developing—exhibit generic...

  3. How do physicians become medical experts? A test of three competing theories: distinct domains, independent influence and encapsulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violato, Claudio; Gao, Hong; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Grier, David; Shen, E

    2017-07-12

    The distinction between basic sciences and clinical knowledge which has led to a theoretical debate on how medical expertise is developed has implications for medical school and lifelong medical education. This longitudinal, population based observational study was conducted to test the fit of three theories-knowledge encapsulation, independent influence, distinct domains-of the development of medical expertise employing structural equation modelling. Data were collected from 548 physicians (292 men-53.3%; 256 women-46.7%; mean age = 24.2 years on admission) who had graduated from medical school 2009-2014. They included (1) Admissions data of undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test sub-test scores, (2) Course performance data from years 1, 2, and 3 of medical school, and (3) Performance on the NBME exams (i.e., Step 1, Step 2 CK, and Step 3). Statistical fit indices (Goodness of Fit Index-GFI; standardized root mean squared residual-SRMR; root mean squared error of approximation-RSMEA) and comparative fit [Formula: see text] of three theories of cognitive development of medical expertise were used to assess model fit. There is support for the knowledge encapsulation three factor model of clinical competency (GFI = 0.973, SRMR = 0.043, RSMEA = 0.063) which had superior fit indices to both the independent influence and distinct domains theories ([Formula: see text] vs [Formula: see text] [[Formula: see text

  4. The performance measurement manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  5. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  6. Neuro- and social-cognitive clustering highlights distinct profiles in adults with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Beth; Musiat, Peter; Lose, Anna; DeJong, Hannah; Broadbent, Hannah; Kenyon, Martha; Loomes, Rachel; Watson, Charlotte; Ghelani, Shreena; Serpell, Lucy; Richards, Lorna; Johnson-Sabine, Eric; Boughton, Nicky; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neuro- and social-cognitive profile of a consecutive series of adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) when compared with widely available age and gender matched historical control data. The relationship between performance profiles, clinical characteristics, service utilization, and treatment adherence was also investigated. Consecutively recruited outpatients with a broad diagnosis of AN (restricting subtype AN-R: n = 44, binge-purge subtype AN-BP: n = 33 or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified-AN subtype EDNOS-AN: n = 23) completed a comprehensive set of neurocognitive (set-shifting, central coherence) and social-cognitive measures (Emotional Theory of Mind). Data were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and a discriminant function analysis. Three separate, meaningful clusters emerged. Cluster 1 (n = 45) showed overall average to high average neuro- and social- cognitive performance, Cluster 2 (n = 38) showed mixed performance characterized by distinct strengths and weaknesses, and Cluster 3 (n = 17) showed poor overall performance (Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) like cluster). The three clusters did not differ in terms of eating disorder symptoms, comorbid features or service utilization and treatment adherence. A discriminant function analysis confirmed that the clusters were best characterized by performance in perseveration and set-shifting measures. The findings suggest that considerable neuro- and social-cognitive heterogeneity exists in patients with AN, with a subset showing ASD-like features. The value of this method of profiling in predicting longer term patient outcomes and in guiding development of etiologically targeted treatments remains to be seen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Proteome adaptation in cell reprogramming proceeds via distinct transcriptional networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benevento, Marco; Tonge, Peter D; Puri, Mira C; Hussein, Samer M I; Cloonan, Nicole; Wood, David L; Grimmond, Sean M; Nagy, Andras; Munoz, Javier; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-01-01

    The ectopic expression of Oct4, Klf4, c-Myc and Sox2 (OKMS) transcription factors allows reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The reprogramming process, which involves a complex network of molecular events, is not yet fully characterized. Here we perform a quan

  8. Stop and Start Control: a distinction within self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. de Boer (Benjamin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe essence of self-control is the effort people put into shaping their own behavior. Amongst a vast array of behavioral options, internal as well as external pushes and pulls, rewards, threats, goals and wishes, people can choose, to a certain extent, which behavior they will perform.

  9. Distinctive inflammatory bowel disease phenotype in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A. Boudewijn; Janse, Marcel; Blokzijl, Hans; Weersma, Rinse K.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the current literature for the specific clinical characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS: A systematical review for clinical characteristics of IBD in PSC was performed by conducting a broad search for "primary

  10. Measuring Distinct Types of Musical Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the specific nature of self-efficacy beliefs within music. Separate questionnaires assessing self-efficacy for musical learning and self-efficacy for musical performing were developed and tested, and the reliability of the new questionnaires was demonstrated using internal reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis. A…

  11. Proteome adaptation in cell reprogramming proceeds via distinct transcriptional networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benevento, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328200859; Tonge, Peter D; Puri, Mira C; Hussein, Samer M I; Cloonan, Nicole; Wood, David L; Grimmond, Sean M; Nagy, Andras; Munoz, Javier; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332

    2014-01-01

    The ectopic expression of Oct4, Klf4, c-Myc and Sox2 (OKMS) transcription factors allows reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The reprogramming process, which involves a complex network of molecular events, is not yet fully characterized. Here we perform a quan

  12. Auditioning the distinctiveness account: Expanding the production effect to the auditory modality reveals the superiority of writing over vocalising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The production effect (PE) documents the advantage in memory performance for words that are read aloud during study, rather than words that are read silently. Until now, the PE was examined in the visual modality, as the participants read the study words. In the present study, we extended the PE phenomenon and used the auditory modality at study. This novel methodology provides a critical test of the distinctiveness account. Accordingly, the participants heard the study words and learned them by vocal production (saying aloud) or by writing, followed by a free recall test. The use of the auditory modality yielded a memory advantage for words that were written during study over words that were vocally produced. We explain this result in light of the encoding distinctiveness account, suggesting that the PE is determined by the number of different encoding processes involved in learning, emphasising the essential role of active production.

  13. Lignin extraction distinctively enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification in hemicelluloses-rich Miscanthus species under various alkali and acid pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Shengli; Chen, Yan; Fan, Chunfen; Hu, Huizhen; Li, Ying; Huang, Jiangfeng; Liao, Haofeng; Hao, Bo; Li, Qing; Peng, Liangcai; Tu, Yuanyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, one- and two-step pretreatments with alkali and acid were performed in the three Miscanthus species that exhibit distinct hemicelluloses levels. As a result, one-step with 4% NaOH or two-step with 2% NaOH and 1% H2SO4 was examined to be optimal for high biomass saccharification, indicating that alkali was the main effecter of pretreatments. Notably, both one- and two-step pretreatments largely enhanced biomass digestibility distinctive in hemicelluloses-rich samples by effectively co-extracting hemicelluloses and lignin. However, correlation analysis further indicated that the effective lignin extraction, other than the hemicelluloses removals, predominately determined biomass saccharification under various alkali and acid pretreatments, leading to a significant alteration of cellulose crystallinity. Hence, this study has suggested the potential approaches in bioenergy crop breeding and biomass process technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repository performance confirmation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-09-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part

  15. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  16. Distinct roles of PTCH2 splice variants in Hedgehog signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Fahimeh; Toftgård, Rune; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2004-03-01

    The human PTCH2 gene is highly similar to PTCH1, a tumour suppressor gene frequently mutated in basal cell carcinoma and several other tumour types. PTCH1 is a transmembrane protein believed to inhibit another transmembrane protein SMO (Smoothened), which mediates HH (Hedgehog) signalling. In this study, we analysed the biological properties of several PTCH2 splice variants. An mRNA form that lacked the last exon was abundantly expressed in all tissues examined, in contrast with the one that included it. Moreover, a transcript lacking exon 9, which is a part of a conserved sterol-sensing domain, was identified in intestine, prostate and cerebellum. In ovary, spleen, testis, cerebellum and skin, an mRNA lacking both exons 9 and 10 could also be observed. The different PTCH2 isoforms localized in the cytoplasm were capable of internalizing the N-terminal fragment of Sonic HH (Shh-N). Additionally, the PTCH2 gene was found to be a target of HH signalling. PTCH2 promoter regulation assays demonstrated that only one of the PTCH2 variants could inhibit the activity of SHH-N, whereas none was capable of inhibiting the activated form of SMO (SMO-M2) and this contrasts with PTCH1. Despite the fact that the PTCH2 isoforms lacked the ability to inhibit SMO-M2 activity, all PTCH2 variants as well as PTCH1, on co-transfection with Smo, were able to change Smo localization from being largely dispersed in the cytoplasm to the juxtanuclear region. Furthermore, the PTCH2 isoforms and PTCH1 co-localized in doubly transfected cells and an interaction between them was confirmed using immunoprecipitation assays. Using Ptch1-/- mouse cells, it was shown that the PTCH2 variants and PTCH1 differentially act to reconstitute not only the SHH but also the Desert HH-dependent transcriptional response. We conclude that in spite of their structural similarities, the PTCH2 isoforms have distinct functional properties when compared with PTCH1.

  17. Dynamic remodeling of microbial biofilms by functionally distinct exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Su Chuen; Kundukad, Binu; Seviour, Thomas; van der Maarel, Johan R C; Yang, Liang; Rice, Scott A; Doyle, Patrick; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2014-08-05

    Biofilms are densely populated communities of microbial cells protected and held together by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. The structure and rheological properties of the matrix at the microscale influence the retention and transport of molecules and cells in the biofilm, thereby dictating population and community behavior. Despite its importance, quantitative descriptions of the matrix microstructure and microrheology are limited. Here, particle-tracking microrheology in combination with genetic approaches was used to spatially and temporally study the rheological contributions of the major exopolysaccharides Pel and Psl in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Psl increased the elasticity and effective cross-linking within the matrix, which strengthened its scaffold and appeared to facilitate the formation of microcolonies. Conversely, Pel reduced effective cross-linking within the matrix. Without Psl, the matrix becomes more viscous, which facilitates biofilm spreading. The wild-type biofilm decreased in effective cross-linking over time, which would be advantageous for the spreading and colonization of new surfaces. This suggests that there are regulatory mechanisms to control production of the exopolysaccharides that serve to remodel the matrix of developing biofilms. The exopolysaccharides were also found to have profound effects on the spatial organization and integration of P. aeruginosa in a mixed-species biofilm model of P. aeruginosa-Staphylococcus aureus. Pel was required for close association of the two species in mixed-species microcolonies. In contrast, Psl was important for P. aeruginosa to form single-species biofilms on top of S. aureus biofilms. Our results demonstrate that Pel and Psl have distinct physical properties and functional roles during biofilm formation. Importance: Most bacteria grow as biofilms in the environment or in association with eukaryotic hosts. Removal of biofilms that form on surfaces is a challenge in clinical

  18. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eHofmeister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color. Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases --- here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white --- does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects.

  19. Identification of distinct circulating exosomes in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, PR; Zheng, Y.; Fischer, R.; Heidasch, R.; Gardiner, C; Evetts, S.; Hu, M.; Wade-Martins, R.; Turner; Morris, J; Talbot, K; Kessler, BM; Tofaris, GK

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Whether circulating microvesicles convey bioactive signals in neurodegenerative diseases remains currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the biochemical composition and biological function of exosomes isolated from sera of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: Proteomic analysis was performed on microvesicle preparations from grouped samples of patients with genetic and sporadic forms of PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and healthy subjects. Nanoparticle-t...

  20. A clinical Acanthamoeba isolate harboring two distinct bacterial endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anneliese; Walochnik, Julia; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoebae feed on bacteria but are also frequent hosts of bacterial symbionts. Here, we describe the stable co-occurrence of two symbionts, one affiliated to the genus Parachlamydia and the other to the candidate genus Paracaedibacter (Alphaproteobacteria), within a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba hatchetti genotype T4. We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to describe this symbiosis. Our study adds to other reports of simultaneous co-occurrence of two symbionts within one Acanthamoeba cell.

  1. Different disease subtypes with distinct clinical expression in familial Mediterranean fever: results of a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Servet; Solmaz, Dilek; Kasifoglu, Timucin; Bilge, Sule Yasar; Sari, Ismail; Gumus, Zeynep Zehra; Tunca, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there are clinical subgroups that may have different prognoses among FMF patients. The cumulative clinical features of a large group of FMF patients [1168 patients, 593 (50.8%) male, mean age 35.3 years (s.d. 12.4)] were studied. To analyse our data and identify groups of FMF patients with similar clinical characteristics, a two-step cluster analysis using log-likelihood distance measures was performed. For clustering the FMF patients, we evaluated the following variables: gender, current age, age at symptom onset, age at diagnosis, presence of major clinical features, variables related with therapy and family history for FMF, renal failure and carriage of M694V. Three distinct groups of FMF patients were identified. Cluster 1 was characterized by a high prevalence of arthritis, pleuritis, erysipelas-like erythema (ELE) and febrile myalgia. The dosage of colchicine and the frequency of amyloidosis were lower in cluster 1. Patients in cluster 2 had an earlier age of disease onset and diagnosis. M694V carriage and amyloidosis prevalence were the highest in cluster 2. This group of patients was using the highest dose of colchicine. Patients in cluster 3 had the lowest prevalence of arthritis, ELE and febrile myalgia. The frequencies of M694V carriage and amyloidosis were lower in cluster 3 than the overall FMF patients. Non-response to colchicine was also slightly lower in cluster 3. Patients with FMF can be clustered into distinct patterns of clinical and genetic manifestations and these patterns may have different prognostic significance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Distinct roles of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in striatal inhibition dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixi eLuo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Striatonigral and striatopallidal projecting medium spiny neurons (MSNs express dopamine D1 (D1+ and D2 receptors (D2+, respectively. Both classes receive extensive GABAergic input via expression of synaptic, perisynaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. The activation patterns of different presynaptic GABAergic neurons produce transient and sustained GABAA receptor-mediated conductance that fulfill distinct physiological roles. We performed single and dual whole cell recordings from striatal neurons in mice expressing fluorescent proteins in interneurons and MSNs. We report specific inhibitory dynamics produced by distinct activation patterns of presynaptic GABAergic neurons as source of synaptic, perisynaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition. Synaptic GABAA receptors in MSNs contain the α2, γ2 and a β subunit. In addition, there is evidence for the developmental increase of the α1 subunit that contributes to faster inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC. Tonic GABAergic currents in MSNs from adult mice are carried by extrasynaptic receptors containing the α4 and δ subunit, while in younger mice this current is mediated by receptors that contain the α5 subunit. Both forms of tonic currents are differentially expressed in D1+ and D2+ MSNs. This study extends these findings by relating presynaptic activation with pharmacological analysis of inhibitory conductance in mice where the β3 subunit is conditionally removed in fluorescently labeled D2+ MSNs and in mice with global deletion of the δ subunit. Our results show that responses to low doses of gaboxadol (2μM, a GABAA receptor agonist with preference to δ subunit, are abolished in the δ but not the β3 subunit knock out mice. This suggests that the β3 subunit is not a component of the adult extrasynaptic receptor pool, in contrast to what has been shown for tonic current in young mice. Deletion of the β3 subunit from D2+ MSNs however, removed slow spontaneous IPSCs, implicating its

  3. The Metastasis-associated Proteins 1 and 2 Form Distinct Protein Complexes with Histone Deacetylase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-LiYao; Wcn-MingYang

    2005-01-01

    The metastasis-associated protein MTA1 has been shown to express differentially to high levels in metastatic cells. MTA2, which is homologous to MTA1, is a component of the NURD ATP-dependcnt chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylase complex. Here we report evidence that although both human MTA1 and MTA2 repress transcription specifically, are located in the nucleus, and contain associated histone deacetylase activity, they exist in two biochemically distinct protein complexes and may perform different functions pertaining to tumor metastasis. Specifically, both MTA1 and MTA2 complexes exert histone deacetylase activity. However, the MTA1 complex contained HDAC1/2, RbAp46/48, and MBD3, but not Sin3 or Mi2, two important components of the MTA2 complex. Moreover, the MTA2 complex is similar to the HDAC1 complex, suggesting a housekeeping role of the MTA2 complex. The MTA1 complex could be further separated, resulting in acore MTA1-HDAC complex, showing that the histone deacetylase activity and transcriptional repression activity were integral properties of the MTA1 complex. Finally, MTA1, unlike MTA2, did not interact with the pleotropic transcription factor YY1 or the immunophilin FKBP25. We suggest that MTA1 associates with adifferent set of transcription factors from MTA2 and that this property may contribute to the metastatic potential of cells overexpressing MTA1. We also report the finding of human MTA3, which is highly homologous toboth MTA1 and MTA2. However, MTA3 does not repress transcription to a significant level and appears to have a diffused pattern of subcellular localization, suggesting a biological role distinct from that of the other two MTA proteins.

  4. Distinct neuronal populations in the basal forebrain encode motivational salience and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAvila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain (BF is one of the largest cortically-projecting neuromodulatory systems in the mammalian brain, and plays a key role in attention, arousal, learning and memory. The cortically projecting BF neurons, comprised of mainly magnocellular cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, are widely distributed across several brain regions that spatially overlap with the ventral striatopallidal system at the ventral pallidum (VP. As a first step toward untangling the respective functions of spatially overlapping BF and VP systems, the goal of this study was to comprehensively characterize the behavioral correlates and physiological properties of heterogeneous neuronal populations in the BF region. We found that, while rats performed a reward-biased simple reaction time task, distinct neuronal populations encode either motivational salience or movement information. The motivational salience of attended stimuli is encoded by phasic bursting activity of a large population of slow-firing neurons that have large, broad, and complex action potential waveforms. In contrast, two other separate groups of neurons encode movement-related information, and respectively increase and decrease firing rates while rats maintained fixation. These two groups of neurons mostly have higher firing rates and small, narrow action potential waveforms. These results support the conclusion that multiple neurophysiologically distinct neuronal populations in the BF region operate independently of each other as parallel functional circuits. These observations also caution against interpreting neuronal activity in this region as a homogeneous population reflecting the function of either BF or VP alone. We suggest that salience- and movement-related neuronal populations likely correspond to BF corticopetal neurons and VP neurons, respectively.

  5. Comparative expression profiling of distinct T cell subsets undergoing oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Lichtenfels

    Full Text Available The clinical outcome of adoptive T cell transfer-based immunotherapies is often limited due to different escape mechanisms established by tumors in order to evade the hosts' immune system. The establishment of an immunosuppressive micromilieu by tumor cells along with distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is often associated with oxidative stress that can affect antigen-specific memory/effector cytotoxic T cells thereby substantially reducing their frequency and functional activation. Therefore, protection of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from oxidative stress may enhance the anti-tumor-directed immune response. In order to better define the key pathways/proteins involved in the response to oxidative stress a comparative 2-DE-based proteome analysis of naïve CD45RA(+ and their memory/effector CD45RO(+ T cell counterparts in the presence and absence of low dose hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 was performed in this pilot study. Based on the profiling data of these T cell subpopulations under the various conditions, a series of differentially expressed spots were defined, members thereof identified by mass spectrometry and subsequently classified according to their cellular function and localization. Representative targets responding to oxidative stress including proteins involved in signaling pathways, in regulating the cellular redox status as well as in shaping/maintaining the structural cell integrity were independently verified at the transcript and protein level under the same conditions in both T cell subsets. In conclusion the resulting profiling data describe complex, oxidative stress-induced, but not strictly concordant changes within the respective expression profiles of CD45RA(+ and CD45RO(+ T cells. Some of the differentially expressed genes/proteins might be further exploited as potential targets toward modulating the redox capacity of the distinct lymphocyte subsets thereby providing the basis for further studies

  6. Expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 in distinct neuronal subpopulations in the adult mouse forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, G; Lutz, B

    1999-12-01

    Cannabinoids can modulate motor behaviour, learning and memory, cognition and pain perception. These effects correlate with the expression of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and with the presence of endogenous cannabinoids in the brain. In trying to obtain further insights into the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of cannabinoids, CB1-positive neurons were determined in the murine forebrain at a single cell resolution. We performed a double in situ hybridization study to detect mRNA of CB1 in combination with mRNA of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65k, neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK), parvalbumin, calretinin and calbindin D28k, respectively. Our results revealed that CB1-expressing cells can be divided into distinct neuronal subpopulations. There is a clear distinction between neurons containing CB1 mRNA either at high levels or low levels. The majority of high CB1-expressing cells are GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurons belonging mainly to the cholecystokinin-positive and parvalbumin-negative type of interneurons (basket cells) and, to a lower extent, to the calbindin D28k-positive mid-proximal dendritic inhibitory interneurons. Only a fraction of low CB1-expressing cells is GABAergic. In the hippocampus, amygdala and entorhinal cortex area, CB1 mRNA is present at low but significant levels in many non-GABAergic cells that can be considered as projecting principal neurons. Thus, a complex mechanism appears to underlie the modulatory effects of cannabinoids. They might act on principal glutamatergic circuits as well as modulate local GABAergic inhibitory circuits. CB1 is very highly coexpressed with CCK. It is known that cannabinoids and CCK often have opposite effects on behaviour and physiology. Therefore, we suggest that a putative cross-talk between cannabinoids and CCK might exist and will be relevant to better understanding of physiology and pharmacology of the cannabinoid system.

  7. Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma: a biologically distinct lymphoma with frequent MAPK pathway mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Abner; Schafernak, Kristian T; Geyer, Julia T; Kovach, Alexandra E; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Gratzinger, Dita; Roth, Christine G; Paxton, Christian N; Kim, Sunhee; Namgyal, Chungdak; Morin, Ryan; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Neuberg, Donna S; South, Sarah T; Harris, Marian H; Hasserjian, Robert P; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Garraway, Levi A; Harris, Nancy Lee; Weinstock, David M

    2016-08-25

    Pediatric-type nodal follicular lymphoma (PTNFL) is a variant of follicular lymphoma (FL) characterized by limited-stage presentation and invariably benign behavior despite often high-grade histological appearance. It is important to distinguish PTNFL from typical FL in order to avoid unnecessary treatment; however, this distinction relies solely on clinical and pathological criteria, which may be variably applied. To define the genetic landscape of PTNFL, we performed copy number analysis and exome and/or targeted sequencing of 26 PTNFLs (16 pediatric and 10 adult). The most commonly mutated gene in PTNFL was MAP2K1, encoding MEK1, with a mutation frequency of 43%. All MAP2K1 mutations were activating missense mutations localized to exons 2 and 3, which encode negative regulatory and catalytic domains, respectively. Missense mutations in MAPK1 (2/22) and RRAS (1/22) were identified in cases that lacked MAP2K1 mutations. The second most commonly mutated gene in PTNFL was TNFRSF14, with a mutation frequency of 29%, similar to that seen in limited-stage typical FL (P = .35). PTNFL was otherwise genomically bland and specifically lacked recurrent mutations in epigenetic modifiers (eg, CREBBP, KMT2D). Copy number aberrations affected a mean of only 0.5% of PTNFL genomes, compared with 10% of limited-stage typical FL genomes (P < .02). Importantly, the mutational profiles of PTNFLs in children and adults were highly similar. Together, these findings define PTNFL as a biologically and clinically distinct indolent lymphoma of children and adults characterized by a high prevalence of MAPK pathway mutations and a near absence of mutations in epigenetic modifiers.

  8. Radiological features of bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia - a distinct entity in the skeletal dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, A.K. [Isala Clinics, Location Weezenlanden, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Zwolle (Netherlands); Dijkstra, P.F. [Jan van Breemen Inst., Dept. of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Horn, J.R. van [Univ. Hospital Groningen, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groningen (Netherlands); Jansen, B.R.H. [Reinier de Graaf Hospital, Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Delft (Netherlands); Heutink, P. [Erasmus MCRotterdam, Dept. of Clinical Genetics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lindhout, D. [Univ. Medical Centre Utrecht, Dept. of Medical Genetics, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Aim: To prove that bilateral hereditary micro-epiphyseal dysplasia (BHMED), first described by Elsbach in 1959, is a distinct disorder radiologically as well as clinically, compared with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Material and Methods: We used the data of the revised pedigree with 84 family members, performed a medical history, physical examination and made a radiological evaluation for defining a clinical and radiological phenotype of BHMED family members. We used blood samples for genetic analysis. Results: Although there is a clear clinical picture of the dysplasia, the radiological signs are more reliable for making the diagnosis. Especially the typical deformity of the hip and knee joint are diagnostic for BHMED. By linkage analysis we excluded linkage with the three known MED-loci (EDM1, EDM2 and EDM3). Conclusion: BHMED is indeed an entity that is distinct from common multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), clinically, as well as radiologically and genetically. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es sollte dargelegt werden, dass sich eine vererbliche, laterale Mikro-Epiphysendysplasie (BHMED), Erstbeschreibung durch Elsbach 1959, klinisch, radiologisch und genetisch von einer mutiplen Epiphysendysplasie (MED) unterscheidet. Material und Methode: Anhand der Daten eines ueberarbeiteten Stammbaumes mit 84 Familienmitgliedern wurde der medizinische Werdegang rekonstruiert. Es erfolgte eine physische Untersuchung der Familienmitglieder. Schliesslich wurde eine radiologische Auswertung durchgefuehrt, um einen klinischen und radiologischen Phaenotyp der von BHMED betroffenen Familienmitglieder zu definieren. Fuer eine genetische Analyse wurden Blutproben entnommen. Ergebnisse: Obwohl es ein deutliches klinisches Bild einer Dysplasie gibt, sind die radiologischen Kennzeichen fuer die Diagnose zuverlaessiger. Insbesondere die typische Deformation der Huefte und des Kniegelenks ist diagnostisch fuer BHMED. Durch Linkage-Analyse konnte eine Verbindung zu den drei bekannten

  9. Distinct Metabolic Profile of Inhaled Budesonide and Salbutamol in Asthmatic Children during Acute Exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Jun, Yang; Jian-Ping, Zhang; Jian-Hua, Zhang; Yong-Long, Han; Bo, Xin; Jing-Xian, Zhang; Bona, Dai; Yuan, Zhang; Cheng, Guo

    2017-03-01

    Inhaled budesonide and salbutamol represent the most important and frequently used drugs in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. However, there is still no consensus about their resulting metabolic derangements; thus, this study was conducted to determine the distinct metabolic profiles of these two drugs. A total of 69 children with asthma during acute exacerbation were included, and their serum and urine were investigated using high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A metabolomics analysis was performed using a principal component analysis and orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares using SIMCA-P. The different metabolites were identified, and the distinct metabolic profiles were analysed using MetPA. A high-resolution NMR-based serum and urine metabolomics approach was established to study the overall metabolic changes after inhaled budesonide and salbutamol in asthmatic children during acute exacerbation. The perturbed metabolites included 22 different metabolites in the serum and 21 metabolites in the urine. Based on an integrated analysis, the changed metabolites included the following: increased 4-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, cis-aconitate, 5-hydroxyindoleacetate, taurine, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline, tiglylglycine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-methylhistidine, glucose, cis-aconitate, 2-deoxyinosine and 2-aminoadipate; and decreased alanine, glycerol, arginine, glycylproline, 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, creatine, citrulline, glutamate, asparagine, 2-hydroxyvalerate, citrate, homoserine, histamine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, sarcosine, ornithine, creatinine, glycine, isoleucine and trimethylamine N-oxide. The MetPA analysis revealed seven involved metabolic pathways: arginine and proline metabolism; taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism; methane metabolism; citrate cycle; and pyruvate metabolism. The perturbed metabolic profiles suggest potential metabolic

  10. Lizard tail regeneration: regulation of two distinct cartilage regions by Indian hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Thomas P; Tuan, Rocky S

    2015-03-15

    Lizards capable of caudal autotomy exhibit the remarkable ability to "drop" and then regenerate their tails. However, the regenerated lizard tail (RLT) is known as an "imperfect replicate" due to several key anatomical differences compared to the original tail. Most striking of these "imperfections" concerns the skeleton; instead of the vertebrae of the original tail, the skeleton of the RLT takes the form of an unsegmented cartilage tube (CT). Here we have performed the first detailed staging of skeletal development of the RLT CT, identifying two distinct mineralization events. CTs isolated from RLTs of various ages were analyzed by micro-computed tomography to characterize mineralization, and to correlate skeletal development with expression of endochondral ossification markers evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry. During early tail regeneration, shortly after CT formation, the extreme proximal CT in direct contact with the most terminal vertebra of the original tail develops a growth plate-like region that undergoes endochondral ossification. Proximal CT chondrocytes enlarge, express hypertrophic markers, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), apoptose, and are replaced by bone. During later stages of tail regeneration, the distal CT mineralizes without endochondral ossification. The sub-perichondrium of the distal CT expresses Ihh, and the perichondrium directly calcifies without cartilage growth plate formation. The calcified CT perichondrium also contains a population of stem/progenitor cells that forms new cartilage in response to TGF-β stimulation. Treatment with the Ihh inhibitor cyclopamine inhibited both proximal CT ossification and distal CT calcification. Thus, while the two mineralization events are spatially, temporally, and mechanistically very different, they both involve Ihh. Taken together, these results suggest that Ihh regulates CT mineralization during two distinct stages of lizard tail regeneration.

  11. Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boere, Julia J; Fellinger, Lizz; Huizinga, Duncan J H; Wong, Sebastiaan F; Bijleveld, Erik

    2016-02-01

    A prevalent combination in daily life, performance pressure and caffeine intake have both been shown to impact people's cognitive performance. Here, we examined the possibility that pressure and caffeine affect cognitive performance via a shared pathway. In an experiment, participants performed a modular arithmetic task. Performance pressure and caffeine intake were orthogonally manipulated. Findings indicated that pressure and caffeine both negatively impacted performance. However, (a) pressure vs. caffeine affected performance on different trial types, and (b) there was no hint of an interactive effect. So, though the evidence is indirect, findings suggest that pressure and caffeine shape performance via distinct mechanisms, rather than a shared one.

  12. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2017-01-01

    Presence, attention and awareness are challenged in a cultural landscape with an overflow of media and information (big data, mediatization processes), an overflow of time scheduling (rationalization, effectuation), and an overflow of marketing for example of ‘live performance’ as a promotional...... from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television......, performance art), and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the quality and status of live performance (Reason & Lindelof 2016). As a critical response to the above mentioned overflows these performances make their own overflow through their characteristically non-representational, unpredictable...

  13. Music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C

    1997-01-01

    Music performance provides a rich domain for study of both cognitive and motor skills. Empirical research in music performance is summarized, with particular emphasis on factors that contribute to the formation of conceptual interpretations, retrieval from memory of musical structures, and transformation into appropriate motor actions. For example, structural and emotional factors that contribute to performers' conceptual interpretations are considered. Research on the planning of musical sequences for production is reviewed, including hierarchical and associative retrieval influences, style-specific syntactic influences, and constraints on the range of planning. The fine motor control evidenced in music performance is discussed in terms of internal timekeeper models, motor programs, and kinematic models. The perceptual consequences of music performance are highlighted, including the successful communication of interpretations, resolution of structural ambiguities, and concordance with listeners' expectations. Parallels with other domains support the conclusion that music performance is not unique in its underlying cognitive mechanisms.

  14. Association between two distinct executive tasks in schizophrenia: a functional transcranial Doppler sonography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoridou Anastasia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving impairments in executive functioning, which are important cognitive processes that can be assessed by planning tasks such as the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC, and tasks of rule learning/abstraction such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. We undertook this study to investigate the association between performance during separate phases of SOC and WCST, including mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV measurements in chronic schizophrenia. Methods Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD was used to assess bilateral MFV changes in the middle (MCA and anterior (ACA cerebral arteries. Twenty-two patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy subjects with similar sociodemographic characteristics performed SOC and WCST during fTCD measurements of the MCA and the ACA. The SOC was varied in terms of easy and difficult problems, and also in terms of separate phases, namely mental planning and movement execution. The WCST performance was assessed separately for maintaining set and set shifting. This allowed us to examine the impact of problem difficulty and the impact of separate phases of a planning task on distinct intervals of WCST. Simultaneous registration of MFV was carried out to investigate the linkage of brain perfusion during the tasks. Results In patients, slowing of movement execution during easy problems (SOC was associated with slowing during maintaining set (WCST (P Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate performance and brain perfusion abnormalities in the association pattern of two different tasks of executive functioning in schizophrenia, and they support the notion that executive functions have a pathological functional correlate predominantly in the lateral hemispheres of the brain. This study also underpins the scientific potential of fTCD in assessing brain perfusion in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. PERFORMANCE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chaoyang Theater Chaoyang Theater specializes in acrobatic performances. Built in 1984, the theater was designated a special one for tourists by Beijing Municipal Government in 1986. In 2001, it won the title of one of the excellent cultural units in China. From the early 1980s, the theater has been concentrating on acrobatic performances. After 10 years, the theater became famous for its acrobatic performances. In Beijing, it is acknowledged that Chaoyang Theater is the best place to

  16. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle; Schmidt, Ulrik; Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Do ants and grasshoppers perform? Do clouds, plants and melting ice? Do skyscrapers, traffic jams and computer vira? And what happens to our understanding of liveness if that is the case? This chapter takes ongoing theoretical disputes about the nature of live performance in performance studies a...... examples being Francisco López’ La Selva (1998), James Turrell’s Skyspaces (1974-), James Benning’s Ten Skies (2004), Pierre Huyghes Untilled (2012) and Pierre Sauvageots Harmonic Fields (2010)....

  17. Fish oil supplementation and physical exercise program: distinct effects on different memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachetti, A L F; Arida, R M; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Fernades-Santos, L; Frussa-Filho, R; Gomes da Silva, S; Scorza, F A; Cysneiros, R M

    2013-01-15

    Both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise are able to induce benefits to mental health by providing an improvement in cognitive performance and enhancing neuroplasticity and protection against neurological lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive effects in rats of the: (1) a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation (85 mg/kg/day) initiated from prenatal period to the midlife (300 day/old); (2) moderate physical exercise in treadmill initiated from adolescent period to midlife and (3) association of fish oil supplementation and moderate physical exercise protocol during the same period. Animals were submitted to the habituation in the open-field, object recognition and to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. Our results demonstrated that a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation can facilitate the persistence of the long-term habituation and recognition memories without, however, affecting the discriminative avoidance memory. Conversely, although the program of physical exercise exerted no effects on habituation or objects recognition, it was able to potentiate the persistence of the discriminative avoidance memory. Such promnestic effects (induced by both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise) were not accompanied by alterations in emotionality or locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation, initiated from prenatal period to midlife, and physical exercise program applied throughout the life induced distinctly a better cognitive performance.

  18. Processing distinct linguistic information types in working memory in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Downey, Ryan A; Gravier, Michelle; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2007-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have suggested that adults with aphasia present with a working memory deficit that may contribute to their language-processing difficulties. Working memory capacity has been conceptualised as a single "resource" pool for attentional, linguistic, and other executive processing-alternatively, it has been suggested that there may be separate working memory abilities for different types of linguistic information. A challenge in this line of research is developing an appropriate measure of working memory ability in adults with aphasia. One candidate measure of working memory ability that may be appropriate for this population is the n-back task. By manipulating stimulus type, the n-back task may be appropriate for tapping linguistic-specific working memory abilities. AIMS: The purposes of this study were (a) to measure working memory ability in adults with aphasia for processing specific types of linguistic information, and (b) to examine whether a relationship exists between participants' performance on working memory and auditory comprehension measures. METHOD #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Nine adults with aphasia participated in the study. Participants completed three n-back tasks, each tapping different types of linguistic information. They included the PhonoBack (phonological level), SemBack (semantic level), and SynBack (syntactic level). For all tasks, two n-back levels were administered: a 1-back and 2-back. Each level contained 20 target items; accuracy was recorded by stimulus presentation software. The Subject-relative, Object-relative, Active, Passive Test of Syntactic Complexity (SOAP) was the syntactic sentence comprehension task administered to all participants. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Participants' performance declined as n-back task difficulty increased. Overall, participants performed better on the SemBack than PhonoBack and SynBack tasks, but the differences were not statistically significant. Finally

  19. Deep penetrating nevus: A distinct variant of melanocytic nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep penetrating nevus (DPN is a variant of melanocytic nevus which goes unrecognized due to its relative rarity and may be misinterpreted as malignant melanoma. It commonly presents in young adults as a dark pigmented lesion on the face, neck, or shoulder. A 60-year-old lady presented with a mole over the left arm of 8 years duration. A biopsy of the lesion was performed under the clinical impression of a compound nevus with suspicion of malignancy. Based on the histologic features, a diagnosis of DPN was put forward.

  20. Coordinating mecanisms in automotive distribution channel: distinctive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Sousa Ribeiro Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Besides managing its internal activities, the supply chain management has the challenge of coordinating and managing its partners. The references indicate some organizational and management tools that can help in performing those activities, and in this paper, they are called Supply Chain Coordinating Practices. This paper identifies and evaluates the results obtained by applying some coordinating practices o in the Brazilian automotive channel distribution. This article is an exploratory study, using one case study as research method. The result shows that all of the related practices are presented in the Relationships analysed. However, regarding the benefits obtained, industry and distributors have different opinions.

  1. Performance Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…

  2. Urban performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    on the High Line, New York during Performa 2011. With the dance performance I want to illustrate how the bio political shaping of the body becomes intensified and transformed during the performance. Ashley does not only choreograph the individual body and the body of the - formerly - passive spectator, he...

  3. Weekly Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    There are many retired people living in Beijing. In order to amuse themselves and improve their health, some have formed yangko (folk dance) teams on a voluntary basis. Ordinarily they do the yangko individually and gather to perform on Sundays. Wearing traditional costumes and forming a circle, yangko teams’ members are enthusiastic about their activity, known as a "weekly performance."

  4. Performative Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Malene Kirstine; Mullins, Michael; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies two digital generative tools in terms of Performative Tectonics. Performative Tectonics is a term developed in the paper, which links the contemporary development of digital tools to the tectonic tradition of architecture. Within the theoretical framework of this definition...

  5. Aesthetic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgrebe, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with how an aesthetic performance is enacted and coordinated by a performance group attracting attention and engaging commuters in a public space. Multimodal interactional resources and the way they are coordinated by interactants are investigated, and include verbal and non......-verbal actions, gaze orientation, active and static interactional strategies and props. From the data investigated, it seems that the performance act is divided into different stages which each calls for different strategies: the group's initiation of the entire performance act reveals that the group stand out...... as uncoordinated and it may have a significance for whether the 'street' performers manage to stay in character or not. Once attention from commuters is obtained, a continued gaze from these commuters opens up for subsequent interaction, which then ultimately may result in the successful handing over of a card...

  6. Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peregrino de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationship between human resource management (HRM and organizational performance. Theoretically, we discuss the importance of HRM for the development of resources and its impact on business performance. Empirically, we evaluated articles published on Brazilian academic journals that addressed such relationships. The results showed a lack of studies conducted at this intersection. From the universe of 2,469 articles, only 16 (0.6% sought to relate HRM and organizational performance. We observed a dominance of isolated HR practices, which does not consider HRM as a system, and of operational performance measures, relative to financial and efficiency variables. Most studies show a positive relationship between HRM practices and performance, in line with the literature. However, we point out some methodological issues, such as the difficulty of isolating the HR practices from its context, the failure to consider the temporality of this relationship, and the comparison between companies from different industries.

  7. Age-related differences in memory after attending to distinctiveness or similarity during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Valerie A; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is vulnerable to age-related change, with older adults demonstrating both impairments in retrieving contextual details and susceptibility to interference among similar events. Such impairments may be due in part to an age-related decline in the ability to encode distinct memory representations. Recent research has examined how manipulating stimulus properties to emphasize distinctiveness can reduce age-related deficits in memory. However, few studies have addressed whether learning strategies that differentially encourage distinctiveness processing attenuate age-related differences in episodic memory. In the present study, participants engaged in two incidental encoding tasks emphasizing either distinctiveness or similarity processing. Results demonstrated higher rates of recollection for stimuli studied under the distinctiveness task than the similarity task in younger but not older adults. These findings suggest a declining capacity for distinctiveness processing to benefit memory in older adults, and raise the possibility that strategies that enhance gist-based encoding may attenuate age-related memory deficits.

  8. Enhancing the quality of international orthopedic medical mission trips using the blue distinction criteria for knee and hip replacement centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kyle E; Ghazinouri, Roya; Diez, Desiree; Alcantara, Luis; Beagan, Carolyn; Aggouras, Barbara; Hoagland, Monica; Thornhill, Thomas S; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2013-09-23

    Several organizations seek to address the growing burden of arthritis in developing countries by providing total joint replacements (TJR) to patients with advanced arthritis who otherwise would not have access to these procedures. Because these mission trips operate in resource poor environments, some of the features typically associated with high quality care may be difficult to implement. In the U.S., many hospitals that perform TJRs use the Blue Cross/Shield's Blue Distinction criteria as benchmarks of high quality care. Although these criteria were designed for use in the U.S., we applied them to Operation Walk (Op-Walk) Boston's medical mission trip to the Dominican Republic. Evaluating the program using these criteria illustrated that the program provides high quality care and, more importantly, helped the program to find areas of improvement. We used the Blue Distinction criteria to determine if Op-Walk Boston achieves Blue Distinction. Each criterion was grouped according to the four categories included in the Blue Distinction criteria--"general and administrative", "structure", "process", or "outcomes and volume". Full points were given for criteria that the program replicates entirely and zero points were given for criteria that are not replicated entirely. Of the non-replicated criteria, Op-Walk Boston's clinical and administrative teams were asked if they compensate for failure to meet the criterion, and they were also asked to identify barriers that prevent them from meeting the criterion. Out of 100 possible points, the program received 71, exceeding the 60-point threshold needed to qualify as a Blue Distinction center. The program met five out of eight "required" criteria and 11 out of 19 "informational" criteria. It scored 14/27 in the "general" category, 30/36 in the "structure" category, 17/20 in the "process" category, and 10/17 in the "outcomes and volume" category. Op-Walk Boston qualified for Blue Distinction. Our analysis highlights areas of

  9. Modelling of URM Walls Retrofitted with Cable:A Comparison Between a Basic Mechanical Model and Distinct Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUGE Yan; CHUANG Shihwei

    2006-01-01

    The Australian love of "heritage" buildings (most of them are unreinforced masonry (URM)) means that greater attention is required to secure their performance under seismic or impact loading in the future.A research project has been carried out to develop a new,economic and high strength retrofitting technique for masonry structures.A series of experimental testing on URM walls retrofitted with an innovative technique by cable system have been conducted.In this paper,an analytical model which is based on distinct element method(DEM) is developed to simulate the behaviour of retrofitted walls.In DEM,a solid is represented as an assembly of discrete blocks.Joints are modelled as interface between distinct bodies.It is a dynamic process and specially designed to model the behaviour of discontinuities.In order to assist the practising engineers to design this new retrofitted wall system,a simple mechanical model was also developed to predict the strength of the retrofitted walls.The results obtained from this simple mechanical model are compared with those from both experiments and distinct element model.

  10. Explaining the link between objective and perceived differences in groups: The role of the belonging and distinctiveness motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, Margaret E

    2016-02-01

    Group diversity research often focuses on objective diversity, or the actual compositional attributes of the group (e.g., differences in sex or functional background), and its impact on group processes and performance. More recently, diversity researchers have called for consideration of group members' perceptions of diversity, or their subjective understanding of differences within their group, because these perceptions have important effects on group outcomes. In fact, research has indicated only a modest correlation between objective and perceived diversity. Although the subjective nature of group diversity has important implications for group outcomes, we are still unclear about why and when perceived diversity diverges from objective diversity. In this article, I examine the role of identity motives, or motives that guide self-definition, in shaping member's perceptions of themselves and their group's composition. I argue that group members want to balance their needs for belonging and distinctiveness, but high levels of objective differences make them feel too distinct whereas low levels of objective differences makes them feel too deindividuated. Individual differences in the need to belong and be distinct further influence the degree to which these motives are satisfied. In turn, when these motives are unsatisfied, they will affect members' perceptions of differences. The presented theory helps to explain the discrepancy between objective differences and members' perceptions of differences, and ultimately helps integrate opposing findings in the diversity literature.

  11. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: a distinct condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal inherited autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians, affecting approximately one out of every 2,000 births. Survival of patients with cystic fibrosis has significantly improved due to advances in respiratory and nutritional care, and their current average life expectancy is 30-40 years. Development of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is a comorbidity that increases with age and may reach a prevalence up to 50% in adults. Its development is associated to impaired lung function and nutritional status, and early diagnosis and treatment are therefore essential to improve quality of life and performance status. Insulin therapy for diabetes and other early carbohydrate metabolism disorders may improve lung function and nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct stem cells contribute to mammary gland development and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Rocha, Ana Sofia; Ousset, Marielle; Beck, Benjamin; Bouvencourt, Gaëlle; Rock, Jason; Sharma, Neha; Dekoninck, Sophie; Blanpain, Cédric

    2011-10-09

    The mammary epithelium is composed of several cell lineages including luminal, alveolar and myoepithelial cells. Transplantation studies have suggested that the mammary epithelium is maintained by the presence of multipotent mammary stem cells. To define the cellular hierarchy of the mammary gland during physiological conditions, we performed genetic lineage-tracing experiments and clonal analysis of the mouse mammary gland during development, adulthood and pregnancy. We found that in postnatal unperturbed mammary gland, both luminal and myoepithelial lineages contain long-lived unipotent stem cells that display extensive renewing capacities, as demonstrated by their ability to clonally expand during morphogenesis and adult life as well as undergo massive expansion during several cycles of pregnancy. The demonstration that the mammary gland contains different types of long-lived stem cells has profound implications for our understanding of mammary gland physiology and will be instrumental in unravelling the cells at the origin of breast cancers.

  13. Confidence and certainty: distinct probabilistic quantities for different goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Alexandre; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kepecs, Adam

    2017-01-01

    When facing uncertainty, adaptive behavioral strategies demand that the brain performs probabilistic computations. In this probabilistic framework, the notion of certainty and confidence would appear to be closely related, so much so that it is tempting to conclude that these two concepts are one and the same. We argue that there are computational reasons to distinguish between these two concepts. Specifically, we propose that confidence should be defined as the probability that a decision or a proposition, overt or covert, is correct given the evidence, a critical quantity in complex sequential decisions. We suggest that the term certainty should be reserved to refer to the encoding of all other probability distributions over sensory and cognitive variables. We also discuss strategies for studying the neural codes for confidence and certainty and argue that clear definitions of neural codes are essential to understanding the relative contributions of various cortical areas to decision making. PMID:26906503

  14. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabio [BIOAGRI Labs., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Div. de Quimica. Lab. de Radioquimica; Cardinali, Vanessa Camponez do Brasil; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Lavorenti, Arquimedes [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Toxicologia

    2003-03-01

    The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with Kh{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha{sup -1} of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L{sup -1}), with a {sup 14}C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL{sup -1}. Four steps of the desorption procedures withCaCl{sub 2} 0.01 mol L{sup -1} and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L{sup -1}). Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm{sup -3}. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%), and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content. (author)

  15. Glyphosate sorption and desorption in soils with distinct phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Fábio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of glyphosate by soils occurs due to the inner sphere complex formation with metals of soil oxides, which are related to the soil phosphate adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing rates of phosphorus on sorption and desorption of glyphosate in three soils with different mineralogical attributes. Soils were a Rhodic Kandiudalf, an Anionic Acrudox and a Typic Humaquept. Soil samples were amended with KH2PO4 at equivalent rates of 0; 1,000; 5,000; 20,000 and 50,000 kg ha-1 of P2O5, which are high from the agricultural point of view, but necessary in order to perform sorption and desorption studies. The experimental design consisted of a completely randomized factorial: 2 soils x 5 phosphorus rates and 3 replicates. For the sorption experiments, five glyphosate solutions were employed (0.42; 0.84; 1.68; 3.36 and 6.72 mg L-1, with a 14C radioactivity of 0.233 kBq mL-1. Four steps of the desorption procedure with CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 and one extraction with Mehlich 3 were performed only at one concentration (0.84 mol L-1. Soil samples were afterwards biologically oxidized to establish the radioactive balance. Glyphosate competes with phosphorus for specific sorption sites, but this competition becomes important when phosphorus is present at rates higher than 1,000 mg dm-3. Moreover, a small amount of applied glyphosate was extracted (<10%, and the extraction increased with increasing soil phosphorus content.

  16. Performance managenemt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, Claus Brygger

    This paper attempts to identify barriers that prevent performance management from being genuinely result-based. By observing what happened when a Danish workfare reform was implemented by applying performance management, it becomes apparent that there exists internal decouplings on and between two...... levels; a decoupling between the monitoring/evaluation of established performance indicators and the revising of these for policy-making on future interventions, and a decoupling between the strategic political/administrative level and operational street-level, inhibiting its adaption to local...

  17. Medullary Carcinoma of the Penis: A Distinctive HPV-related Neoplasm: A Report of 12 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete-Portillo, Sofía; Clavero, Omar; Sanchez, Diego F; Silvero, Arturo; Abed, Francisco; Rodriguez, Ingrid M; Ayala, Gustavo; Alemany, Laia; Munoz, Nubia; de Sanjose, Silvia; Quint, Wim; Bosch, Francesc X; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2017-04-01

    A third to half of penile invasive squamous cell carcinomas are human papillomavirus (HPV) related. Warty (condylomatous), warty-basaloid, and basaloid carcinomas are the most common subtypes associated with HPV. Less frequent are clear cell and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. Here we report a novel penile tumor associated with HPV. Twelve cases were selected from 1010 penile carcinomas, part of an international HPV detection study conducted at the Institut Català d'Oncologia, Barcelona, Spain. Immunostaining with p16 was performed on all cases, and HPV-mRNA detection was also performed. En bloc full tumor staining was the utilized criteria for positivity of p16. For HPV-DNA detection, whole-tissue section polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed by SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 (version 1). The patients' ages ranged from 42 to 92 years (average, 71 y). The tumor was most commonly located in the glans. A characteristic microscopic finding was the presence of a moderate to dense tumor-associated inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, or eosinophils. Tumors grew in large solid sheets, nests, or had a trabecular pattern. Cells were large and poorly differentiated or anaplastic. Keratinization was minimal or absent. Nuclei were large with prominent nucleoli. Mitoses were numerous. Tumor necrosis was common. Deep invasion of the corpora cavernosa was frequent. p16 and HPV-DNA were positive in all cases, whereas mRNA detection was positive in 9 cases only. The prevalent genotype was HPV16 (9 cases, 75%). Other genotypes were HPVs 58, 33, and 66. Medullary carcinomas of the penis are morphologically distinctive HPV-related high-grade neoplasms affecting older individuals. More studies are necessary to delineate the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular features of this unusual penile neoplasm.

  18. Authenticating Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adherents of performance theory emphasize the constitutive and transformative potential of rituals with respect to patterns of social organization and authority. For them, rituals “not only mean something, but also do something, particularly the way they construct and inscribe power relationships......” (Bell 1997). This contribution focuses on the role of ritual in postcolonial identity constitution and the performative authentication of political power and social authority in Taiwan. Since the middle of the 1990s, traditionalist performances have been on the rise on the island. Generously subsidized...... at the contemporary rituals of the Taroko and Ami, which are characterized by the above mentioned dynamics, I argue that rituals publicly performed by aborigines today amalgamate different levels of meaning. While they articulate and negotiate the identity needs and social exigencies of the respective social group...

  19. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  20. Performance Hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Derksen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guitar Hero series of video games and their spin-offs have provided millions with a new way to interact with music. These games are not only culturally significant but also philosophically significant. Based on the way that these games allow people to interact with music we must decide that either playing a song in one of these games can be a legitimate performance of that song or that our current accounts of performance are inadequate.