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Sample records for monosodium methanearsonate msma

  1. 75 FR 17733 - Monosodium Methanearsonate (MSMA); Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... without change and may be made available on-line at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal... use of profanity or personal threats. viii. Make sure to submit your comments by the comment period... Bueno-6 MSMA 61483-17 Daconate Super MSMA Brand 61483-18 Bueno MSMA Table 2 of this unit includes...

  2. Uptake, distribution and elimination of monosodium methanearsonate following long term oral administration of the herbicide to sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1984-08-01

    The rate and extent of accumulation and washout of arsenic, during daily oral administration of the herbicide monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) were evaluated in Iranian dairy sheep and goats. Subjects received a dose of 10 mg of MSMA as arsenic per kg of body weight daily for 28 consecutive days. The total arsenic concentration in blood and milk was measured during and after the period of MSMA administration while arsenic in urine and feces was measured for 10 days following administration of last dosage of MSMA. Arsenic was accumulated slowly during 28 days of MSMA administration and steady states were essentially complete in sheep after 20 days and in goats following 25 days of MSMA administration. Blood arsenic concentration decreased rapidly after termination of MSMA administration. In both test animals, the half-lives of washout were smaller than accumulation. The concentration of arsenic in the urine and feces of both species did not increase significantly over controls and animals were free of arsenic relatively shortly after administration stopped. These data indicate that arsenic from MSMA is mainly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and is not significantly accumulated in the body. Arsenic is eliminated from body by way of urine and feces with urinary excretion being the most important route.

  3. Distribution and toxicity of monosodium methanearsonate following oral administration of the herbicide to dairy sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1984-01-01

    Iranian fat-tailed sheep and dairy goats were administered the herbicide monosodium methanearsonate orally at a dose of 10 mg. MSMA (as arsenic) per kg. of body weight. The concentration time curves of MSMA in the blood of sheep and goats followed a first order composite exponential equation of the form: Cb(t) = Ae- alpha t + Be- beta t - C degrees be-kat. Absorption, distribution and elimination of MSMA, therefore, corresponds to an open two-compartment model. Arsenic from MSMA was readily absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and distributed in the body fluids and the various tissues. Approximately 90% of the arsenic was excreted in the urine within 120 hrs and small amounts were also recovered in feces. Arsenic accumulation in the tissues was low and urinary excretion was the most important exit route. Arsenic concentrations in milk were low when compared to the controls, which indicates that arsenic is not excreted in the milk to significant levels. The absorption, distribution and overall elimination rate constants for the two animal species studied were statistically different at the 0.95 level of confidence which indicates that there are apparently differences in MSMA metabolism by sheep and goats.

  4. MSMA resistance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, N D; Keese, R J; Coker, P S

    2004-05-01

    Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant and -susceptible common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were treated with MSMA. Plant parameters analyzed were: glutathione synthetase activity, selected amino acid (arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, citrulline, glutamine, and glutathione) content and arsenic content (MSMA, total arsenic, and arsonate). No reduction of arsenic from the parent pentavalent form present in MSMA to the trivalent form was detected. Arginine, glutamic acid, and glutamine content increased in tissue three days after MSMA treatment. Glutathione content decreased during the first three days after treatment; however, five days after treatment the resistant biotype of cocklebur and cotton had elevated glutathione levels (8-20 times greater, respectively). Glutathione Synthetase activity was higher in cotton than in either of the cocklebur biotypes; MSMA did not affect its activity in cotton or either cocklebur biotype. Resistant biotypes have a slightly higher activity than the susceptible biotype. Tolerance of cotton to MSMA may be related to glutathione synthetase activity and possibly to the presence of phytochelatins. Also, increased glutathione levels in the resistant biotype may implicate phytochelatin involvement in the resistance mechanism.

  5. Intoxicação aguda por metano arsonato ácido monossódico em bovinos Acute poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N. Dantas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou a intoxicação acidental por arsênico em um lote de 24 vacas Girolando, as quais tiveram acesso a pasto pulverizado com herbicida à base de metano arsonato ácido monossódico (MSMA. Os bovinos apresentaram apatia, anorexia e diarreia profusa. Foram necropsiados na fazenda dois animais de 14 que morreram. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram úlceras abomasais e congestão renal. No exame microscópico, as principais lesões observadas foram abomasite e omasite necro-hemorrágica multifocal acentuada e, nos rins, necrose tubular difusa. As concentrações médias de arsênico em vacas com sinais clínicos foram 1,19±0,40, 10,52±2,16 e 76,06±48,37ppm no sangue, leite e fezes, respectivamente. Os níveis de arsênico encontrados em dois animais necropsiados foram 25,58 e 23,85ppm em fígado, e 28,71 e 35,94ppm em rins, respectivamente. No feto de uma vaca necropsiada, os níveis de arsênico mensurados no fígado e rim foram 9,0 e 8,92ppm, respectivamente. A concentração de arsênico no capim do piquete pulverizado foi 111,58ppm. No Brasil, o uso MSMA na composição de pesticidas e herbicidas é permitido somente para uso agrícola, mas não pecuário. A utilização desse ou de outros produtos à base de arsênico na pecuária pode causar altos índices de mortalidade no rebanho, além de diminuição da produção e contaminação de produtos de origem animal.Poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid (MSMA is reported in a herd of 24 Girolando cows that were introduced into a pasture sprayed with the herbicide. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and profuse diarrhea. Fourteen cows died and two were necropsied. Abomasal ulcers and renal congestion was observed. Main histologic lesions were multifocal, accentuated, necrotizing and hemorrhagic abomasitis and omasitis, and tubular necrosis in the kidneys. Mean arsenic concentrations in cows with clinical signs were 1.19±0.40, 10.52±2.16, and 76.06

  6. Arsenic Transport and Transformation Associated with MSMA Application on a Golf Course Green

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Min; SCHRLAU, JILL E.; Snyder, Raymond; Snyder, George H.; Chen, Ming; Cisar, John L.; Cai, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The impact of extensively used arsenic-containing herbicides on groundwater beneath golf courses has become a topic of interest. Although currently used organoarsenicals are less toxic, their application into the environment may produce the more toxic inorganic arsenicals. The objective of this work was to understand the behavior of arsenic species in percolate water from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) applied golf course greens, as well as to determine the influences of root-zone media fo...

  7. Arsenic Transport and Transformation Associated with MSMA Application on a Golf Course Green

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Min; Schrlau, Jill E.; Snyder, Raymond; Snyder,George H.; Chen, Ming; Cisar, John L.; Cai, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The impact of extensively used arsenic-containing herbicides on groundwater beneath golf courses has become a topic of interest. Although currently used organoarsenicals are less toxic, their application into the environment may produce the more toxic inorganic arsenicals. The objective of this work was to understand the behavior of arsenic species in percolate water from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) applied golf course greens, as well as to determine the influences of root-zone media fo...

  8. Effect of monosodium methanarsonate application on cuticle wax content of cocklebur and cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keese, Renee J; Camper, N Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Leaf cuticle waxes were extracted from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants at 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after treatment (DAT) following 1x and 2x MSMA applications. Wax constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and compared to alkane and alcohol standards of carbon lengths varying from C21 to C30. Differences in waxes were calculated and reported as change per ng mm2-1. Tricosane (C23) was found to increase following MSMA applications. All other alkanes decreased by 7 DAT, with some showing a linear effect over time in the R-cocklebur. Alcohol constituents were also observed to decrease by 7 DAT. Total arsenic in the extracted wax fraction was determined, with greatest quantities detected in the R-cocklebur. Wax changes are not believed to play a role in cotton tolerance, since changes in cuticle concentrations were minimal. Cocklebur resistance to MSMA is not due to cuticle constituents; the wax changes are a secondary effect in response to herbicide application.

  9. Changes in Simpson’s Diversity Index in Microcosms Impacted with Monosodium Methane Arsenate

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Kish; Nelson W. Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our studies is to analyze environmental impacts of Monosodium Methane Arsenate, MSMA, on aquatic habitats using the Aqua-Terra microcosm system. MSMA was applied at environmentally relevant(recommended) doses to microcosms to determine the change in biodiversity and the bio-concentration of arsenic in the aquatic plants (_Elodea Sp._) used in the microcosms as an oxygen source. The microcosms are filled with unfiltered pond water and the diversity of each microcosm was deter...

  10. A constrained model for MSMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Antonio [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Mueller, Stefan [Hausdorff Center for Mathematics and Institute for Applied Mathematics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Otto, Felix [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    A mathematical description of transformation processes in magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) under applied stresses and external magnetic fields needs a combination of micromagnetics and continuum elasticity theory. In this note, we discuss the so-called constrained theories, i.e., models where the state described by the pair (linear strain, magnetization) is at every point of the sample constrained to assume one of only finitely many values (that reflect the material symmetries). Furthermore, we focus on large body limits, i.e., models that are formulated in terms of (local) averages of a microstructured state, as the one proposed by DeSimone and James. We argue that the effect of an interfacial energy associated with the twin boundaries survives on the level of the large body limit in form of a (local) rigidity of twins. This leads to an alternative (i.e., with respect to reference 1) large body limit. The new model has the advantage of qualitatively explaining the occurrence of a microstructure with charged magnetic walls, as observed in SPP experiments in reference 2. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Association of arsenic concentration and speciation with straighthead disease in US produced rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have indicated that rice when grown under anaerobic flooded field conditions can accumulate high levels of grain arsenic (As). This is a public health concern due to the high daily consumption of rice by some populations. The As-based herbicide (monosodium methanearsonate, MSMA) has ...

  12. ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that confers resistance to trivalent forms of the herbicide MSMA and the poultry growth promoter roxarsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental organoarsenicals are produced by microorganisms and are introduced anthropogenically as herbicides and antimicrobial growth promoters for poultry and swine. Nearly every prokaryote has an ars (arsenic resistance) operon, and some have an arsH gene encoding an atypical flavodoxin. The role of ArsH in arsenic resistance has been unclear. Here we demonstrate that ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that detoxifies trivalent methylated and aromatic arsenicals by oxidation to pentavalent species. Escherichia coli, which does not have an arsH gene, is very sensitive to the trivalent forms of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA or MAs(V)) and antimicrobial growth promoter roxarsone (Rox(V)), as well as to phenylarsenite (PhAs(III), also called phenylarsine oxide or PAO). Pseudomonas putida has two chromosomally-encoded arsH genes and is highly resistant to the trivalent forms of these organoarsenicals. A derivative of P. putida with both arsH genes deleted is sensitive to MAs(III), PhAs(III) or Rox(III). P. putida arsH expressed in E. coli conferred resistance to each trivalent organoarsenical. Cells expressing PpArsH oxidized the trivalent organoarsenicals. PpArsH was purified, and the enzyme in vitro similarly oxidized the trivalent organoarsenicals. These results suggest that ArsH catalyzes a novel biotransformation that confers resistance to environmental methylated and aromatic arsenicals. PMID:25732202

  13. Bifurcation characteristics and safe basin of MSMA microgripper subjected to stochastic excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A kind of magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA microgripper is proposed in this paper, and its nonlinear dynamic characteristics are studied when the stochastic perturbation is considered. Nonlinear differential items are introduced to explain the hysteretic phenomena of MSMA, and the constructive relationships among strain, stress, and magnetic field intensity are obtained by the partial least-square regression method. The nonlinear dynamic model of a MSMA microgripper subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation is developed. The stationary probability density function of the system’s response is obtained, the transition sets of the system are determined, and the conditions of stochastic bifurcation are obtained. The homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits of the system are given, and the boundary of the system’s safe basin is obtained by stochastic Melnikov integral method. The numerical and experimental results show that the system’s motion depends on its parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the variation of the parameters; the area of the safe basin decreases with the increase of the stochastic excitation, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal. The results of this paper are helpful for the application of MSMA microgripper in engineering fields.

  14. Bifurcation characteristics and safe basin of MSMA microgripper subjected to stochastic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z. W., E-mail: zhuzhiwen@tju.edu.cn; Li, X. M., E-mail: lixinmiaotju@163.com [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, J., E-mail: xujia-ld@163.com [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Control, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-02-15

    A kind of magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) microgripper is proposed in this paper, and its nonlinear dynamic characteristics are studied when the stochastic perturbation is considered. Nonlinear differential items are introduced to explain the hysteretic phenomena of MSMA, and the constructive relationships among strain, stress, and magnetic field intensity are obtained by the partial least-square regression method. The nonlinear dynamic model of a MSMA microgripper subjected to in-plane stochastic excitation is developed. The stationary probability density function of the system’s response is obtained, the transition sets of the system are determined, and the conditions of stochastic bifurcation are obtained. The homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits of the system are given, and the boundary of the system’s safe basin is obtained by stochastic Melnikov integral method. The numerical and experimental results show that the system’s motion depends on its parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the variation of the parameters; the area of the safe basin decreases with the increase of the stochastic excitation, and the boundary of the safe basin becomes fractal. The results of this paper are helpful for the application of MSMA microgripper in engineering fields.

  15. Histochemical Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food ... The rats were given water ad libitum. ... that monosodium glutamate consumption may have some deleterious effects on ..... (MSG); obese rat as a model for the study of.

  16. Efeitos do volume de calda de aplicação e adição de surfatantes organossiliconados na eficiência do MSMA no controle de tiririca Effects of spray volume and surfactants on MSMA efficiency in controlling purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a eficiência do herbicida MSMA no controle da planta daninha tiririca (Cyperus rotundus, quando aplicado com diferentes volumes de calda, associado ou não a surfatantes to tipo organossiliconados. Os tratamentos, dispostos no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, foram: MSMA (2,4 kg ha-1, MSMA (2,4 kg ha¹ + surfatante organossiliconado [marca comercial Silwet L-77] 0,05% v/v e MSMA (2,4 kg ha-1 + surfatante organossiliconado [marca comercial Break Thru] 0,05% v/v, aplicados em quatro volumes de calda (100, 200, 300 e 400 L ha-1, e duas testemunhas (capinada e sem capina. A pressão de trabalho do pulverizador (3,0 kgf cm-2 foi mantida constante durante as aplicações, para todos os tratamentos. No momento das aplicações as manifestações epígeas de tiririca apresentavam em média oito folhas. O surfatante marca comercial Silwet L-77 mostrou tendência de acelerar a toxidez do MSMA sobre a parte aérea da tiririca; todavia, variações do volume de calda aplicado por hectare com adição ou não de surfatantes organossiliconados não incrementaram o controle dessa planta daninha. O MSMA proporcionou apenas controle regular da tiririca (60-70%.The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the herbicide MSMA in controlling the weed Cyperus rotundus. Different spray volumes, associated or not to organosilicone surfactants were used. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with four replications: MSMA (2.4 kg ha-1, MSMA (2.4 kg ha-1 + organosilicone surfactante [commercial product = Silwet L-77] 0.05% v/v and MSMA (2.4 kg ha-1 + [commercial product = Break Thru] 0.05% v/v, applied at four spray volumes (100, 200, 300 and 400 L ha-1, and two check treatments (weeded and weed free. The boom sprayer pressure (3.0 kgf cm-2 was maintained constant for all treatments. At the application timing, C. rotundus plants were at the stage of eight

  17. Decision Support System (DSS) for MSMA Integrated Stormwater Management Ecohydrology for Sustainable Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohiyaden, H. A.; Haris, H.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization has known to have several adverse impacts towards hydrological cycle due to increasing impervious surface and degradation of water quality in stormwater runoff. In the past, urban waterways have been confined to narrow river corridors with the channels canalised and concrete and other synthetic materials forming the bed and banks of the river. Apart from that, stormwater pollutants such as litter, debris and sediments in drainage system are common problems that can lead to flooding and the degradation of water quality. To solve this problem, implementing stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) proves very promising due to its near natural characteristics and multiple effects on the drainage of stormwater runoff in urban areas. This judgment of using BMPs depends on not only relevant theoretical considerations, but also a large amount of practical experience and the availability of relevant data, as well. To fulfil this task, the so-called Decision Support System (DSS) in MSMA Design Aid and Database system are able to assist engineers and developers in management and improvement of water quantity and quality entering urban rivers from urban regions. This system is also helpful when an expert level judgment procure some repetitive and large amount of cases, like in the planning of stormwater BMPs systems for an entire city catchment. One of the advantages of an expert system is that it provides automation of expert-level judgement using availability of checking tools system.

  18. Eficácia do herbicida msma na erradicação de coqueiros infectados com resinose Efficacy of the Herbicide MSMA in Eradicating Coconut Trees Infected with Stem-Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Fontes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a menor dose do herbicida MSMA e a melhor forma de aplicação, visando à erradicação de coqueiros infectados com resinose. O experimento foi realizado no município de Neópolis-SE, no período de julho a agosto de 2007, utilizando plantas do cultivar Anão-Verde, com 11 anos de idade. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 + 1, sendo três doses do herbicida MSMA (14,4; 21,6; e 28,8 g por planta, duas formas de aplicação dos tratamentos herbicidas (produto injetado no estipe em um furo de 25 cm de profundidade e 5 cm de diâmetro, localizado a 1,0 m de altura; ou a dose dividida em dois furos de 25 cm de profundidade e 5 cm de diâmetro, sendo um a 0,5 m e o outro a 1,0 m de altura, mais um tratamento controle sem aplicação. O herbicida foi injetado sem diluição, usando uma seringa graduada, imediatamente após a abertura dos furos. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, realizou-se o fechamento dos furos com argila umedecida. As avaliações de controle foram realizadas aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. A dose de 21,6 g por planta de MSMA localizada em apenas um furo foi eficiente na erradicação dos coqueiros, proporcionando aos 28 DAA controle acima de 95%, impedindo qualquer possibilidade de recuperação das plantas.The objective of this work was to identify the minimum MSMA dose needed and the best way to apply it to chemically eradicate coconut palm trees affected by stem-bleeding. The experiment was carried out in Neopolis, Sergipe from July to August 2007. The coconut tree variety green-dwarf had been planted 11 years ago in the area The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with five replicates and the treatments were arranged in a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial scheme, with three herbicide doses (14.4, 21.6 and 28.8 g per plant, two modes of herbicide application (entire dose

  19. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading... United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Governments of China and Indonesia. \\1...

  20. Response of rice genotype to straighthead disease as influenced by arsenic level and water management practices in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Bin; Yan, Wengui; Yang, John

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) uptake by rice plants and the straighthead disease induced by As-based herbicide are of environmental concerns. Bioavailability or mobility of inorganic As in soil has been reported to be significantly influenced by soil minerals such as iron (hydr) oxide; however, the interactions of organic As such as monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) with soil minerals are little studied, thus largely unknown. In an effort to minimize the As uptake by rice and determine rice cultivar response to soil MSMA level, a field experiment was conducted on three rice cultivars grown in both MSMA-treated and -untreated soils under continuous or intermittent flood water management practices. Results indicated that the grain yield and the occurrence of straighthead disease were cultivar-dependent and influenced by soil As level and water management practices. Straighthead-resistant cultivars yielded more and had lower grain As than the susceptible ones. Elevated soil As with continuous flood management significantly reduced the grain yield of susceptible cultivars by >89% due to substantially increased straighthead, which were induced by increased As content in grains. Yield reduction by MSMA treatment could be partially mitigated with intermittent flood water practice. The As accumulation was found to be associated with soil iron redox transformation influenced by the water management. This study demonstrates that the selection of less As-susceptible cultivars and intermittent flood water practice could be effective means to lower the As accumulation in grains and minimize the occurrence of the As-induced straighthead symptom and yield reduction.

  1. Monosodium Luminol for Improving Brain Function in Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    whether administration of monosodium luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT, an antioxidant drug from Bach Pharma) in a rat model of Gulf war illness (GWI) would...antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug monosodium luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT from Bach Pharma) for easing memory and mood dysfunction in a rat model of GWI...examine the efficacy of monosodium luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT from Bach Pharma) for alleviating mood and memory dysfunction in a rat model of GWI. The chosen

  2. ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that confers resistance to trivalent forms of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate and the poultry growth promoter roxarsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-06-01

    Environmental organoarsenicals are produced by microorganisms and are introduced anthropogenically as herbicides and antimicrobial growth promoters for poultry and swine. Nearly every prokaryote has an ars (arsenic resistance) operon, and some have an arsH gene encoding an atypical flavodoxin. The role of ArsH in arsenic resistance has been unclear. Here we demonstrate that ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that detoxifies trivalent methylated and aromatic arsenicals by oxidation to pentavalent species. Escherichia coli, which does not have an arsH gene, is very sensitive to the trivalent forms of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate [MSMA or MAs(V)] and antimicrobial growth promoter roxarsone [Rox(V)], as well as to phenylarsenite [PhAs(III), also called phenylarsine oxide or PAO]. Pseudomonas putida has two chromosomally encoded arsH genes and is highly resistant to the trivalent forms of these organoarsenicals. A derivative of P. putida with both arsH genes deleted is sensitive to MAs(III), PhAs(III) or Rox(III). P. putida arsH expressed in E. coli conferred resistance to each trivalent organoarsenical. Cells expressing PpArsH oxidized the trivalent organoarsenicals. PpArsH was purified, and the enzyme in vitro similarly oxidized the trivalent organoarsenicals. These results suggest that ArsH catalyzes a novel biotransformation that confers resistance to environmental methylated and aromatic arsenicals.

  3. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT 46000908120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-04-09

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The original Harrell Industries Lot #46000908120 qualification and 16 verification samples received in October 2012 failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids. The lot was returned to the vendor, and in February 2014 a new qualification sample and set of 16 verification samples were received from this lot. The new lot met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  4. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT 46000824120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-04-09

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The original Harrell Industries Lot #46000824120 qualification and 16 verification samples received in September 2012 failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids. The lot was returned to the vendor, and in February 2014 a new qualification sample and set of 14 verification samples were received from this lot. The new lot met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  5. Programa de manejo da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus na cultura da cana-de-açúcar com aplicação isolada ou seqüencial de MSMA Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus management program in sugarcane crop with isolated or sequential application of MSMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Foloni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo após muitos anos de estudos e experimentação, a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus permanece como sério problema para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar, exigindo a constante busca por novas alternativas de manejo. Assim, este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar um programa de manejo da tiririca em área da cultura da cana-de-açúcar densamente infestada, utilizando aplicações isoladas ou seqüenciais de MSMA, em dois anos sucessivos. Para isso, um experimento foi conduzido duas vezes, na mesma área, no período compreendido entre os anos de 1994 e 1996, ou seja, em dois anos agrícolas da cultura da cana-de-açúcar, variedade SP 71-1406. No trabalho, foram utilizados dez tratamentos com aplicações isoladas ou seqüenciais de MSMA sobre a tiririca, que foi a espécie dominante na área. Após as aplicações de MSMA, avaliaram-se a altura e seletividade dos tratamentos à cana-de-açúcar, bem como a altura e o controle percentual da tiririca e o número total, massa fresca e viabilidade dos tubérculos. Concluiu-se que o herbicida MSMA apresentou efeitos negativos iniciais sobre a altura e fitotoxicidade aparente da cana-de-açúcar, que regrediram com o decorrer das avaliações, não sendo observados ao término do experimento. A aplicação isolada de MSMA mostrou controle eficiente da tiririca, porém houve reinfestação. A aplicação seqüencial, para as duas maiores doses, resultou em constância no nível de controle. A análise do número, massa e viabilidade de tubérculos corrobora os dados de controle visual de desinfestação da área.Even after years of studying and experimentation, purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus is still a serious problem to sugarcane crop, demanding constant search for new management alternatives. Thus, this work aimed to determine a purple nutsedge management program for a highly infested sugarcane area, using isolated or sequential applications of MSMA, in two successive years. Thus

  6. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject to...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) PURCHASE SPECIFICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D

    2006-04-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the previous monosodium titanate (MST) purchase specifications for particle size and strontium decontamination factor. Based on the measured particle size and filtration performance characteristics of several MST samples with simulated waste solutions and various filter membranes we recommend changing the particle size specification as follows. The recommended specification varies with the size and manufacturer of the filter membrane as shown below. We recommend that future batches of MST received at SRS be tested for particle size and filtration performance. This will increase the available database and provide increased confidence that particle size parameters are an accurate prediction of filtration performance. Testing demonstrated the feasibility of a non-radiochemical method for evaluating strontium removal performance of MST samples. Using this analytical methodology we recommend that the purchase specification include the requirement that the MST exhibits a strontium DF factor of >1.79 upon contact with a simulated waste solution with composition as reported for simulated waste solution SWS-7-2005-1 in Table 1 and containing 5.2 to 5.7 mg L{sup -1} strontium with 0.1 g L{sup -1} of the MST. We also recommend performing additional tests with these simulants and MST samples and, if available, new MST samples, to determine the reproducibility and increase the available database for the measurements by the ICP-ES instrument. These measurements will provide increased confidence that the non-radiological method provides a reliable method for evaluating the strontium and actinide removal performance for MST samples.

  8. Aplicação de misturas de diuron com MSMA, e com paraquat, no controle de plantas daninhas de folhas largas em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Mixture of diuron whit MSMA and with paraquat for broadleaved weeds control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo conduzido em 1975/76 procurou-se avaliar a ação de misturas de MSMA com diuron e de paraquat com diuron, aplicadas em pós-emergência, em jato dirigido, em duas épocas diferentes, no controle de algumas plantas daninhas de folhas largas em algodão: carrapicho- do-campo (Acanthospermum australe (Loef O. Kuntze , falsa-poaia (Borreria ala ta (Aubl DC, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e guanxuma (Sida spp . A vegetação natural da área do ensaio era formada ainda pela gramínea capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop . Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de 2,00 kg e 2,70 kg/ha de MSMA com, respectivamente 0,30 kg e 0,40 kg/ha de diuron, e a mistura de 0.60 kg/ha de paraquat com 0,60 kg/ ha de diuron, foram eficientes no co ntro le daquelas dicotiledôneas, e também no da gramínea. Todos os tratamentos provocaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade nos algodoeiros, mas desapareceram depois e não prejudicaram o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, assim como a produção de algodão em caroço.In a field trial carried out in 1975/76, a diuron mixtu re with MSMA and another with paraquat was tested on broadleaved weeds in cotton crops. The applications were done in postemergence, directed-spray, in two different periods. The broadleaved weeds observed in the trial were Acanthospermum australe , Borreria alata, Richardia brasiliensis, and Sida spp, also the grass Digitaria sanguinalis. Best results were obtained with the mixture of 0,60 kg/ha of paraquat with 0,60 kg/ha of diuron, and 2,70 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,40 kg/ ha of diuron, or 2,00 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,30 kg/ha of diuron. All the treatments caused sl ight symptons of toxic ity in cotton, which disappeared later and did not damage the production.

  9. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  10. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  11. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  12. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess;

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  13. 78 FR 57881 - Monosodium Glutamate from China and Indonesia; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate from China and Indonesia; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading 2922.42.10 of the Harmonized Tariff...

  14. Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

  15. Assessing Interactions of Multiple Agrichemicals by Using Bacterial Assemblages in a Wetland Mesocosm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Libman

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Agrichemicals may enter wetlands located adjacent to or downstream from agricultural fields. We investigated the individual and interactive effects of three agrichemicals [atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and monosodium acid methanearsonate (MSMA] and methyl mercury on abundance and heterotrophic potential of wetland heterotrophic bacteria assemblages. We used a factorial experimental design, in which chemicals were introduced in all possible combinations to 66 500-liter mesocosms at the Biological Field Station of the University of Mississippi. Methyl mercury was added to bring the total mercury (HG concentration to 0.4 mg/Kg wet weight at the sediment surface. Atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and MSMA were added at concentrations of 192, 51, and 219μg/L, respectively. Over 32 days of exposure, microbial heterotrophic activity was sensitive to only the interactive effect of HG*ATR*CPF in the sediments and only CPF in the water. Total bacterial numbers did not exhibit any significant treatment effects. Therefore, the effects of agrichemicals were reflected on cell-specific bacterial heterotrophic activity rather than bacterial population size.

  16. Phase IV testing of monosodium titanate adsorption with radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1999-12-08

    Testing examined the extent and rate of strontium, plutonium, uranium, and neptunium removal from radioactive waste solutions at 4.5M and 7.5M in Na concentration by adsorption onto monosodium titanate (MST) at 0.2 g/L. Results indicate that the extents and rates of strontium, plutonium, and neptunium removal in radioactive waste solutions agree well with those previously measured using simulated waste solutions. Uranium removal in the 7.5M Na radioactive waste solution proved similar to that observed with simulated waste solutions. Uranium removal in the 4.5M Na radioactive waste solution proved lower than expected from previous simulant tests. The authors conclude that MST adsorption data obtained from simulated waste solutions provide reliable predictions for use in facility design and flowsheet modeling studies in the Salt Disposition Alternatives program.

  17. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium...... reduction was investigated.Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-1.2%) and MSG (0-1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups...... that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...

  18. 78 FR 74115 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Indonesia: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigations AGENCY... (PRC)); Nicholas Czajkowski at (202) 482- 1395 (the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesia)), AD/CVD... investigations of monosodium glutamate from Indonesia and the PRC.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary...

  19. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  20. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selamat Jinap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG, as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl (0–1.2% and MSG (0–1.2%. They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG.

  1. Adsorption of biometals to monosodium titanate in biological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS, D.T.; MESSER, R. L. W.; LEWIS, J. B.; CLICK, D. R. LOCKWOOD, P. E.; WATAHA, J. C.

    2005-06-06

    Monosodium titanate (MST) is an inorganic sorbent/ion exchanger developed for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear wastes. We investigated the ability of MST to bind Cd(II), Hg(II), or Au(III) to establish the utility of MST for applications in environmental decontamination or medical therapy (drug delivery). Adsorption isotherms for MST were determined at pH 7-7.5 in water or phosphate-buffered saline. The extent of metal binding was determined spectroscopically by measuring the concentrations of the metals in solution before and after contact with the MST. Cytotoxic responses to MST were assessed using THP1 monocytes and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Monocytic activation by MST was assessed by TNF{alpha} secretion (ELISA) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation. MST sorbed Cd(II), Hg(II), and Au(III) under conditions similar to that in physiological systems. MST exhibited the highest affinity for Cd(II) followed by Hg(II) and Au (III). MST (up to 100 mg/L) exhibited only minor (< 25% suppression of succinate dehydrogenase) cytotoxicity and did not trigger TNF{alpha} secretion nor modulate LPS-induced TNF{alpha} secretion from monocytes. MST exhibits high affinity for biometals with no significant biological liabilities in these introductory studies. MST deserves further scrutiny as a substance with the capacity to decontaminate biological environments or deliver metals in a controlled fashion.

  2. Attenuation of gouty arthritis by emodinol in monosodium urate crystal-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lvyi; Lan, Zhou; Ma, Shuwei; Zhao, Ling; Yang, Xinzhou

    2013-05-01

    A series of studies have recently demonstrated that the release of interleukin 1β induced by monosodium urate crystals is central to the experimental gouty arthritis. Elaeagnus pungens has been traditionally used for the treatment of gouty arthritis in China for more than thousands years. However, there is still little known about the active ingredients and mechanisms of E. pungens against gouty arthritis. Emodinol, as a major triterpene compound in E. pungens, has been seldom reported to have an effect on gouty arthritis. Therefore, the potential beneficial effects and mechanisms of emodinol on gouty arthritis were investigated in this study. Results showed that it significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, inflammation, and levels of multiple proinflammatory cytokines in monosodium urate crystals-treated mice. These findings elucidate that emodinol exhibits a prominent effect on improving symptoms of acute gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate crystals through inhibiting the generation of proinflammatory cytokines.

  3. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  4. The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Addison

    2004-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is both the basis of a trillion dollar worldwide industry and a presence in the diet of a majority of the inhabitants of the world. Some parts of the "story" of MSG that might be of most interest to chemists, chemistry teachers and their students are presented.

  5. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  6. Effect of L (+) ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate concentration on the morphology of calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Mohamed El-shahte Ismaiel

    2015-11-01

    In this study, monosodium glutamate and ascorbic acid were used as crystal and growth modifiers to control the crystallization of CaCO3. Calcium carbonate prepared by reacting a mixed solution of Na2CO3 with CaCl2 at ambient temperature, (25 °C), constant Ca++/ CO3- - molar ratio and pH with stirring. The polymorph and morphology of the crystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that rhombohedral calcite was only formed in water without organic additives, and both calcite and spherical vaterite with various morphologies were produced in the presence of monosodium glutamate. The content of vaterite increased as the monosodium glutamate increased. In addition, spherical vaterite was obtained in the presence of different concentrations of ascorbic acid. The spherical vaterite posses an aggregate shape composed of nano-particles, ranging from 30 to 50 nm as demonstrated by the SEM and TEM analyses. Therefore, the ascorbic stabilizes vaterite and result in nano-particles compared to monosodium glutamate.

  7. Pre-treatment with capsaicin in a rat osteoarthritis model reduces the symptoms of pain and bone damage induced by monosodium iodoacetate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalff, K.M.; ElMouedden, M.; Egmond, J. van; Veening, J.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Scheffer, G.J.; Meert, T.F.; Vissers, K.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    A rat model of osteoarthritis was used to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with capsaicin on the symptoms of osteoarthritis induced by the injection of monosodium iodoacetate. This model mimics both histopathology and symptoms associated of human osteoarthritis. Injection of monosodium iodoac

  8. SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND AMORPHOUS PEROXOTITANATE MATERIALS UNDER WEAKLY ACIDIC CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Click, D.

    2009-11-11

    Inorganic, titanate-based sorbents are tested with respect to adsorption of a variety of sorbates under weakly acidic conditions (pH 3). Specifically, monosodium titanate (MST) and amorphous peroxotitanate (APT) sorption characteristics are initially probed through a screening process consisting of a pair of mixed metal solutions containing a total of 29 sorbates including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, metalloids and nonmetals. MST and APT sorption characteristics are further analyzed individually with chromium(III) and cadmium(II) using a batch method at ambient laboratory temperature, varying concentrations of the sorbents and sorbates and contact times. Maximum sorbate loadings are obtained from the respective adsorption isotherms.

  9. Inhibition of Monosodium Urate Monohydrate-mediated Hemolysis by Vitamin E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong XIE; Shude LI; Weiyang FENG; Yongzhi LI; Yuanliang WU; Wei HU; Youguang HUANG

    2007-01-01

    Microcrystals of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) induce cytolysis and hemolysis in erythrocytes. In this report, we studied the effect of vitamin E on MSUM-mediated hemolysis in human erythrocytes. Vitamin E significantly inhibited hemolysis induced by MSUM. The hydroxyl group in the chromanol ring of vitamin E is dispensable for protecting erythrocytes against hemolysis induced by MSUM,indicating that the inhibitory effect of vitamin E is not due to its antioxidant properties. However, both the chromanol ring and the isoprenoid side chain are important for vitamin E to suppress MSUM-induced hemolysis.Our current study suggests that vitamin E inhibits hemolysis induced by MSUM as a membrane stabilizer.

  10. Micro-Raman studies on the conformational behaviors of monosodium glutamate in dehydration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jing Shou; Guang Zeng; Hao Zhang; Yun Hong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The conformational behaviors of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in a dehydration process were studied by Micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with Hartree-Fock calculations using 6-31+G* method. The dehydration process of the MSG droplet was performed by decreasing the ambient relative humidity (RH). The intensity ratio of the 935 cm"1 band to 884 cm-1 band (I935/ I884) kept decreasing when RH decreased. By optimizing the geometries with different fixed dihedral angles, the downtrend of (I935/ I884) is found to be due to the reduction of MSG molecular volume.

  11. PENGETAHUAN DAN PERILAKU KONSUMSI MAHASISWA PUTRA TINGKAT PERSIAPAN BERSAMA IPB TENTANG MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT DAN KEAMANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Mita Dwi Saraswati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to analyze the knowledge and consumption behaviour of the first year boy students of IPB on Monosodium Glutamate (MSG and its safety. Data were collected using self administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were given to the students through cooperation with one of internal club in IPB’s Dormitory. There were 1 324 questionnaires that were given, but only 808 questionnaires were collected back and 24 of them not filled out completely. Thus there were 784 questionnaires that qualified to be research data. Knowledge on MSG and its safety was classified into 3 levels of knowledge, such as low (80% of total score. The results showed that most students have low level of knowledge on the MSG (81.4% and it’s safety (94.3%. However, most of them frequently consume foods containing MSG (39—86%. Level of knowledge on MSG is not correlated to consumption behavior of MSG (p>0.05.Key words: consumption behavior, knowledge, Monosodium Glutamate (MSGABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengetahuan dan perilaku mahasiswa putra Tingkat Persiapan Bersama (TPB IPB tentang Monosodium Glutamat (MSG dan keamanannya. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui kuesioner yang diisi sendiri oleh mahasiswa putra. Penyebaran kuesioner dilakukan melalui kerjasama dengan salah satu klub internal Asrama Putra TPB. Kuesioner survei diberikan kepada seluruh mahasiswa putra, yaitu sebanyak 1 324 orang. Jumlah mahasiswa yang mengisi kuesioner adalah 808 orang, namun 24 orang diantara- nya tidak mengisi kuesioner dengan lengkap sehingga diperoleh 784 orang sebagai subjek dalam penelitian ini. Tingkat pengetahuan tentang MSG dan keamanannya diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga, yaitu tingkat pengetahuan kurang (skor total80%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar mahasiswa putra mempunyai tingkat pengetahuan yang rendah tentang MSG (81.4% dan keamanan MSG (94.3%, namun sebagian besar dari mereka (39—86% juga sering mengonsumsi

  12. Gambaran Histologi Regenerasi Hati Pasca Penghentian Pajanan Monosodium Glutamat pada Tikus Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryanto Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Monosodium glutamat (MSG merupakan bahan penyedap masakan yang sering digunakan, namun konsumsi MSG berlebihan dapat merusak hati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahuipengaruh pajanan MSG terhadap gambaran histologis hati tikus jantan galur wistar dankemampuan regenerasinya. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimental post-test only.Tikus dibagi menjadi 9 kelompok, yang terdiri atas 3 kelompok perlakuan dalam 3 periode yang berbeda (28, 42, dan 56 hari. Kelompok kontrol positif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan akuades selama 28 hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok kontrol negatif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama 28hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok perlakuan regenerasi 1, 2, 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama28 hari kemudian dihentikan selama 0 hari, 14 hari, 28 hari. Variabel yang diukur adalah derajatkerusakan jaringan hati. Pada analisis one way ANOVA terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p<0,05.Uji post hoc LSD menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrol positif dengankelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05 dan tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrolpositif dengan perlakuan regenerasi 14 hari (p>0,05 dan perlakuan regenerasi 28 hari (p>0,05.Disimpulkan pajanan MSG mengakibatkan kerusakan hati dan terjadi regenerasi hati setelah 14hari penghentian pajanan MSG. Kata kunci: monosodium glutamat, regenerasi, kerusakan hati Histological Study of Liver Regeneration after Cessation ofMonosodium Glutamat on Rats Abstract Monosodium glutamat (MSG is flavor enhancer that has been used in various food products. Excessive consumption of MSG have been reported to damage liver. The purpose of this experimentis to determine effect of MSG on male wistar rats’s liver histology and it’s regeneration capability.This is an experimental research with post-test only goup design. Rats were divided into 9 goups,consisted of 3 treatment goups with 3 different period

  13. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  15. Mixotrophic growth and biochemical analysis of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Li, Xiuqing; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming; Pei, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) is a potential medium for microbial cultivation because of containing abundant organic nutrient. This paper seeks to evaluate the feasibility of growing Chlorella vulgaris with MSGW and assess the influence of MSGW concentration on the biomass productivity and biochemical compositions. The MSGW diluted in different concentrations was prepared for microalga cultivation. C. vulgaris growth was greatly promoted with MSGW compared with the inorganic BG11 medium. C. vulgaris obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.02 g/L) and biomass productivity (61.47 mg/Ld) with 100-time diluted MSGW. The harvested biomass was rich in protein (36.01-50.64%) and low in lipid (13.47-25.4%) and carbohydrate (8.94-20.1%). The protein nutritional quality and unsaturated fatty acids content of algal increased significantly with diluted MSGW. These results indicated that the MSGW is a feasible alternative for mass cultivation of C. vulgaris.

  16. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS FROM HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE SOLUTIONS USING MONOSODIUM TITANATE 1. SIMULANT TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS, D. T.; BARNES, M. J.; PULMANO, R. L.; MARSHALL, K. M.; EDWARDS, T. B.; BRONIKOWSKI, M. G.; FINK, S. D.

    2005-04-14

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and ion exchange/sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides with an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from simulated waste solutions. These tests evaluated the influence of ionic strength, temperature, solution composition and the oxidation state of plutonium.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE - AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Missimer, D.

    2010-12-21

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. An inorganic sorbent, monosodium titanate (MST), is currently used to remove {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides, while a caustic-side solvent extraction process is used for removing {sup 134,137}Cs. A new peroxotitanate material, modified MST, or mMST, has recently been developed and has shown increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST. This paper describes recent results focused on further characterization of this material.

  18. Protein adsorption to monosodium urate crystals: differential responses of human peripheral blood neutrophils. [Etiology of acute gouty arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skosey, J.L.; Kozin, F.; Ginsberg, M.

    1976-01-01

    In order for acute gouty arthritis to occur, neutrophils must interact with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. As a result of this interaction, enzymes, chemotactic factors, and other mediators of the inflammatory response are released from neutrophil lysosomes. It was observed that MSU crystals adsorb gamma globulin, albumin, and other proteins found in serum and joint fluid. Results are reported from a study designed to demonstrate the effects of coating of MSU crystals with proteins on the phlogistic responses of neutrophils to crystals.

  19. The efficacy of probiotics for monosodium glutamate-induced obesity: dietology concerns and opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcheniuk, Oleksandr A; Virchenko, Oleksandr V; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana M; Beregova, Tetyana V; Babenko, Lidia P; Lazarenko, Liudmyla M; Demchenko, Olga M; Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Spivak, Mykola Ya

    2014-01-13

    Obesity becomes endemic today. Monosodium glutamate was proved as obesogenic food additive. Probiotics are discussed to impact on obesity development. The aim was to study the effects of probiotics on the development of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity in rats. We included 45 Wistar male rats and divided into three groups (n = 15). Newborn rats of group 1 (control) received subcutaneously 8 μl/g saline. Group 2 received 3 to 4 mg/g MSG subcutaneously on the second, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of life. Within 4 months after birth, rats were on a standard diet. Group 3 received an aqueous solution of probiotics mixture (2:1:1 Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, B. animalis VKB) at the dose of 5 × 109 CFU/kg (50 mg/kg) intragastrically. Administration of probiotics was started at the age of 4 weeks just after weaning and continued for 3 months during 2-week courses. Group 2 received intragastrically 2.5 ml/kg water. Organometric and biochemical parameters in all groups of rats were analyzed over 4 months. The concentration of adiponectin was determined in serum, and leptin - in adipose tissue. Administration of MSG led to the development of obesity in rats; body weight had increased by 7.9% vs controls (p < 0.05); body length had increased by 5.4% (p < 0.05). Body mass index and Lee index and visceral fat mass had increased (p < 0.001). Under the neonatal injection of MSG, the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol significantly increased (p < 0.001), in comparison with controls. Adipose-derived hormones changed in MSG obesity rats: adiponectin decreased by 58.8% (p < 0.01), and leptin concentration in adipose tissue had increased by 74.7% (p < 0.01). The probiotic therapy of rats from group 3 prevented obesity development. Parameters of rats treated with probiotic mixture did not differ from that in the control. The introduction of MSG to newborn rats caused the

  20. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on monosodium iodoacetate‑induced osteoarthritis pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin; Cho, Young-Rak; Oh, Joa Sub; Ahn, Eun-Kyung

    2017-08-21

    Tribulus terrestris L. (T. terrestris) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diuretic, lithontriptic, edema and urinary infections. Previous studies have indicated that it is effective in improving inflammation by regulating tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑10, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2. However, the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on osteoarthritis (OA) remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of T. terrestris (ETT) in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)‑induced OA animal model. OA was induced in LEW/SSNHSD rats by intra‑articular injection of MIA. Morphometric changes and parameters of the tibial trabecular bone were determined using micro‑computed tomography. The molecular mechanisms of ETT in OA were investigated using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and gelatin zymogram analysis. Treatment with ETT attenuated MIA‑induced OA, and this effect was mediated by the downregulation of NO synthase 2, COX‑2, TNF‑α and IL‑6. Furthermore, the ETT‑mediated attenuation of OA was also dependent on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases‑2 and ‑9. The results of the current study indicate that further evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of MIA‑induced OA by ETT are required, and may support the development of ETT as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as OA.

  1. Micro-CT Arthrographic Analysis of Monosodium Iodoacetate- Induced Osteoarthritis in Rat Knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate the arthrographic findings of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rat knees using the micro-CT arthrography. Intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection-induced arthritis was induced in the right knees of twelve rats; their left knees served as the control group. Eight weeks after MIA injection, micro-CT arthrography was performed on each knee. We measured the thickness of retro-patellar cartilages, the distances of tibio-femoral joint space, subchondral bone plate thickness, tibial epiphyseal height, and transverse patellar diameter. Subchondral trabecular bone indices were measured in the tibial lateral condylar epiphysis. The data were analyzed statistically using a paired t-test. The retro-patellar articular cartilage showed thinning on the right side that had been induced to develop osteoarthritis. The right knees showed a significant reduction in the distance of the tibio-femoral joint space, prominent patellar osteophytes, and the resorption of subchondral bone. Among the subchondral trabecular bone indices, percent bone volume, and trabecular thickness was reduced on the right side. The articular cartilage thickness of MIA-induced arthritis model could be measured using micro- CT arthrography. It was possible to evaluate the osteoarthritic findings including the change in subchondral bone plate thickness, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone resorption, as well as quantitatively analyze the trabecular bone indices.

  2. Does monosodium glutamate interact with macronutrient composition to influence subsequent appetite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-05-27

    The influence of flavour enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) on satiation and satiety is unclear, and the present study aimed to explore this by examining the effects consumption of soups varying in MSG (1% MSG added or no MSG) and macronutrient content (added carbohydrate, protein or control) had on appetite. 24 non-obese, low-restraint male participants consumed a fixed portion of soup and rated their appetite before, immediately after intake and at 15 minute intervals for 120 min post-ingestion across six sessions. Added MSG significantly increased flavour pleasantness and tended to result in a smaller decrease in hunger immediately after soup ingestion. MSG also reduced rather than enhanced feelings of fullness immediately after ingestion of the high protein soup. As expected, hunger increased, and fullness decreased, over the subsequent 120 min, but the increase in hunger was significantly lower in the MSG than no-MSG conditions with the protein soup between 30 and 60 min post-ingestion. Overall these data suggest that MSG may have a bi-phasic effect on appetite, with reduced satiation mediated by effects on palatability, but potential for enhanced post-ingestive satiety particularly in the context of protein ingestion.

  3. Metabolomic profiling of urinary changes in mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelantová, Helena; Bártová, Simona; Anýž, Jiří; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, Daniel; Lacinová, Zdena; Šulc, Miroslav; Haluzík, Martin; Kuzma, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity with related complications represents a widespread health problem. The etiopathogenesis of obesity is often studied using numerous rodent models. The mouse model of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity was exploited as a model of obesity combined with insulin resistance. The aim of this work was to characterize the metabolic status of MSG mice by NMR-based metabolomics in combination with relevant biochemical and hormonal parameters. NMR analysis of urine at 2, 6, and 9 months revealed altered metabolism of nicotinamide and polyamines, attenuated excretion of major urinary proteins, increased levels of phenylacetylglycine and allantoin, and decreased concentrations of methylamine in urine of MSG-treated mice. Altered levels of creatine, citrate, succinate, and acetate were observed at 2 months of age and approached the values of control mice with aging. The development of obesity and insulin resistance in 6-month-old MSG mice was also accompanied by decreased mRNA expressions of adiponectin, lipogenetic and lipolytic enzymes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in fat while mRNA expressions of lipogenetic enzymes in the liver were enhanced. At the age of 9 months, biochemical parameters of MSG mice were normalized to the values of the controls. This fact pointed to a limited predictive value of biochemical data up to age of 6 months as NMR metabolomics confirmed altered urine metabolic composition even at 9 months.

  4. Vitamin C Protects Chondrocytes against Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis by Multiple Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Pu-Rong; Hu, Yu-Chen; Huang, Tzu-Ching; Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Yeh, Jou-Pei; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Li-Wen; Chang, Kee-Lung

    2016-12-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease. Dietary intake of vitamin C relates to a reduction in cartilage loss and OA. This study examined the efficacy of vitamin C to prevent OA with the in vitro chondrosarcoma cell line (SW1353) and the in vivo monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA rat. Results demonstrated that, in SW1353 cells, treatment with 5 μM MIA inhibited cell growth and increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, and proteoglycan loss. In addition, the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were increased. All of these MIA-induced changes could be prevented with treatment of 100 μM vitamin C. In an animal model, intra-articular injection of MIA-induced cartilage degradation resembled the pathological changes of OA, and treatment of vitamin C could lessen these changes. Unexpectedly, vitamin C's effects did not strengthen with the increasing dosage, while the 100 mg/kg dosage was more efficient than the 200 or 300 mg/kg dosages. Vitamin C possessed multiple capacities for prevention of OA progress, including a decrease in apoptosis and in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs in addition to the well-known antioxidation.

  5. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE ADSORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-10-01

    A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the influence of mixing and mixing intensity, solution ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature, and monosodium titanate (MST) concentration on the rates of sorbate removal by MST in high-level nuclear waste solutions. Of these parameters, initial sorbate concentrations, ionic strength, and MST concentration have the greater impact on sorbate removal rates. The lack of a significant influence of mixing and mixing intensity on sorbate removal rates indicates that bulk solution transport is not the rate controlling step in the removal of strontium and actinides over the range of conditions and laboratory-scales investigated. However, bulk solution transport may be a significant parameter upon use of MST in a 1.3 million-gallon waste tank such as that planned for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program. Thus, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends completing the experiments in progress to determine if mixing intensity influences sorption rates under conditions appropriate for this program. Adsorption models have been developed from these experimental studies that allow prediction of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np) and uranium (U) concentrations as a function of contact time with MST. Fairly good agreement has been observed between the predicted and measured sorbate concentrations in the laboratory-scale experiments.

  6. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKemajuan teknologi informasi membawa dampak terhadap perubahan gaya hidup masyarakat, termasuk perubahan pola konsumsi makanan yang lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji, makanan kemasan dan makanan awetan yang belakangan ini semakin banyak dijual dipasar tradisional dan swalayan. Penggunaan bahan tambahan makanan sering dijumpai, salah satunya adalah bahan penyedap yang banyak sekali digunakan seperti senyawa L-asam glutamat yang digunakan dalam bentuk garam yaitu monosodium glutamat (MSG. Berbagai merk dagang MSG telah dikenal dimasyarakat secara luas seperti ajinomoto, vetsin, micin, sasa, miwon dan sebagainya.MSG adalah garam monosodium dengan asam glutamat yang sering digunakan sebagai bahan penyedap masakan untuk merangsang selera makan. Pemberian MSG mengakibatkan gangguan hormonal pada hewan coba, ion glutamat dalam sirkulasi portal akan mempengaruhi hipotalamus dalam memproduksi GnRH yang selanjutnya akan mengganggu hipofise anterior dalam memproduksi FSH dan LH. Fungsi FSH adalah untuk bekerja pada tubulus seminiferus terutama pada sel sertoli untuk meningkatkan spermatogenesis, sedangkan LH berfungsi pada sel Leydig untuk mengatur sekresi testosteron.Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimen dengan rancangan post only group design. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Biologi dan laboratorium Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Unand Padang dari tanggal 20 Desember 2009 sampai 30 Februari 2010. Populasi adalah tikus putih jantan strain Jepang (Rattus norvegicus yang berasal dari laboratorium Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Unand. Sampel berjumlah 20 ekor dibagi atas 4 kelompok dengan satu kelompok kontrol dan tiga kelompok perlakuan. Dosis MSG yang digunakan yaitu P1= 4800 mg/kgbb/hari, P2=7200 mg/kgbb/hari dan P3= 9600 mg/kgbb/hari diberikan peroral sebanyak dua siklus epitel seminiferus. Analisa dengan uji Anova dengan derajat kepercayaan 95% dan jika bermakna dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparissons jenis

  7. Monosodium glutamate (MSG consumption is associated with urolithiasis and urinary tract obstruction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amod Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The peritoneal injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG can induce kidney injury in adult rats but the effects of long-term oral intake have not been determined. METHODS: We investigated the kidney histology and function in adult male Wistar rats that were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow pellet and water with or without the addition of 2 mg/g body weight MSG/day in drinking water (n=10 per group. Both MSG-treated and control animals were sacrificed after 9 months when renal function parameters, blood and urine electrolytes, and tissue histopathology were determined. RESULTS: MSG-treated rats were more prone to kidney stone formation, as represented by the alkaline urine and significantly higher activity product of calcium phosphate. Accordingly, 3/10 MSG-treated rats developed kidney stones over 9 months versus none of the control animals. Further, 2/10 MSG-treated rats but none (0/10 of the controls manifested hydronephrosis. MSG-treated rats had significantly higher levels of serum creatinine and potassium including urine output volume, urinary excretion sodium and citrate compared to controls. In contrast, MSG-treated rats had significantly lower ammonium and magnesium urinary excretion. CONCLUSION: Oral MSG consumption appears to cause alkaline urine and may increase the risks of kidney stones with hydronephrosis in rats. Similar effects in humans must be verified by dedicated studies.

  8. Acquired flavor acceptance and intake facilitated by monosodium glutamate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Gould, Natalie J; Mobini, Sirous; Prescott, John

    2008-03-18

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is known to enhance liking for the flavor of savory foods, but whether associations between flavors and effects of MSG lead to changes in subsequent liking and intake for the flavor alone is unclear. To test this, 32 volunteers evaluated and consumed a novel savory soup with no added MSG before and after four training sessions where the same soup was consumed either unchanged (Control) or with added MSG. The addition of MSG during training increased both pleasantness and savory character of the soup and resulted in a larger increase in rated pleasantness of the soup in the MSG-trained relative to control condition when the soup was re-evaluated Post-training without MSG. There was also a significant increase in voluntary soup intake Post-training after the soup had been paired with MSG but not in the Control condition, and rated hunger increased more after tasting the soup Post-training in the MSG-trained but not Control condition. These findings demonstrate that co-experience of a savory flavor and MSG can result in increased subsequent liking and intake for the flavor in the absence of MSG, and possible explanations for how MSG reinforces learning are discussed.

  9. Mechanisms of Strontium and Uranium Removal From Radioactive Waste Simulant Solutions by the Sorbent Monosodium Titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUFF, MARTINE

    2004-12-03

    High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is the priority problem for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Environmental Management Program. Current HLW treatment processes at the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC) include the use of monosodium titanate (MST, similar to NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}xH{sub 2}O) to concentrate radioactive strontium (Sr) and actinides. Mechanistic information about radionuclide uptake will provide us with insight about the reliability of MST treatments. We characterized the morphology of MST and the chemistry of sorbed Sr{sup 2+} and uranium [U(VI)] on MST with x-ray based spectroscopic and electron microscopic techniques. Sorbed Sr{sup 2+} exhibited specific adsorption as partially-hydrated species, whereas sorbed U exhibited site-specific adsorption as monomeric and dimeric U(VI)-carbonate complexes. These differences in site specificity and mechanism may account for the difficulties associated with predicting MST loading and removal kinetics.

  10. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  11. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  12. Trikatu, a herbal compound that suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murunikkara, Vachana; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2014-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory joint disorder characterized by hyperuricaemia and precipitation of monosodium urate crystals in the joints. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of trikatu, a herbal compound in monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and histopathological examination of ankle joints were determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced rats. In addition, analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing response), anti-pyretic (yeast-induced pyrexia) and gastric ulceration effects were tested. The levels of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation and paw volume were significantly increased, and anti-oxidant status was found to be reduced in monosodium urate crystal-induced rats, whereas the biochemical changes were reverted to near normal levels upon trikatu (1000 mg/kg b.wt) administration. The trikatu has also been found to exhibit significant analgesic and anti-pyretic effects with the absence of gastric damage. In conclusion, the present results clearly indicated that trikatu exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats in association with analgesic and anti-pyretic effects in the absence of gastrointestinal damage.

  13. RADIUM AND THORIUM SORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) AND MODIFIED MST (mMST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-15

    A series of tests were planned to examine the removal of Ra and Th by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Simulated waste solutions were prepared containing Ra and Th, along with Sr, Np, Pu, and U. Following simulant preparation the simulants were filtered through 0.45-m filters. Analysis of the simulants indicated no Th in the filtered solution. This is due to the very low solubility of Th in alkaline solutions. Based on the reported detection limits for {sup 228}Th by gamma analyses, the solubility of Th in the simulant solutions is < 3.0E-10 g/L or < 1.3E-12 M. Therefore, data could not be obtained regarding the removal of Th by MST and mMST; however, testing proceeded to examine the removal of Ra. Sorption testing indicated that Ra, like Sr, is very rapidly removed from solution by both MST and mMST. The Ra concentration in solution fell below the method detection limit (MDL) within 30 minutes of contact with MST, and within 2 hours of contact with mMST, when tested at 25 C using a 5.6 M Na simulant. Additional testing examined the effects of ionic strength and temperature on the MST and mMST performance. Results from these tests showed that the majority of samples still reached a Ra concentration below the MDL, indicating excellent removal. For the highest ionic strength solution (6.6 M Na), there did appear to be a slight decrease in the Ra removal by mMST, as indicated by a larger number of samples just above the MDL. The effect of temperature on {sup 226}Ra removal is indeterminate for either MST or mMST in the temperature range (25-60 C) and concentrations studied since the final soluble concentration of Ra remained at or below the detection limits for all tests. Desorption testing was also performed using decontaminated salt solution (DSS) diluted to sodium concentrations of 2 M and 0.5 M, to represent the intermediate and final stages of washing. Results from these tests indicated no desorption of any sorbents, with the

  14. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collison Kate S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT P  Conclusions Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6 J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

  15. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  16. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  17. Ultrasonography shows disappearance of monosodium urate crystal deposition on hyaline cartilage after sustained normouricemia is achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Ralf G; Schlesinger, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at determining whether lowering serum urate (SU) to less than 6 mg/dl in patients with gout affects ultrasonographic findings. Seven joints in five patients with monosodium urate (MSU) crystal proven gout and hyperuricemia were examined over time with serial ultrasonography. Four of the five patients were treated with urate lowering drugs (ULDs) (allopurinol, n = 3; probenecid, n = 1). One patient was treated with colchicine alone. Attention was given to changes in a hyperechoic, irregular coating of the hyaline cartilage in the examined joints (double contour sign or "urate icing"). This coating was considered to represent precipitate of MSU crystals. Index joints included metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints (n = 2), knee joints (n = 3), and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints (n = 2). The interval between baseline and follow-up images ranged from 7 to 18 months. Serial SU levels were obtained during the follow-up period. During the follow-up period, three patients treated with ULD (allopurinol, n = 2; probenecid, n = 1) achieved a SU level of or =7 mg/dl. In one patient treated with allopurinol, SU levels improved from 13 to 7 mg/dl during the follow-up period. Decrease, but not resolution of the hyperechoic coating was seen in this patient. In the patient treated with colchicine alone, SU levels remained >8 mg/dl, and no sonographic change was observed. In our patients, sonographic signs of deposition of MSU crystals on the surface of hyaline cartilage disappeared completely if sustained normouricemia was achieved. This is the first report showing that characteristic sonographic changes are influenced by ULDs once SU levels remain < or =6 mg/dl for 7 months or more. Sonographic changes of gout correlate with SU levels and may be a non-invasive means to track changes in the uric acid pool. Larger prospective studies are needed to further assess these potentially important findings.

  18. Bonding the foe – NETting neutrophils immobilize the pro-inflammatory monosodium urate crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchorn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of sodium, uric acid from purine metabolism precipitates as monosodium urate (MSU needles and forms renal calculi or causes gouty arthritis in kidneys and joints, respectively. The latter is characterized by red, hot and swollen arthritic joints.Here we report the in vitro effect of MSU crystals on blood granulocytes and analyse their contribution to granuloma formation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs formation (NETosis in synovial fluid of patients with gouty arthritis in vivo. We observed that MSU crystals induce NETosis in vitro in a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent manner. Indeed, blocking ROS (e.g. the oxidative burst by various antioxidants partially inhibited NETosis induced by MSU crystals. Analyses of synovial fluids and of tissue sections of patients suffering from gout revealed that NETs are also formed in vivo, especially during acute gouty flares and/or granuloma formation. Since prolonged exposure to NETs carries the risk for the development of chronic inflammation we also studied the opsonisation of NETs, as a prerequisite for their clearance. The established dead cells’ opsonins C3b, galectin-9 and CRP decorated the residual dead cells` corpses and opsonized these for disposal. Surprisingly, all three soluble pattern recognizing molecules spared the spread NET structures. We conclude that (I MSU crystals are strong inducers of ROS-dependent NETosis and (II that the prolonged presence of NET-pathogen or NET-crystal aggregates observed in patients with systemic autoimmunity, especially in those with low serum DNase-1 activity, cannot be compensated by CRP, complement and galectin mediated phagocytic clearance.

  19. Using monosodium glutamate to initiate ethanol self-administration in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Brian A; Chappell, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary oral ethanol consumption in rodents is generally limited by strong taste-aversion in these species. Historically, this has been overcome by combining ethanol with a sweetener, typically sucrose or saccharine, and then slowly 'fading' away the sweetener. While useful in most instances, this approach has not proven as successful for some inbred strains of mice (e.g. DBA/2J) despite consistent evidence in the literature that these same strains express strong conditioned place preference for intraperitoneal- or intragastric-administered ethanol. Importantly, DBA/2J mice express a polymorphism in a 'sweet' taste receptor subunit gene that reduces the potency of sweet substances in these mice. We hypothesized that the presence of this polymorphism might help explain the contrasting behavioral findings of weak voluntary oral ethanol consumption following sucrose-fade yet robust conditioned place preference for ethanol in this strain. To test this, we compared ethanol consumption initiated by either a 'traditional' sucrose-fade or a fade from an alternative tastant, monosodium glutamate (MSG). We found that in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, the MSG-fade produced robust increases in home cage ethanol consumption relative to the traditional sucrose-fade. This increased ethanol intake following MSG-fade was evident across a range of ethanol concentrations. Our findings suggest the potential utility of the MSG-fade to establish stable voluntary oral ethanol consumption in mice, particularly ethanol 'non-preferring' strains such as DBA/2J and lend additional support to the notion that ethanol consumption in DBA/2J mice is limited by pronounced taste aversion.

  20. Activation of a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Prevents Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

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    Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although some evidence suggests that the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA is lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, the mechanisms of nicotine-induced protection remain unclear. Stimulation of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7-nAChR appears to be a critical mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of cholinergic agonists in immune cells. The inhibition of secreted inflammatory molecules and the subsequent inflammatory processes have been proposed as a novel strategy for the treatment of OA. The objective of the present study was to determine whether nicotine-induced protection in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA rat model of OA occurs via a7-nAChR-mediated inhibition of chondrocytes. Methods: Both in vivo (MIA and in vitro (MIA; Interleukin-1ß, IL-1ß models of OA were used to investigate the roles and the possible mechanisms whereby a7-nAChRs protect against knee joint degradation. Multiple experimental approaches, including macroscopic, histological analysis, chondrocyte cell cultures, confocal microscopy, and western blotting, were employed to elucidate the mechanisms of a7-nAChR-mediated protection. Results: Systemic administration of nicotine alleviated MIA-induced joint degradation. The protective effects of nicotine were abolished by administration of the a7-nAChR-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA. In primary cultured rat chondrocytes, pretreatment with nicotine suppressed both p38, extracellular regulated kinase (Erk 1/2 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK phosphorylation and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 activation induced by MIA- or IL-1ß, and these effects were also reversed by MLA. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that activation a7-nAChRs is an important mechanism underlying the protective effects of nicotine.

  1. Therapeutic effects of sesame oil on monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chen, Si-Jin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2013-01-01

    Sesame oil has been used in traditional Taiwanese medicine to relieve the inflammatory pain in people with joint inflammation, toothache, scrapes, and cuts. However, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness or action mechanism of sesame oil on relief of pain and inflammation has not been examined experimentally. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of sesame oil on monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats. Air pouch, a pseudosynovial cavity, was established by injecting 24 mL of filtered sterile air subcutaneously in the backs of the rats. At day 0, inflammation in air pouch was induced by injecting MSU crystal (5 mg/rat, suspended in sterilized phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4), while sesame oil (0, 1, 2, or 4 mL/kg, orally) was given 6 h after MSU crystal injection. Parameters in lavage and skin tissue from the air pouches were assessed 6 h after sesame oil was given. Sesame oil decreased MSU crystal-induced total cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels in lavage and pouch tissue. Sesame oil significantly decreased leukocyte and neutrophil counts in lavage compared with MSU crystal alone group. Sesame oil decreased activated mast cell counts in skin tissue in MSU crystal-treated rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and IL-4 level in isolated mast cells from rats treated with MSU crystal. Furthermore, sesame oil decreased lavage complement proteins C3a and C5a levels in MSU crystal-treated rats. In conclusion, sesame oil shows a potent therapeutic effect against MSU crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.

  2. EXPRESSION OF BAX AND BCL-2 IN MOUSE OFFSPRING BRAIN AFIER MATERNAL ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the excitotoxicity of monosodium glutamate(MSG)in the offspring crebral cortex and hippocampal subresions after maternal oral administration of MSG.Methods:Kunming mice were given per os MSG(4.0g/kg)at 17-21 days of pregnancy and their offspring behaviors were studied at 10,20,30days postnatally.By using inmunohistochemical means,the involvment of Bcl-2 and bax in the glutamate-induced cell death in cortical and hippocampal neurons were examined.Cell damage was assessed by direct cell counting.Results:administration of monosodium glutamate during the fetal period in mice resulted in a moderate increase in the expression of Bax in principal neurons in CA1,CA2,CA3,CA4 and in the cerebral cortex at postpartum 10,20,30 days in the offspring mice,whereas Bcl-2 protein expressions were reduced significantly in the same regions as compared with those of controls.Conclusion:These findings suggest that glutamate toxicity results in cellular death via an apoptotic mechanism in which the Bcl-2/Bax-alpha molecular complex may be involved.The glutamate-induced apoptosis appears to be related to the modulation of Bcl-2 family gene products such as Bcl-2 and Bax.

  3. Intra-articular basic calcium phosphate and monosodium urate crystals inhibit anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C C; Corr, E M; McCarthy, G M; Dunne, A

    2016-12-01

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) and monosodium urate (MSU) crystals are particulates with potent pro-inflammatory effects, associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and gout, respectively. Bone erosion, due to increased osteoclastogenesis, is a hallmark of both arthropathies and results in severe joint destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these endogenous particulates on anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling. Human osteoclast precursors (OcP) were treated with BCP and MSU crystals prior to stimulation with Interleukin (IL-6) or Interferon (IFN-γ) and the effect on Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 and STAT-1 activation in addition to Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation was examined by immunoblotting. Crystal-induced suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) protein and SH-2 containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the presence and absence of MAPK inhibitors. Pre-treatment with BCP or MSU crystals for 1 h inhibited IL-6-induced STAT-3 activation in human OcP, while pre-treatment for 3 h inhibited IFN-γ-induced STAT-1 activation. Both crystals activated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) MAPKs with BCP crystals also activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of p38 counteracted the inhibitory effect of BCP and MSU crystals and restored STAT-3 phosphorylation. In contrast, STAT-1 phosphorylation was not restored by MAPK inhibition. Finally, both crystals potently induced the expression of SOCS-3 in a MAPK dependent manner, while BCP crystals also induced expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2. This study provides further insight into the pathogenic effects of endogenous particulates in joint arthropathies and demonstrates how they may contribute to bone erosion via the inhibition of anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling. Potential targets to overcome these effects include p38 MAPK, SOCS-3 and SHP phosphatases

  4. Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, protects monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Min; Chen, Yong-Cai; Wang, Da-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic progressive joint disease characterized by advanced joint pain, subchondral bone sclerosis and articular cartilage degeneration. Resveratrol has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties and to inhibit platelet aggregation and coagulation. However, the effects of resveratrol on OA have not been examined. In this study, we investigate the protective effects of resveratrol on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathway in a rat model. A single intra-articular injection of MIA was injected into rats for the induction of OA. The mechanical, heat and cold hyperalgesia were measured at days 0, 7 and 14. The serum and synovial fluid levels of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α and osteocalcin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, Il-6, MMP-13 and COX-2 and iNOS were determined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Osteoarthritic lesion in the knee joint was evaluated by histological analysis. MIA-injected rats treated with resveratrol at a dose of either 5 or 10mg/kg body weight were significantly reduced hyperalgesia of mechanical, heat and cold and increased the vertical and horizontal movements. Subsequently, MIA-injected rats increased serum and synovial fluid levels of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-13 and osteoclastic activity marker, osteocalcin and its articular cartilage mRNA and protein expressions. Further, MIA-injected rats increased COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were decreased by resveratrol. The protective effect of resveratrol was comparable to a reference drug, etoricoxib. The cartilage damage induced by MIA were attenuated by resveratrol. Taken together, resveratrol has the potential to improve MIA-induced cartilage damage by inhibiting the levels and expressions of inflammatory mediators suggesting

  5. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  6. No effect on intake and liking of soup enhanced with mono-sodium glutamate and celery powder among elderly people with olfactory and/or gustatory loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Kleikers, S.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and/or flavors may improve palatability and intake in elderly people. Whether this improvement is related to a decline in chemosensory sensitivity is unclear. We examined the effect of flavor-enhanced tomato soup (1,200 mg/l MSG (0.12% MSG) + 3 g/l celery powder) versus n

  7. No effect on intake and liking of soup enhanced with mono-sodium glutamate and celery powder among elderly people with olfactory and/or gustatory loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Kleikers, S.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and/or flavors may improve palatability and intake in elderly people. Whether this improvement is related to a decline in chemosensory sensitivity is unclear. We examined the effect of flavor-enhanced tomato soup (1,200 mg/l MSG (0.12% MSG) + 3 g/l celery powder) versus n

  8. Microscopic Study of Testicular Tissue Structure and Spermatogenesis Following Long Term Dose Dependent Administration of Monosodium Glutamate in Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Diabetic hyperglycemia leads to structural and functional alterations in body organs including testis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a food additive which has toxic effects on human and animal’s tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MSG on diabetic complications of testicular tissue.

  9. Crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced release of interleukin 1 beta by mononuclear cells through a caspase 1-mediated process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giamarellos, E.J.; Mouktaroudi, M.; Bodar, E.J.; Ven, J. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that crystals of monosodium urate (MSU), deposited in joints of patients with acute gouty arthritis, activate the NACHT domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein (NALP)3 inflammasome. In the present study we have investigated whether production

  10. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-06-29

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  11. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to

  12. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction.

  13. Monosodium iodoacetate-induced joint pain is associated with increased phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases in the rat spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis Michael F; Hsieh Gin; Wilcox Denise; Brederson Jill-Desiree; Pai Madhavi; Lee Younglim; Bitner Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) in the knee joint of rats disrupts chondrocyte metabolism resulting in cartilage degeneration and subsequent nociceptive behavior that has been described as a model of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Central sensitization through activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is recognized as a pathogenic mechanism in chronic pain. In the present studies, induction of central sensitization as indicated by spinal ...

  14. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cai-Yu-Zhu; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27689075

  15. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

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    Ya-Fei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P<0.05. Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

  16. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography of the Knee, Ankle, and Foot: Noninvasive Diagnosis of Gout and Quantification of Monosodium Urate in Tendons and Ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; Henes, Joerg C; Fuld, Matthew K; Fishman, Elliot K; Horger, Marius S

    2016-02-01

    Gout is a true crystal deposition arthropathy caused by the precipitation of monosodium urate into joints and periarticular soft tissues. It is the most common inflammatory arthropathy in men and women of older age with a male-to-female ratio of 3 to 8:1. The disease may progress from asymptomatic hyperuricemia through symptomatic acute gout attacks with asymptomatic periods into chronic symptomatic tophaceous gout. Although invasive arthrocentesis and demonstration of monosodium urate crystals on polarized light microscopy is definitive for the diagnosis of gout, dual-energy computed tomography (CT) allows for noninvasive visualization and reproducible volume quantification of monosodium urate crystals. Based on the high diagnostic performance, dual-energy CT has been included in the 2015 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Collaborative Initiative Classification Criteria for Gout. Increasing evidence indicates the usefulness of dual-energy CT to guide the management of patients with suspected gout and monitor the effectiveness of urate-lowering medical therapy.

  17. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Olaiya, Charles O; Oluwadahunsi, Oluwagbenga J; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime. Thereafter, the longevity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species levels were determined. Also, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and total thiol content were evaluated in the flies. We found that MSG reduced the life span of the flies by up to 23% after continuous exposure. Also, MSG increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H2 O2 generations and total thiol content as well as the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in D. melanogaster (P melanogaster induced adaptive response, but long-term exposure reduced life span of flies. This study may therefore have public health significance in humans, and thus, moderate consumption of MSG is advocated by the authors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. High dosage of monosodium glutamate causes deficits of the motor coordination and the number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastiwi, D; Djunaidi, A; Partadiredja, G

    2015-11-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used throughout the world as a flavoring agent of food. However, MSG at certain dosages is also thought to cause damage to many organs, including cerebellum. This study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of MSG on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male rats aged 4 to 5 weeks were divided into four groups, namely, control (C), T2.5, T3, and T3.5 groups, which received intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 2.5 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG, 3.0 mg/g bw of MSG, and 3.5 mg/g bw of MSG, respectively, for 10 consecutive days. The motor coordination of the rats was examined prior and subsequent to the treatment. The number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using physical fractionator method. It has been found that the administration of MSG at a dosage of 3.5 mg/g bw, but not at lower dosages, caused a significant decrease of motor coordination and the estimated total number of Purkinje cells of rats. There was also a significant correlation between motor coordination and the total number of Purkinje cells.

  19. Mechanisms of strontium and uranium removal from high-level radioactive waste simulant solutions by the sorbent monosodium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, M C; Hunter, D B; Hobbs, D T; Fink, S D; Dai, Z; Bradley, J P

    2004-10-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is a waste associated with the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel for the recovery of weapons-grade material. It is the priority problem for the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program. Current HLW treatment processes at the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC) include the use of monosodium titanate (MST, with a similar stoichiometry to NaTi2O5 x xH2O) to concentrate strontium (Sr) and actinides. The high affinity of MST for Sr and actinides in HLW solutions rich in Na+ is poorly understood. Mechanistic information about the nature of radionuclide uptake will provide insight about MST treatment reliability. Our study characterized the morphology of MST and the chemistry of sorbed Sr2+ and uranium [U(VI)] as uranyl ion, UO2(2+), on MST, which were added (individually) from stock solutions of Sr and 238U(VI) with spectroscopic and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The local structure of sorbed U varied with loading, but the local structure of Sr did not vary with loading. Sorbed Sr exhibited specific adsorption as partially hydrated species whereas sorbed U exhibited specific adsorption as monomeric and dimeric U(VI)-carbonate complexes. Sorption proved site specific. These differences in site specificity and sorption mechanism may account forthe difficulties associated with predicting Sr and U loading and removal kinetics using MST.

  20. The contribution of spinal glial cells to chronic pain behaviour in the monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritic pain

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    Sagar Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies of osteoarthritis (OA suggest central sensitization may contribute to the chronic pain experienced. This preclinical study used the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA model of OA joint pain to investigate the potential contribution of spinal sensitization, in particular spinal glial cell activation, to pain behaviour in this model. Experimental OA was induced in the rat by the intra-articular injection of MIA and pain behaviour (change in weight bearing and distal allodynia was assessed. Spinal cord microglia (Iba1 staining and astrocyte (GFAP immunofluorescence activation were measured at 7, 14 and 28 days post MIA-treatment. The effects of two known inhibitors of glial activation, nimesulide and minocycline, on pain behaviour and activation of microglia and astrocytes were assessed. Results Seven days following intra-articular injection of MIA, microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord were activated (p Conclusions Here we provide evidence for a contribution of spinal glial cells to pain behaviour, in particular distal allodynia, in this model of osteoarthritic pain. Our data suggest there is a potential role of glial cells in the central sensitization associated with OA, which may provide a novel analgesic target for the treatment of OA pain.

  1. Toxic effects of wastewater from various phases of monosodium glutamate production on seed germination and root elongation of crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; ZHOU Qixing; ZHANG Lanying; GUO Hao

    2007-01-01

    To make a comprehensive assessment on monosodium glutamate(MSG)wastewater pollution,a pollution exposure experiment was carried out on the seed germination and root elongation of wheat,Chinese cabbage and tomato by using the wastewater discharged from different processing phases of MSG production.The results showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rates of wheat seed germination and root elongation and the CODcr of the mother liquor scraps.The toxicity of MSG wastewater to the test crops was in the order of tomato>Chinese cabbage>wheat,indicating that tomato was the most sensitive to the wastewater,and could be considered as an ideal toxic bioindicator.The half-effect concentrations(IC50)based on the seed germination and root elongation of the test crops exposed to the wastewater discharged from various processing phases of MSG production was 22.0-32432 and 17.3-3320 mg/L,respectively.

  2. Effects of RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

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    Y.-Y. Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses antigout, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperuricemic properties based on the traditional conceptions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PRP15 in rat gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU crystals. In the present study, we found that treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg in rats with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals significantly attenuated the knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and the elevated expressions of nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65 in synovial tissues were significantly inhibited, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA result showed that MSU-induced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in synovial fluid were reduced by treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg. We conclude that RPP15 may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and its activity of antigout may be partially related to inhibiting TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and NF-κB p65 expression in the synovial tissues.

  3. Monosodium Urate in the Presence of RANKL Promotes Osteoclast Formation through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

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    Jung-Yoon Choe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL- RANK-induced osteoclast formation. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were incubated with MSU crystals or RANKL and differentiated into osteoclast-like cells as confirmed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and actin ring, pit formation assay, and TRAP activity assay. MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6, JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. IL-1b produced in response to treatment with both MSU and RANKL is involved in osteoclast differentiation in part through the induction of TRAF-6 downstream of the IL-1b pathway. This study revealed that MSU crystals contribute to enhanced osteoclast formation through activation of RANKL-mediated pathways and recruitment of IL-1b. These findings suggest that MSU crystals might be a pathologic causative agent of bone destruction in gout.

  4. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity

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    Kazuhiko Nakadate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption.

  5. Monosodium glutamate (MSG intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population

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    Insawang Tonkla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology and animal models suggest that dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG may contribute to the onset of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Methods Families (n = 324 from a rural area of Thailand were selected and provided MSG as the sole source for the use in meal preparation for 10 days. Three hundred forty-nine subjects aged 35–55 years completed the study and were evaluated for energy and nutrient intake, physical activity, and tobacco smoking. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >3, and the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria were evaluated according to the daily MSG intake. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the tertile with the highest MSG intake. Further, every 1 g increase in MSG intake significantly increased the risk of having the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval-CI- 1.12 - 1.28 or being overweight (odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.29, independent of the total energy intake and the level of physical activity. Conclusion Higher amounts of individual MSG consumption are associated with the risk of having the metabolic syndrome and being overweight independent of other major determinants.

  6. Protective effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. on monosodium glutamate-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rats

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    Parveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum(AqE-TFG seeds on monosodium glutamate (MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Neonatal Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with MSG (4 g/kg b.w. from day 2 to 14 after birth, on alternate days. After attaining six-weeks of age, MSG-treated rats were administered with AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1 g/kg b.w., orally or orlistat (10 mg/kg b.w., orally for 28 days, respectively. Serum chemistry and relevant enzymes in hepato-cardiac tissues were assessed on day 29. Results: AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, hepatic and cardiac lipid peroxides (MDA levels and elevation in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes [glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT] levels. Conclusion: Results were comparable with orlistat, a standard anti-obesity drug, and provide clear evidence that the AqE-TFG treatment offered significant protection against MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, and may play an important role in amelioration of the free radical generated consequences like dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  7. Augmented chondroprotective effect of coadministration of celecoxib and rebamipide in the monosodium iodoacetate rat model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Su-Jin; Park, Jin-Sil; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Yang, Eun-Ji; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La; Min, Jun-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Although cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors such as celecoxib are recommended to patients at high risk of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events, COX-2 inhibitors do not completely prevent GI adverse events. Rebamipide, a gastroprotective agent, has anti-inflammatory properties and acts as an oxygen radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of coadministration of rebamipide and celecoxib in an OA rat model. OA was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate. Oral administration of rebamipide was initiated on the day of OA induction. In this study, rebamipide showed antinociceptive properties and attenuated cartilage degeneration. Rebamipide reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrotyrosine in OA cartilage. OA rats treated with celecoxib in combination with rebamipide demonstrated a higher pain threshold than those treated with monotherapy. Histological examination also showed that the joints from OA animals treated with combination therapy demonstrated less cartilage damage than those of animals treated with monotherapy. We showed that the potential benefit of combination therapy with celecoxib and rebamipide on pain and cartilage degeneration in OA.

  8. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Hirakawa, Tomoya; Tanaka-Nakadate, Sawako

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption.

  9. Diff-Quik® staining method for detection and identification of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammoud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DQ could prove useful to identify monosodium urate (MSU and calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD crystals on permanent mounted stained slides. To this end, we studied 27 synovial fluid (SF samples obtained from the knees of patients with the pseudogout (n=21 and acute gouty arthritis (n=6. Wet analysis for crystal detection and identification was performed within one hour of joint aspiration. In addition, we studied 16 inflammatory synovial effusions obtained from patients with knee arthritis not induced by crystals. For each SF, DQ stained slides were analyzed by 2 experienced doctors in SF analysis. The observers were blinded to the type of crystal present in the SF. Each slide was analyzed by compensated polarized and transmitted light microscopy. SF was considered positive if intracellular and/or extracellular crystals were clearly identified. In addition, the observers were asked to identify the type of the crystals using compensated polarized light microscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of the DQ staining method were determined. 51 true positive and 28 true negative specimens were correctly classified (39 CPPD samples, 12 MSU samples, and 28 samples of crystals-unrelated arthropathies. All MSU specimens were correctly diagnosed.

  10. Ibuprofen-loaded porous microspheres suppressed the progression of monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Won; Yun, Young-Pil; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Hak-Jun; Kim, Sung Eun; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to fabricate ibuprofen-loaded porous microspheres (IBU/PMSs), (2) to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the microspheres using LPS-induced inflammation in cultured synoviocytes, and (3) to evaluate the in vivo effect of the IBU/PMSs on the progression of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in a rat model. A dose-dependent in vitro anti-inflammatory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine markers (matrix metallopeptidase-3 (MMP-3), matrix metallopeptidase-13 (MMP-13), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was observed by confirming with real-time PCR analyses. In vivo, treatment with IBU/PMSs reduced MIA-stimulated mRNA expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, COX-2, ADAMTS-5, IL-6, and TNF-α in rat synoviocytes. In addition, we demonstrated that intra-articular IBU/PMSs suppressed the progression of MIA-induced OA in the rat model via anti-inflammatory mechanisms. In conclusion, IBU/PMSs are a promising therapeutic material to control the pain and progression of OA.

  11. Monosodium L-glutamate and dietary fat exert opposite effects on the proximal and distal intestinal health in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zemeng; Li, Tiejun; Wu, Chunli; Tao, Lihua; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavour enhancer in China. Previous studies have reported that high-fat diet modifies intestinal metabolism and physiology. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestine, and no study focus on the interaction of dietary fat and MSG for intestinal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and dietary fat on intestinal health in growing pigs, and to try to identify possible interactions between these 2 nutrients for such effects. A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (basal diet, high-fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG). Parameters related to reactive oxygen species metabolism, epithelial morphology, pro-inflammation factors and tight junction protein expression and several species of intestinal microbe were measured. Overall, dietary fat and MSG had detrimental effects on several of the physiological and inflammatory parameters measured in the proximal intestine, while exerting beneficial effects on the distal intestine in growing pigs, with generally antagonistic effects. These results may be of particular relevance for nutritional concerns in patients with intestinal diseases.

  12. Preliminary Study on Pain Reduction of Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Rats by Carbon Dioxide Laser Moxibustion

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    Fan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of CO2 laser moxibustion on the pain and inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA- induced knee osteoarthritis (KOA, we designed an experiment by randomly assigning 8 SD rats into 3 groups, namely, a CO2 laser moxibustion group, a sham treatment group, and a blank control group. The treatment group received a laser moxibustion on acupoint Dubi (ST 35; 5 min/treatment, 1 treatment/day for 8 days, and after treatment, the rats exhibited significantly increased interhindpaw differences compared with their preinduction values. Meanwhile, cytokine microarray analysis showed that one cytokine (TIMP-1 was significantly upregulated and two cytokines (Agrin and MMP-8 were significantly downregulated in treatment group. The present study suggested that CO2 laser moxibustion created certain pain reduction in the rats with MIA-induced KOA and significantly inhibited the expression of most inflammatory cytokines in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  13. Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

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    Yan Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI in rat with monosodium urate (MSU crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application.

  14. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

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    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  15. THE HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE, CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND SLUDGE IN THE MODULAR SALT PROCESS: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Pennebaker, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-11-11

    The use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is proposed for an at-tank process to treat High Level Waste at the Savannah River Site. The proposed configuration includes deployment of ion exchange columns suspended in the risers of existing tanks to process salt waste without building a new facility. The CST is available in an engineered form, designated as IE-911-CW, from UOP. Prior data indicates CST has a proclivity to agglomerate from deposits of silica rich compounds present in the alkaline waste solutions. This report documents the prior literature and provides guidance for the design and operations that include CST to mitigate that risk. The proposed operation will also add monosodium titanate (MST) to the supernate of the tank prior to the ion exchange operation to remove strontium and select alpha-emitting actinides. The cesium loaded CST is ground and then passed forward to the sludge washing tank as feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Similarly, the MST will be transferred to the sludge washing tank. Sludge processing includes the potential to leach aluminum from the solids at elevated temperature (e.g., 65 C) using concentrated (3M) sodium hydroxide solutions. Prior literature indicates that both CST and MST will agglomerate and form higher yield stress slurries with exposure to elevated temperatures. This report assessed that data and provides guidance on minimizing the impact of CST and MST on sludge transfer and aluminum leaching sludge.

  16. The prevalence of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluid from wrist and finger joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galozzi, Paola; Oliviero, Francesca; Frallonardo, Paola; Favero, Marta; Hoxha, Ariela; Scanu, Anna; Lorenzin, Mariagrazia; Ortolan, Augusta; Punzi, Leonardo; Ramonda, Roberta

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals in synovial fluids (SFs) aspirated from wrist and finger joints of patients with previously diagnosed joint diseases. We reviewed the results of SF analysis of 1593 samples and identified 126 patients with effusions in the small joints of the hands and wrists. We reported from patients' medical files data about sex, age, diagnosis, disease duration and the microscopic SF results. The prevalence of CPP crystals in SF was 85.71% in CPP-crystals arthritis (CPP-CA), 19.35% in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13.89% in osteoarthritis (OA) and 0% in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), spondyloarthritis (SpA), gout and miscellanea. The prevalence of MSU crystals in SF was 83.3% in gout, 10% in PsA, 2.8% in OA and 0% in RA, SpA, miscellanea and CPP-CA. Consistent with previously reported data concerning the big joints, microcrystals can be frequently found also in the small joints of patients with previous diagnosis. The finding underlines the importance of analyzing SF from the hand and wrist joints in the attempt to identify comorbidities associated with the presence of crystals and to develop targeted treatment strategies.

  17. EXPRESSION OF BAX AND BCL-2 IN MOUSE OFFSPRING BRAIN AFTER MATERNAL ORAL ADMINIS TRATION OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 赵晏; 展淑琴; 王会生; 史文春

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze the excitotoxicity of monoso dium glutamate (MSG) in the offspring cerebral cortex and hippocampal subregions after maternal oral administration of MSG. Methods Kunming mi ce were given per os MSG ( 4.0 g/kg ) at 17~21 days of pregnancy and their offs pring behaviors were studied at 10, 20 , 30 days postnatally. By using immunohis tochemical means, the involvement of Bcl-2 and Bax in the glutamate-induced c ell death in cortical and hippocampal neur ons were examined. Cell damage was assessed by direct cell counting. Res ults Administration of monosodium glutamate during the fetal period in mice resulted in a moderate increase in the expression of Bax in principal neuro ns in CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4 and in the cerebral cortex at postpartum 10, 20, 30 day s in the offspring mice, whereas Bcl-2 protein expressions were reduced signif icantly in the same regions as compared with those of controls. Conclusi on These findings suggest that glutamate toxicity results in cellular d eath via an apoptotic mechanism in which the Bcl-2/Bax-alpha molecular comple x may be involved. The glutamate-induced apoptosis appears to be related to the modulation of Bcl-2 family gene products such as Bcl-2 and Bax.

  18. Potent protection of Danshensu(β-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid)against excitotoxic effects of maternal intragastric administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy on developing mouse fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingen Shen; Lijian Yu; Rundi Ma; Yongping Zhang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Juanzhi Fang; Tingxi Yu

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that ferulic acid[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid]and sodium ferulate produce protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in adult mice.Danshensu(β-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid)has a similar molecular structure and pharmacological action to caffeic acid.This study aimed to validate the protection conferred by Danshensu against excitotoxic effects of maternal intragastric administration of monosodium glutamate at late stages of pregnancy in the developing mouse fetal brain.Behavioral tests,as well as histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of hippocampi were performed in filial mice.Results revealed that maternal intragastric administration of excessive monosodium glutamate(1.0,2.0,4.0 g/kg body weight)at a late stage of pregnancy resulted in a series of behavioral disorders(hyperactivity,lesions of learning and memory,and disturbance in cooperation of movement ability under high-altitude stress),histopathological impairment(neuronal edema,degeneration,necrosis,and hyperplasia)and molecular cellular biological changes(upregulated expression of N-methyI-D-aspartate receptor type 1 and neuropeptide Y in the hippocampal region of the brain of the filial mice from mothers treated with monosodium glutamate).Simultaneous administration of sodium Danshensu partially reversed the effects of monosodium glutamate on the above mentioned phenomena.These findings indicate that sodium Danshensu exhibits obvious protective effects on the excitotoxicity of monosodium glutamate.

  19. Research progress on pyroglutamic acid detection methods in monosodium glutamate%味精中焦谷氨酸检测方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘馨; 冯旭东; 刘明明

    2013-01-01

      焦谷氨酸是一种环状氨基酸,是许多氨基酸和蛋白质生成过程中的中间产物,广泛存在于动植物界。在味精生产过程中,谷氨酸受热会脱水环化成焦谷氨酸,影响谷氨酸的提取收率,所以为了对焦谷氨酸进行控制,在味精生产过程中对其检测是非常必要的。本文综述了焦谷氨酸的结构及性质,并对味精生产过程可能产生焦谷氨酸的环节做了阐述,重点介绍了焦谷氨酸的检测方法:化学法和高压液相色谱法,并对高压液相色谱法进行了展望。%Pyroglutamic acid is a cyclic amino acid. It is an intermediate during amino acid and protein biosyn-thesis. It is widely distributed in plants and animals. When heated, glutamate is highly unstable and prone to sponta-neous cyclization into pyroglutamic acid during the monosodium glutamate production, which could reduce the yielding amount of glutamic acid. So in order to control the content of pyroglutamic, it was detected during the mo-nosodium glutamate production. This paper provides a brief overview of the structure and chemical properties of py-roglutamic acid and the possible reasons of pyroglutamic acid generation in monosodium glutamate production proc-ess. Focus on chemical method and high pressure liquid chromatography, the development of detection of pyroglu-tamic acid is also viewed.

  20. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-03

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases.

  1. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  2. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  3. Role of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the development of joint pain induced by monosodium iodoacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Porta, Carmen; Bura, Simona Andreea; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Manzanares, Jorge; Maldonado, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Joint pain is a common clinical problem for which both inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases are major causes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the behavioral, histological, and neurochemical alterations associated with joint pain. The murine model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) was used to induce joint pain in knockout mice for CB1 (CB1KO) and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2KO) and transgenic mice overexpressing CB2 receptors (CB2xP). In addition, we evaluated the changes induced by MIA in gene expression of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors in the lumbar spinal cord of these mice. Wild-type mice, as well as CB1KO, CB2KO, and CB2xP mice, developed mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral paw after MIA intra-articular injection. CB1KO and CB2KO demonstrated similar levels of mechanical allodynia of that observed in wild-type mice in the ipsilateral paw, whereas allodynia was significantly attenuated in CB2xP. Interestingly, CB2KO displayed a contralateral mirror image of pain developing mechanical allodynia also in the contralateral paw. All mouse lines developed similar histological changes after MIA intra-articular injection. Nevertheless, MIA intra-articular injection produced specific changes in the expression of cannabinoid and opioid receptor genes in lumbar spinal cord sections that were further modulated by the genetic alteration of the cannabinoid receptor system. These results revealed that CB2 receptor plays a predominant role in the control of joint pain manifestations and is involved in the adaptive changes induced in the opioid system under this pain state.

  4. (p-ClPhSe)2 Reduces Hepatotoxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate by Improving Mitochondrial Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quines, Caroline B; Chagas, Pietro M; Hartmann, Diane; Carvalho, Nélson R; Soares, Félix A; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2017-02-18

    It is has been demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory process are associated with progress of morbid obesity in human patients. For this reason, the searching for safe and effective antiobesity drugs has been the subject of intense research. In this context, the organic selenium compounds have attracted much attention due to their pharmacological properties, such as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2 , an organic selenium compound, in a model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration in rats. Wistar rats were treated during the first ten postnatal days with MSG (4 g/kg by subcutaneous injections) and received (p-ClPhSe)2 (10 mg/kg, intragastrically) from 90(th) to 97(th) postnatal day. Mitochondrial function, purine content and the levels of proteins involved in apoptotic (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)) and inflammatory processes (inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and p38) were determined in the liver of rats. The present study demonstrated that postnatal administration of MSG to male rats induced a mitochondrial dysfunction, accompanied by oxidative stress and an increase in the ADP levels, without altering the efficiency of phosphorylation in the liver of adult rats. Furthermore, the MSG administration also induces hepatotoxicity, through an increase in PARP, iNOS and p38 levels. (p-ClPhSe)2 treatment had beneficial effects against mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and modulated protein markers of apoptosis and inflammation in the liver of MSG-treated rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  6. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  7. Engagement of fatty acids with Toll-like receptor 2 drives interleukin-1beta production via the ASC/caspase 1 pathway in monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced gouty arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Mylona, E.; Koenders, M.I.; Malireddi, R.K.; Oosting, M.; Stienstra, R.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept that intraarticular crystals of uric acid by themselves trigger episodes of painful gouty arthritis is inconsistent with the clinical reality. Patients with large deposits of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals (tophi) do not necessarily experience gouty attacks. In fa

  8. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATEPHASE II INTERIM REPORT FOR EXTERNAL RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Mary Thompson, M

    2006-08-31

    This document provides an interim summary report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST materials. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger laboratory scale, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and characterization of the modified MST. Key findings and conclusions include the following: (1) Samples of the modified MST prepared by Method 2 and Method 3 exhibited the best combination of strontium and actinide removal. (2) We selected Method 3 to scale up and test performance with actual waste solution. (3) We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using the Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. (4) Performance tests indicated successful scale-up to the 25-gram scale with excellent performance and reproducibility among each of the three batches. For example, the plutonium decontamination factors (6-hour contact time) for the modified MST samples averaged 13 times higher than that of the baseline MST sample at half the sorbent concentration (0.2 g L{sup -1} for modified MST versus 0.4 g L{sup -1} for baseline MST). (5) Performance tests with actual waste supernate demonstrated that the modified MST exhibited better strontium and plutonium removal performance than that of the baseline MST. For example, the decontamination factors for the modified MST measured 2.6 times higher for strontium and between 5.2 to 11 times higher for plutonium compared to the baseline MST sample. The modified MST did not exhibit improved neptunium removal performance over that of the baseline MST. (6) Two strikes of the modified MST provided increased removal of strontium and actinides from actual waste compared to a single strike. The improved performance

  9. FATE OF FISSILE MATERIAL BOUND TO MONOSODIUM TITANATE DURING COOPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-08-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of {approx}34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to

  10. Choline chloride (ChCl) and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-based green solvents from optimized cactus malic acid for biomass delignification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiin, Chung Loong; Quitain, Armando T; Yusup, Suzana; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Kida, Tetsuya

    2017-08-10

    This work aimed to develop an efficient microwave-hydrothermal (MH) extraction of malic acid from abundant natural cactus as hydrogen bond donor (HBD) whereby the concentration was optimized using response surface methodology. The ideal process conditions were found to be at a solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.008, 120°C and 20min with 1.0g of oxidant, H2O2. Next generation environment-friendly solvents, low transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs) were synthesized from cactus malic acid with choline chloride (ChCl) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs). The hydrogen-bonding interactions between the starting materials were determined. The efficiency of the LTTMs in removing lignin from oil palm biomass residues, empty fruit bunch (EFB) was also evaluated. The removal of amorphous hemicellulose and lignin after the pretreatment process resulted in an enhanced digestibility and thermal degradability of biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE, AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-01-12

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal, and sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results from the development of an improved titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and effective capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  12. Effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hor mone levels, lipid profile and er ythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on visceral organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hormone levels, serum lipid profile (SLP and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of Wistar rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of six rats each. The ones in Group 1 (control group were placed on water and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum, whereas Group 2 was regarded as test group [Wistar rats (WR-monosodium glutamate (MSG group] and the Wistar rats received water, compounded diet of MSG and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum. After 33 days of feeding study, rat body weight was obtained. Rats were sacrificed and the incisions were made into the thoracic cavity and blood samples were drawn by cardiac puncture as a terminal event. Plasma was assayed for estradiol and testosterone concentrations, SLP and erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities. Visceral organ weights were also measured. Results: WR-MSG exhibited marginal alterations in blood estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Elevation of serum triacylglycerol concentration in WR-MSG was corresponded to 77.7%. Increases in serum concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WR-MSG were corresponded to 70.6% and 41.0% respectively. Erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities showed marginal alterations. Alterations in visceral organs-to-body weights ratios were not profound. Conclusions: Blood testosterone and estradiol concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05 altered, which may not be connected with the low dose of MSG in the diet. Marginal alterations of SLP did not indicate atherogenicity in WR-MSG. The visceral organs were not atrophic or hypertrophic because of the comparatively low dose of MSG consumed by WR-MSG and the duration of the feeding experiment.

  13. Zisheng Shenqi decoction ameliorates monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jieru; Xie, Ying; Sui, Fangyu; Liu, Chunhong; Du, Xiaowei; Liu, Chenggang; Feng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Deyou

    2016-09-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicinal theories on gouty arthritis, Zisheng Shenqi decoction (ZSD), a novel Chinese medicinal formula, was developed due to its multiple functions, including reinforcing renal function, promoting blood circulation and relieving pain. In the present study, the effect of ZSD on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were examined. The data from these investigations showed that the injection of MSU crystals into the ankle joint cavity caused significant elevations in ankle swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration into the synovium, whereas these abnormal changes were markedly suppressed by oral administration of ZSD (40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Mechanically, ZSD treatment prevented MSU crystal‑induced inflammatory responses, as evidenced by downregulation in the expression levels of NACHT domain, leucine‑rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein (NALP) 1 and NALP6 inflammasomes, decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑1β, and inhibited activation of nuclear factor‑κB. In addition, ZSD administration markedly enhanced the anti-oxidant status in MSU crystal‑induced rats by the increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and the levels of reduced glutathione. These results indicated that ZSD effectively prevented MSU crystal-induced gouty arthritis via modulating multiple anti‑oxidative and anti‑inflammatory pathways, suggesting a promising herbal formula for the prevention and treatment of gouty arthritis.

  14. The Effect of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG On Rat Liver And The Ameliorating Effect Of "Guanidino Ethane Sulfonic acid (GES" (Histological, Histochemical and Electron Microscopy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa F. Waer and *Saleh Edress

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are chemical substances added intentionally to food stuffs to preserve, color, sweeten and flavor food. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is used as a flavor enhancer and found in most soups, salad dressing and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. Irrational fear had increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity of MSG. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of MSG on the rat liver and the ameliorating effect of taurine analog "Guanidinoethane sulfonic acid (GES". Sixty albino rats (2-3 months old were used in the present study. MSG was given orally at a daily dose of 60 mg/1000 g for one month, two months and was given at a daily dose of 100mg/1000gm for one month. The results revealed that the deleterious effects of MSG were dose related and cumulative. In MSG treated rats, the examined sections showed remarkable alterations varied considerably from moderate structural changes to cytoplasmic lysis and signs of degeneration of cellular organelles. The histological changes showed disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The glycogen granules increased as well as the collagen fibers in the liver cells. Ultrastructural changes showed loss of cytoplasmic differentiation, vacuolation, pyknotic nuclei with irregular nuclear membranes and elongated electron dense mitochondria. Conversely, treatment of rats with taurine analog (GES significantly attenuated the cellular toxicity of MSG.

  15. The fifth dimension of the taste in Spirulina platensis feed. Study on the influence of monosodium glutamate in the development and composition of the Spirulina platensis algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MANEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Food additives have become a way of life, creating pleasure and food request. But from the point of view of health promotion, it is necessary to demonstrate the risks and find out new possibilities for a good sensorial aspect of the food. This would apply especially in the case of long-term consumption, or in some particular conditions (allergies to different ingredients which appear more often to consumers. Cheap products are manufactured by using E-dangerous. The explanation is simple: the natural E extracted from various fruits and vegetables are very expensive. The study wants to demonstrate that the monosodium glutamate (MSG into the culture medium of plantscan affect their healthiness. Spirulina platensis has the same type of amino acids as humans and this is why it has been chosen as an experiment plant. Four samples obtained from the Spirulina’s culturemedium were studied: one blank and three with 0.2%, 0.4% and respectively 0.6% MSG in the culture medium. The mineral content was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS and a rapid increase of calcium and magnesium content was registered for the sample with the biggest amount of MSG. The structure of the filaments and the cells appearance were evaluated microscopically. There were changes identified in the structure after three days of cultivating. Also, the sample with 0.6% MSG presented dead cells and the ones which were still alive had profound changes in form and structure.

  16. Lycopene modulates cholinergic dysfunction, Bcl-2/Bax balance, and antioxidant enzymes gene transcripts in monosodium glutamate (E621) induced neurotoxicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Abouzed, Tarek; Nasr, Sherif

    2016-04-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on brain tissue and the relative ability of lycopene to avert these neurotoxic effects were investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups: group I, untreated (placebo); group II, injected with MSG (5 mg·kg(-1)) s.c.; group III, gastrogavaged with lycopene (10 mg·kg(-1)) p.o.; and group IV received MSG with lycopene with the same mentioned doses for 30 days. The results showed that MSG induced elevation in lipid peroxidation marker and perturbation in the antioxidant homeostasis and increased the levels of brain and serum cholinesterase (ChE), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes BB (CPK-BB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and gene expression were increased and glutathione content was reduced in the MSG-challenged rats, and these effects were ameliorated by lycopene. Furthermore, MSG induced apoptosis in brain tissues reflected in upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax while lycopene upregulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Our results indicate that lycopene appears to be highly effective in relieving the toxic effects of MSG by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inducing modifications in the activity of cholinesterase and antioxidant pathways. Interestingly, lycopene protects brain tissue by inhibiting apoptosis signaling induced by MSG.

  17. Study on the Decreasing of COD in Monosodium Glutamate Wastewater by Electrical Aggregation%电凝聚法降低味精废水中COD的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁忠浩; 黄久贵; 翁达; 张惠灵

    2001-01-01

    The monosodium glutamate wastewater is treated by means of electrical aggregation. Theoretical analysis is carried out of the mechanism of the electrical aggregation. With the help of the analysis and of an electrical aggregation efficiency equation deduced from reasonable hypotheses ,the influence of three main factors in electrical aggregation, namely the current intensity, operation time and the organic compound concentration in the wastewater, on the aggregation efficiency has been discussed.%采用电凝聚法对味精废水进行处理,进行了电凝聚机理探讨和理论分析。根据论分析和合理假设推导出的电凝聚效率公式,描述了电凝聚过程中三个主要影响因素-电流强度、通电时间、废水中有机物浓度对电凝聚效率的影响。

  18. Mesophilic batch anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge and monosodium glutamate waste liquor for methane production in a bench-scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Li, Qing; Xiao, Minquan

    2011-02-01

    This paper presented results from anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). A bench-scale anaerobic digester, 10 L in volume was developed, to operate under mesophilic (37 ± 2°C) batch condition. Under versatile and reliable anaerobic conduct, high efficiency for bioconversion of PPS and MGWL were obtained in the system. The accumulative methane yield attained to 200 mL g(-1) VS(added) and the peak value of methane daily production was 0.5m(3)/(m(3)d). No inhibitions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia on anaerobic co-digestion were found. pH 6.0-8.0 and alkalinity 1000-4000 mg CaCO(3)/L were got without adjustment. This work showed that there was a good potential to the use of PPS and MGWL to anaerobic co-digestion for methane production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Inflammatory Cells, Interleukin-10, Interferon-γ and Histological of Kidney in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Rats

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    Abdalrauf A Mahmud Yousif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence, suggest that, consumption of food additives monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer was unhealthy. Herbal medicine Nigella sativa (NS has antioxidant properties able to cure the toxic induced by MSG. This study aimed to evaluate the risks of excessive use of MSG and to study the role of NS to inhibit inflammation and renal damage. Treated rats (twenty four male wistar rats were divided into six group and analyzed by measuring the cells in blood, interleukin-10, interferon-γ serum levels by ELISA method and remove kidneys for histological examination. Histological of kidney for all groups except control, were showed different abnormalities include congestion of some blood vessels, hemorrhage between tubules, widening in the renal tubules, revealed severe dilatation of Bowman's capsule and shrinkage of glomeruli, and areas of huge vacuole, were observed compared with control. Interleukin-10 was reduced in Groups 2,3,4 and 5, whereas increase in NS group compared with control. Interferon-γ was increased in groups 2,3,4 and reduced in groups 5,6 compared with control. Eosinophil was increased in groups 2,5 and reduced in groups 3,4, 6 compared with control. This present study showed that administration of MSG to rats induced many changes effects on inflammatory cells, cytokines and histological of kidneys. NS has benefit in blood parameters, whereas harmful on kidney at these doses.

  20. The Neuroprotective Effect of Dark Chocolate in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Nontransgenic Alzheimer Disease Model Rats: Biochemical, Behavioral, and Histological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Kapgal, Vijaya Kumar; Kutty, Bindu M; Subramanian, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to oxidative stress and cognitive decline continue to increase during both normal and pathological aging. Dietary changes and sedentary life style resulting in mid-life obesity and type 2 diabetes, if left uncorrected, further add to the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the later stages of life. Certain antioxidant agents such as dietary polyphenols, taken in adequate quantities, have been suggested to improve the cognitive processes. In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of dark chocolate (DC) containing 70% cocoa solids and 4% total polyphenol content for three months at a dose of 500 mg/Kg body weight per day to 17-month-old monosodium glutamate treated obese Sprague-Dawley rats, earlier characterized as a nontransgenic AD (NTAD) rat model after reversal of obesity, diabetes, and consequent cognitive impairments. The results demonstrated that DC reduced the hyperglycemia, inhibited the cholinesterase activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates, and improved the cognitive performance in spatial memory related Barnes maze task. Histological studies revealed an increase in cell volume in the DC treated rats in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated the benefits of DC in enhancing cognitive function and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of the aged NTAD rats while correcting their metabolic disturbances.

  1. Rebamipide Suppresses Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Interleukin-1β Production Through Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Caspase-1 in THP-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of rebamipide on activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Human monocyte cell line THP-1 and human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to assess the inflammatory response to MSU crystals. NADP/NADPH activity assays were used as a marker of ROS generation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were performed to evaluate levels of IL-1β, caspase-1, NLRP3, associated speck-like protein (ASC), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p65, IκBα, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Experimental pharmaceuticals included rebamipide, colchicine, dexamethasone, and ascorbic acid. In THP-1 cells, treatment with MSU crystals increased NADP/NADPH ratios and IL-1β expression, and both of these responses were potently inhibited by addition of rebamipide. Rebamipide also attenuated enhanced expression of caspase-1 gene by MSU crystals (p rebamipide. Stimulation of HUVECs with MSU crystals increased expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, which were markedly inhibited by both rebamipide and dexamethasone. This study demonstrated that rebamipide inhibits IL-1β activation through suppression of ROS-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways and caspase-1 activation in MSU crystal-induced inflammation.

  2. Mechanisms underlying hypertriglyceridemia in rats with monosodium L-glutamate-induced obesity: evidence of XBP-1/PDI/MTP axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Lucas Martins; Freitas, Larissa Nara Costa; Chagas, Vinicyus Teles; Coêlho, Caio Fernando Ferreira; Barroso, Wermerson Assunção; Costa, Graciomar Conceição; Silva, Lucilene Amorim; Debbas, Victor; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael Martins; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2014-01-10

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is intimately associated with insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas many of the mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver of rats subjected to neonatal monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. At age 120 days old, the MSG-obese animals exhibited hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis, while the control (CTR) group did not. Analysis using fast protein liquid chromatography of the serum lipoproteins revealed that the triacylglycerol content of the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles was twice as high in the MSG animals compared with the CTR animals. The expression of ER stress markers, GRP76 and GRP94, was increased in the MSG rats, promoting a higher expression of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and MTP. As the XBP-1/PDI/MTP axis has been suggested to represent a significant lipogenic mechanism in the liver response to ER stress, our data indicate that hypertriglyceridemia and liver steatosis occurring in the MSG rats are associated with increased MTP expression.

  3. Effects of Modified Simiao Decoction on IL-1β and TNFα Secretion in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simiao pill, a Chinese herbal formula containing four herbs, has been used in the treatment of gouty arthritis for many years. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of modified Simiao decoction (MSD on IL-1β and TNFα secretion in monocytic THP-1 cells with monosodium urate (MSU crystals-induced inflammation. The MSU crystals-induced inflammation model in THP-1 cells was successfully established by the stimulation of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and MSU crystals. Then, the MSD-derived serum or control serum extracted from rat was administered to different treatment groups. The morphology of MSU crystals and THP-1 cells was observed. IL-1β and TNFα protein expression in supernatant of THP-1 cells were determined by ELISA. Our data demonstrated that MSU crystals induced time-dependent increase of IL-1β and TNFα. Moreover, MSD significantly decreased IL-1β release in THP-1 cells with MSU crystals-induced inflammation. These results suggest that MSD is promising in the treatment of MSU crystals-induced inflammation in THP-1 cells. MSD may act as an anti-IL-1 agent in treating gout. The underlying mechanism may be related to NALP3 inflammasome which needs to be validated in future studies.

  4. Both dietary supplementation with monosodium L-glutamate and fat modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs, but with little interactive effect.

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    Zemeng Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets (basal diet, high fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG were provided to growing pigs. The dietary supplementation with fat and MSG used alone and in combination were found to modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs. Both dietary fat and MSG modified the expression of gene related to amino acid transport in jejunum. CONCLUSIONS: Both dietary fat and MSG clearly influenced amino acid content in tissues but in different ways. Both dietary fat and MSG enhance the absorption of amino acids in jejunum. However, there was little interaction between the effects of dietary fat and MSG.

  5. Effects of Zuogui Wan on neurocyte apoptosis and down-regulation of TGF-β1 expression in nuclei of arcuate hypothalamus of monosodium glutamate -liver regeneration rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Min Li; Xiang Gao; Mu-Lan Yang; Jia-Jun Mei; Liu-Tong Zhang; Xing-Fan Qiu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To inquire into the effects and mechanism of Zuogui Wan (Pills for Kidney Yin) on neurocyte apoptosis in nuclei of arcuate hypothalamus (ARN) of monosodium glutamate(MSG)-liver regeneration rats, and the mechanism of liver regeneration by using optic microscope, electron microscope and in situ end labeling technology to adjust nerve-endocrineimmunity network.METHODS: Neurocyte apoptosis in ARN of the experiment rats was observed by using optic microscope, electron microscope andin situ end labeling technology. Expression of TGF-β1 in ARN was observed by using immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: The expression of TGF-β1 in rats of model group was increased with the increase of ARN neurocyte apoptosis index (AI) (t = 8.3097, 12.9884, P<0.01). As compared with the rats of model group, the expression of TGF-β1 in rats of Zuogui Wan treatment group was decreased with the significant decrease of ARN neurocyte apoptosis (t = 4.5624,11.1420, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Brain neurocyte calcium ion overexertion and TGF-β1 protein participate in the adjustment and control of ARN neurocyte apoptosis in MSG-liver regeneration-rats. Zuogui Wan can prevent ARN neurocyte apoptosis of MSG-liver regeneration in rats by downregulating the expression of TGF-β1, and influence liver regeneration through adjusting nerve-endocrine-immune network.

  6. Neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment counteracts circadian arrhythmicity induced by phase shifts of the light-dark cycle in female and male Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Zucker, Irving

    2013-07-12

    Studies of rats and voles suggest that distinct pathways emanating from the anterior hypothalamic-retrochiasmatic area and the mediobasal hypothalamic arcuate nucleus independently generate ultradian rhythms (URs) in hormone secretion and behavior. We evaluated the hypothesis that destruction of arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, in concert with dampening of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian rhythmicity, would compromize the generation of ultradian rhythms (URs) of locomotor activity. Siberian hamsters retain-->of both sexes treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG) that destroys ARC neurons were subjected in adulthood to a circadian disrupting phase-shift protocol (DPS) that produces SCN arrhythmia. MSG treatments induced hypogonadism and obesity, retain-->and markedly reduced the size of the optic chiasm and optic nerves. MSG-treated hamsters exhibited normal entrainment to the light-dark cycle, but MSG treatretain-->ment counteracted the circadian arrhythmicity induced by the DPS protocol: only 6% of retain-->MSG-treated hamsters exhibited circadian arrhythmia, whereas 50% of control hamsters were circadian disrupted. In MSG-treated hamsters that retained circadian rhythmicity after DPS treatment, quantitative parameters of URs appeared normal, but in the two MSG-treated hamsters that became circadian arrhythmic after DPS, both dark-phase and light-phase URs were abolished. Although preliminary, these data are consistent with reports in voles suggesting that the combined disruption of SCN and ARC function impairs the expression of behavioral URs. The data also suggest that light thresholds for entrainment of circadian rhythms may be lower than those required to disrupt circadian organization.

  7. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045.

  8. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2.

  9. C5a Regulates IL-1β Production and Leukocyte Recruitment in a Murine Model of Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khameneh, Hanif J.; Ho, Adrian W. S.; Laudisi, Federica; Derks, Heidi; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian; Teng, Gim Gee; Mortellaro, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Gouty arthritis results from the generation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals within joints. These MSU crystals elicit acute inflammation characterized by massive infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes that are mobilized by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. MSU crystals also activate the complement system, which regulates the inflammatory response; however, it is unclear whether or how MSU-mediated complement activation is linked to IL-1β release in vivo, and the various roles that might be played by individual components of the complement cascade. Here we show that exposure to MSU crystals in vivo triggers the complement cascade, leading to the generation of the biologically active complement proteins C3a and C5a. C5a, but not C3a, potentiated IL-1β and IL-1α release from LPS–primed MSU-exposed peritoneal macrophages and human monocytic cells in vitro; while in vivo MSU–induced C5a mediated murine neutrophil recruitment as well as IL-1β production at the site of inflammation. These effects were significantly ameliorated by treatment of mice with a C5a receptor antagonist. Mechanistic studies revealed that C5a most likely increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and not through increased transcription of inflammasome components. Therefore we conclude that C5a generated upon MSU-induced complement activation increases neutrophil recruitment in vivo by promoting IL-1 production via the generation of ROS, which activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Identification of the C5a receptor as a key determinant of IL-1-mediated recruitment of inflammatory cells provides a novel potential target for therapeutic intervention to mitigate gouty arthritis. PMID:28167912

  10. Comparison between oral and intra-articular antinociceptive effect of dexketoprofen and tramadol combination in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdai, Cecilia; Giuliani, Sandro; Valenti, Claudio; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-08-15

    Dexketoprofen and tramadol, alone or in combination, were evaluated after oral or intra-articular administration on knee osteoarthritis nociception induced by intra-articular (i.ar.) monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 1 mg/25 µl) in the rat right knee while the left knee received saline (25 µl). Seven days after MIA treatment, dexketoprofen, tramadol, their combination or the vehicle were administered. Nociception was evaluated as alteration in hind limb weight distribution with Incapacitance tester at different time-points after drug administration. Oral dexketoprofen (0.1-1 mg/kg) or tramadol (0.5-5 mg/kg) induced maximal antinociception at 1 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. Their combination dose-dependently increased the intensity and duration of antinociception, that was additive and lasted up to 3 days. Also the intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen or tramadol (10-100 µg/25 µl) inhibited MIA-induced nociception, and the combination of the lower doses (10 µg/25 µl) produced a long lasting more than additive antinociceptive effect indicating a synergistic interaction between the two drugs. This effect was significantly reduced by naloxone (10 μg/25 μl, i.ar.) co-administered with both compounds. The intra-articular administration of both drugs at 10 µg/25 µl in the contralateral control knee joint provoked a marked synergistic antinociceptive effect indicating significant systemic diffusion through synovial membrane. The oral or intra-articular combination of dexketoprofen and tramadol produced additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects, respectively, in the model of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rats, that might allow to obtain therapeutic advantages with lower side effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

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    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  12. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

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    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  13. Oxidative stress by monosodium urate crystals promotes renal cell apoptosis through mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells: mechanism for urate-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of oxidative stress on monosodium urate (MSU)-mediated apoptosis of renal cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting for Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6), and mitogen-activated protein kinases were performed on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which were stimulated by MSU crystals. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed using annexin V for assessment of apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. IL-1β siRNA was used for blocking IL-1β expression. MSU crystals promoted ROS, iNOS, and COX-2 expression and also increased TRAF-6 and IL-1β expression in HEK293 cells, which was inhibited by an antioxidant ascorbic acid. Caspase-dependent renal cell apoptosis was induced through attenuation of Bcl-2 and enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression by MSU crystals, which was significantly reversed by ascorbic acid and transfection of IL-1β siRNA to HEK293 cells. Ascorbic acid inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal protein kinase stimulated by MSU crystals. ROS accumulation and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression by MSU crystals was also suppressed by transfection with IL-1β siRNA. Oxidative stress generated by MSU crystals promotes renal apoptosis through the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  14. The dissolution of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals: formulation of a biocompatible buffer solution with potential use in the treatment of gouty arthropathies

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    Gabriella Tamasi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissolving abilities (DAs of several aqueous media for microcrystalline monosodium\turate\tmonohydrate\t(MSU, NaC5N4O3H3·H2O have been investigated using UV spectrophotometry for quantitative analytical determinations and X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and polarized light optical microscopy to assess structural aspects. High DAs were found for a buffer labeled TMT which contains tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane (TRIS, tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane\thydrochloride (TRIS·HCl, D-mannitol (MAN and taurine (TAU and gave DA30=1298(5 mg/L for synthetic MSU after 30 min incubation at 37°C and pH 7.4, most of the dissolution taking place within the first 5-10 min. Semiempirical molecular modelling techniques (ZINDO/1 show a favorable energy balance for the formation of a TRIS-urate-TRIS adduct which might explain the high DA values. Buffers containing linear or dendrimeric polyamines gave DA values which suggest that complex formation toward sodium cations is less important. An ex vivo MSU sample was found to have a significantly lower DA value (DA30=1124(5 mg/L in TMT as well as a lower crystallinity than its synthetic counterpart, possibly related to the presence of a non-crystalline impurity such as endogenous proteins. Cytotoxicity tests based on the MTT assay were used to check the biocompatibility of the TMT buffer and showed only moderate cell mortality after 24 h contact with the buffer solution.

  15. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  16. P2Y6 Receptor Antagonist MRS2578 Inhibits Neutrophil Activation and Aggregated Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Induced by Gout-Associated Monosodium Urate Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Payel; Hayes, Craig P; Reaves, Barbara J; Breen, Patrick; Quinn, Shannon; Sokolove, Jeremy; Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy. We quantitated NET levels in gout synovial fluid supernatants and detected enzymatically active neutrophil primary granule enzymes, myeloperoxidase, and human neutrophil elastase. Suramin and PPADS, general P2Y receptor blockers, and MRS2578, an inhibitor of the purinergic P2Y6 receptor, blocked NET formation triggered by MSU crystals. AR-C25118925XX (P2Y2 antagonist) did not inhibit MSU crystal-stimulated NET release. Live imaging of PMNs showed that MRS2578 represses neutrophil migration and blocked characteristic formation of MSU crystal-NET aggregates called aggregated NETs. Interestingly, the store-operated calcium entry channel inhibitor (SK&F96365) also reduced MSU crystal-induced NET release. Our results indicate that the P2Y6/store-operated calcium entry/IL-8 axis is involved in MSU crystal-induced aggregated NET formation, but MRS2578 could have additional effects affecting PMN migration. The work presented in the present study could lead to a better understanding of gouty joint inflammation and help improve the treatment and care of gout patients.

  17. Monosodium iodoacetate-induced joint pain is associated with increased phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases in the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvis Michael F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA in the knee joint of rats disrupts chondrocyte metabolism resulting in cartilage degeneration and subsequent nociceptive behavior that has been described as a model of osteoarthritis (OA pain. Central sensitization through activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs is recognized as a pathogenic mechanism in chronic pain. In the present studies, induction of central sensitization as indicated by spinal dorsal horn MAPK activation, specifically ERK and p38 phosphorylation, was assessed in the MIA-OA model. Results Behaviorally, MIA-injected rats displayed reduced hind limb grip force 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-MIA treatment. In the same animals, activation of phospho ERK1/2 was gradually increased, reaching a significant level at post injection week 3. Conversely, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was enhanced maximally at post injection week 1 and decreased, but remained elevated, thereafter. Double labeling from 3-wk MIA rats demonstrated spinal pERK1/2 expression in neurons, but not glia. In contrast, p-p38 was expressed by microglia and a subpopulation of neurons, but not astrocytes. Additionally, there was increased ipsilateral expression of microglia, but not astrocytes, in 3-wk MIA-OA rats. Consistent with increased MAPK immunoreactivity in the contralateral dorsal horn, mechanical allodynia to the contralateral hind-limb was observed 3-wk following MIA. Finally, intrathecal injection of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 blocked both reduced hind-limb grip force and pERK1/2 induction in MIA-OA rats. Conclusion Results of these studies support the role of MAPK activation in the progression and maintenance of central sensitization in the MIA-OA experimental pain model.

  18. Diphenyl diselenide elicits antidepressant-like activity in rats exposed to monosodium glutamate: A contribution of serotonin uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Velasquez, Daniela; Da Rocha, Juliana T; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2016-03-15

    Depression is a disorder with symptoms manifested at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the most widely used additive in the food industry; however, some adverse effects induced by this additive have been demonstrated in experimental animals and humans, including functional and behavioral alterations. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound with pharmacological properties already documented, in the depressive-like behavior induced by MSG in rats. Male and female newborn Wistar rats were divided in control and MSG groups, which received, respectively, a daily subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4g/kg/day) from the 1st to 5th postnatal day. At 60th day of life, animals received (PhSe)2 (10mg/kg, intragastrically) 25min before spontaneous locomotor and forced swimming tests (FST). The cerebral cortices of rats were removed to determine [(3)H] serotonin (5-HT) uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. A single administration of (PhSe)2 was effective against locomotor hyperactivity caused by MSG in rats. (PhSe)2 treatment protected against the increase in the immobility time and a decrease in the latency for the first episode of immobility in the FST induced by MSG. Furthermore, (PhSe)2 reduced the [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and restored Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity altered by MSG. In the present study a single administration of (PhSe)2 elicited an antidepressant-like effect and decrease the synaptosomal [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and an increase in the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in MSG-treated rats.

  19. Monosodium urate crystal-induced pro-interleukin-1β production is post-transcriptionally regulated via the p38 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Won-Woo

    2016-10-03

    IL-1β is a key mediator of sterile inflammation in response to endogenous particulates, a type of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule derived from damaged cells. Despite the well-known role of sterile particulates such as monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as inflammasome inducers in monocytes/macrophages, little is known regarding how pro-IL-1β synthesis is induced under sterile inflammatory conditions. We provide evidence that MSU crystals post-transcriptionally induce the rapid production of pro-IL-1β in human primary monocytes. Metabolic labeling and pull-down assays for newly-synthesized proteins clearly showed that MSU crystals rapidly, within 30 min, induce the synthesis of pro-IL-1β as well as global proteins. Notably, MSU crystal-induced pro-IL-1β synthesis is selectively dependent on the p38 MAPK pathway, whereas global protein synthesis is mediated via the mTOR, ERK1/2, and p38 pathways. Furthermore, inhibition of Mnk1, a substrate of p38, blocked MSU crystal-induced pro-IL-1β synthesis downstream of eIF4E phosphorylation. In addition, the p38 MAPK pathway leading to phosphorylation of MK2 was also critical for stabilization of pro-IL-1β mRNA following MSU stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation via p38 MAPK plays a central role in the rapid synthesis of pro-IL-1β in response to MSU crystals, which is an essential step for IL-1β production in human monocytes.

  20. Enhanced p62 Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of p62-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in the initiation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in macrophages. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by MSU crystals was measured using western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, or PARP1, and by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting was applied to detect ubiquitination of p62, TRAF6, and caspase-9. Mitochondrial apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell proliferation were assessed in cells transfected with p62 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with MSU crystals induced activation of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1 at the early phase, in addition to enhancing IL-1β expression, but these findings were attenuated at the late phase. MSU crystals induced ubiquitination of p62, followed by ubiquitination of TRAF6 and caspase-9, which were significantly reversed by ascorbic acid. RAW 264.7 cells transfected with p62 siRNA showed attenuated expression of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1, decreased ROS and IL-1β production, and increased cell proliferation, compared to controls. The antioxidant ascorbic acid inhibited p62, caspase-9, and IL-1β expression increased by MSU crystals. p62 may be a crucial mediator for the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in MSU crystal-induced inflammation, which is linked to the acute inflammatory response during the early phase of gout.

  1. ArsP: a methylarsenite efflux permease

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Trivalent organoarsenic compounds are far more toxic than either pentavalent organoarsenicals or inorganic arsenite. Many microbes methylate inorganic arsenite (As(III)) to more toxic and carcinogenic methylarsenite (MAs(III)). Additionally, monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA or MAs(V)) has been used widely as an herbicide and is reduced by microbial communities to MAs(III). Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzenearsonic acid) is a pentavalent aromatic arsenical that is used as antimicrobial growth ...

  2. A biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoar...

  3. 新生期注射谷氨酸单钠对大鼠脑区损伤程度的比较观察%Comparative Study of Damage to Different Parts of Brain with Injected Monosodium Glutamate in Newborn Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金平; 史玉兰; 金凤霞; 白文忠; 高志国

    2000-01-01

    The damage to 16 parts of brain is comparatively researched in the adult rat. Those experimental animals are injected intraperitoneal different dose monosodium glutamate in the newborn period. The neurons are decrease markedly in most parts of the brain in the experimental rats. But some parts of brain are protected from the neurotoxicity of monosodium glutamate.%比较观察了在新生期腹腔内注射不同剂量谷氨酸单钠后,成年大鼠16个脑区的神经元损伤程度.发现大多数脑区的神经元显著减少,但有的脑区对谷氨酸单钠的神经毒性具有一定保护作用.

  4. Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Medicine Herb Pair, Huzhang and Guizhi, on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats Revealed by Anti-Inflammatory Assessments and NMR-Based Metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Huang, Huizhu; Li, Zhong; Gong, Mengjuan; Shi, Wan; Zhu, Chunxia; Gu, Zulian; Zou, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Huzhang-Guizhi herb pair (HG), firstly included in Hu-Zhang Power documented in Taiping Shenghui Fang, on monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis in rats. We found that pretreatment with HG in rats with gouty arthritis could significantly attenuate the ankle joint swelling, and this beneficial antigout effect might be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) production in synovial fluid as well as nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) protein expression in synovial tissue. Moreover, metabonomic analysis demonstrated that 5 and 6 potential biomarkers associated with gouty arthritis in plasma and urine, respectively, which were mainly involved in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism, were identified. HG could reverse the pathological process of MSU-induced gouty arthritis through regulating the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provided important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of HG against MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats.

  5. Soft coral-derived lemnalol alleviates monosodium urate-induced gouty arthritis in rats by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Pai; Huang, Shi-Ying; Lin, Yen-You; Wang, Hui-Min; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wu, Shu-Fen; Duh, Chang-Yih; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-10

    An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol-an extract from Formosan soft coral-has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im]), but not colchicine (oral [po]), significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  6. 提高味精生产中和料液浓度的研究与实践%Research and practice on increasing the concentration of neut ralization liquid during the monosodium glutamate production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利和

    2009-01-01

    According to scientific experiments and improvements on the manufacturing technique of monosodium glutamate (MSG), the concentration of the to calculations and experiments, the consumption of the steam will decrease 45 by 1 h. As for a MSG manufacturer whose annual capacity is 100,000 tones, the turnover can be increased by more than RMB 5 Million.%通过科学实验和对生产工艺的调整改造,将味精生产中的中和料液浓度从22°Bé 提到至28°Bé,单个中和罐料液最高浓度可达30°Bé.根据计算和实验,每提高1°Bé浓度,吨味精汽耗可降低45kg,可缩短浓缩结晶锅1h的操作周期,对于生产10万t味精的生产厂,年可增加利润500多万元.

  7. Soft Coral-Derived Lemnalol Alleviates Monosodium Urate-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats by Inhibiting Leukocyte Infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos Protein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Pai Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol — an extract from Formosan soft coral — has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im], but not colchicine (oral [po], significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  8. A comparative study of the inhibition effects of benzotriazole and 6-aniline-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium salt on the corrosion of copper by potentiodynamic polarization, AC impedance and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoding; Cai, Shengmin; Song, Liqun; Yang, Huaquan; Fujishima, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Lee, Y. G.; Loo, B. H.

    1991-11-01

    The inhibition effects of benzotriazole (BTA) and 6-aniline-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (ATD) monosodium salt on copper corrosion have been studied by the potentiodynamic polarization, AC impedance and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic techniques. The polarization resistance Rp increases with the concentration of either BTA or ATD. From the plots of the phase shift θ versus logarithm of the frequency, it is found that θ is close to 90° after the copper electrode is immersed for a long period of time in BTA-containing solution which indicates the behavior of an ideal capacitor. In ATD-containing solutions, θ is close to 45 ° which shows the appearance of a Warburg impedance for a diffusion process. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of the competitive adsorption of BTA and ATD on copper surfaces indicate that BTA adsorbs better than ATD. Based on these results, it is concluded that the inhibition action of BTA is better than that of ATD.

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Medicine Herb Pair, Huzhang and Guizhi, on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats Revealed by Anti-Inflammatory Assessments and NMR-Based Metabonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Huzhang-Guizhi herb pair (HG, firstly included in Hu-Zhang Power documented in Taiping Shenghui Fang, on monosodium urate (MSU crystals-induced gouty arthritis in rats. We found that pretreatment with HG in rats with gouty arthritis could significantly attenuate the ankle joint swelling, and this beneficial antigout effect might be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β production in synovial fluid as well as nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65 protein expression in synovial tissue. Moreover, metabonomic analysis demonstrated that 5 and 6 potential biomarkers associated with gouty arthritis in plasma and urine, respectively, which were mainly involved in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism, were identified. HG could reverse the pathological process of MSU-induced gouty arthritis through regulating the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provided important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of HG against MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats.

  10. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4, 40.5% (week 5, and 22.0% (week 6 in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  11. [Synthesis of stable solvates of monosodium 2-[R*s,9S*)-(4-methoxy-6,7,8, 9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridin-9-yl)sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Goto, T; Yuasa, S; Yamaguchi, T; Kogi, K

    1996-08-01

    Monosodium 2-[(R*s,9S*)-(4-methoxy-6,7,8, 9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta-[b]pyridin-9-yl)sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole (3A), a novel antiulcer agent previously reported by us, was found to be easily decomposed in weakly acidic solutions. In order to improve the stability of the parent compound, 3A, the preparation of 1-substituted benzimidazoles (4A) was attempted. However, the inhibitory effect of 4A against gastric acid secretion was less potent than that of 3A. Then 3A was solvated by EtOH or H2O to afford 5A or 6A, respectively. On the other hand, an another diastereoisomer, (R*s,9R*)-3B, was not solvated by EtOH or H2O under the same conditions. The thus obtained solvates (5A, 6A) are much more stable than that of 3A. The antiulcer activities of 5A and 6A were found to be similar to that of the parent compound (3A). Consequently, 6A was selected as an antiulcer agent for the development.

  12. A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of nitrite in environmental and biological samples using 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid monosodium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Al-Tayar, Naef Ghllab S.; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Shrestha, Ashwine K.; Gowda, Avinash K.

    2010-05-01

    A very simple, sensitive, fairly selective and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of nitrite has been described. This method is based on the diazotized intramolecular coupling of electrophilic diazonium cation with the phenolic group of 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid monosodium salt (AHNDMS) in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.5. The cyclic product has a purple color with maximum absorbance at 560 nm and is stable for 6 h. Optimum reaction conditions and other important analytical parameters for the maximum color development were established. Beer's law was found to obey for nitrite in the concentration range of 0.1-1.6 μg ml -1 with molar absorptivity of 2.6 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and Sandell's sensitivity of 0.0075 μg ml -1. The effect of interfering ions on the determination is described. The recommended method was applied for the determination of nitrite in different water, soil and human saliva samples. The performance of the recommended method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test, which indicated the significance of proposed method over the reference method.

  13. Morin, a dietary bioflavonol suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in an animal model of acute gouty arthritis with reference to NLRP3 inflammasome, hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase, and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Chitra; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2016-09-05

    The anti-inflammatory effect of morin, a dietary bioflavanol was explored on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. Morin treatment (30mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated the ankle swelling and the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and articular elastase along with an increased anti-oxidant status (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in the joint homogenate of MSU crystal-induced rats. Histological assessment revealed that morin limited the diffusion of joint space, synovial hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltrations. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 (nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome, caspase-1, pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 was found downregulated and HPRT (hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase) mRNA expression was upregulated in morin treated MSU crystal-induced rats. In addition, morin treatment reduced the protein expression of NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated that morin exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect on MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats.

  14. Effect of osmotic dehydration of olives as pre-fermentation treatment and partial substitution of sodium chloride by monosodium glutamate in the fermentation profile of Kalamata natural black olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatsou, Stamatoula; Iliopoulos, Vasilis; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Gogou, Eleni; Oikonomopoulou, Vasiliki; Krokida, Magdalini; Taoukis, Petros; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6.30% NaCl - 0.70% MSG (10% substitution), (iii) 5.95% NaCl - 1.05% MSG (15% substitution), and (iv) 7% NaCl without osmotic dehydration (control treatment). Changes in the microbial association (lactic acid bacteria [LAB], yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae), pH, titratable acidity, organic acids, sugars, and volatile compounds in the brine were analyzed for a period of 4 months. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis and the content of MSG in olives was determined. Results demonstrated that osmotic dehydration of olives prior to brining led to vigorous lactic acid processes as indicated by the obtained values of pH (3.7-4.1) and acidity (0.7-0.8%) regardless of the amount of MSG used. However, in non-osmotically dehydrated olives, the highest substitution level of MSG resulted in a final pH (4.5) that was beyond specification for this type of olives. MSG was degraded in the brines being almost completely converted to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the end of fermentation. Finally, the sensory assessment of fermented olives with/without osmotic dehydration and at all levels of MSG did not show any deviation compared to the control treatment.

  15. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  16. The Positively Charged COOH-terminal Glycosaminoglycan-binding CXCL9(74-103) Peptide Inhibits CXCL8-induced Neutrophil Extravasation and Monosodium Urate Crystal-induced Gout in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Vincent; Janssens, Rik; Boff, Daiane; Kitic, Nikola; Berghmans, Nele; Ronsse, Isabelle; Kungl, Andreas J; Amaral, Flavio Almeida; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Van Damme, Jo; Proost, Paul; Mortier, Anneleen

    2015-08-28

    The ELR(-)CXC chemokine CXCL9 is characterized by a long, highly positively charged COOH-terminal region, absent in most other chemokines. Several natural leukocyte- and fibroblast-derived COOH-terminally truncated CXCL9 forms missing up to 30 amino acids were identified. To investigate the role of the COOH-terminal region of CXCL9, several COOH-terminal peptides were chemically synthesized. These peptides display high affinity for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and compete with functional intact chemokines for GAG binding, the longest peptide (CXCL9(74-103)) being the most potent. The COOH-terminal peptide CXCL9(74-103) does not signal through or act as an antagonist for CXCR3, the G protein-coupled CXCL9 receptor, and does not influence neutrophil chemotactic activity of CXCL8 in vitro. Based on the GAG binding data, an anti-inflammatory role for CXCL9(74-103) was further evidenced in vivo. Simultaneous intravenous injection of CXCL9(74-103) with CXCL8 injection in the joint diminished CXCL8-induced neutrophil extravasation. Analogously, monosodium urate crystal-induced neutrophil migration to the tibiofemural articulation, a murine model of gout, is highly reduced by intravenous injection of CXCL9(74-103). These data show that chemokine-derived peptides with high affinity for GAGs may be used as anti-inflammatory peptides; by competing with active chemokines for binding and immobilization on GAGs, these peptides may lower chemokine presentation on the endothelium and disrupt the generation of a chemokine gradient, thereby preventing a chemokine from properly performing its chemotactic function. The CXCL9 peptide may serve as a lead molecule for further development of inhibitors of inflammation based on interference with chemokine-GAG interactions.

  17. Morin, a Bioflavonoid Suppresses Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Inflammatory Immune Response in RAW 264.7 Macrophages through the Inhibition of Inflammatory Mediators, Intracellular ROS Levels and NF-κB Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Dhanasekar

    Full Text Available Our previous studies had reported that morin, a bioflavanoid exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effect against adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In this current study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of morin against monosodium urate crystal (MSU-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, an in vitro model for acute gouty arthritis. For comparison purpose, colchicine was used as a reference drug. We have observed that morin (100-300 μM treatment significantly suppressed the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and VEGF, inflammatory mediators (NO and PEG2, and lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl glucosamindase and cathepsin D in MSU-crystals stimulated macrophage cells. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κBp65 was found downregulated in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells by morin treatment, however, the mRNA expression of hypoxanthine phospho ribosyl transferse (HPRT was found to be increased. The flow cytometry analysis revealed that morin treatment decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells. The western blot analysis clearly showed that morin mainly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the MSU crystal-induced COX-2 and TNF-α protein expression through the inactivation of NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells similar to that of BAY 11-7082 (IκB kinase inhibitor. Our results collectively suggest that morin can be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory disorders like acute gouty arthritis.

  18. 利用味精废液发酵枯草芽孢杆菌的培养基配方优化%Optimization of a culture medium for Bacillus subtilis based on monosodium glutamate wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 曾真; 方萍

    2016-01-01

    以营养肉汤(nutrient broth,NB)培养基为对照,通过对比试验、正交试验和单因素试验,对以味精废液为主要营养源的摇瓶培养的枯草芽孢杆菌 F-2培养基配方及培养条件进行优化,以提高 F-2发酵液的活菌密度并实现味精废液的资源化利用.对比试验表明,用12.5 g/L 浓缩味精废液(concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater,CMGW)培养的 F-2菌悬液的 D(600 nm)值及活菌密度显著高于 NB 培养基,其培养 F-2后的氨基酸含量显著降低.通过 L16(43×26)正交试验筛选出 F-2的优化配方为 CMGW 12.5 g/L,牛肉膏1.0 g/L,蛋白胨4.0 g/L,MnSO4·2 H 2 O 0.5 g/L,H 3 BO30.02 g/L,FeSO4·7 H 2 O 0.1 g/L,MgSO4·7 H 2 O 0.5 g/L.按此优化配方接种培养 F-2菌株,其菌液的活菌密度分别是未经优化的 CMGW 培养基和 NB 培养基的2.9倍和6.3倍.通过单因素试验,筛选出基于该优化配方的 F-2菌株适宜的初始 pH 范围为6.5~7.5,适宜的培养温度为30~35℃.以上结果显示,培养基 CMGW 对菌株 F-2的发酵效果优于 NB 培养基,其优化配方的效果更佳.%Summary Concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater (CMGW) generated from the production of monosodium glutamate is an organic wastewater with high concentration of ammonia,chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and SO2-4 and low pH. Discharge of CMGW has raised serious environmental problems,and potential secondary pollution existed even treated with traditional physical and chemical processes. It has already been reported that the richness of nitrogen and carbon makes the recycling of this wastewater possible in the way of microbial fermentation as medium.However,the differences of strain and fermentation purpose require that the medium contains different nutritional compositions with a certain dosage.Bacillus subtilis F-2,isolated from a commercial organic fertilizer,can inhibit the growth of 18 plant pathogenic fungi with varying degrees,especially in F

  19. Monosodium glutamate: Potentials at inducing prostate pathologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... with typical adverse effects associated with its oral intake without food ... PAP, prostatic acid phosphatase; ANOVA, one-way analysis of ... urinogenital system, is to produce prostatic fluid which ..... and oxidative stress in rats.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety of the change in the production method of L-glutamic acid (E620, monosodium L-glutamate (E621, monopotassium L-glutamate (E622, calcium di-L-glutamate (E623, monoammonium L-glutamate (E624 and magnesium di-L-glutamate (E625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS was asked to deliver a scientific opinion evaluating   the safety of the change in the production method for the production of L-glutamic acid (E620, monosodium - L-glutamate (E621, monopotassium L-glutamate (E622, calcium di-L-glutamate (E623, monoammonium L-glutamate (E624 and magnesium di-L-glutamate (E625. The L-glutamic acid is produced by the genetically modified Corynebacterium glutamicum EA-12 strain. The recipient strain Corynebacterium glutamicum  strain2256  has been recommended for Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS status. No antibiotic resistance genes were left in the genome and neither the production strain nor its recombinant DNA were detected in the final product. The Panel considered there were no safety concerns for consumers from the genetic modification. The proposed uses or use levels of L-glutamic acid and its salt derivatives produced with the current strain and the new genetically modified microorganism (GMM strain will be identical and thus the Panel considered that the exposure to the food additive will remain unaffected. Provided that the L-glutamic acid and its salts both produced with the current strain and with the GMM strain are equal in the specifications and physicochemical characteristics, the biological and toxicological data for the L-glutamic acid and its salts produced with the current strain are considered by the Panel to support the safety of the food additives produced with the GMM strain. The Panel concluded that there are no safety concerns from the  change in the production method of the food additives L-glutamic acid (E620, monosodium L-glutamate (E621, monopotassium L-glutamate (E622, calcium di-L-glutamate (E623, monoammonium L-glutamate (E624 and magnesium di-L-glutamate (E625 meeting their existing specifications.

  1. Evaluation of body growth and myoenteric neurons of Wistar rats after neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate = Avaliação do crescimento corporal e dos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar após tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carlos Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating how the neonatal treatment withmonosodium glutamate reflects on body parameters and on myoenteric neurons of Wistar rats. Male rats were injected with monosodium glutamate during the first five postnatal days. Body growth was recorded until the age of 90 days, when the animals were killed.Fasting plasma glucose, caloric density and weight of organs were assayed. Gastric and duodenal whole-mounts stained with NADH diaphorase were observed for neuronal numbers and sizes. Growth, relative weight of organs and testicular caloric density of theinjected rats were smaller than those of the controls, while their Lee index and relative fat content were greater. The number of duodenal neurons and the mean size of gastric neurons were smaller in the injected animals. These results are discussed in light of theendocrine, autonomic and behavioral changes stemming from the lesion of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by monosodium glutamate.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar como o tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico se reflete em parâmetros corporais e nos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar. Ratos machos foram injetados com glutamato monossódico durante os primeiros 5 dias após o nascimento. O crescimento corporal foi registrado até os 90 dias, quando os animais foram sacrificados. Glicose plasmática de jejum, densidade calórica e peso dos órgãos foram avaliados. Preparados de membrana gástricos e duodenais corados com NADH-diaforase foramobservados quanto a número e tamanho dos neurônios. Crescimento, peso relativo dos órgãos e densidade calórica testicular dos ratos injetados foram menores que nos controles, enquanto o índice de Lee e o conteúdo relativo de gordura foram maiores. O número de neurônios duodenais e o tamanho médio dos neurônios gástricos foram menores nosanimais injetados. Esses resultados são discutidos à luz das alterações endócrinas, autonômicas e comportamentais

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite, incorporated in sachets, patches and cards. Iron, the main active ingredient reacts with oxygen to form iron hydroxide and iron oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the primary packaging. Only activated carbon has not been evaluated as such, but it meets the specifications for activated charcoal which is authorised as additive for plastic materials and articles in contact with foods. All other ingredients of the oxygen absorber formulations have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials and/or as food additives and/or food supplements or feed additives. The active system being based on solid ingredients and not intended for direct contact with liquid food or food with an external liquid surface, migration through the gas phase was screened for 9 representative active systems. No volatiles derived from the active mixtures were detected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the substances do not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in sachets, patches or cards, placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with food, excluding liquid food or foods that have an external aqueous liquid phase on the surface such as sliced fruits and fresh meat.

  3. Influence of Serum Containing Qingre Chubi Decoction on THP-1 Cell Viability and Interleukin-1βRelease Stimulated by Monosodium Urate Crystals%清热除痹汤含药血清对尿酸钠结晶刺激下THP-1细胞活性及分泌白细胞介素-1β的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 孙维峰; 李静; 张欢欢

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨清热除痹汤含药血清对尿酸钠结晶刺激下THP-1细胞的增殖活性及分泌白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)功能的影响。方法体外培养人单核细胞THP-1细胞,分为5组,空白血清组,模型对照组,中药血清高、中、低浓度组(浓度分别为体积分数20%、10%、5%),除空白血清组外,其他各组均加入浓度为500 mg/L的尿酸钠结晶,于培养0、12、24、48 h时间点采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色(MTS)法检测细胞的增殖活性,培养48 h后采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测细胞上清液IL-1β含量。结果各组THP-1细胞活性均随着时间的延长而增加,模型对照组各时间点细胞活性均较空白血清组显著增高(P<0.05或P<0.01),48 h模型对照组的IL-1β水平较空白血清组显著增高(P<0.01)。12、24 h中药血清各浓度组,48 h中药血清高、中浓度组细胞活性均较模型对照组显著下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),48 h中药血清各浓度组IL-1β水平均较模型对照组显著下降(P<0.01)。结论清热除痹汤含药血清对尿酸钠结晶刺激下THP-1细胞的活性有抑制作用,机制与其可抑制IL-1分泌有关。%Objective To investigate the influence of serum containing Qingre Chubi Decoction ( QCD) on the THP-1 cell viability and the release of interleukin 1 beta ( IL-1β) stimulated by monosodium urate crystals in vitro. Methods The cultured human monocyte THP-1 strain were divided into blank serum group, model control group, and high-, middle- and low-concentration ( volume fraction being 20%, 10%, 5%) QCD-containing serum groups. Except for the blank serum group , the other groups were all given 500 mg/L of monosodium urate crystals. On culturing hour 0, 12, 24 and 48, THP-1 cell viability was tested by methy1 thiazolyl tetrazolium celorimetry ( MTS) method. On culturing hour 48, the content of IL-1β in the supernatant of

  4. A biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10−7 M and linearity to 10−6 M for phenylarsenite and 5×10−6 M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters. PMID:24359149

  5. Biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-01-21

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10(-7) M and linearity to 10(-6) M for phenylarsenite and 5 × 10(-6) M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters.

  6. TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERED FORMS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-05-14

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The {sup E}mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, {sup E}MST and {sup E}mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight ({approx}10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower ({approx}0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of {sup E}MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the {sup E}MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of {sup E}MST and the post-peroxide treated {sup E}mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated {sup E}mMST has a higher Sr and Np capacity, but that both materials have similar Pu capacities. The {sup E}MST removed a larger percentage of U than the peroxide treated {sup E}mMST, which is consistent with previous testing which showed that mMST has little affinity for U under these conditions.

  7. Solubility of fumaric acid and its monosodium salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Horst, J.H. ter; Pieterse, M.; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fumaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid applied in food industry and in some polymers. Currently, its fermentative production from renewable resources is receiving much attention, and crystallization is used to recover it. To determine the window of operation for crystallization from multicomponent ferm

  8. 有机负荷对厌氧流化床反应器处理模拟味精废水的影响%Effect of organic loading on treatment efficiency of synthetic monosodium glutamate wastewater by anaerobic fluidized bed reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝景曼; 钟浩源; 王新华; 李秀芬

    2012-01-01

    在中温(35±1℃)条件下,以新型橡胶颗粒为载体的厌氧流化床(AFB)反应器处理模拟味精废水为研究体系,考察有机负荷(OLR)由2.08 kg/(m3.d)提高到19.20 kg/(m3.d)期间,污染物去除率、胞外聚合物(EPS)含量及其在生物膜和混合液中的分布、生物膜中MLVSS含量及脱氢酶活性等的变化情况。结果表明,随有机负荷增加,污染物去除稳定,COD去除率维持在80%左右;EPS在生物膜中的量大于在混合液中的量,并以蛋白质为主要成分,但其总量呈递减趋势;当有机负荷为19.20 kg/(m3.d)时,生物膜中MLVSS含量约为23.1 mg/g载体,脱氢酶活性则为22.6 mg/(L.h);载体生物膜的生物相以独缩虫属、聚缩虫属、累枝虫属和钟虫等为主。%The treatment efficiency of synthetic monosodium glutamate wastewater,under the mesophilic condition(35±1 ℃) by the anaerobic fIuidized bed reactor(AFB)with a novel carrier made of rubber particles,was investigated.The variations in pollutant removals,the contents of extracellular polymeric substances(EPS) and its distribution in biofilm and mixed liquor,MLVSS in biofilm and the dehydrogenase activity were studied,respectively,when the organic loading(OLR) increased from 2.08 kg/(m3·d) to 19.20 kg/(m3·d).The results showed that,with the increase in OLR of AFB,the COD removal kept steady at about 80%.EPS content in biofilm was higher than those in mixed liquor,but its total amount decreased with the increase in OLR.Proteins were its dominating components.When the OLR amounted to 19.20 kg/(m3·d),MLVSS in the biofilm and dehydrogenase activity were 23.1 mg/g carrier and 22.6 mg/(L·h),respectively.Carchesium,Zoothamnium,Genus Epistylis and Vorticella were dominating the microbial biofilm.

  9. Effect of the oral administration of monosodium glutamate during pregnancy and breast-feeding in the offspring of pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da administração de glutamato monossódico durante a gestação e amamentação na prole de ratas Wistar prenhes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius von Diemen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Determine the effects of the MSG (monosodium glutamate in the offspring of pregnant rats through the comparison of the weight, NAL (nasal-anal length and IL (Index of Lee at birth and with 21 days of life. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring were divided into 3 groups: GC, G10 and G20. Each of the groups received 0%, 10% and 20% of MSG, respectively from coupling until the end of the weaning period. RESULTS: Neither weight nor NAL were different among the groups at birth. The group G20 at birth had an IL lower than the group GC (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do glutamato monossódico (GMS nos fetos de ratas prenhes por meio da comparação do peso, comprimento nasal-anal (CNA e índice de Lee (IL ao nascimento e com 21 dias de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas ratas prenhes da linhagem Wistar distribuídas em três grupos: grupo controle (GC, G10 e G20. Estes, respectivamente, foram alimentados com ração contendo 0, 10 e 20% de GMS desde o período de acasalamento até o final da amamentação. RESULTADOS: O peso e o CNA não foram diferentes entre os grupos ao nascimento. O grupo G20, ao nascimento, teve IL menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,05 e, aos 21 dias de vida, apresentou peso e CNA menores que o grupo G10, o qual foi menor que o GC (p < 0,01. O grupo G20, aos 21 dias de vida, teve IL semelhante aos outros dois grupos. O percentual de ganho de peso do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida foi menor no G20 em relação aos outros dois grupos (p < 0,01. O grupo G20 teve percentual de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida menor que o grupo G10, e este menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÕES: O GMS nas concentrações de 10 e 20% na ração de ratas prenhes Wistar apresentou uma relação dose-dependente nas variáveis peso e CNA. Houve diminuição no padrão de ganho de peso e de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida com uso de GMS. O IL na prole do grupo G20 aumentou em relação ao do grupo GC após 3

  10. Appropriate adding time of concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater as acidity adjusting and nitrogen loss control agent in high temperature composting%浓缩味精废液作为高温堆肥调酸保氮剂的适宜添加时间研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔海民; 刘丽; 李田宇; 汪继兵; 方萍

    2016-01-01

    Summary The pH rise of the compost mixture is one of the main causes for nitrogen volatilization loss in the composting process.As a consequence of organic degradation,accumulated ammonium nitrogen will trigger pH rise spontaneously.It is generally believed that ammonia nitrogen (NH 3) will volatilize once the pH of compost mixture exceeds 8.0.And the higher the pH is,the more the NH3 volatilization will be.In this way,the pH rise of mixture will result in substandard compost products,not only because its pH is out of the upper limit(pH=8.5)of the NY 525—2012 standard,but also significant decline of nutrition content due to NH3 volatilization.Hence,adjusting the pH of materials to control nitrogen loss becomes one of the hot issues in the organic fertilizer industry.A lot of chemical agents have been applied to adjust the pH in composting.However,most of them are difficult to implement efficiency and decrease production cost,let alone the dilution effects and imbalance of nutrition.The concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater (CMGW) is an evaporative and concentrated liquid waste from discharged organic water in production of monosodium glutamate,characterized by rich nutrients and free heavy metal pollution.Previous studies have indicated that CMGW is a promising conditioning agent to adjust acidity and reduce NH 3 volatilization for composting,and the suggested optimum dosage is 2% of the mixture in mass. The appropriate adding time of CMGW for adjusting pH and decreasing nitrogen loss due to NH 3 volatilization in composting was further discussed in present study by a compost simulation experiment.The simulation experiment took place in a composting device(patent number:ZL 201010589910X)with the mixture of fresh pig manure and mushroom residues at a ratio of 3∶1 in mass,as well as 1% fermentation bacterial agent of the mixture.Three treatments were conducted as follows:1) M1 ,application of 2% CMGW before composting;2) M2 ,application of 2% CMGW at the

  11. Effects of losartan and handle region peptide on serum insulin and GLP-1 in rats neonatally treated ;with monosodium L-glutamate%氯沙坦和手把区域多肽对左旋谷氨酸钠大鼠血清胰岛素与胰高血糖素样肽-1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙如琼; 林少达; 徐冬川; 林锟

    2014-01-01

    losartan and handle region peptide (HRP) of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) rats. Methods Newborn male rats were subcutaneously injected with MSG at the age of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 days, while the control rats were injected with Nacl (CON group). At the age of 3 weeks, the rats neonatally injected with MSG were randomly divided into MSG group, MSG+HRP group, MSG+L group, MSG+HRP+L group and fed with high-fat diet, while the control rats were fed with normal diet. From 8 to 12 weeks, MSG+HRP and MSG+HRP+L group received HRP treatment, while MSG+L and MSG+HRP+L received losartan treatment in drinking water. At the age of 12 weeks, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for evaluation of the glucose status. Obesity was evaluated by measuring weight, length, peritoneal fat of rats. The serum insulin, ghrelin and GLP-1 was detected by ELISA at 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after glucose load. Results (1)Compared with the CON group, MSG rats had higher body weight, Lee's index and wet weight of peritoneal adipose tissue and lower body length(P<0.05). MSG+L group and MSG+HRP+L group had lower body weight(P<0.05). (2)The AUCglucose after glucose load was higher in the MSG group compared with the CON group, whereas the MSG+HRP had higher AUCglucose than the MSG group. The MSG+L group had lower AUCglucose compared with the MSG+HRP and MSG+HRP+L group(P<0.05). (3)Compare with CON group, the serum insulin and glucagon and GLP-1 of the else four groups was obviously decreased at 0, 30, 60 min and the AUC of insulin and glucagon and GLP-1 of the four groups were lower as well(P<0.05). The AUCGLP-1 and AUCInsulin of MSG+HRP group was less than MSG group, but the AUCGLP-1 and AUCInsulin of MSG+L group were higher than MSG group(P<0.05);The AUC of insulin was positive relevant with AUC of GLP-1(r=0.924,P<0.01);The result of AUCGlucagon did not have statistical different in the four groups which rats were subcutaneously injected with MSG. (4)The result of AUCGhrelin showed that MSG

  12. Significance of mtDNA expression in acute peritonitis induced by monosodium urate in mice%单钠尿酸盐晶体诱导小鼠急性腹膜炎模型中线粒体DNA的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟妮; 杨程德; 陈晓翔; 杜蕙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish acute peritonitis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) of in mice and observe the significance of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) expression in the inflammatory processes.Methods The mouse models of acute peritonitis were made by intraperitoneal injection of MSU.Sixty-four male C57BL16 mice were randomly divided into the MSU group which were treated with 0.2 ml of 15 mg/ml MSU solution by i.p.injection and the control group which were treated with 0.2 ml of PBS.Respectively four mice from MSU group and four mice from control group were killed 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours 12 hour, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours later and whole blood, peritoneal lavage and peritoneum were collected respectively.Four the mice from the MSU group and four mice from the control group were killed and whole blood, peritoneal lavage and peritoneum were collected.Immunoflourescence study of peritoneum tissues was performed.The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 in plasma and peritoneal lavage were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).DNA was extracted from blood and peritoneal lavage, and mtDNA level was detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The data was analyszied by multivariate analysis of variance.Results As compared with those killed at other time points from the MSU groups and the control group, the levels of IL-1β [(27.0±2.0) pg/ml vs (26.8±2.1) pg/ml], IL-18 [(673±454) pg/ml vs(752±495) pg/ml] in plasma and peritoneal lavage were increased progressively in those which were killed after i.p.injection of 2 hours and 4 hours from in the MSU group (F=22.778, P<0.05;F=6.660, P<0.05).The mtDNA in plasma and peritoneal lavage of the mice began to be expressed 4 hours after i.p.injection 4 hours from in the MSU group.The peak level was detected in those i.p.injected MSU 6 hours later [(9.85±4.59)×106 copies, (7.81±3.43)×106 copies].Then 8 hours later the mtDNA began to slowly decreased.At these

  13. ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that confers resistance to trivalent forms of the herbicide MSMA and the poultry growth promoter roxarsone

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Environmental organoarsenicals are produced by microorganisms and are introduced anthropogenically as herbicides and antimicrobial growth promoters for poultry and swine. Nearly every prokaryote has an ars (arsenic resistance) operon, and some have an arsH gene encoding an atypical flavodoxin. The role of ArsH in arsenic resistance has been unclear. Here we demonstrate that ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that detoxifies trivalent methylated and aromatic arsenicals by oxidation to pentaval...

  14. A C⋅As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C⋅As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe2+-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C⋅As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C⋅As lyase. PMID:24821808

  15. A C⋅As lyase for degradation of environmental organoarsenical herbicides and animal husbandry growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-05-27

    Arsenic is the most widespread environmental toxin. Substantial amounts of pentavalent organoarsenicals have been used as herbicides, such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA), and as growth enhancers for animal husbandry, such as roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) [Rox(V)]. These undergo environmental degradation to more toxic inorganic arsenite [As(III)]. We previously demonstrated a two-step pathway of degradation of MSMA to As(III) by microbial communities involving sequential reduction to methylarsonous acid [MAs(III)] by one bacterial species and demethylation from MAs(III) to As(III) by another. In this study, the gene responsible for MAs(III) demethylation was identified from an environmental MAs(III)-demethylating isolate, Bacillus sp. MD1. This gene, termed arsenic inducible gene (arsI), is in an arsenic resistance (ars) operon and encodes a nonheme iron-dependent dioxygenase with C ⋅ As lyase activity. Heterologous expression of ArsI conferred MAs(III)-demethylating activity and MAs(III) resistance to an arsenic-hypersensitive strain of Escherichia coli, demonstrating that MAs(III) demethylation is a detoxification process. Purified ArsI catalyzes Fe(2+)-dependent MAs(III) demethylation. In addition, ArsI cleaves the C ⋅ As bond in trivalent roxarsone and other aromatic arsenicals. ArsI homologs are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and we propose that ArsI-catalyzed organoarsenical degradation has a significant impact on the arsenic biogeocycle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a molecular mechanism for organoarsenic degradation by a C ⋅ As lyase.

  16. Controlled Water Content, Crispness and Retrogradation of Fried Coatings with Monosodium Glutamate-compounded Starch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yagishita, Takahiro; Ito, Koichi; Uemura, Ryuji; Endo, Shigeru; Takahashi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    A mono sodium glutamate (GluNa)-compounded starch prepared by autoclaving a mixture of tapioca starch and GluNa under limited water content was applied to improve the physical properties of the fried coatings of Vienna sausages...

  17. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  18. 78 FR 65278 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... of PT Budi Acid Jaya, an Indonesian manufacturer of citric acid (a product that Petitioner claims is..., dry powders of any particle size, or unfinished forms such as MSG slurry), end- use application, or...

  19. 78 FR 65269 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... proceedings, imports of subject merchandise from developing countries must exceed the negligibility threshold... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES:...

  20. PEROXOTITANATE- AND MONOSODIUM METAL-TITANATE COMPOUNDS AS INHIBITORS OF BACTERIAL GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2011-01-19

    Sodium titanates are ion-exchange materials that effectively bind a variety of metal ions over a wide pH range. Sodium titanates alone have no known adverse biological effects but metal-exchanged titanates (or metal titanates) can deliver metal ions to mammalian cells to alter cell processes in vitro. In this work, we test a hypothesis that metal-titanate compounds inhibit bacterial growth; demonstration of this principle is one prerequisite to developing metal-based, titanate-delivered antibacterial agents. Focusing initially on oral diseases, we exposed five species of oral bacteria to titanates for 24 h, with or without loading of Au(III), Pd(II), Pt(II), and Pt(IV), and measuring bacterial growth in planktonic assays through increases in optical density. In each experiment, bacterial growth was compared with control cultures of titanates or bacteria alone. We observed no suppression of bacterial growth by the sodium titanates alone, but significant (p < 0.05, two-sided t-tests) suppression was observed with metal-titanate compounds, particularly Au(III)-titanates, but with other metal titanates as well. Growth inhibition ranged from 15 to 100% depending on the metal ion and bacterial species involved. Furthermore, in specific cases, the titanates inhibited bacterial growth 5- to 375-fold versus metal ions alone, suggesting that titanates enhanced metal-bacteria interactions. This work supports further development of metal titanates as a novel class of antibacterials.

  1. The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Addison

    2004-03-01

    Examples of the industrial synthesis of pure amino acids are presented. The emphasis is on the synthesis of ( S )-glutamic acid and, to a lesser extent, ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine. These amino acids account for about 90% of the total world production of amino acids, ( S )-glutamic acid being used as a flavor-enhancing additive (MSG) for the human diet, and ( S )-lysine and ( R,S )-methionine as supplements for the feeding of domestic animals. Examples include chemical, enzymatic, and fermentation synthesis, and two clever continuous processes for the resolution of enantiomers. See Featured Molecules .

  2. Foraging enrichment modulates open field response to monosodium glutamate in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment can enhance expression of species-specific behaviour. While foraging enrichment is encouraged in laboratory animals, its impact on novelty induced behaviour remain largely unknown...

  3. Effect of GCSB-5, a Herbal Formulation, on Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ki Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effects of GCSB-5 on osteoarthritis were measured by the amount of glycosaminoglycan in rabbit articular cartilage explants in vitro, in experimental osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate in rats in vivo. GCSB-5 was orally administered for 28 days. In vitro, GCSB-5 inhibited proteoglycan degradation. GCSB-5 significantly suppressed the histological changes in monoiodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity, as well as, the levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein, and mRNA expressions were attenuated by GCSB-5, whereas the level of interleukin-10 was potentiated. By GCSB-5, the level of nuclear factor-κB p65 protein expression was significantly attenuated but, on the other hand, the level of inhibitor of κB-α protein expression was increased. These results indicate that GCSB-5 is a potential therapeutic agent for the protection of articular cartilage against progression of osteoarthritis through inhibition of MMPs activity, inflammatory mediators, and NF-κB activation.

  4. Long term effect of monosodium glutamate in liver of albino mice after neo-natal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, T; Bhakta, A; Ghosh, S K

    2011-03-01

    Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring excitatory neurotransmitter. It is extensively used as a food additive and flavoring agent for its UMAMI taste. Simultaneously it is being implicated for varied pathological condition like obesity, gonadal dysfunction, learning difficulty etc. It produces oxygen derived free radicals and metabolized in liver. Neonate mice are sensitive and suffer from adverse effects. Present work was undertaken to study the long term effects on histology of liver following MSG injection in neonates. The changes in the liver parenchyma of 75 days old mice showed variable changes. Areas around central vein were most affected. The liver cords were disrupted, dilated sinusoids, prominent Kupffer cells with accumulation of particulate matter.There were inflammatory cells around central vein. The hepatocyte cell membrane were disrupted, cytoplasm vacuolated, nucleus were pyknotic. Even the normal looking cells showed depletion of PAS +ve material in the cytoplasm.The long term effect on histology showed moderate and patchy hepatocellular damage.

  5. Prediction Models for Plutonium, Strontium, Uranium and Neptunium Loading onto Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Hobbs, D. T.; Barnes, M. J.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-07-11

    The DA isotherm parameters for U, Pu, Sr and Np have been updated to include additional data obtained since the original derivation. The DA isotherms were modified to include a kinetic function derived by Rahn to describe sorbate loading from the beginning of sorption up to equilibrium. The final functions describe both kinetic and thermodynamic sorption. We selected the Rahn function to describe radionuclide sorption because it originates from diffusion and absorption controlled sorption. An investigation of the thermal behavior of radionuclide sorption on MST as shown by this data revealed the sorption process is diffusion (or transport) controlled (in solution). Transport in solution can in theory be accelerated by vigorous mixing but the range of available mixing speed in the facility design will probably not be sufficient to markedly increase radionuclide sorption rate on MST from diffusion-controlled sorption. The laboratory studies included mixing energies hydraulically-scaled to match those of the Actinide Removal Process and these likely approximate the range of energies available in the Salt Waste Processing Facility.

  6. Kinetics and Equilibrium Sorption Models: Fitting Plutonium, Strontium, Uranium and Neptunium Loading on Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F

    2006-03-08

    The Dubinin-Astashov (DA) isotherm parameters for U, Pu, Sr and Np have been updated to include additional data obtained since the original derivation. The DA isotherms were modified to include a kinetic function derived by Rahn to describe sorbate loading from the beginning of sorption up to steady state. The final functions describe both kinetic and thermodynamic sorption.

  7. ArsP: a methylarsenite efflux permease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Madegowda, Mahendra; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-11-01

    Trivalent organoarsenic compounds are far more toxic than either pentavalent organoarsenicals or inorganic arsenite. Many microbes methylate inorganic arsenite (As(III)) to more toxic and carcinogenic methylarsenite (MAs(III)). Additionally, monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA or MAs(V)) has been used widely as an herbicide and is reduced by microbial communities to MAs(III). Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzenearsonic acid) is a pentavalent aromatic arsenical that is used as antimicrobial growth promoter for poultry and swine, and its active form is the trivalent species Rox(III). A bacterial permease, ArsP, from Campylobacter jejuni, was recently shown to confer resistance to roxarsone. In this study, C. jejuni arsP was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to confer resistance to MAs(III) and Rox(III) but not to inorganic As(III) or pentavalent organoarsenicals. Cells of E. coli expressing arsP did not accumulate trivalent organoarsenicals. Everted membrane vesicles from those cells accumulated MAs(III) > Rox(III) with energy supplied by NADH oxidation, reflecting efflux from cells. The vesicles did not transport As(III), MAs(V) or pentavalent roxarsone. Mutation or modification of the two conserved cysteine residues resulted in loss of transport activity, suggesting that they play a role in ArsP function. Thus, ArsP is the first identified efflux system specific for trivalent organoarsenicals.

  8. Experimental Study on Characteristics of NiMnGa Magnetically Controlled Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengxiang WANG; Wenjun LI; Qingxin ZHANG; Chenxi LI; Xinjie WU

    2006-01-01

    The static and dynamic magnetic controlling characteristics of NiMnGa magnetically controlled shape memory alloy (MSMA) were experimentally studied. The results show that the characteristics of induced strain with respect to the magnetic field are nonlinear with saturation nature, and dependent on the temperature as well as the load applied to the MSMA. The magnetic shape memory effect can be observed only in complete martensite phase at room temperature. The magnetic permeability of MSMA is not constant and reduces with the increment of magnetic field. The relative saturation magnetic permeability of MSMA is about 1.5.

  9. 掺伪味精中糊精的测定%Determination of dextrin in adulterated monosodium glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍忠定; 孙荣华; 吴婷婷

    2008-01-01

    通过掺伪味精在沸水浴下酸水解后测定其还原糖的含量来定量检测其糊精的含量.实验结果表明,该方法具有快速准确、操作简便的优点,可满足掺伪味精中糊精的日常测定.

  10. Combination of vitamin C and E modulated monosodium glutamate-induced endometrial toxicily in female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elly Dwi Wahyuni; Cory Chorajon Situmorang; Yuyun Yueniwati; Wisnu Barlianto; Pande Made Dwijayasa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether combination of vitamin C and E able to inhibit decreasing angiogenesis, endometrial thickness, andα-estrogen receptor level in female rats receiving orally MSG-treatment. Methods:Twenty five female Wistar rats were divided into five group, control group, MSG [140 mg/200 gram body weight (bw)] group non treated and treated with combined vitamin C (0.2;0.4;or 0.8 mg/g bw) and E (0.04 IU/g bw). Analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level were done by immunohistochemistry technique. Analysis of the number of arteriole and thickness of endometrium was done histopathologically with hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of uterus α-estrogen receptor was done using flowcytometer. Results: The expression of VEGF, number of arteriole, thickness of endometrium, and α-estrogen receptor were significantly lower in MSG-treatment group compared to control group (P0.05). Administration of vitamin C and E significanlty increased the thickness of endometrium, and expression of α-estrogen receptor compared to MSG-treatment group (P 0.05). Conclusions: The present data suggesting that combined vitamin C and E able to inhibit endometrial toxicity caused by orally MSG treatment via modulating angiogenesis, increase endometrial thickness and expression ofα-estrogen receptor.

  11. Monosodium glutamate-induced arcuate nucleus damage affects both natural torpor and 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Kimberly M; Routman, David; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Dark, John

    2008-01-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) have the ability to express daily torpor and decrease their body temperature to approximately 15 degrees C, providing a significant savings in energy expenditure. Daily torpor in hamsters is cued by winterlike photoperiods and occurs coincident with the annual nadirs in body fat reserves and chronic leptin concentrations. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying torpor, Siberian hamster pups were postnatally treated with saline or MSG to ablate arcuate nucleus neurons that likely possess leptin receptors. Body temperature was studied telemetrically in cold-acclimated (10 degrees C) male and female hamsters moved to a winterlike photoperiod (10:14-h light-dark cycle) (experiments 1 and 2) or that remained in a summerlike photoperiod (14:10-h light-dark cycle) (experiment 3). In experiment 1, even though other photoperiodic responses persisted, MSG-induced arcuate nucleus ablations prevented the photoperiod-dependent torpor observed in saline-treated Siberian hamsters. MSG-treated hamsters tended to possess greater fat reserves. To determine whether reductions in body fat would increase frequency of photoperiod-induced torpor after MSG treatment, hamsters underwent 2 wk of food restriction (70% of ad libitum) in experiment 2. Although food restriction did increase the frequency of torpor in both MSG- and saline-treated hamsters, it failed to normalize the proportion of MSG-treated hamsters undergoing photoperiod-dependent torpor. In experiment 3, postnatal MSG treatments reduced the proportion of hamsters entering 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia by approximately 50% compared with saline-treated hamsters (38 vs. 72%). In those MSG-treated hamsters that did become hypothermic, their minimum temperature during hypothermia was significantly greater than comparable saline-treated hamsters. We conclude that 1) arcuate nucleus mechanisms mediate photoperiod-induced torpor, 2) food-restriction-induced torpor may also be reduced by MSG treatments, and 3) arcuate nucleus neurons make an important, albeit partial, contribution to 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia.

  12. Determination of Monosodium L-Glutamate by Volumetry%容量滴定法测定味精中谷氨酸钠含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆益民

    2004-01-01

    采用标准试剂合成味精试样,对GB/T 5009.43-1996酸度计法测定味精中谷氨酸钠含量进行了研究.结果表明,其滴定终点控制在pH9.40~9.60或9.80~10.00时,测定结果与旋光法及理论值有明显差异;当滴定终点控制在pH9.67时,与后二者结果一致,最佳终点pH值为9.67.对味精中其它添加物呈味核苷酸钠、蔗糖及淀粉的干扰情况也作了进一步实验摸索.

  13. Arsenic encapsulation using Portland cement with ferrous sulfate/lime and Terra-Bond™ technologies - Microcharacterization and leaching studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Paul M

    2012-03-15

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-Bond™, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials included: chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood materials; scorodite-rich mine tailings from the La Trinidad Mine in California; and a soil/smelter dust mixture from the Anaconda Superfund site spiked with monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) to simulate an organoarsenic soil material. SEM/EDS and XRD spectra of PFL treated samples showed similarity across all three waste materials while Terra-Bond treated samples showed predominance of elemental sulfur. SEM/EDS of PFL treated samples showed that calcium was imbedded in the structure while micrographs of Terra-Bond treated samples showed the appearance of an epoxy material on the surface. The epoxy material appears to be responsible for encapsulating and reducing the leachability of arsenic. XANES spectra for the PFL treatment of CCA-containing samples showed that arsenic has a predominant pentavalent form (As +5), and the PFL treatment process did not alter the arsenic oxidation state. But, distinct differences were observed for XANES spectra of untreated and PFL treated scorodite-rich mine tailing which changed the arsenic coordination structure from a mixture of As (+3/+5) to exclusively As (+5). Both S/S techniques reduced the amount of arsenic released in the leaching tests. Most cases show lower amounts of arsenic released from wastes treated by the Terra-Bond™ technique when compared to the PFL technique. The pH of the solution significantly affected the leachability, with the amount of arsenic released increasing with pH. Sequential extraction results indicate that sodium hydroxide was favorable in releasing arsenic in the mine tailings. This is due to ligand displacement reactions of hydroxyl ions with arsenic species and high pH conditions that

  14. Hysteresis Modeling of Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaolei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new type of intelligent material, magnetically shape memory alloy (MSMA has a good performance in its applications in the actuator manufacturing. Compared with traditional actuators, MSMA actuator has the advantages as fast response and large deformation; however, the hysteresis nonlinearity of the MSMA actuator restricts its further improving of control precision. In this paper, an improved Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii (KP model is used to establish the hysteresis model of MSMA actuator. To identify the weighting parameters of the KP operators, an improved gradient correction algorithm and a variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are proposed in this paper. In order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed modeling approach, simulation experiments are performed, simulations with improved gradient correction algorithm and variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are studied, respectively. Simulation results of both identification algorithms demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach in this paper can establish an effective and accurate hysteresis model for MSMA actuator, and it provides a foundation for improving the control precision of MSMA actuator.

  15. Hysteresis modeling of magnetic shape memory alloy actuator based on Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miaolei; Wang, Shoubin; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    As a new type of intelligent material, magnetically shape memory alloy (MSMA) has a good performance in its applications in the actuator manufacturing. Compared with traditional actuators, MSMA actuator has the advantages as fast response and large deformation; however, the hysteresis nonlinearity of the MSMA actuator restricts its further improving of control precision. In this paper, an improved Krasnosel'skii-Pokrovskii (KP) model is used to establish the hysteresis model of MSMA actuator. To identify the weighting parameters of the KP operators, an improved gradient correction algorithm and a variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are proposed in this paper. In order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed modeling approach, simulation experiments are performed, simulations with improved gradient correction algorithm and variable step-size recursive least square estimation algorithm are studied, respectively. Simulation results of both identification algorithms demonstrate that the proposed modeling approach in this paper can establish an effective and accurate hysteresis model for MSMA actuator, and it provides a foundation for improving the control precision of MSMA actuator.

  16. Uncertainty in a Markov state model with missing states and rates: Application to a room temperature kinetic model obtained using high temperature molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-09-21

    Several studies in the past have generated Markov State Models (MSMs), i.e., kinetic models, of biomolecular systems by post-analyzing long standard molecular dynamics (MD) calculations at the temperature of interest and focusing on the maximally ergodic subset of states. Questions related to goodness of these models, namely, importance of the missing states and kinetic pathways, and the time for which the kinetic model is valid, are generally left unanswered. We show that similar questions arise when we generate a room-temperature MSM (denoted MSM-A) for solvated alanine dipeptide using state-constrained MD calculations at higher temperatures and Arrhenius relation — the main advantage of such a procedure being a speed-up of several thousand times over standard MD-based MSM building procedures. Bounds for rate constants calculated using probability theory from state-constrained MD at room temperature help validate MSM-A. However, bounds for pathways possibly missing in MSM-A show that alternate kinetic models exist that produce the same dynamical behaviour at short time scales as MSM-A but diverge later. Even in the worst case scenario, MSM-A is found to be valid longer than the time required to generate it. Concepts introduced here can be straightforwardly extended to other MSM building techniques.

  17. Study on Pretreatment Technology of Ion-exchange Waste water from the Production of Monosodium L-glutamate%味精废水中离交废水的预处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓慧; 贺兰喜

    2001-01-01

    采用铁碳法、吹脱法和化学沉淀法对味精废水中离交废水的预处理进行了中试和小试.结果表明,以铸铁屑为主的Fe-C法,当HRT为2 h时,pH从1.97升至4.88,可大大减少后续中和吹氨所需石灰量,但Fe-C还原和加石灰调节pH处理成本相差并不大,Fe-C还原对去除COD、氨氮和提高可生化性无明显效果.pH中和至9.5~10,鼓气量在100m3/h左右,水温加至55℃左右,经8 h,可将原水NH4+-N从12 mg/L左右降至4 g/L左右,脱除率65%以上.磷酸氨镁法去除废水中NH4+-N试验结果表明,在ω(Mg2+):ω(PO43-):ω(NH4+-N)=1:1:1时,随废水pH升高,NH4+-N去除率逐步增大,pH10时去除率达54%.

  18. 味精废水SCP发酵菌种筛选及工艺条件研究%Studies on screening of strain for SCP fermentation with waste water from monosodium glutamate industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贠建民

    2005-01-01

    以味精生产中的发酵母液--味精废水为实验对象,选用3种不同的酵母菌种,采用液体通气搅拌发酵方式,对味精废水SCP发酵菌种进行了筛选,同时对其发酵工艺条件进行了研究.结果表明,供试的3种菌种均能在味精废水中良好生长,其中以产朊假丝酵母2.120(Candidautilis)为SCP发酵的最佳菌种,生物量得率为0.619g/100mL,而脆壁酵母(Saccharomyces fragilis)的COD去除率最高,达到45.5%.

  19. 从味精醪母液中回收谷氨酸工艺研究(Ⅱ)%Recycle of glutamic acid from the monosodium glutamate mother liquid (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利和

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of the last mother solution was lowered firstly, α-glutamic acid was added for crystallization after the pH value was regulated, and then the pH was adjusted to glutamic acid's isoelectric point for the separation of glutamic acid (GA) crystal. The wet GA just after separation could be directly used for further production. The supematant and filtrate were hydrolyzed by HCl. Then, the pH ofhydrolyzed supernatant and filtrate were adjusted to GA isoelectric point by last mother solution. The wet GA separated by crystallization contained too much NaCl, and should be washed before further production. The wash water and filtrate should be carried down to sewage treatment works.%先将醪母液降低浓度,调整pH后加入a-型谷氨酸晶种育晶,然后调谷氨酸等电点进行结晶分离,分离的湿谷氨酸直接投入生产中.分离的上清液和滤液加盐酸水解后,再用醪母液调整水解液pH至谷氨酸等电点,结晶分离的湿谷氨酸由于NaCl含量较高,需水洗后才能投入生产.洗水和滤液则投入污水处理厂.

  20. Effect of the umami peptides on the ligand binding and function of rat mGlu4a receptor might implicate this receptor in the monosodium glutamate taste transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Monastyrskaia, Katherine; Lundstrom, Kenneth; Plahl, Doris; Acuna, Gonzalo; Schweitzer, Christophe; Malherbe, Pari; Mutel, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The effect of several metabotropic ligands and di- or tripeptides were tested on the binding of [3H]-L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid ([3H]-L-AP4) on rat mGlu4 receptor. For selected compounds, the functional activity was determined on this receptor using the guanosine-5′[γ-35S]-thiotriphosphate [γ-35S]-GTP binding assay.Using the scintillation proximity assay, [3H]-L-AP4 saturation analysis gave binding parameters KD and Bmax values of 150 nM and 9.3 pmoles mg−1 protein, respectively. Th...

  1. Effects of Food Restriction on Fat Metabolism Index of Monosodium Glutamate in Obese Rats and Human%限食对谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠及人体肥胖代谢指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关真民; 王慧; 程俊美; 鹿勇

    2013-01-01

    Investigation has been conducted to observe the effect of short-term food restriction on fat metabolism index of obesity and rat by means not only of animal experiment:glutamate obese rats have been divided into control group and food restriction group,and the Lee index weight,fat index and glycerin three greases' change of the two groups observed,but also of human experiment:the subjects were 21women,aged 22-45 years old.Limited food have been given seven days of fasting,first days for the buff er,the first 2-6 days for fasting days,seventh days for the restoration of day,food restriction for first days of acupuncture points and massage.Observation has been done on the body fat,body fat percentage,body weight,BMI and the change of waist circumference before and after food restriction.Results show that glutamate obese rats with food restriction group's weight,Lee index,fat index and glycerin three greases is markedly decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01) compared with the control group; 21 subjects in the dietary restriction of body fat,body fat percentage and waist circumference are also significantly decreased and had significant difference (p<0.05),and the body weight and BMI decreased with a very significant difference (p<0.01).It is concluded that food restriction therapy has im portant significance for obesity treatment and prevention of complications.%目的 观察短期限食对肥胖人群及大鼠脂肪代谢指标的影响.方法 动物实验:将谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠分为对照组和限食组,并分别观察两组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯的变化;人体实验:受试者为21名女性,年龄22~45岁.限食者均限食7天,第1天为缓冲日,第2~6天为禁食日,第7天为恢复日.观察限食前后体脂、体脂百分率、体重、BMI和腰围的变化.结果 谷氨酸钠肥胖大鼠限食组体重、Lee指数、脂肪指数和甘油三酯与对照组相比明显下降,并且具有显著性差异(p<0.01).21名受试者在限食前后体脂、体脂百分率和腰围差异有统计学意义(p<0.05),体重和BMI下降差异有显著统计学意义(p<0.01).结论 限食疗法对于肥胖症治疗及并发症预防具有重要意义.

  2. 利用味精废水发酵生产苏云金芽孢杆菌的发酵条件研究%Study on the Conditions of Bacillus thuringiensis Fermentation in Monosodium Glutamate Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建州; 张松鹏

    2002-01-01

    利用搅拌转速为180 r/min的5 L发酵罐, 研究了1株驯化后的苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)在味精废水中发酵生产生物农药的适宜工艺条件,并对发酵过程中的各个指标进行了检测.在1.2 m3规模的发酵罐中发酵菌数可达68.7×108/mL,毒力效价与标准品相当.

  3. SBBR在味精废水深度脱氮中的应用研究%Research on the application of sequencing batch biofilm reactor to advanced denitrification from monosodium glutamate wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何争光; 贾胜勇; 郑敏

    2013-01-01

    实验研究了投加填料、DO浓度、碳氮比、设置厌氧段、pH等因素对SBR系统处理味精废水的脱氮效果的影响,通过测定COD、氨氮及TN的去除率,确定了最佳的脱氮环境.结果表明,挂膜成功后TN的去除率可达75.82%;通过控制DO浓度以满足好氧菌需求又不破坏生物膜厌氧微环境;设置前置厌氧段,可丰富反硝化碳源的种类和数量,有助于提高生物脱氮效果.%The factors,such as fillings added,DO concentration,C/N,settings of pre-anaerobic stage,pH,etc.,have been researched. The optimum denitrifying conditions are decided by determining the removing rates of COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen. The results show that the removing rate of TN can reach 75.82%,after the biofilm has been formed successfully. When DO concentration is controlled at about 3.3 mg/L,the demands for aerobic bacteria can be satisfied without destroying the micro-environment in the biofilm. Setting the pre-anaerobic stage can enrich the type and quantity of denitrifying carbon sources, which helps to improve the denitrification effect.

  4. Assay of citicoline monosodium salt and its relative substances by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定胞磷胆碱钠及有关物质的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟爱东; 邓兆勇

    2001-01-01

    目的 建立胞磷胆碱钠及有关物质分析的高效液 相色谱 法。方法 色谱柱:Hypersil SAX 250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μ m;流 动相:0.05 mol/L磷酸盐缓冲液,pH 3.5;流速:1.0 ml/min,检测波长280 nm。结果 最小检出量胞磷胆碱钠为0.01 μg,5′-胞苷酸为0.001 μg。 结论 此法快速、简便、灵敏、准确,适用于该产品的质量检验分 析。

  5. Avaliação da eficiência de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas em alfafa Decreasing of weed plants using herbicides and herbicides mix in alfalfa crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a seletividade e a eficiência de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da alfafa. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos em Anápolis, GO. No primeiro, avaliaram-se oito herbicidas (imazethapyr, MSMA, fomesafen, bentazon, chlorimuron-ethyl, imazamox aplicados em pós-emergência da alfafa, e no segundo, seis misturas de herbicidas [(diuron + MSMA, (diuron + MSMA, (diuron + paraquat, (diuron + paraquat] aplicados um dia após o corte da alfafa. Em ambos os experimentos, foram incluídas duas testemunhas (capinada e sem capina, sendo os tratamentos distribuídos em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas como imazethapyr, MSMA, fomesafen, bentazon, chlorimuron-ethyl e imazamox foram seletivos à cultura da alfafa e eficientes no controle de plantas daninhas. As misturas dos herbicidas (diuron + MSMA e (diuron + paraquat aplicados logo após o corte da alfafa causaram danos às folhas e aos caules remanescentes. As brotações, todavia, surgiram isentas de toxicidade, apresentando crescimento e desenvolvimento normais. Essas misturas promoveram eficiente controle de plantas daninhas, e não afetaram o acúmulo de biomassa seca e altura de plantas em relação à testemunha capinada. O não-controle das plantas daninhas reduziu a produção de biomassa seca e a altura das plantas de alfafa em 74,5% e 42,8%, respectivamente.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of herbicides on the weed plants control at the alfalfa crop. Two experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of Agenciarural, located in Anápolis, GO. In the first experiment it was evaluated eight herbicides (imazethapyr, MSMA, fomesafen, bentazon, chlorimuron-ethyl and imazamox post emergency and in the second experiment six different mixed of herbicides [(diuron + MSMA, (diuron + MSMA, (diuron + paraquat, (diuron + paraquat] applied one day after the alfalfa harvesting

  6. An Evaluation of Foods Processed in Tray Pack Versus Two Standard Food Service Containers. Part 2. Nutritional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Margarine Hydrolyzed vegetable protein, Nestles 4BE Starch* Vinegar , cider , 40 grain Salt Monosodium glutamate Sugar, white Celery seed, ground...peppers Tomato paste, 26% solids Brown sugar Starch* Dehydrated onion pieces, rehydrated Cider vinegar , 40 grain Salt Monosodium glutamate Liquid

  7. Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Haridas Indu; Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods:The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group I served as control;mice in group II were injected with monosodium urate crystal;group III consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.);group IV comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-αwere determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results:The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-αlevels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.

  8. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  9. Magnetic Shape Memory Microactuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Kohl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By introducing smart materials in micro systems technologies, novel smart microactuators and sensors are currently being developed, e.g., for mobile, wearable, and implantable MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical-system devices. Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs are a promising material system as they show multiple coupling effects as well as large, abrupt changes in their physical properties, e.g., of strain and magnetization, due to a first order phase transformation. For the development of MSMA microactuators, considerable efforts are undertaken to fabricate MSMA foils and films showing similar and just as strong effects compared to their bulk counterparts. Novel MEMS-compatible technologies are being developed to enable their micromachining and integration. This review gives an overview of material properties, engineering issues and fabrication technologies. Selected demonstrators are presented illustrating the wide application potential.

  10. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  11. Water Quality Improvement through Reductions of Pollutant Loads on Small Scale of Bioretention System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyza Muha, Norshafa; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Jajarmizadeh, Milad

    2016-03-01

    Bioretention system is introduced as an important topic namely Urban Storm Water Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) in May 2012. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of water quality for small scale bioretention system under tropical climate via MUSIC model. Two bioretention systems 1 and 2 are observed based on the difference media depth. The result of bioretention system is compared with a reference model which has infrastructure with Urban Stormwater Improvement Conceptualisation (MUSIC) for pollutants load reduction and water quality results. Assessment of results via MUSIC software indicates a significant percentage of reduction for Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Nitrogen (TN). The prediction of pollutant reduction via using MUSIC has the harmony for requirement in MSMA. TSS pollutant reduction is more than 80%, while for TP and TN more than 50%. The outcome of this study can be helpful for improvement of the existing MSMA guidelines for application of bioretention systems in Malaysia.

  12. Experimental characterization and modeling of a three-variant magnetic shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Heidi P.; Ciocanel, Constantin; Eberle, J. Lance; Dikes, Jason L.

    2016-10-01

    Researchers have attempted to characterize and predict the magneto-mechanical behavior of magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) for over a decade. However, all prior experimental investigations on MSMA have been performed on samples accommodating two martensite variants and generally the MSMA is only exposed to two-dimensional magneto-mechanical loading. As efforts have been underway to develop models able to predict the most general (i.e. 3D) loading conditions for MSMAs with three-varints, there is also a need for experimental data to support the calibration and validation of these models. This paper presents magneto-mechanical data from experiments where MSMA specimens, whose microstructure accommodates three martensite variants, is subjected to three-dimensional magneto-mechanical loading, along with model predictions of these experimental results. The 3D magneto-mechanical model deployed here is a modified version of the model developed by our group (LaMaster et al 2015 J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 26 663-79), and assumes that three martensite variants coexist in the material. The LaMaster et al model captures some of the general trends seen in the experimental data, but does not predict the data with a high degree of accuracy. Possible reasons for the mismatch between experimental data and model predictions are discussed.

  13. Avaliação de diferentes herbicidas para erradicação química de coqueiros infectados com resinose Herbicide selection for chemical eradication of coconut palms infected with stem-bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Fontes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho selecionar herbicidas que possam ser utilizados na erradicação química de coqueiros infectados com resinose. O experimento foi instalado no município de Neópolis - SE, no período de junho a julho de 2007. Utilizou-se uma população de coqueiros da variedade anão-verde, implantada há 11 anos. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com cinco repetições (cada unidade experimental foi composta por um coqueiro infectado. Os tratamentos foram formados pela combinação de dez tratamentos herbicidas {MSMA (36 g por planta; glyphosate (18 g por planta; paraquat (10 g por planta; [2,4-D + picloram] (18 + 1,125 g por planta; [2,4-D + picloram] + paraquat ([9 + 0,5625] + 5 g por planta; MSMA + glyphosate (18 + 9 g por planta; MSMA + paraquat (18 + 5 g por planta; glyphosate + paraquat (9 + 5 g por planta; [2,4-D + picloram] + MSMA ([9 + 0,5625] + 18 g por planta; tratamento controle (testemunha sem aplicação} e de quatro épocas de avaliação (7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos herbicidas. Os herbicidas foram injetados no estipe dos coqueiros em um furo de 25 cm de profundidade, 5 cm de diâmetro e inclinação de 45º, localizado a 1,0 m de altura. A aplicação foi realizada por intermédio de uma seringa graduada, imediatamente após a abertura dos furos, sendo os herbicidas aplicados sem diluição. Foram realizadas quatro avaliações da dessecação dos coqueiros, aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA. O herbicida MSMA foi o que resultou na dessecação mais rápida dos coqueiros doentes, além de promover a morte de todas as plantas avaliadas, sendo por isso o tratamento mais indicado na continuação dos estudos visando à proposição de uma técnica para a erradicação química de coqueiros infectados com resinose.The objective of this work was to select herbicides that can be used to chemically

  14. 同型半胱氨酸与谷氨酸联合诱发孕鼠妊娠期高血压疾病的实验研究%Study of animal model of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy in pregnant rats stimulated by homocysteine and monosodium glutamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 李巨; 陈红; 董玉贞; 张丽江; 葛静

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)与谷氨酸钠(MSG)联合作用,建立孕鼠妊娠期高血压疾病模型的可行性.方法 将成年妊娠Wistar雌鼠随机分为4组,每组10只.从孕第10天起,对照(PN)组和谷氨酸(PG)组孕鼠分别每日腹腔内注射生理盐水2 ml,Hcy(PH)组、Hcy+PG(PHG)组孕鼠分别每日腹腔内注射Hcy 200 mg/kg;PN、PH组孕鼠隔日背部皮下注射生理盐水2 ml,PG、PHG组孕鼠隔日背部皮下注射MSG 1 g/kg;直至分娩.孕期测定大鼠血压、尿蛋白、肝肾功能及行为变化;分娩后测量胎盘湿重、仔鼠数量、仔鼠体重、身长,观察大脑皮层、肾脏及胸主动脉组织结构改变.结果 (1)PH、PHG组孕鼠于孕第12天起,出现血压升高,分别为(107±8)、(109±10)mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa),至孕第20天达最高峰,分别为(119±10)、(121±7)mm Hg,与PN、PG组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);(2)PH、PHG组孕鼠孕第15天时,尿蛋白含量分别为(1.42±0.53)、(1.53±0.24)g/L,与PN、PG组比较,差异也有统计学意义(P<0.01);(3)PH、PHG组丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)分别为(57±15)、(69±24)U/L,天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)分别为(265±61)、(293±¨8)U/L,尿素氮(BUN)分别为(9.5±0.8)、(9.5±1.6)mmol/L,肌酐(Cr)分别为(54±10)、(54±10)μmol/L,与PN、PG组分别比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);(4)PH、PHG组仔鼠体重分别为(3.5±3.9)、(3.3±3.7)g,胎盘湿重分别为(0.49±0.28)、(0.45±0.03)g、仔鼠身长分别为(3.6±1.5)、(3.5±1.5)cm.分别与PN、PG组比较,差异也均有统计学意义(P<0.01);(5)光镜下,PHG组孕鼠出现肾小球基底膜增厚,系膜细胞增生,肾小管上皮细胞水肿;大脑皮层神经细胞出现固缩性退行性变;电镜下,PHG组孕鼠出现主动脉内皮细胞细胞小器缺乏,中膜平滑肌细胞增生;(6)PHG组孕鼠可出现明显的行为改变,如阵发性凝视、动须、面部抽搐、一侧前肢震颤等.结论 Hcy与MSG可联合作用,通过损伤血管内皮细胞及大脑皮层的神经细胞,诱发孕鼠妊娠期高血压疾病,特别是子痫前期的病理生理变化.

  15. Glycogenolysis response to adrenergic agonists in the liver of rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG = Resposta glicogenolítica à agonistas adrenérgicos no fígado de ratos tratados com glutamato monossódico (MSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Torrezan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Administration of MSG to neonate rats causes lesions in the arcuate nucleus (AN, followed by a syndrome of neuroendocrine dysfunction characterized by obesity and decreased sympathetic activity. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the responses of hepatic glycogenolysis to α- and β-adrenergic agonists in rats’ treatment with MSG. Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 mg g-1 body weight or hyperosmotic saline (controls during five days after birth. Ninety days after treatment, the livers of the MSG or controls rats were perfused in situ with epinephryne and α- and β-adrenergic agonists. Epinephryne, Isoproterenol and phenylephrine increased glycogenolysis in the MSGtreated rats, compared to the controls (50 ± 2.8 Vs 17 ± 0.89 μmol min-1 g-1 of liver, pAdministração de glutamato monossódico (MSG em ratos neonatos causa lesão no núcleo arqueado (NA, seguido por uma síndrome de disfunção neuroendócrina caracterizada por obesidade e reduzida atividade simpática. O objetivo da presente investigação foi examinar a resposta da glicogenólise hepática a agonistas adrenérgico em ratos tratados com MSG. Ratos Wistar machos receberam injeções subcutâneas de MSG (4 mg g-1 de peso corporal ou salina equimolar (controles durante cinco dias após o nascimento. Noventa dias após o tratamento, os fígados de ratos-MSG ou controles foram perfundidos in situ com epinefrina e agonistas α- e β-adrenérgico. Isoproterenol, fenilefrina e epinefrina aumentaram a glicogenólise em ratos-MSG, comparados aos controles (50 ± 2,8 Vs 17 ± 0,89 μmol min-1 g-1 de fígado, p<0,0001; 64 ± 0,15 Vs 37 ± 0,39, p<0,0001; 35 ± 2,48 Vs 27 ± 0,98, p<0,05, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a lesão do NA aumentou o catabolismo do glicogênio aos agonistas adrenérgicos, possivelmente devido à reduzida atividade do eixo simpático - medula adrenal.

  16. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraines may be triggered by foods, such as chocolate, certain cheeses, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). Caffeine withdrawal, ... while chewing, or weight loss. You have a history of cancer or immune system problem (such as ...

  17. Decomposition studies of filtered slurries using the enhanced comprehensive catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Crawford, C.L.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-11-13

    This study examined decomposition of the soluble phenylborates at elevated temperatures (45 degrees Celsius) to determine the effects of filtering the solid tetraphenylborate, solid sludge and monosodium titanate and spiking additional levels of transition metal catalyst.

  18. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trigger severe reactions include monosodium glutamate (MSG), artificial sweeteners and food colorings. Histamine toxicity. Certain fish, such ... and which do you recommend? What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting? ...

  19. Standardization of model to induce obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gipsis Suárez Román

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a risk factor for multiple diseases. There are various rat models to induce this condition. Genetic models and diet-induced obesity are expensive. Within the models of hypothalamic obesity, there is one achieved by the administration of monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. This substance is not expensive and causes the major metabolic alterations observed in human obesity. Objective: to select an appropriate treatment scheme to induce obesity with monosodium glutamate during neonatal period. Methods: monosodium glutamate was administered to Wistar rats during the neonatal period, using three different treatment schemes (with five, seven and ten doses of 4mg/g/day through two routes of administration: subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. Controls were administered 0.9% sodium chloride. To establish the diagnosis of obesity, the following variables were measured at 90 days: weight, snout-anus length and Lee index. Results: with all treatment schemes tested, snout-anus length was statistically different between the group treated with monosodium glutamate and the controls group. 100% of the rats that reached adulthood injected with monosodium glutamate was obese. Conclusion: the scheme of five doses of monosodium glutamate, applied subcutaneously on alternate days, was selected as obesity is obtained with less handling and lower percentage of neonatal deaths.

  20. [Tropical turtles chromosomes: Kinosternon leucostomum, Trachemys scripta and Staurotypus triporcatus (Testudines: Kinosternidae/Emydidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Yasui, George Shigueki; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin

    2014-06-01

    Mexico is a biodiverse country in several taxa as reptiles, that include several species of freshwater and marine turtles. Eventhough most of this group species are under protection, Tabasco State has nine native freshwater turtles, like Kinosternon leucostomum, Trachemys scripta and Staurotypus triporcatus that are very important in traditional dishes. This has resulted in a critical level of their populations, together with little biological knowledge for their conservation. Therefore, this study was dedicated to turtle cytogenetics. The study was conducted using the conventional methods for cytogenetics. The results showed the modal diploid and haploid number for K. leucostomum of 2n = 56 (2n = 56+3 microchromosomes "B") and 1n = 28 chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis, respectively. In T. scripta 2n = 50 chromosomes (2n = 50+2 microchromosomes "B") and 1n = 25 chromosomes were also characterized. Whereas in S. triporcatus we only report the 2 = 54 chromosomes (2n = 54+2 microchromosomes "B"). The karyological formula for K. leucostomum was integrated by 12 metacentric-submetacentric chromosomes "msm"/"A"+22 subtelocentric-telocentric chromosomes "stt"/"B"+22 telocentric chromosomes "T"/"C" with fundamental number (FN) of 90 chromosome arms. While T. scripta karyotype was integrated by 32 "msm/"A"+10 "stt"/"B"+8"T/"C" chromosomes, with FN of 92 arms. S. triporcatus karyotype formula was built up by 20 chromosomes "msm"/"A"+34 chromosomes "T"/"C" with FN of 74. The variation in chromosome classification, the fundamental number and the presence of supernumerary microchromosomes "B" in the studied species, were evidence of a particular chromosome cytotypes in Tabasco. We considered that the presence of microchromosomes "B" probably has different origins, and they may be very important as a pattern for the formation or separation of new species. This study also showed the absence of heterologous chromosomes between the females and males karyotypes from the studied

  1. Cytocompatibility evaluation of NiMnSn meta-magnetic shape memory alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiza-Arguello, Viviana R; Monroe, James A; Karaman, Ibrahim; Hahn, Mariah S

    2016-07-01

    Recently, magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have emerged as an interesting extension to conventional shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to their capacity to undergo reversible deformation in response to an externally applied magnetic field. Meta-magnetic SMAs (M-MSMAs) are a class of MSMAs that are able to transform magnetic energy to mechanical work by harnessing a magnetic-field induced phase transformation, and thus have the capacity to impose up to 10 times greater stress than conventional MSMAs. As such, M-MSMAs may hold substantial promise in biomedical applications requiring extracorporeal device activation. In the present study, the cytotoxicity and ion release from an Ni50 Mn36 Sn14 atomic percent composition M-MSMA were evaluated using NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Initial studies showed that the viability of cells exposed to NiMnSn ion leachants was 60 to 67% of tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) controls over 10 to 14 days of culture. This represents a significant improvement in cytocompatibility relative to NiMnGa alloys, one of the most extensively studied MSMA systems, which have been reported to induce 80% cell death in only 48 h. Furthermore, NiMnSn M-MSMA associated cell viability was increased to 80% of TCP controls following layer-by-layer alloy coating with poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) [PAH/PAA]. Ion release measures revealed that the PAH/PAA coatings decreased total Sn and Mn ion release by 50% and 25%, respectively, and optical microscopy evaluation indicated that the coatings reduced NiMnSn surface oxidation. To our knowledge, this study presents the first cytotoxicity evaluation of NiMnSn M-MSMAs and lays the groundwork for their further biological evaluation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 853-863, 2016.

  2. Citi Innovative English Teaching Competition Final Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Citi Innovative English Teaching Competition Final for teachers in West China sponsored by the CPAFFC was held in Beijing from January 22 to 23,2008.Wang Li,vice president of Citibank China,Professor Zhu Xudong and Ms.Ma Xin with the Beijing Normal University served as judges in the final.Over 50 English teachers of primary and middle schools from Guizhou,Yunnan and Sichuan provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region took part in the finals.Twenty two teachers won prizes.

  3. Methanesulfonate (MSA) Catabolic Genes from Marine and Estuarine Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana C; De Marco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively, methanesulfonate (MSA) is a very relevant compound in the global biogeochemical sulfur cycle. Its utilization by bacteria as a source of carbon and energy has been described and a specific enzyme, methanesulfonate monooxygenase (MSAMO), has been found to perform the first catabolic step of its oxidation. Other proteins seemingly involved in the import of MSA into bacterial cells have been reported. In this study, we obtained novel sequences of genes msmA and msmE from marine, estuary and soil MSA-degraders (encoding the large subunit of the MSAMO enzyme and the periplasmic component of the import system, respectively). We also obtained whole-genome sequences of two novel marine Filomicrobium strains, Y and W, and annotated two full msm operons in these genomes. Furthermore, msmA and msmE sequences were amplified from North Atlantic seawater and analyzed. Good conservation of the MsmA deduced protein sequence was observed in both cultured strains and metagenomic clones. A long spacer sequence in the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster-binding motif within MsmA was found to be conserved in all instances, supporting the hypothesis that this feature is specific to the large (α) subunit of the MSAMO enzyme. The msmE gene was more difficult to amplify, from both cultivated isolates and marine metagenomic DNA. However, 3 novel msmE sequences were obtained from isolated strains and one directly from seawater. With both genes, our results combined with previous metagenomic analyses seem to imply that moderate to high-GC strains are somehow favored during enrichment and isolation of MSA-utilizing bacteria, while the majority of msm genes obtained by cultivation-independent methods have low levels of GC%, which is a clear example of the misrepresentation of natural populations that culturing, more often than not, entails. Nevertheless, the data obtained in this work show that MSA-degrading bacteria are abundant in surface seawater, which suggests ecological

  4. Resposta glicogenolítica à agonistas adrenérgicos no fígado de ratos tratados com glutamato monossódico (MSG - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i2.1103 Glycogenolysis response to adrenergic agonists in the liver of rats treated with monosodium glutamate (MSG - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i2.1103

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton de Almeida Brito

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Administração de glutamato monossódico (MSG em ratos neonatos causa lesão no núcleo arqueado (NA, seguido por uma síndrome de disfunção neuroendócrina caracterizada por obesidade e reduzida atividade simpática. O objetivo da presente investigação foi examinar a resposta da glicogenólise hepática a agonistas adrenérgico em ratos tratados com MSG. Ratos Wistar machos receberam injeções subcutâneas de MSG (4 mg g-1 de peso corporal ou salina equimolar (controles durante cinco dias após o nascimento. Noventa dias após o tratamento, os fígados de ratos-MSG ou controles foram perfundidos in situ com epinefrina e agonistas α- e β-adrenérgico. Isoproterenol, fenilefrina e epinefrina aumentaram a glicogenólise em ratos-MSG, comparados aos controles (50 ± 2,8 Vs 17 ± 0,89 μmol min-1 g-1 de fígado, p Administration of MSG to neonate rats causes lesions in the arcuate nucleus (AN, followed by a syndrome of neuroendocrine dysfunction characterized by obesity and decreased sympathetic activity. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the responses of hepatic glycogenolysis to α- and β-adrenergic agonists in rats’ treatment with MSG. Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 mg g-1 body weight or hyperosmotic saline (controls during five days after birth. Ninety days after treatment, the livers of the MSG or controls rats were perfused in situ with epinephryne and α- and β-adrenergic agonists. Epinephryne, Isoproterenol and phenylephrine increased glycogenolysis in the MSG-treated rats, compared to the controls (50 ± 2.8 Vs 17 ± 0.89 μmol min-1 g-1 of liver, p < 0.0001; 64 ± 0.15 Vs 37 ± 0.39, p < 0.0001; 35 ± 2.48 Vs 27 ± 0.98, p < 0.05, respectively. Results indicated that the lesion in the AN increased glycogen catabolism to adrenergic agonists, possibly, due to the reduced activity of the sympathetic-adrenal axis

  5. Adiabatic magnetocaloric effect in Ni50Mn35In15 ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Alonso, P.; Aguilar-Ortiz, C. O.; Camarillo, J. P.; Salazar, D.; Flores-Zúñiga, H.; Chernenko, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Heusler-type Ni-Mn-based metamagnetic shape memory alloys (MetaMSMAs) are promising candidates for magnetic refrigeration. To increase heat exchange rate and efficiency of cooling, the material should have a high surface/volume ratio. In this work, the typical Ni50Mn35In15 MetaMSMA was selected to fabricate thin ribbons by melt-spinning. The characteristic transformations of the ribbons were determined by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermomagnetization measurements. The inverse and conventional magnetocaloric effects (MCEs) associated with the martensitic transformation (MT) and the ferromagnetic transition of the austenite (TCA), respectively, were measured directly by the adiabatic method (ΔTad) and indirectly by estimating the magnetic entropy change from magnetization measurements. It is found that the ribbons exhibit large values of ΔTad = -1.1 K at μ0ΔH = 1.9 T, in the vicinity of the MT temperature of 300 K for inverse MCE, and ΔTad = 2.3 K for conventional MCE at TCA = 309 K. This result strongly motivates further development of different MetaMSMA refrigerants shaped as ribbons.

  6. A novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari Farsangi, Mohammad Amin; Sayyaadi, Hassan; Zakerzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the output voltage from a novel inertial energy harvester using magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs). The MSMA elements are attached to the root of a cantilever beam by means of two steps. In order to get electrical voltage, two coils are wound around the MSMAs and a shock load is applied to a tip mass at the end of the beam to have vibration in it. The beam vibration causes strain in the MSMAs along their longitudinal directions and as a result the magnetic flux alters in the coils. The change of magnetic flux in the surrounding coil produces an AC voltage. In order to predict the output voltage, the nonlinear governing equations of beam motion based on Euler-Bernoulli model and von Kármán theory are derived. A thermodynamics-based constitutive model is used to predict the nonlinear strain and magnetization response of the MSMAs. Also, the induced voltage during martensite variant reorientation in MSMAs is investigated with the help of Faraday’s law of induction. Finally, the effect of different parameters including bias magnetic field, pre-strain and number of MSMA elements are investigated in details. The results show that this novel energy harvester has the capability of using as an alternative to the current piezoelectric and magnetostrictive ones for harvesting energy from ambient vibration.

  7. Design, modelling and control of a micro-positioning actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minorowicz, Bartosz; Leonetti, Giuseppe; Stefanski, Frederik; Binetti, Giulio; Naso, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an actuator based on magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) suitable for precise positioning in a wide range (up to 1 mm). The actuator is based on the spring returned operating mode and uses a Smalley wave spring to maintain the same operating parameters of a classical coil spring, while being characterized by a smaller dimension. The MSMA element inside the actuator provides a deformation when excited by an external magnetic field, but its behavior is characterized by an asymmetric and saturated hysteresis. Thus, two models are exploited in this work to represent such a non-linear behavior, i.e., the modified and generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii models. These models are particularly suitable for control purposes due to the existence of their analytical inversion that can be easily exploited in real time control systems. To this aim, this paper investigates three closed-loop control strategies, namely a classical PID regulator, a PID regulator with direct hysteresis compensation, and a combined PID and feedforward compensation strategy. The effectiveness of both modelling and control strategies applied to the designed MSMA-based actuator is illustrated by means of experimental results.

  8. Experimental research on the interactions between some anxiolytics and dietary sodium monoglutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzescu Anca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Monosodium glutamate, the salt of glutamic acid, is largely used as a flavour enhancer (E621. In this study, we determine if monosodium glutamate, after repeated oral administration, can induce any degree of anxiety. Taking into account the interdependence between glutamate and GABA neurotransmissions, we studied the possible interactions of monosodium glutamate with some representatives belonging to benzodiazepines therapeutical class, diazepam and alprazolam, used as first line therapy for the treatment of anxiety. Methods: For determining the degree of anxiety, the specific cross-labyrinth test was used. The medium time spent in the closed-arms of the crosslabyrinth is correlated with increased anxiety and the medium time spent in the opened arms is correlated with a low degree anxiety. NMRI adult mice received 300 mg/kg monosodium glutamate for 21 days, dose representing 1/50 from mice LD50 (15000mg/kg and twice the maximum admitted dose/ day for human. Results: When compared to control group, the group receiving monosodium glutamate, showed a not statistically significant slight increase in the degree of anxiety. The groups receiving benzodiazepines presented a significant reduction of the degree of anxiety, proving their anxiolytic effect. The groups receiving glutamate and diazepam or alprazolam, showed a lower reduction of the degree of anxiety, than group receiving only benzodiazepines, phenomenon which proves an antagonism between glutamate and the anxiolytics used in this study. Conclusions: The oral administration of monosodium glutamate increases slightly, not statistically significant, the degree of anxiety in mice and significantly alters the response to the benzodiazepines therapy, reducing the effect for both alprazolam and diazepam.

  9. An Evaluation of Foods Processed in Tray Pack versus Two Standard Food Service Containers. Part 1. Sensory, Container and Bacteriological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Vie-Del 3.50 Margarine 1.50 Hydrolyzed vegetable protein, Nestles 4BE 1.00 Starch* 2.50 Vinegar , cider , 40 grain 1.00 Salt .75 Monosodium glutamate .75...paste, 26% solids 8.86 Brown sugar 3.59 Starch* 3.25 Dehydrated onion pieces, rehydrated 1.75 Cider vinegar , 40 grain 3.25 Salt 0.80 Monosodium glutamate...tender, chewy, stringy. The ingredients in this product are pork, pork broth, tomato paste, brown sugar, starch, cider vinegar , onion, white sugar

  10. Determination of the impact of glycolate on ARP and MCU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-17

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU).

  11. No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home eldery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700 mg flavor and/or 300 mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in

  12. Imaging modalities for the classification of gout: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogdie, A.; Taylor, W.J.; Weatherall, M.; Fransen, J.; Jansen, T.L.; Neogi, T.; Schumacher, H.R.; Dalbeth, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although there has been major progress in gout imaging, no gout classification criteria currently include advanced imaging techniques. OBJECTIVE: To examine the usefulness of imaging modalities in the classification of gout when compared to monosodium urate (MSU) crystal confirmation as

  13. [Effects of food supplements on the safety and quality of seafoods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, V V

    2007-01-01

    The safety of foodstuffs from the hydrocoles made with food supplements is considered. The use in the seafoods of sodium benzoate (E 211), a preservative, monosodium glutamate (E 621), an agent enhancing the flavor of the food, does not provide safety of products, the use of which negative influences human health.

  14. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young sub

  15. Taste Perception with Age: Generic or Specific Losses in Supra-threshold Intensities of Five Taste Qualities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Heidema, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of ageing on supra-threshold intensity perception of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dissolved in water and in `regular' product was studied in 21 young (19¿33 years) and 21 el

  16. No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home eldery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700 mg flavor and/or 300 mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in

  17. Effects of Physical Exercise on the Intestinal Mucosa of Rats Submitted to a Hypothalamic Obesity Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J R; Freitas, J R; Grassiolli, S

    2016-10-01

    The small intestine plays a role in obesity as well as in satiation. However, the effect of physical exercise on the morphology and function of the small intestine during obesity has not been reported to date. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on morphological aspects of the rat small intestine during hypothalamic monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. The rats were divided into four groups: Sedentary (S), Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), Exercised (E), and Exercised Monosodium Glutamate (EMSG). The MSG and EMSG groups received a daily injection of monosodium glutamate (4 g/kg) during the 5 first days after birth. The S and E groups were considered as control groups and received injections of saline. At weaning, at 21 days after birth, the EMSG and E groups were submitted to swimming practice 3 times a week until the 90th day, when all groups were sacrificed and the parameters studied recorded. Exercise significantly reduced fat deposits and the Lee Index in MSG-treated animals, and also reduced the thickness of the intestinal wall, the number of goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. However, physical activity alone increased the thickness and height of villi, and the depth of the crypts. In conclusion, regular physical exercise may alter the morphology or/and functions of the small intestine, reducing the prejudicial effects of hypothalamic obesity. Anat Rec, 299:1389-1396, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Biotechnology and the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  19. Drug: D06138 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S2. Na. H2O 424.0375 424.4244 D06138.gif Antibacterial ATC code: J01CA13 Semisynthetic penicillin: extended spectrum...1CA Penicillins with extended spectrum J01CA13 Ticarcillin D06138 Ticarcillin monosodium (USP) Antiinfective

  20. 山药南瓜(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ingredients:1 yam,pumpkin(250g),spring onion,salt, MSG(monosodium glutamate),starch Preparations: 1 Wash and peel the yam and pumpkin.Cut them into slices(about 6 cm long and 1.5 cm wide). Tip: First cut the yam and pumpkin into squares,and then chop into slices. Chop the spring onions.

  1. 21 CFR 133.179 - Pasteurized process cheese spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (cellulose gum), car-ra-geenan, oat gum, algin (sodium alginate), pro-pylene glycol alginate, or xanthan gum...: Monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, dipotassium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium metaphosphate (sodium hexa-meta-phos-phate), sodium acid pyro-phos-phate, tetra-sodium pyro-phos-phate, sodium aluminum...

  2. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thyrion, L.; Raedt, R.; Portelli, J.; van Loo, P.; Wadman, W.J.; Glorieux, G.; Lambrecht, B.N.; Janssens, S.; Vonck, K.; Boon, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in sei

  3. Headache: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caffeine withdrawal), wine and other types of alcohol, chocolate, aged cheeses, monosodium glutamate, some fruits and nuts, ... NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, are revealing much ... shows significant, sustained benefit of CST in a small group of individuals ...

  4. Performance of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gout in a Multi-Center Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogdie, Alexis; Taylor, William J; Neogi, Tuhina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional study...

  5. Enhanced interleukin-1beta production of PBMCs from patients with gout after stimulation with Toll-like receptor-2 ligands and urate crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylona, E.E.; Mouktaroudi, M.; Crisan, T.O.; Makri, S.; Pistiki, A.; Georgitsi, M.; Savva, A.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W. van der; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals synergize with various toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to induce cytokine production via activation of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLPR3) inflammasome. This has been demonstrated in vitro using hu

  6. The Human and Economic Burden of Difficult-to-Treat Gouty Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A.H.; Bardin, Thomas; Laar, van de Martinus A.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Gouty arthritis, one of the most painful and common forms of adult arthritis, is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposits in joints, most often in the lower extremities. Crystals trigger an inflammatory response leading to acute flares characterized by a rapid onset of pain, warmth, swelling, and

  7. Multiplicative interaction of functional inflammasome genetic variants in determining the risk of gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, Cushla; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth K.; Day, Richard O.; Kannangara, Diluk R. W.; Williams, Kenneth M.; Janssen, Matthijs; Jansen, Timothy L.; Joosten, Leo A.; Radstake, Timothy R.; Riches, Philip L.; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Liote, Frederic; So, Alexander; Merriman, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The acute gout flare results from a localised self-limiting innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints in hyperuricaemic individuals. Activation of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3

  8. Multiplicative interaction of functional inflammasome genetic variants in determining the risk of gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, C.; Stamp, L.K.; Dalbeth, N.; Topless, R.K.; Day, R.O.; Kannangara, D.R.; Williams, K.M.; Janssen, M; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Radstake, T.R.; Riches, P.L.; Tausche, A.K.; Liote, F.; So, A.; Merriman, T.R.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The acute gout flare results from a localised self-limiting innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints in hyperuricaemic individuals. Activation of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3

  9. China's Fermentation Industry Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Output increases steadily The main products of China's fermen-tation industry include amino acid,organic acid, enzyme preparation,yeast, starch and starch sugar, spe-cial functional fermented products,etc. Monosodium glutamate is themain product of amino acid, and cit-ric acid is the main product of or-ganic acid.

  10. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Thyrion; R. Raedt; J. Portelli; P. van Loo; W.J. Wadman; G. Glorieux; B.N. Lambrecht; S. Janssens; K. Vonck; P. Boon

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in sei

  11. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\5\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium citrate and monosodium citrate... acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and 2918.15.1000 of the Harmonized...

  12. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... dihydrate and anhydrous forms of sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\1\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium... monosodium salt, respectively. Citric acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and...

  13. TESTING OF BASELINE AND LAMINATED FILTER DISKS USING MST AND MMST WITH A PILOT SCALE ROTARY FILTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.

    2001-12-19

    Testing was completed to compare the filtration performance of modified monosodium titanate (mMST) with that of monosodium titanate (MST) with the rotary microfilter. In addition, the performance of the new laminated filter disk was compared to that of the original baseline welded filter disk. Results showed that flux rates for mMST exceeded that of MST with both the baseline and laminated filter disks in deployment concentrations of 0.2 g/L of mMST and 0.4 g/L of MST. The filtration rate of the mMST with the laminated filter disk exceeded that of the baseline filter disk. However, the baseline filter disk filtration rate for MST was greater than that of the laminated disk. The measured sample turbidity for all tests was 1.06 NTU or less. A contract was established with SpinTek Filtration{trademark} to operate a 3-disk pilot scale unit with prototypic filter disks and various feeds and two different filter disk membranes. SpinTek evaluated a set of the baseline 0.5 micron filter disks as well as a set of laminated filter disks using the same 0.5 micron filter disks. The membrane used for both disk sets was manufactured by the Pall Corporation (PMM 050). Each set of disks was run with monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Throughout the testing, samples of the filtrate were collected and measured for turbidity.

  14. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant rs2149356 and risk of gout in European and polynesian sample sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasheed, Humaira; McKinney, Cushla; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth K.; Day, Richard; Kannangara, Diluk; Williams, Kenneth; Smith, Malcolm; Janssen, Matthijs; Jansen, Tim L.; Joosten, Leo A.; Radstake, Timothy R.; Riches, Philip L.; Tausche, Anne Kathrin; Lioté, Frederic; Lu, Leo; Stahl, Eli A.; Choi, Hyon K.; So, Alexander; Merriman, Tony R.

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of crystallized monosodium urate (MSU) in joints as a result of hyperuricemia is a central risk factor for gout. However other factors must exist that control the progression from hyperuricaemia to gout. A previous genetic association study has implicated the tolllike receptor 4 (TLR4) wh

  15. New gout test: enhanced ex vivo cytokine production from PBMCS in common gout patients and a gout patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, T.L.; Berendsen, D.; Crisan, T.O.; Cleophas, M.C.; Janssen, M.C.; Joosten, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium urate (MSU) monohydrate crystals synergize with various toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to induce interleukin-(IL)-1beta production. Data are shown from a young male with mitochondriopathy in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) who developed gout and underwent urate-lowering therapy (ULT) versus

  16. Emerging aspects of dietary glutamate metabolism in the developing gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamate is a major constituent of dietary protein and is also consumed in many prepared foods as a flavour additive in the form of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that glutamate is the major oxidative fuel for the gut and that dietary glutamate is exten...

  17. Dietary glutamate will not affect pain in fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, R.; Janssens, E.L.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Injection of glutamate into the masseter muscle has been suggested-to evoke an increase in intensity of and sensitivity to pain. A case study showed that a diet low in monosodium glutamate (MSG) might accomplish pain relief in fibromyalgia (FM). To clarify the possible pain-modulating effect of diet

  18. Metabolic fate and function of dietary glutamate in the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamate is a major constituent of dietary protein and is also consumed in many prepared foods as an additive in the form of monosodium glutamate. Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that glutamate is a major oxidative fuel for the gut and that dietary glutamate is extensively metabol...

  19. Biotechnology and the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jenny; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Traditional and novel uses of enzymes and microbes in the baking, brewing, and dairy industries are described. Cheese, yogurt, baking, brewing, vinegar, soy sauce, single-cell proteins, enzymes, food modification, vanilla, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, xanthan gum, aspartame, and cochineal are discussed. Industrial links with firms involved…

  20. Toxicidade de herbicidas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar à bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum brasilense Toxicity of herbicides applied on sugarcane to the diazotrophic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O Procópio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar herbicidas utilizados na cultura da cana-de-açúcar que não alteram o crescimento ou a capacidade de fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN da bactéria diazotrófica Azospirillum brasi lense. Dezoito herbicidas - paraquat, ametryn, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn], S-metolachlor, glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D - foram testados em suas doses comerciais quanto ao impacto sobre o crescimento da bactéria em meio líquido DIGs. As variáveis capacidade de suporte de crescimento (carrying capacity do meio de cultura, duração da fase lag e tempo de geração de A. brasilense foram calculadas a partir de dados de densidade ótica obtidos, em intervalos regulares, durante a incubação de culturas por 55 h. O impacto dos herbicidas na atividade da nitrogenase de A. brasilense foi avaliado em meio semissólido NFb, sem N, pela técnica da atividade de redução do acetileno (ARA. Os efeitos dos herbicidas sobre as variáveis de crescimento e ARA foram comparados ao controle pelo teste de Dunnett. Paraquat, oxyfluorfen, [trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn] e glyphosate reduziram a capacidade do meio DIGs em suportar o crescimento de A. brasilense. Esse efeito foi associado ao aumento da duração da fase lag e do tempo de geração para [trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn] e ao aumento no tempo de geração para glyphosate. MSMA, paraquat e amicarbazone reduzem a FBN in vitro de A. brasilense, porém essa redução é mais severa na presença do paraquat. Os demais herbicidas não alteram o crescimento e a FBN de A. brasilense.The objective of this work was to identify the herbicides applied on sugarcane that do not affect the growth nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of the diazotrophic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Commercial doses of

  1. A three-dimensional constitutive model for magnetic shape memory alloys under magneto-mechanical loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Mohammad Reza; Arghavani, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional phenomenological constitutive model for magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs), developed within the framework of irreversible continuum thermodynamics. To this end, a proper set of internal variables is introduced to reflect the microstructural consequences on the material macroscopic behavior. Moreover, a stress-dependent thermodynamic force threshold for variant reorientation is introduced which improves the model accuracy. Preassumed kinetic equations for magnetic domain volume fractions, decoupled equations for magnetization unit vectors and appropriate presentation of the limit function for martensite variant reorientation lead to a simple formulation of the proposed constitutive model. To show the model capability in reproducing the main features of MSMAs, several numerical examples are solved and compared with available experimental data as well as available three-dimensional constitutive models in the literature. Demonstrating good agreement with experimental data besides possessing computational advantages, the proposed constitutive model can be used for analysis of MSMA-based smart structures.

  2. Urban Stormwater Management Model and Tools for Designing Stormwater Management of Green Infrastructure Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, H.; Chow, M. F.; Usman, F.; Sidek, L. M.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization is growing rapidly in Malaysia. Rapid urbanization has known to have several negative impacts towards hydrological cycle due to decreasing of pervious area and deterioration of water quality in stormwater runoff. One of the negative impacts of urbanization is the congestion of the stormwater drainage system and this situation leading to flash flood problem and water quality degradation. There are many urban stormwater management softwares available in the market such as Storm Water Drainage System design and analysis program (DRAINS), Urban Drainage and Sewer Model (MOUSE), InfoWorks River Simulation (InfoWork RS), Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M), Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), XP Storm Water Management Model (XPSWMM), MIKE-SWMM, Quality-Quantity Simulators (QQS), Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff Model (STORM), and Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). In this paper, we are going to discuss briefly about several softwares and their functionality, accessibility, characteristics and components in the quantity analysis of the hydrological design software and compare it with MSMA Design Aid and Database. Green Infrastructure (GI) is one of the main topics that has widely been discussed all over the world. Every development in the urban area is related to GI. GI can be defined as green area build in the develop area such as forest, park, wetland or floodway. The role of GI is to improve life standard such as water filtration or flood control. Among the twenty models that have been compared to MSMA SME, ten models were selected to conduct a comprehensive review for this study. These are known to be widely accepted by water resource researchers. These ten tools are further classified into three major categories as models that address the stormwater management ability of GI in terms of quantity and quality, models that have the capability of conducting the

  3. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate.

  4. Tophaceous Gout in an Anorectic Patient Visualized by Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Dahl; Sheta, Hussam; Birger Morillon, Melanie;

    2016-01-01

    known to have anorexia nervosa. During our clinical examination, we detected plenty of tophi on both hands, but no swollen joints. The diagnosis of gout was made by visualizing crystals in a biopsy from a tophus. The first line of treatment was allopurinol, the second line was rasburicase......BACKGROUND Gout is characterized by deposition of uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) in tissues and fluids. This can cause acute inflammatory arthritis. The 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria for the diagnosis of gout include dual energy computed tomography (DECT)-demonstrated monosodium urate crystals...... as a new criterion. DECT is a spectral decomposition that permits recognition of different types of tissues based on their characteristic energy-dependent photon attenuation. A positive scan is defined as the presence of urate at articular or periarticular sites. CASE REPORT We describe a 51-year-old woman...

  5. Improving gluten-free bread quality by enrichment with acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A; Ronda, Felicidad; Pérez, Blanca; Pando, Valentín

    2011-08-01

    An experimental design has been developed to improve gluten-free bread formulation, on the basis of rice flour and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as alternative baking ingredients. In order to improve the quality of gluten-free bread, several levels of acidic food additives (acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and monosodium phosphate) have been tested. The influence of these compounds on the dough and on bread properties has been determined, including a hedonic sensory test of appearance, odour, taste and texture of bread. Results suggest that monosodium phosphate yields bread producing better texture scores, associated with the highest volumes of the loaf. Discussions are made on the basis of CO2 transport pathway across the HPMC network and simultaneous interactions with acidic food additives present. Chemical properties of the acids justify the bread's alveolus size and the preservative effects of acetic acid in the dough.

  6. Tophaceous Gout in an Anorectic Patient Visualized by Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Dahl; Sheta, Hussam Mahmoud; Morillon, Melanie Birger;

    2016-01-01

    known to have anorexia nervosa. During our clinical examination, we detected plenty of tophi on both hands, but no swollen joints. The diagnosis of gout was made by visualizing crystals in a biopsy from a tophus. The first line of treatment was allopurinol, the second line was rasburicase...... and soft tissue. CONCLUSIONS DECT is an imaging modality useful to assess urate crystal deposits at diagnosis of gout and could be considered during treatment evaluation. Lack of adherence to treatment should be considered when P-urate values vary significantly and when DECT scans over years persistently......BACKGROUND Gout is characterized by deposition of uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) in tissues and fluids. This can cause acute inflammatory arthritis. The 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria for the diagnosis of gout include dual energy computed tomography (DECT)-demonstrated monosodium urate crystals...

  7. Gout in the Spine: Imaging, Diagnosis, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprover, Michael; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Pillinger, Michael H

    2015-12-01

    Gout is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals and by acute and chronic inflammation in response to crystals so deposited. Multiple case reports and series describe the deposition of monosodium urate in the spine as a rare manifestation of gout, but the actual prevalence of spinal involvement is unknown and likely to be higher than generally anticipated. Here we review the characteristics of 131 previously reported cases of spinal involvement in gout. We focus in particular on the use of imaging modalities and the extent to which they correlate with presenting symptoms and tissue diagnoses. The recent innovation of using dual-energy computerized tomography to identify urate crystal deposition holds promise for reducing the need for surgical intervention and for establishing a true prevalence rate for spinal gout.

  8. The Effects of a Moderate Exercise Program on Knee Osteoarthritis in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fallah Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Osteoarthritis (OA or degenerative joint disease is the commonest form of arthritis and can lead to joint pain, decrease in joint’s range of motion, loss of function, and ultimately disability. Exercise is considered as one of the non-pharmacological treatments of OA. But the effects of exercise on knee joint cartilage remain ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a four-week moderate treadmill exercise on rats’ knee osteoarthritis.   Materials and Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats (173 ± 1 g, 8 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6: Intact control, monosodium iodoacetate (MIA only (OA, and training. The osteoarthritis model was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA. Subjects followed a moderate-intensity exercise program for 28 days. Rats were killed after 28 days and histological assessment was done on their knee joints. One-way ANOVA (P

  9. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 8 tank 21H qualification MST solids sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-02-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) tests. This document reports characterization of the monosodium titanate (MST) solids from the ARP test. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  10. Opinions on hot discussions in connection with rare earths recently (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ IV.Rare earths are mostly for civil uses Rare earth elements have excellent physical properties including optical, electric, magnetic, superconductive and catalytic performances and outstanding .chemical properties.The value of rare earths is mostly embodied in their applications.Rare earths are prepared into various advanced materials with different performances.Therefore, rare earths enjoy the reputation of "industrial monosodium glutamate" and "treasury of advanced materials".

  11. Implication des récepteurs purinergiques dans l'activation de l'inflammasome NLRP3 dans les macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    NLRP3-inflammasome pathway activation appears as the corner stone of manyinflammatory diseases including pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout and Crohn disease. This pathway is known to be activated by danger signals such as ATP or Monosodium urate (MSU) leading to the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β release. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of purinergic receptors in the activation of NLRP3-inflammasome pathway in human macrophages. We found here that MSU or analogs...

  12. Gouty Tophi in the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Flores Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperuricemia and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in different anatomical locations. We report the case of a 61-year-old man who received consultation for gouty tophi in the penis, which is an unusual location for this type of pathology, that was resolved with the surgical removal of the tophi. We provide a review on gout and its treatment as well as other locations where atypical gouty tophi have been described.

  13. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis

    2011-04-27

    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Tips and tricks to recognize microcrystalline arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippucci, Emilio; Di Geso, Luca; Grassi, Walter

    2012-12-01

    US plays a useful role in diagnosing and monitoring therapy in microcrystalline arthritis, as it may detect both monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystal aggregates. The knowledge of some tips and tricks in the identification of these findings can play a key role in exploiting the relevant potential of US in microcrystalline arthritis, avoiding errors and misinterpretations. This review provides an in-depth description of simple technical and methodological issues to guide the rheumatologist in daily clinical practice.

  15. Relevant aspects of imaging in the diagnosis and management of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Avila Fernandes, Eloy; Bergamaschi, Samuel Brighenti; Rodrigues, Tatiane Cantarelli; Dias, Gustavo Coelho; Malmann, Ralff; Ramos, Germano Martins; Monteiro, Soraya Silveira

    Gout is an inflammatory arthritis characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the synovial membrane, articular cartilage and periarticular tissues leading to inflammation. Men are more commonly affected, mainly after the 5th decade of life. Its incidence has been growing with the population aging. In the majority of the cases, the diagnosis is made by clinical criteria and synovial fluid analysis, in search for monosodium urate crystals. Nonetheless, gout may sometimes have atypical presentations, complicating the diagnosis. In these situations, imaging methods have a fundamental role, aiding in the diagnostic confirmation or excluding other possible differential diagnosis. Conventional radiographs are still the most commonly used method in gout patients' evaluation; nevertheless, this is not a sensitive method, since it detect only late alterations. In the last years, there have been several advances in imaging methods for gout patients. Ultrasound has shown a great accuracy in the diagnosis of gout, identifying monosodium urate deposits in the synovial membrane and articular cartilage, in detecting and characterizing tophi and in identifying tophaceous tendinopathy and enthesopathy. Ultrasound has also been able to show crystal deposition in patients with articular pain in the absence of a classical gout crisis. Computed tomography is an excellent method for detecting bone erosions, being useful in spine involvement. Dual-energy CT is a new method able to provide information about the chemical composition of tissues, with high accuracy in the identification of monosodium urate deposits, even in the early stages of the disease and in cases of difficult characterization. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the evaluation of deep tissues not accessible by ultrasound. Besides the diagnosis, with the emergence of new drugs that aim to reduce tophaceous burden, imaging methods have become useful tools in monitoring the treatment of patients with

  16. The Relevance of Hyperuricaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Kielstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to summarise the results from recent clinical studies on the basis of the newly proposed temporal classification of hyperuricaemia and gout, introducing the now evident condition of hyperuricaemia with monosodium urate deposits. Furthermore, it provides an overview of evidence concerning the link between hyperuricaemia and specific pathological conditions, including cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and hypertension.

  17. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  18. Gout

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, P.; Malaise, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the presence of a clinical acute monoarthritis, a differential diagnosis has to be made between septic arthritis, gout and diffuse chondrocalcinosis. Gout comes from a purine nucleotide metabolism disorder leading to serum urate level elevation. This hyperuricemia can lead to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints, causing acute attacks. After long-term evolution, others tissues as the kidneys can be involved: it is chronic g...

  19. Gout

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan Abdel Rehim

    2014-01-01

    Gout is a crystal deposition disease caused by raised levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricaemia) with persistence of hyperuricemia at levels higher than a serum saturation of 6.8 mg/dl leads to formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and their deposition in joints and other tissues. However, only a minority of individuals with elevated serum uric acid (sUA) levels ever develop gout, emphasizing the importance of other factors in determining crystal formation including Genetics, Ge...

  20. Effects of Glutamate and Na+ on the Development and Enzyme Activity of the Oriental Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) in Successive Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xia; JIA Miao; WANG Lei; CAO Guang-chun; ZHANG Ze-hua

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and mass rearing of Locusta migratoria manilensis is an urgent need to meet the increasing demand for food of people. In this study, the effects of four artiifcial feeds on the development, reproduction and the activities of detoxiifcation and protective enzymes of L. migratoria manilensis in three successive generations were investigated. The results showed that sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) signiifcantly increased the net reproductive rate (R0) and the intrinsic growth rate (rm) of L. migratoria manilensis, but sodium chloride (0.17%) suppressed this increase. Furthermore, the artiifcial feed with sucrose and monosodium glutamate increased the activities of esterase (EST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), multi-function oxidase (MFO), phenol oxidase (PO), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, sodium chloride (0.17%) increased the activities of EST, AChE, CAT and SOD, and inhibited the activities of MFO, GST, PO and POD. Correlation analysis found that the increasing of PO activity and the decreasing of SOD activities were signiifcantly related with the increasing of the intrinsic growth rate (rm). The above results indicated that sucrose and monosodium glutamate could promote the development and reproduction of L. migratoria manilensis, but Na+ inhibit such promotion with the concentration above 0.2%. The activities of PO and SOD can be used as biochemical standard to assess the effect of artiifcial feed.

  1. PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus PADA PENAMBAHAN DUA SUMBER NUTRISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afina Shifriyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus harvest tend to reduced because  of  nutrients decreasing in the  growth media.  An effort  to increase its  production    is by adding nutrients  into  the growth media. This research aims to determine the effect of  nutrition  on growth  and production of  white oyster mushrooms. The nutrients used in this study is monosodium glutamate (MSG and old  coconut  water.      The research method  used was  Complete Randomized Design  (CRD  analysis  of variance  with  orthogonal  contrasts.  The treatments tested is the addition of nutrients after 3 times the harvest consists of four levels: control  (without  giving  nutrient solution, the provision of  nutrient solution Monosodium  glutamate  (MSG 0.4%,  30%  old  coconut  water  and  nutrient combination of  MSG and old coconut water.  The results show that the addition of nutrients was not significantly different to the parameters of the total fresh weight, total  weight, mean  stalk  length,  average  diameter of  the bodies  and  biological efficiency of fruit.   However, it  significantly different  to the  parameters of maximum  hood width  average  and  buds  appearance time.   Based on  these observations we can conclude that feeding monosodium glutamate, old  coconut  water   and  combination of nutrients  monosodium  glutamate  and  old  coconut water  significantly  affect to maximum hood width  average  and  buds  appearance time.    Nutrition  as well as  without being given nutrients (control of  body fresh  weight.  Nutrition old coconut water is better  than Monosodium  glutamate to maximum hood width average.  Monosodium glutamate or old coconut water nutrition  is better  than the  combination of nutrients monosodium  glutamate  and old  coconut  water  to the  long  shoots  appear.  Nutrition  increase wet weight up to 1.89%.

  2. Intoxicação aguda por metano arsonato ácido monossódico em bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N. Dantas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou a intoxicação acidental por arsênico em um lote de 24 vacas Girolando, as quais tiveram acesso a pasto pulverizado com herbicida à base de metano arsonato ácido monossódico (MSMA. Os bovinos apresentaram apatia, anorexia e diarreia profusa. Foram necropsiados na fazenda dois animais de 14 que morreram. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram úlceras abomasais e congestão renal. No exame microscópico, as principais lesões observadas foram abomasite e omasite necro-hemorrágica multifocal acentuada e, nos rins, necrose tubular difusa. As concentrações médias de arsênico em vacas com sinais clínicos foram 1,19±0,40, 10,52±2,16 e 76,06±48,37ppm no sangue, leite e fezes, respectivamente. Os níveis de arsênico encontrados em dois animais necropsiados foram 25,58 e 23,85ppm em fígado, e 28,71 e 35,94ppm em rins, respectivamente. No feto de uma vaca necropsiada, os níveis de arsênico mensurados no fígado e rim foram 9,0 e 8,92ppm, respectivamente. A concentração de arsênico no capim do piquete pulverizado foi 111,58ppm. No Brasil, o uso MSMA na composição de pesticidas e herbicidas é permitido somente para uso agrícola, mas não pecuário. A utilização desse ou de outros produtos à base de arsênico na pecuária pode causar altos índices de mortalidade no rebanho, além de diminuição da produção e contaminação de produtos de origem animal.

  3. Distribuição nos compartimentos ambientais dos herbicidas utiilizados nas culturas de algodão, café e citros Distribution of environmental compartments of herbicides used in the cotton, coffee and citrus cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P.M. Plese

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o destino ambiental dos herbicidas acetochlor, 2,4-D, diuron, clomazone, thidiazuron, paraquat, simazine, fluazifop-p-butil, clethodim, oxyfluorfen, flumioxazin, carfentrazone-ethyl, ametrina, trifluralin e MSMA em áreas de cultivo de algodão, café e citros, utilizando o modelo de fugacidade nível I. Na metodologia foram utilizadas basicamente as características físico-químicas dos herbicidas, os compartimentos ambientais e as equações de fugacidade. A avaliação preliminar do risco de contaminação pelo uso de herbicidas nas culturas de algodão, café e citros pode ser feita de forma expedita a partir das propriedades físico-químicas desses produtos, aplicando o modelo de fugacidade nível I. Para a maioria dos herbicidas avaliados, o compartimento água foi o mais vulnerável. O estudo de avaliação da predição em que se empregou o nível de fugacidade I demonstrou ser uma ferramenta importante no destino ambiental dos herbicidas estudados para as culturas de algodão, café e citros.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the environmental fate of herbicides (acetochlor, 2,4-D, diuron, clomazone, thidiazuron, paraquat, simazine, fluazifo-p-butil, clethodim, oxufluorfen, flumioxazin, carfentrazone-ethyl, ametrina, trifluralin and MSMA in cotton, coffee and citrus cultivation areas, applying the level I fugacity model. The methodology basically used the chemical and physical characteristics of the pesticides, environmental compartments and the fugacity equations. The preliminary evaluation of risk of contamination due to the use of these pesticides on the cultures studied was carried out swiftly, based on the chemical and physical properties of these products as the level I fugacity model was applied. For most of the herbicides evaluated, the water compartment was the most vulnerable. The prediction evaluation study using fugacity level I was found to be a relevant tool for the environmental

  4. Assessing arsenic bioavailability through the use of bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, E.; Nadimpalli, M.; Hull, M.; Schreiber, M. E.; Vikesland, P.

    2009-12-01

    Various methods have been used to characterize the bioavailability of a contaminant, including chemical extractions from soils, toxicity tests, bioaccumulation measurements, estimation from soil properties, in vitro/in vivo tests, and microbial biossays. Unfortunately, these tests are all unique (i.e. they measure bioavailability through different mechanisms) and it is difficult to compare measurements collected using one method to those collected from another. Additionally, there are fundamental aspects of bioavailability research that require further study. In particular, changes in bioavailability over time are not well understood, as well as what the geochemical controls are on changes in bioavailability. In addition, there are no studies aimed at the integration of bioavailability measurements and potential geochemical controls. This research project seeks to find a standard set of assays and sensors that can be used to assess arsenic bioavailability at any field site, as well as to use these tools and techniques to better understand changes in, and controls on, arsenic bioavailability. The bioassays to be utilized in this research are a bioluminescent E. coli assay and a Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam) assay. Preliminary experiments to determine the suitability of the E. coli and C. fluminea assays have been completed. The E. coli assay can be utilized to analyze As(III) and As(V) with a linear standard curve between 5 and 200 ppb for As(III) and 100 ppb and 5 ppm for As(V); no bioluminescent response above background was elicited in the presence of Roxarsone, an organoarsenical. The C. fluminea assay is capable of bioaccumulating As(III), As(V), Roxarsone, and MSMA, with As(III) being the most readily accumulated, followed by As(V), Roxarsone and MSMA, respectively. Additional research will include assessing bioavailability of various arsenic species adsorbed to natural colloidal materials (i.e. clays, iron oxides, NOM) to the E. coli and C. fluminea assays

  5. Organoarsenical Biotransformations by Shewanella putrefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Rosen, Barry P

    2016-08-02

    Microbes play a critical role in the global arsenic biogeocycle. Most studies have focused on redox cycling of inorganic arsenic in bacteria and archaea. The parallel cycles of organoarsenical biotransformations are less well characterized. Here we describe organoarsenical biotransformations in the environmental microbe Shewanella putrefaciens. Under aerobic growth conditions, S. putrefaciens reduced the herbicide MSMA (methylarsenate or MAs(V)) to methylarsenite (MAs(III)). Even though it does not contain an arsI gene, which encodes the ArsI C-As lyase, S. putrefaciens demethylated MAs(III) to As(III). It cleaved the C-As bond in aromatic arsenicals such as the trivalent forms of the antimicrobial agents roxarsone (Rox(III)), nitarsone (Nit(III)) and phenylarsenite (PhAs(III)), which have been used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. S. putrefaciens thiolated methylated arsenicals, converting MAs(V) into the more toxic metabolite monomethyl monothioarsenate (MMMTAs(V)), and transformed dimethylarsenate (DMAs(V)) into dimethylmonothioarsenate (DMMTAs(V)). It also reduced the nitro groups of Nit(V), forming p-aminophenyl arsenate (p-arsanilic acid or p-AsA(V)), and Rox(III), forming 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzylarsonate (3A4HBzAs(V)). Elucidation of organoarsenical biotransformations by S. putrefaciens provides a holistic appreciation of how these environmental pollutants are degraded.

  6. Evaluation on Flow Discharge of Grassed Swale in Lowland Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaffa Nurhazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassed swale is an open vegetated channel designed specifically in attenuating stormwater runoff to decrease the velocity, to reduce the peak flows, and minimize the causes of flood. Therefore, the fundamental of this study is to evaluate the flow discharge of swale in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM, which has flat land surface area. There are two sites of study were involved to assess the performance of swale as stormwater quantity control, named as swale 1 and swale 2. Data collection was conducted on 100 meters of length for each swale. The velocity of swale was measured thrice by using a current meter according to the six-tenths depth method, after a rainfall event. The discharge of drainage area in UTHM was determined by the Rational Method (Qpeak, and the discharge of swales (Qswale was evaluated by the Mean-Section Method. Manning’s roughness coefficient and the infiltration rate were also determined in order to describe the characteristics of swale, which contributing factors for the effectiveness of swale. The results shown that Qswale is greater than Qpeak at swale 1 and swale 2, which according to the Second Edition of MSMA, the swales are efficient as stormwater quantity control in preventing flash flood at the campus area of UTHM.

  7. Application of Linear Moments and Uncertainty Analysis to Extreme Rainfall Events in Sabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuah Shu Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear moments (LM has been applied in extreme rainfall study for several countries, including China, United States of America, and Peninsular Malaysia. In this study, the LM procedures were applied to extreme rainfall data corresponding to locations provided in Malaysia Urban Stromwater Manual (MSMA to derive new design rainfalls. Different record lengths were considered to assess the changes in design rainfall, and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compute confidence interval of the derived design rainfalls. Based on the Goodness-of-Fit (GoF test results, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV probability distribution was chosen to derive the design rainfalls. The updated design rainfalls at all four locations showed significant reduction at design rainfalls of 50-year ARI and above. The difference of the design rainfalls from shorter record lengths with respect to the full record length and the confidence intervals do not necessarily reduce with a longer record. In hypothetical cases where 100-yr ARI rainfall was added, the increase in design rainfalls did not exceed the upper bound of the confidence intervals. The derived confidence intervals hence allow for better risk assessment, and should be considered in the design of critical structures, i.e. dams.

  8. Hysteresis Curve Fitting Optimization of Magnetic Controlled Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Tu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a new actuating material, magnetic controlled shape memory alloys (MSMAs have excellent characteristics such as a large output strain, fast response, and high energy density. These excellent characteristics are very attractive for precision positioning systems. However, the availability of MSMAs in practical precision positioning is poor, caused by weak repeatability under a certain stimulus. This problem results from the error of a large magnetic hysteresis in an external magnetic field. A suitable hysteresis modelling method can reduce the error and improve the accuracy of the MSMA actuator. After analyzing the original hysteresis modelling methods, three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods are proposed: least squares method, back propagation (BP artificial neural network, and BP artificial neural network based on genetic algorithms. Comparing the accuracy and convergence rate of three kinds of hysteresis modelling methods, the results show that the convergence rate of least squares method is the fastest, and the convergence accuracy of BP artificial neural networks based on genetic algorithms is the highest.

  9. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  10. Experimental oral toxicity of domoic acid in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and rats. Preliminary investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryphonas, L; Truelove, J; Todd, E; Nera, E; Iverson, F

    1990-10-01

    A recent outbreak of marine food poisoning in humans was attributed to the consumption of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) contaminated with domoic acid (DA) that was produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens. The clinical and morphological effects of single oral doses of extracts of mussels contaminated with DA or of DA isolated from toxic mussels were investigated in small groups (one to six) of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; 0.5-10 mg DA/kg body weight) and of Sprague-Dawley rats (60 to 80 mg DA/kg body weight). Control animals were either given saline or were not treated. To test whether monosodium glutamate, present in the food consumed by some affected humans, and dimethylsulphoxide, suspected of being present in the plankton, enhanced the response, monosodium glutamate (at 0.25% of mussel extract bolus) or dimethylsulphoxide (at 1 g per bolus) were co-administered to two (one each) of the DA-treated monkeys. DA-treated monkeys developed transient excitation characterized by vomiting. DA-treated rats showed withdrawal followed by hyperexcitation and death (in one case). Mild to moderate central nervous system lesions consistent with neuroexcitation were present in both monkeys and rats. The addition of monosodium glutamate and dimethylsulphoxide had no significant effect on the appearance and severity of central nervous system clinical signs and lesions. The wide variations in the response of test animals to orally administered DA were attributed to the protective effect of vomiting, and to suspected incomplete or slow gastro-intestinal absorption of the toxic agent. The results reinforce the view that DA is an emetic and that under appropriate conditions may also inflict excitotoxic central nervous system damage.

  11. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (ppeas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability.

  12. Knowledge of food quality and additives and its impact on food preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Grujić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background.There are not enough published investigations concerning knowledge on food quality and pref- erence of highly educated young consumers from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The present research was aimed at survey of young consumers’ knowledge on food quality and food additives and its impact on food preference. Material and methods. Respondents’answers were analysed grouped regarding: (1 education, on subjects with knowledge on food quality and additives (A-group and average consumer representatives (B-group; (2 female and male gender. The questionnaire consists of (a questions with personal data; questions referred to the importance of individual factors for consumers’ food choice, related to: (b fundamental knowledge on food quality and food additives; (c nutrition and desire to consume food that contains additives; (d knowl- edge on monosodium glutamate and desire to consume food containing monosodium glutamate. Results.Results indicated a statistically significant difference between A-group and B-group, and between female and male subjects, on fundamental knowledge on food quality and additives, but there was no differ- ence in habits regarding nutrition and desire to consume food that contains additives. Respondents in A-group significantly more avoid products containing monosodium glutamate comparing to B-group, but there was no difference between female and male subjects preference. Conclusions.This research has shown that students from A-group had more knowledge and awareness in choices of food they prefer to consume, than students from B-group. It is recommended to take actions on young consumers’ education as contribution to protecting of the health, safety, economic and legal interests of consumers and society.

  13. Effect of teratogenic exposure on the developing brain: research strategies and possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, V E

    1987-01-01

    Some of the problems associated with human behavioral teratology are reviewed and research strategies necessary for the elucidation of the possible prenatal bases for the later occurrence of Learning Disabilities (LD) are suggested. An animal model for LD was created by exposure of female rats during pregnancy or during lactation to diazepam, monosodium glutamate, caffeine, or maternal stress. The gestation period most sensitive to these prenatal insults was established, and some of the neurochemical and histological correlates of the resulting discrimination learning deficits were investigated.

  14. An update on the pathology and clinical management of gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Emilio B

    2012-01-01

    Gouty arthritis is an inflammatory condition associated with debilitating clinical symptoms, functional impairments, and a substantial impact on quality of life. This condition is initially triggered by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals into the joint space. This causes an inflammatory cascade resulting in the secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil recruitment into the joint. While generally effective, currently available agents are associated with a number of adverse events and contraindications that complicate their use. Based on our increased understanding of the inflammatory pathogenesis of gouty arthritis, several new agents are under development that may provide increased efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  15. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p gouty arthritis model.

  16. Coexistence of Sarcoidosis and Gouty Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Hüseyin; Kobak, Senol

    2017-08-21

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma formations. It may present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, the involvement of eye and symptoms on the locomotor system. Gouty arthritis is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by hyperuricemia, recurrent arthritis attacks and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints and the surrounding tissues. We reported the coexistence of sarcoidosis and gouty arthritis in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Injection in temporomandibular joint of rats. Description of technical protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, R; Veuthey, C; Arias, A; Saravia, D; Ottone, N E

    2017-03-01

    The development of animal models for research has been very diffused. Osteoarthritis is a joint degenerative pathology that induces cartilage erosion, chondrocyte proliferation and osteophyte formation. The aim of this paper is to present a technical procedure to perform the injection of monosodium iodine acetate in the temporomandibular joints of rats to generate osteoarthritis and to contribute to future research analysis related to pathology progression and proper treatment performance. The use of rat models may be a complex process because of their size, but they can be compared to the human temporomandibular joint due to the similar characteristics and the possibility of performing diagnosis and treatment protocols in order to detect this pathology.

  18. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine.

  19. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  20. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  1. Preparation of some compounded soup powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Bhatia

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Recipes for the preparation of some compounded soup powders from tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, dried peas, chicken and mutton using components like corn starch, skim milk powder, hydrogenated groundnut oil, common salt, mixed spices (black pepper, caraway and ginger and monosodium glutamate have been developed. Pretreatment and drying conditions for the preparation of pre-cooked dry bases from tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, dried peas, chicken and mutton have been determined. Except for tomatoes where vacuum drier is necessary, other bases can be easily prepared in a simple cross flow hot air cabinet drier and used subsequently in the preparation of soup powders.

  2. From condiment to metal-organic framework and its derived 3D architecture nanoporous carbon for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Lu, Xiaowang; Chen, Zhidong

    2017-02-01

    The crystalline metal-organic-framework (MOF) microrods from monosodium glutamate and zinc acetate dihydrate were spontaneously formed by mixing their solution at room temperature. After carbonization in an inert atmosphere, these MOF microrods are evolved into N and O co-doped nanoporous carbon with 3D-architecture. The model of gas bubbles is elucidated for the formation of these interconnected porous structure. As the electrode material for supercapacitor, the derived nanoporous carbon at the temperature of 800 °C exhibits good capacitance performance in alkali aqueous electrolyte.

  3. Pandigital and subcutaneous chronic tophaceous gout with acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shashibhushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout (Podagra is a disorder of purine metabolism characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and connective tissue and risk of deposition in kidney interstitium. Although acute gouty arthritis is familiar for most physicians, chronic gouty arthritis, which affects small joints of the hands can be difficult to distinguish from other common interphalangeal arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, psoriatic arthritis, and erosive osteoarthritis because of very similar presentations. Here we describe a 60-year-old male diabetic patient with pandigital, extensive subcutaneous tophaceous gout presented with uremic encephalopathy and joint deformities. He had been treated mistakenly as RA for 10 years.

  4. Acute gouty bursitis: report of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canoso, J J; Yood, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen cases of acute gouty bursitis were seen among 136 crystal-proved cases of gout. Bursal aspirate yielded yellow or pink fluid in 10, chalky white fluid in 1, and a small amount of bloody fluid in 4. Monosodium urate crystals were present in all. Bursal fluid leucocyte counts averaged 2.9 X 10(9)/1 compared with synovial fluid leucocyte counts that averaged 25.5 X 10(9)/1 in cases of articular gout (P less than 0.05). Gouty, septic, and idiopathic (traumatic) bursitis share clinical features, and detailed bursal fluid analysis is crucial for diagnosis. PMID:496446

  5. Hydrogen peroxide modified sodium titanates with improved sorption capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, May D.; Hobbs, David T.

    2009-02-24

    The sorption capabilities (e.g., kinetics, selectivity, capacity) of the baseline monosodium titanate (MST) sorbent material currently being used to sequester Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radioisotopes at the Savannah River Site are significantly improved when treated with hydrogen peroxide; either during the original synthesis of MST, or, as a post-treatment step after the MST has been synthesized. It is expected that these peroxide-modified MST sorbent materials will have significantly improved sorption capabilities for non-radioactive cations found in industrial processes and waste streams.

  6. GOUT – induced by Infliximab?- case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a metabolic disease caused by a disturbance in purine metabolism; crystals of monosodium urate are deposited in tissues, such as joints, kidneys, and soft tissues, producing an inflammatory response. A 52-year-old woman presented in our department with 1 month history of firm, white papules, nodules and plaques over digits. She has been suffered from Rheumatoid Arthritis for many years, she has been under Infliximab therapy for more than 2 years, with good evolution of the disease. She had marked joint deformities of the proximal interphalangeal joints and slight ulnar deviation at the metacarpophalangeal joints bilaterally.

  7. Miliarial gout: a rare presentation of extensive cutaneous tophi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, T-L; Wang, W-M; Chiang, C-P

    2016-12-01

    Gout is a systemic disorder characterized by hyperuricemia and recurrent arthritis, most involvement of ankles, midfoot joint and first metatarsophalangeal joint, with monosodium urate crystals deposition in synovial fluid and other tissues. We present a case of 53-year-old male, who had several nontender, white-yellow papules and plaques over his elbows, knees and arms with chalk-like substances and crust on inflammatory base wax and wane in the past 2 years. Upon histopathology examination of the skin lesions, it reported as intradermal urate tophi and miliarial gout was diagnosed. This case highlights the importance of considering unusual cutaneous tophi in the differential diagnosis of deposition disorders.

  8. Dual-energy CT in gout - A review of current concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hong; Chin, Teck Yew; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2017-02-26

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a relatively recent development in the imaging of gouty arthritis. Its availability and usage have become increasingly widespread in recent years. DECT is a non-invasive method for the visualisation, characterisation and quantification of monosodium urate crystal deposits which aids the clinician in the early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this condition. This article aims to give an up to date review and summary of existing literature on the role and accuracy of DECT in the imaging of gout. Techniques in image acquisition, processing and interpretation will be discussed along with pitfalls, artefacts and clinical applications.

  9. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  10. EFFECT OF FOOD-MICROORGANISMS ON GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Hudec

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are nice targets in order to study γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production that has been reported to be effective in order to reduce blood pressure in experimental animals and human beings. In this study, we aimed to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production in aerobical and anaerobical conditions, using different sources of microorganisms. The highest selectivity of GABA from precursor L-monosodium glutamate (82.22% has been reported using of microorganisms from banana, and with addition of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P. For augmentation of selectivity the application of the further stimulating factors of GABA biosynthesis is needed.

  11. Tophaceous Gout in an Anorectic Patient Visualized by Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Heidi Dahl; Sheta, Hussam Mahmoud; Morillon, Melanie Birger; Hansen, Inger Marie Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 40 Final Diagnosis: Gout Symptoms: Joint pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Dual energy Computed tomography Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Gout is characterized by deposition of uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) in tissues and fluids. This can cause acute inflammatory arthritis. The 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria for the diagnosis of gout include dual energy computed tomography (DECT)-demonstrated monosodium urate crystals as a new criterion. DECT is a spectral decomposition that permits recognition of different types of tissues based on their characteristic energy-dependent photon attenuation. A positive scan is defined as the presence of urate at articular or periarticular sites. Case Report: We describe a 51-year-old woman known to have anorexia nervosa. During our clinical examination, we detected plenty of tophi on both hands, but no swollen joints. The diagnosis of gout was made by visualizing crystals in a biopsy from a tophus. The first line of treatment was allopurinol, the second line was rasburicase, and the current treatment is febuxostat 80 mg/day, allopurinol 300 mg twice a day, and colchicine 0.5 mg twice a day. The patient has unchanged arthralgia and the size and number of tophi remain the same as before treatment in spite of active treatment for 3 years. Previously the patient had problems with adherence, but now she claims that she follows the proposed treatment. The last plasma urate (P-urate) was 0.57 mmol/L. Following two years of treatment, DECT of hands visualized monosodium urate crystal deposits in the tophi, as seen on the clinical photos, but also crystals in relation to the tendons and soft tissue. Conclusions: DECT is an imaging modality useful to assess urate crystal deposits at diagnosis of gout and could be considered during treatment evaluation. Lack of adherence to treatment should be considered when P-urate values vary significantly and when DECT scans

  12. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  13. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÉSSICA F. RODRIGUES

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1 were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3 were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1. Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  14. The Human and Economic Burden of Difficult-to-Treat Gouty Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, Thomas; Voshaar, Martijn A H Oude; van de Laar, Martinus A F J

    2015-10-01

    Gouty arthritis, one of the most painful and common forms of adult arthritis, is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposits in joints, most often in the lower extremities. Crystals trigger an inflammatory response leading to acute flares characterized by a rapid onset of pain, warmth, swelling, and redness in involved joints. Over time, continued monosodium urate crystal deposits and inflammation can lead to chronic tophaceous gout that result in bone erosion, progressing to joint destruction and significant disability. The goal of therapy in an acute gout flare is prompt and safe termination of pain and inflammation. Acute gouty arthritis is usually treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, or corticosteroids. However, for a growing number of patients, current standard treatments are ineffective or are contraindicated, largely due to the presence of comorbidities. Gouty arthritis can have a major negative impact of health-related quality of life, especially in patients with difficult-to-treat disease, as revealed by recent studies comparing health-related quality of life with that of the general population. Additionally, gouty arthritis also constitutes an important economic burden through absence from work and medical costs. This burden is even greater in patients with difficult-to-treat disease.

  15. The Unique Macroscopic Appearance of Gouty Arthritis of the Knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittl, Gregory S; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2015-07-01

    Patients with significant gouty arthritis can develop disabling joint pain secondary to monosodium urate (MSU) articular deposition. We report a case of white, chalky MSU crystal deposition covering the articular surfaces of the knee as discovered by total knee arthroplasty. A 65-year-old male with a history of gout presented with bilateral knee pain. His radiographic imaging was negative for gouty tophi, and he elected to undergo left total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperatively a distinct chalky, white paste consistent with MSU deposition was observed covering the articular surfaces of the knee consistent with the diagnosis of gouty arthritis. Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis affecting more than 3 million people in the USA. The inflammation results from the phagocytosis of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and the release of inflammatory cytokines within the joint. Gout progresses from acute to chronic over many years and frequently causes chronic arthropathy. When significant knee pain and disability is associated with gouty arthropathy, total knee arthroplasty is certainly an option. The pathological appearance of gouty joints is characteristic. Macroscopic examination of joints affected by gout reveals a nodular, white, chalky appearance. Polarized microscopy of gout demonstrates negative birefringent needle-shaped MSU crystals. In this case report, we describe the characteristic chalky, white MSU deposit that covers the articular surfaces of a knee joint in a patient with a history of gout undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The investigators have obtained the patient's informed written consent for print and electronic publication of the case report.

  16. [Production of 5-aminolevulinic acid from organic industrial wastewater by photosynthetic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuyan, Liu; Xiangyang, Xu; Min, Ye; Shuo, Xiang

    2008-09-01

    We used Rhodopseudomonas strains with high-yield of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to produce ALA from wastewater of producing monosodium glutamate, citric acid, beer, and soybean product. Cultivation was carried out under anaerobic light condition (3000 Lux) at 30 degrees C. For comparison, we tested the addition of levulinic acid (LA), glycin and succinate to the substrate to increase the production of ALA, effect of sterilization of the wastewater for both strains. Cell mass concentration (OD660) and the content of ALA were determined with spectrophotometer. Without adding levulinic acid (LA), glycin and succinate, the growth of strain 99-28 reached plateau after 72-96 h. The maxiam ALA production was obtained at 96 h. Both the yield of ALA and the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODcr) removal rate of monosodium glutamate waster water were the highest in all tested wasterwaters. When LA, glycin and succinate were added, ALA production of strain 99-28 was significantly increased whereas the CODcr removal was adversely affected. Non-sterial wasterwater slightly reduced the growth and CODcr removal rate of strain 99-28, however the ALA production could be strongly reduced with the addition of LA, glycin and succinate. The growth and CODcr removal of mutant strain L-1 was similar with strain 99-28, but its ALA production was much higher than that of strain 99-28. The Rhodopseudomonas strains screened in our laboratory can use organic wasterwater as substrates to produce ALA and remove CODcr.

  17. Utilization of temporal dominance of sensations and time intensity methodology for development of low-sodium Mozzarella cheese using a mixture of salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J F; Gonçalves, C S; Pereira, R C; Carneiro, J D S; Pinheiro, A C M

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has linked excessive salt consumption to the development of chronic degenerative diseases. Therefore, special attention has been given to the consumption of healthier products with reduced sodium contents. This study aimed to develop a Mozzarella cheese with a reduced sodium content using a mixture of salts through acceptance testing and temporal sensory evaluation. The following 3 formulations of Mozzarella cheese were prepared: formulation A (control), which was produced only with NaCl (0% sodium reduction), formulation B (30% sodium reduction), and formulation C (54% sodium reduction). Every formulation was produced using a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The products underwent sensory acceptance tests, and the time intensity and temporal dominance of sensations were evaluated. The proportions of salts used did not cause strange or bad tastes but did result in lower intensities of saltiness. Mozzarella with low sodium content (B and C) had a sensory acceptance similar to that of traditional Mozzarella (A). Therefore, the use of a mixture of salts consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative for the production of Mozzarella, with up to a 54% reduction in the sodium content while still maintaining acceptable sensory quality.

  18. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  19. Effect of glutamate on inflammatory responses of intestine and brain after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xu; Jie Sun; Ran Lu; Qing Ji; Jian-Guo Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the modulation of glutamate on post-ischemic intestinal and cerebral inflammatory responses in a ischemic and excitotoxic rat model.METHODS: Adult male rats were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min and injection of monosodium glutamate intraperitoneally, to decapitate them at selected time points. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), respectively.Hemodynamic parameters were monitored continuously during the whole process of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.RESULTS: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) treated rats displayed statistically significant high levels of TNF-α in cerebral and intestinal tissuess within the first 6 h of ischemia. The rats with cerebral ischemia showed a minor decrease of TNF-α production in cerebral and intestinal tissuess. The rats with cerebral ischemia and treated with MSG displayed statistically significant low levels of TNF-α in cerebral and intestinal tissues. These results correlated significantly with NF-κB production calculated at the same intervals. During experiment, the mean blood pressure and heart rates in all groups were stable.CONCLUSION: Glutamate is involved in the mechanism of intestinal and cerebral inflammation responses. The effects of glutamate on cerebral and intestinal inflammatory responses after ischemia are up-regulated at the transcriptional level,through the NF-κB signal transduction pathway.

  20. Xanthine oxidoreductase and its inhibitors: relevance for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard O; Kamel, Bishoy; Kannangara, Diluk R W; Williams, Kenneth M; Graham, Garry G

    2016-12-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism and converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine into uric acid. When concentrations of uric acid exceed its biochemical saturation point, crystals of uric acid, in the form of monosodium urate, emerge and can predispose an individual to gout, the commonest form of inflammatory arthritis in men aged over 40 years. XOR inhibitors are primarily used in the treatment of gout, reducing the formation of uric acid and thereby, preventing the formation of monosodium urate crystals. Allopurinol is established as first-line therapy for gout; a newer alternative, febuxostat, is used in patients unable to tolerate allopurinol. This review provides an overview of gout, a detailed analysis of the structure and function of XOR, discussion on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of XOR inhibitors-allopurinol and febuxostat, and the relevance of XOR in common comorbidities of gout. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Rabbit model for osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint as a basis for assessment of outcomes after intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuzi, Felipe Ernesto; Langie, Renan; Abreu, Maíra Cavallet de; Quevedo, Alexandre Silva; Corsetti, Adriana; Ponzoni, Deise; Puricelli, Edela

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis can be induced in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by primary or secondary trauma, or overloading of the joint. We have therefore systematically evaluated the histological progression of experimental osteoarthritis induced by a high concentration of monosodium iodoacetate into the rabbit TMJ. These findings may contribute to the establishment of a protocol to investigate the benefits of treatment of osteoarthritis of the TMJ. We used 21 male New Zealand rabbits; the 15 in the test group were given an intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate 10mg/ml into the right TMJ and were killed after 60 (n=5), 80 (n=5), and 100 days (n=5). The six in the control group were given an injection of saline into the right TMJ. The assessment system for osteoarthritis based on six grades was used for the histological analysis of severity. The model was effective in producing histological changes in the cartilage consistent with those found in osteoarthritis at all time points. The within-group analysis indicated that the disease did not progress after 60 days. The successful induction of osteoarthritis in this way, its stabilisation after 60 days, and the appropriate size of the animal suggest that this experimental model is ideal for future studies of the effectiveness of treatment in osteoarthritis of the TMJ.

  2. Using ammonium-tolerant yeast isolates: Candida halophila and Rhodotorula glutinis to treat high strength fermentative wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Yang, M; Hei, L; Zheng, S

    2003-03-01

    Two ammonium-tolerant yeast strains were isolated from sludge samples contaminated with monosodium glutamate manufacturing wastewater and were identified as Candida haplophila and Rhodotorula glutinis. The tolerance of the two yeast isolates to ammonia and their chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal perfomances were evaluated under batch and bench-scale conditions. The mixture of the two isolates was found to grow well in an artificial medium containing 25% (NH4)2SO4 and could effectively remove COD from monosodium glutamate wastewater even when the concentrations of NH4+-N and free NH3-N reached as high as 18,977 and 879 mg l(-1) respectively. A fixed-bed yeast reactor, which was initially inoculated with the yeast mixture, permitted a constant COD removal rate of over 80% during a period of near 2-month continuous running even when the influent COD was increased from 8,000 to 25,000 mg l(-1). The effluent was accompanied with suspended solids (SS) of over 4,500 mg l(-1), which was mainly composed of yeast cells and could be considered as a source of animal forage additive. The residual COD of effluents from the yeast reactor could be further reduced to under 500 mg l(-1) by a combination process of activated sludge treatment and coagulation technologies.

  3. Role of Dual Energy Computed Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Divya; Sehra, Shiv T; Anand, Suneesh; Stallings, Gary W; Danve, Abhijeet

    2017-01-20

    Gout is a well-known inflammatory arthritis and affects four percent of the United States population. It results from the deposition of uric acid crystals in joints, tendons, bursae, and other surrounding tissues. Prevalence of gout has increased in the recent decade. Gout is usually seen in conjunction with other chronic comorbid conditions like cardiac disease, metabolic syndrome, and renal disease. The diagnosis of this inflammatory arthritis is confirmed by visualization of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid. Though synovial fluid aspiration is the standard of care, it is often deferred because of inaccessibility of small joints, patient assessment during intercritical period, or procedural inexperience in a primary care office. Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) is a relatively new imaging modality which shows great promise in the diagnosis of gout. It is a good noninvasive alternative to synovial fluid aspiration. DECT is increasingly useful in diagnosing cases of gout where synovial fluid fails to demonstrate monosodium urate crystals. In this article, we will review the mechanism, types, advantages, and disadvantages of DECT.

  4. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  5. Production of ectoine through a combined process that uses both growing and resting cells of Halomonas salina DSM 5928T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ya-jun; Bai, Lin; Ren, Ya-nan; Zhang, Ling-hua; Nagata, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Using ectoine-excreting strain Halomonas salina DSM 5928(T), we developed a new process for high-efficiency production of ectoine, which involved a combined process of batch fermentation by growing cells and production by resting cells. In the first stage, batch fermentation was carried out using growing cells under optimal fermentation conditions. The second stage was the production phase, in which ectoine was synthesized and excreted by phosphate-limited resting cells. Optimal conditions for synthesis and excretion of ectoine during batch fermentation in a 10 l fermentor were 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl and an initial monosodium glutamate concentration of 80 g l(-1) respectively. The pH was adjusted to 7.0 and the temperature was maintained at 33°C. In phosphate-limited resting cells medium, monosodium glutamate and NaCl concentration was 200 g l(-1) and 0.5 mol l(-1), respectively, as well as pH was 7.0. The total concentration of ectoine produced was 14.86 g l(-1), the productivity and yield of ectoine was 7.75 g l(-1) day(-1) and 0.14 g g(-1), respectively, and the percentage of ectoine excreted was 79%. These levels of ectoine production and excretion are the highest reported to date.

  6. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SORPTION BY MST AND MMST UNDER CONDITIONS REVELANT TO THE SMALL COLUMN ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Poirier, M.

    2011-05-06

    A series of tests were performed to examine the kinetics of Sr and actinide removal by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) under mixing conditions similar to what will be provided in the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program. Similar removal kinetics were seen for two different mixing energies, indicating that under these conditions bulk solution transport is not the rate limiting step for Sr and actinide removal. Sr removal was found to be rapid for both MST and mMST, reaching steady-state conditions within six hours. In contrast, at least six weeks is necessary to reach steady-state conditions for Pu with MST. For mMST, steady-state conditions for Pu were achieved within two weeks. The actual contact time required for the SCIX process will depend on starting sorbate concentrations as well as the requirements for the decontaminated salt solution. During testing leaks occurred in both the MST and mMST tests and evidence of potential desorption was observed. The desorption likely occurred as a result of the change in solids to liquid phase ratio that occurred due to the loss of solution. Based on these results, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended additional testing to further study the effect of changing phase ratios on desorption. This testing is currently in progress and results will be documented in a separate report.

  7. Cost effectiveness of cryoprotective agents and modified De-man Rogosa Sharpe medium on growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyar, Hassan; Peh, Kok-Khiang

    2014-04-01

    The effect of cryoprotective agents (namely, sodium chloride, sucrose, dextran, sorbitol, monosodium glutamate, glycerol, skim milk and skim milk with malt extract) and modified De-Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium, on the viability and stability of L. acidophilus ATCC 4962, was investigated. The modified MRS medium was not only economical, but it gave a relatively higher yield of L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 than the commercial MRS. Monosodium glutamate, skim milk and skim milk with malt extract provided significantly higher viable counts, with optimum concentration at 0.3%. Nevertheless, at concentration above 0.5%, there was a reduction in cell viability, which could be attributed to cell shrinkage associated with osmotic pressure changes inside the cells. It was also found that L. acidophilus ATCC 4962 was stable at 28 degrees C for eight weeks. Skim milk demonstrated a significant growth of probiotics. Skim milk was the preferred cryoprotective agent, as it is of low cost, easily available and demonstrated a significant growth of probiotics. In conclusion, modified MRS medium with skim milk is suggested for the remarkable growth and yield of L. acidophilus.

  8. Role of Dual Energy Computed Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehra, Shiv T; Anand, Suneesh; Stallings, Gary W.; Danve, Abhijeet

    2017-01-01

    Gout is a well-known inflammatory arthritis and affects four percent of the United States population. It results from the deposition of uric acid crystals in joints, tendons, bursae, and other surrounding tissues. Prevalence of gout has increased in the recent decade. Gout is usually seen in conjunction with other chronic comorbid conditions like cardiac disease, metabolic syndrome, and renal disease. The diagnosis of this inflammatory arthritis is confirmed by visualization of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid. Though synovial fluid aspiration is the standard of care, it is often deferred because of inaccessibility of small joints, patient assessment during intercritical period, or procedural inexperience in a primary care office. Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) is a relatively new imaging modality which shows great promise in the diagnosis of gout. It is a good noninvasive alternative to synovial fluid aspiration. DECT is increasingly useful in diagnosing cases of gout where synovial fluid fails to demonstrate monosodium urate crystals. In this article, we will review the mechanism, types, advantages, and disadvantages of DECT. PMID:28229032

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  10. Sodium glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid affect iron metabolism in the rat caudate putamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Peng Guan; Fei Li; Yujian Fu; Xianglin Duan; Yanzhong Chang

    2010-01-01

    Glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) influence iron content in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, although the mechanisms of action remain unclear. The present study measured iron content and changes in divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and hephaestin expression in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen, and explored the effects of GABA and glutamic acid on iron metabolism, Results demonstrated that iron content and DMT1 non iron response element [DMT1 (-IRE)] expression were significantly greater but hephaestin expression was significantly lower in the caudate putamen of the monosodium glutamate group compared with the control group. No significant difference in iron content was detected between the GABA and control groups. DMT1(-IRE) expression was significantly reduced, but hephaestin expression was significantly increased in the GABA group compared with the control group. In addition, there was no significant difference in tyrosine hydroxylase expression between monosodium glutamate and GABA groups and the control group. These results suggested that glutamate affected iron metabolism in the caudate putamen by increasing DMT1(-IRE) and decreasing hephaestin expression. In addition, GABA decreased DMT1(-IRE) expression in the caudate putamen.

  11. Production of red pigments by Monascus ruber in culture media containing corn steep liquor

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    P. S. Hamano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of red pigments by Monascus ruber was evaluated utilizing complex culture media composed of glucose or sucrose (10 g/L, corn steep liquor (5 or 10 g/L and monosodium glutamate (0, 5.0, 7.6, 11.4 or 15.2 g/L. Medium containing 10 g/L glucose, 5 g/L corn steep liquor and 7.6 g/L monosodium glutamate resulted the highest values of extracellular red pigment absorbance (20.7 U and productivity (0.35 U/h. This medium also produced better results than using semi-synthetic medium with analytical grade reagents (12.4 U and 0.21 U/h. The cell growth was similar in both media (X @ 6.5 g/L, indicating that the capacity of the cells to produce red pigments was higher in complex culture media. In addition, in the complex culture medium, less of the intracellular red pigments accumulated than in semi-synthetic medium (9.1% and 30%, respectively.

  12. Uso contínuo de herbicidas em citrus (Citrus sinensis (L Osbeck, I - efeitos no controle de plantas daninhas Continous use of herbicides in citros (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. I - effects on weed control

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    Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi conduzida no município de Conchal - SP, Brasil, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo com 1,75% de matéria orgânica, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso continuo dos principais herbicidas, no controle de plantas daninhas em um pomar de laranja 'Pera' (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, enxertada sobre limão cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 12 parâmetros e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos utiliza dos com as respectiva s dose s do i.a. em kg/ha foram: terbacil a 3,2; simazine a 4,0; ametryne + secbumetone a 4,5; dichlobenil a 5,0; diuron a 3,2; bromacil a 3,2; bromacil + diuron a 3,2; paraqua t a 0,6; glyphosate a 1,61 e MSMA a 1,77, além de uma testemunha que recebia uma capina anualmente e outra que era capinada sempre que a cobertura pelas plantas daninhas atingia 25% da área da parcela. O pomar foi plantado em maio/75 e a 14 aplicação foi realizada em outubro de 1977. As parcelas continham 4 plantas em uma área de 3,0 x 18,0 m (54 m2. A última foi realizada em 1986. O efeito dos tratamentos no controle das plantas daninhas foi avaliado pela contagem por espécie botânica, assim como por avaliações visuais. Todos os herbicidas utilizados apresentaram controle de aceitável a excelente, dependendo da composição específica das plantas daninhas, e aqueles cue apresentaram os melhores índices de controle das plantas daninhas, assim como efeitos residuais mais prolongados, foram bromacil + diuron, diuron, bromacil, ametryne + secbumetone e terbacil. herbicidas aplicados em pósemergência os melhores índices de controle foram obtidos com glyphosate e paraquat.The research reported in this paper was conducted at the Conchal county in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in a Red Yellow Latosol with 1.75% of organic matter, with the objective of studyin g the effect of continuous use of selected herbicides on the weed control on a 'Pena' Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck

  13. Herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis resistentes ao glyphosate Alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis

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    M.S. Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Após sucessivos anos, aplicações do herbicida glyphosate em pomares de citros no Estado de São Paulo selecionaram biótipos resistentes de Conyza bonariensis e C. canadensis. Na ocorrência de plantas daninhas resistentes em uma área agrícola, tornam-se necessárias mudanças nas práticas de manejo para obtenção de adequado controle das populações resistentes, bem como para a redução da pressão de seleção sobre outras espécies. Assim, este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar herbicidas alternativos para controle de biótipos de Conyza spp. resistentes ao herbicida glyphosate, com aplicações em diferentes estádios fenológicos da planta daninha. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo, em pomares de citros em formação, sobre plantas de buva em estádio fenológico de dez folhas e no pré-florescimento. Para plantas no estádio de dez folhas, controle satisfatório foi obtido com aplicações de glyphosate + bromacil + diuron (1.440 + 1.200 + 1.200 g ha-1, glyphosate + atrazina (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1 e glyphosate + diuron (1.440 + 1.500 g ha-1. Quando em estádio de pré-florescimento de Conyza spp., a aplicação do herbicida amônio-glufosinato, na dose de 400 g ha-1, isolado ou associado a MSMA, bromacil+diuron, metsulfuron, carfentrazone e paraquat, foi a alternativa viável para controle dos biótipos resistentes ao glyphosate.After successive years, glyphosate applications on São Paulo-Brazil citrus orchards selected resistant biotypes of Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes at some agricultural area makes it necessary to change the management practices to reach effective control of the selected resistant populations, as well as to reduce selection pressure on the other species. Thus, this work aimed to identify the alternative herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Conyza spp., with applications at different weed phenological

  14. Manejo da Planta Daninha Brachiaria plantaginea Resistente aos herbicidas Inibidores da ACCase Management of the Weed Brachiaria plantaginea Resistant to ACCase Inhibitor Herbicides

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o manejo de uma população da planta daninha capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase (ariloxifenoxipropionatos e ciclohexanodionas, utilizados na cultura da soja no sistema de plantio direto. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos: um utilizando herbicidas de manejo, com mecanismos de ação alternativos, comparando a eficácia destes com os inibidores da ACCase; e outro apenas com herbicidas inibidores da ACCase e aditivos misturados à calda. As sementes resistentes foram produzidas a partir de plantas comprovadamente resistentes; para comparação de resultados, foi utilizada uma população de capim-marmelada que nunca tinha sido pulverizada com inibidores da ACCase, portanto uma população suscetível. O experimento com os herbicidas de manejo foi realizado em condições de campo, porém as plantas ficaram em caixas com capacidade de 50 L, evitando-se a disseminação destas para áreas adjacentes. Concluiu-se que as plantas resistentes não apresentam resistência múltipla com herbicidas de manejo com mecanismos de ação alternativos, podendo os herbicidas glyphosate, paraquat, sulfosate, paraquat + diuron, MSMA e glufosinate ser utilizados no período entressafra das áreas com sistema de plantio direto, para manejo de populações resistentes de capim-marmelada aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase. O experimento com aditivos foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com plantas em vasos individuais, utilizando sementes das populações suscetíveis e resistentes. Os herbicidas utilizados foram inibidores da ACCase, em cuja calda foram adicionados aditivos nitrogenados, do tipo uréia e sulfato de amônio, além de um tratamento sem aditivos. Concluiu-se que os aditivos não alteraram a eficácia dos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase nas plantas provenientes tanto da população suscetível quanto da resistente.The objective of this research was to

  15. Manejo de plantas daninhas em maracujazeiro amarelo cultivado com adubação química e orgânica Weed management in yellow passion fruit cultivated with chemical and organic fertilization

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    J. Ogliari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar diferentes formas de manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do maracujazeiro, cultivado com adubação química e orgânica. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 15 tratamentos, arranjados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições e 10 plantas úteis por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três tipos de adubações na parcela (orgânica, química e química + orgânica e cinco manejos de plantas daninhas na subparcela (com capina, sem capina, diuron (pré + glyphosate (pós, diuron (pré + MSMA (pós e diuron (pré + (diuron + paraquat (pós. O diuron foi aplicado aos cinco dias antes do plantio das mudas, em todos os tratamentos com herbicida, variando apenas os herbicidas em pós-emergência; para cada um dos herbicidas das misturas avaliadas, foram feitas três aplicações, aos 45, 96 e 159 dias. O diuron em pré-emergência provocou sintomas de clorose nas folhas entre 20 e 26 dias após o plantio (DAP, sendo mais evidente no maracujazeiro cultivado com adubação química. Os tratamentos com diuron (pré e glyphosate (pós apresentaram melhor controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos com adubação química + orgânica associados aos manejos com capina, diuron (pré + glyphosate (pós e diuron (pré + (diuron + paraquat (pós foram os que proporcionaram maior produtividade de frutos. No cultivo com adubação orgânica, o tratamento capinado foi o que proporcionou maior produtividade. No cultivo com adubação química, a produtividade foi maior no tratamento com diuron (pré + glyphosate (pós.The objective of this work was to evaluate different types of weed management in passion fruit culture under chemical and organic fertilization. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, arranged in a splip-splot design, with four repetitions containing 10 plants each. The treatments consisted of three types of fertilization

  16. Tolerância de cana-de-açúcar a herbicidas avaliada pela diferença dos tratamentos Sugarcane tolerance to herbicides based on the difference between treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Schiavetto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância dos cultivares RB855453, RB845257, SP90(-3414, SP90(-1638, SP89(-1115, SP81(-3250, IAC91-2218 e IAC91-5155 de cana-de-açúcar em pós-emergência inicial quanto à aplicação dos herbicidas sulfentrazone + diuron + hexazinone, metsulfuron-methyl + sulfentrazone, diuron + hexazinone + clomazone, metribuzin + diuron + hexazinone, diuron + hexazinone + MSMA e ametryn + trifloxysulfuronsodium + diuron + hexazinone, utilizando-se da diferença com a testemunha pareada, considerando a minimização da área experimental. O experimento foi conduzido assumindo que as testemunhas pareadas ao respectivo tratamento facilitam a avaliação da tolerância dos cultivares aos tratamentos herbicidas. A instalação do experimento foi em blocos casualizados, utilizando-se o esquema fatorial 8 (cultivares x 6 (herbicidas. As parcelas foram constituídas por seis linhas de cana-de-açúcar, sendo uma linha central destinada ao tratamento herbicida (TH e outra à testemunha pareada (TP; as demais linhas foram usadas como bordaduras. Para verificar se as diferenças médias (TP-TH não diferem de zero, utilizouse a estatística t= (TP-TH/((QMRes/n1/2 ou, de forma equivalente, a diferença mínima significativa com zero, dms0(TP-TH=|t/( (QMRes/n1/2|, em que QMRes é o quadrado médio da análise de variância (com 47 graus de liberdade e pThe objective of this work was to evaluate the tolerance of the sugarcane cultivars RB855453, RB845257, SP90(-3414, SP90(-1638, SP89(-1115, SP81(-3250, IAC91- 2218 and IAC91-5155 at early post-emergence after application of sulfentrazone + diuron + hexazinone; sulfentrazone + metsulfuron-methyl, diuron + hexazinone + clomazone; metribuzin + diuron + hexazinone, diuron + hexazinone + MSMA; and ametryn + trifloxysulfuron-sodium + diuron + hexazinone, using the difference with the paired control. It was assumed that the control paired to the respective treatments can facilitate the

  17. Seletividade de herbicidas a cinco tipos de gramas Herbicide selectivity to five species of turfgrasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as opções de controle de plantas daninhas em gramados, destaca-se o uso de herbicidas, porém poucas informações existem na literatura sobre a sua seletividade a gramados. Assim, foi desenvolvida a presente pesquisa em casa de vegetação da ESALQ - Piracicaba, com o objetivo de testar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-plantio (sulfentrazone a 1,4 kg i.a. ha-1 e oxadiazon a 1,0 kg i.a. ha-1 e em pós-emergência (halosulfuron a 112,5 g i.a. ha-1, 2,4-D a 2,010 kg i.a. ha-1 e MSMA a 2,4 kg i.a. ha-1, em cinco espécies de gramas (família Poaceae: são-carlos (Axonopus affinis, esmeralda (Zoysia japonica, bermuda (Cynodon dactylon, zoysia (Zoysia matrella e santo-agostinho (Stenotaphrum secundatum. As conclusões gerais deste trabalho de pesquisa foram de que a seletividade de herbicidas aos diversos tipos de grama é função principalmente da espécie de grama e do tipo e da dose do herbicida aplicado. Dentre os herbicidas testados, destacam-se como mais seletivos o halosulfuron na dose de 112,5 g i.a. ha-1 e o 2,4-D na de 2,010 kg i.a. ha-1; as espécies de grama do gênero Zoysia (esmeralda [Z. japonica] e zoysia [Z. matrella], de maneira geral, são mais tolerantes aos herbicidas testados nesta pesquisa.Among the weed control options, herbicide is certainly one to be considered for weed control in turfgrass; however, little has been published about herbicide selectivity, specially under Brazilian landscape conditions. Therefore, this research was conducted at USP/ESALQ, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil, to evaluate herbicide selectivity to turfgrass of pre-planting application herbicides (sulfentrazone at 1.4 kg a.i.ha-1 and oxadiazon 1.0 kg a.i.ha-1 and post-emergence application herbicides (halosulfuron at 112.5 g a.i.ha-1, 2,4-D at 2.010 kg a.i.ha-1 and MSMA at 2.4 kg a.i.ha-1, in five species of turfgrass: Axonopus affinis Chase, Zoysia japonica, Cynodon dactylon, Zoysia matrella and Stenotaphrum secundatum. It was concluded

  18. Alterações nas características fisiológicas de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar submetida à aplicação de herbicidas Changes in the physiological characteristics of sugarcane cultivars submitted to herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Torres

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho a influência de herbicidas nas características fisiológicas de três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, no esquema fatorial 3 x 8. O fator A foi composto por três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (RB867515, RB855156 e SP80-1816, e o B, pelos herbicidas (tembotrione, MSMA, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, tebuthiuron, clomazone e uma testemunha sem uso de herbicidas. A taxa transpiratória das plantas do cultivar RB867515 foi afetada negativamente quando foram aplicados os herbicidas sulfentrazone, tebuthiuron e clomazone em comparação à testemunha. Com relação à eficiência do uso da água, não se observaram diferenças entre os cultivares e a aplicação de herbicidas. A condutância estomática dos cultivares RB867515 e SP80-1816 não foi alterada pelos herbicidas aplicados. Apenas o cultivar RB867515 apresentou taxa fotossintética menor quando se aplicou o sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas testados afetam de forma diferenciada as características fisiológicas nos três cultivares avaliados. O cultivar RB867515 foi o que apresentou menor variação na taxa fotossintética na presença dos produtos testados, em relação à testemunha.This work aimed to evaluate the influence of herbicides on the physiological characteristics of three sugarcane cultivars. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications in a factorial design 3 x 8. Factor A was constituted of three sugarcane cultivars (RB867515, RB855156, and SP80-1816, and factor B of the herbicides tembotrione, MSMA, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, tebuthiuron, clomazone, and a treatment without herbicide (control. The transpiration rate of cultivar RB867515 plants was negatively affected when sulfentrazone, clomazone, and tebuthiuron were applied,compared to the control. Regarding water

  19. Valor nutritivo de grãos de sorgo com diferentes texturas do endosperma para frangos de corte Nutritional value of sorghum grains with different endosperm textures for chicken

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    R.C. Antunes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 250 frangos machos, com 22 dias de idade, em ensaio biológico baseado em coleta total de excretas para a determinação da matéria seca metabolizável aparente (MSMA e dos valores de energia metabolizável (EM aparente e corrigida de grãos de sorgo com diferentes texturas do endosperma. Os genótipos avaliados foram o BR 007B (textura macia, BR 304 (textura intermediária e SC 283 (textura dura. As dietas-teste foram compostas por 60% de dieta-referência (composta a base de milho e farelo de soja e por 40% de grãos de sorgo. O experimento foi montado em esquema inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os valores de MSMA foram semelhantes entre os grãos de sorgo (P>0,05, sendo 77,09%, 81,73% e 79,69% para os grãos de textura dura, intermediária e macia, respectivamente. Os valores de energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira (EMA, EMV e EMA e EMV corrigidas para a retenção do nitrogênio (EMAn e EMVn dos grãos de sorgo de textura dura, intermediária e macia foram, respectivamente, 3.022, 3.127, 2.947 e 2.934; 3.335, 3.442, 3.369 e 3.419; 3.339, 3.450, 3.303 e 3.355 kcal/kg. Os grãos de textura dura (SC 283 apresentaram menores valores de EM (PTwo hundred fifty male chickens, with 22 days old, were used in biological assay based on total excreta collection method. The dry matter apparent metabolizability (DMAM and metabolizable energy (ME values of the sorghum grains with different endosperm texture were calculated. The evaluated genotypes were: BR 007B (soft texture, BR 304 (intermediate texture, and SC 283 (hard texture. The test diets were composed by 60% of reference diet (based on corn and soybean meal and 40% of sorghum grain. A completely random experimental design, with four treatments and five replicates was used. The DMAM values were similar among the sorghum grains (P>0.05, being 77.09%, 81.73% and 79.69% for the hard, intermediate and soft texture grains, respectively. The

  20. Metagenomic survey of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) catabolic genes in an Atlantic Ocean surface water sample and in a partial enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana C.; Azevedo, Rui M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a relevant intermediate of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur and environmental microorganisms assume an important role in the mineralization of this compound. Several methylotrophic bacterial strains able to grow on MSA have been isolated from soil or marine water and two conserved operons, msmABCD coding for MSA monooxygenase and msmEFGH coding for a transport system, have been repeatedly encountered in most of these strains. Homologous sequences have also been amplified directly from the environment or observed in marine metagenomic data, but these showed a base composition (G + C content) very different from their counterparts from cultivated bacteria. The aim of this study was to understand which microorganisms within the coastal surface oceanic microflora responded to MSA as a nutrient and how the community evolved in the early phases of an enrichment by means of metagenome and gene-targeted amplicon sequencing. From the phylogenetic point of view, the community shifted significantly with the disappearance of all signals related to the Archaea, the Pelagibacteraceae and phylum SAR406, and the increase in methylotroph-harboring taxa, accompanied by other groups so far not known to comprise methylotrophs such as the Hyphomonadaceae. At the functional level, the abundance of several genes related to sulfur metabolism and methylotrophy increased during the enrichment and the allelic distribution of gene msmA diagnostic for MSA monooxygenase altered considerably. Even more dramatic was the disappearance of MSA import-related gene msmE, which suggests that alternative transporters must be present in the enriched community and illustrate the inadequacy of msmE as an ecofunctional marker for MSA degradation at sea. PMID:27761315

  1. Variations of Roughness Coefficients with Flow Depth of Grassed Swale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, N.; Ahmad, N. A.; Razi, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Grassed swales are the best management practice (BMP), which has been widely used to reduce the peak flow, reduce water pollution through vegetated filtration, and improve the groundwater recharge. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) is using the approach of grassed swales recommended by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) for reducing the risk of flooding and controlling the water pollution. This paper investigates the variations of roughness coefficients with the flow depth of grassed swales in the campus of UTHM. Fieldwork was carried out on the grassed swale to collect the hydraulic data, which including the levelling work, measuring the flow depth and flow velocity of the swale. The flow depth of swale was taken at three points divided along the width of swale and the flow velocity is captured three times at each of the point. The variations of roughness coefficients of grassed swales are presented in Manning's equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the increasing of flow depth. Manning's coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.110 to 0.756, which are higher than the value proposed by the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA). The relationships of flow depth and velocity at each section of the swale are portrayed in graphs, which show that the velocity increases with the decreasing of flow depth. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the swale profile, flow depth, flow velocity, and as well as the vegetation used in the grassed swale concerned.

  2. Application of Network Scale Up Method in the Estimation of Population Size for Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of HIV infection. For developing proper interventions, it is important to know the size of MSM population. However, size estimation of MSM populations is still a significant public health challenge due to high cost, hard to reach and stigma associated with the population.We aimed to estimate the social network size (c value in general population and the size of MSM population in Shanghai, China by using the net work scale-up method.A multistage random sampling was used to recruit participants aged from 18 to 60 years who had lived in Shanghai for at least 6 months. The "known population method" with adjustment of backward estimation and regression model was applied to estimate the c value. And the MSM population size was further estimated using an adjusted c value taking into account for the transmission effect through social respect level towards MSM.A total of 4017 participants were contacted for an interview, and 3907 participants met the inclusion criterion. The social network size (c value of participants was 236 after adjustment. The estimated size of MSM was 36354 (95% CI: 28489-44219 for the male Shanghaies aged 18 to 60 years, and the proportion of MSM among the total male population aged 18 to 60 years in Shanghai was 0.28%.We employed the network scale-up method and used a wide range of data sources to estimate the size of MSM population in Shanghai, which is useful for HIV prevention and intervention among the target population.

  3. Metagenomic survey of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) catabolic genes in an Atlantic Ocean surface water sample and in a partial enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana C; Azevedo, Rui M S; De Marco, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a relevant intermediate of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur and environmental microorganisms assume an important role in the mineralization of this compound. Several methylotrophic bacterial strains able to grow on MSA have been isolated from soil or marine water and two conserved operons, msmABCD coding for MSA monooxygenase and msmEFGH coding for a transport system, have been repeatedly encountered in most of these strains. Homologous sequences have also been amplified directly from the environment or observed in marine metagenomic data, but these showed a base composition (G + C content) very different from their counterparts from cultivated bacteria. The aim of this study was to understand which microorganisms within the coastal surface oceanic microflora responded to MSA as a nutrient and how the community evolved in the early phases of an enrichment by means of metagenome and gene-targeted amplicon sequencing. From the phylogenetic point of view, the community shifted significantly with the disappearance of all signals related to the Archaea, the Pelagibacteraceae and phylum SAR406, and the increase in methylotroph-harboring taxa, accompanied by other groups so far not known to comprise methylotrophs such as the Hyphomonadaceae. At the functional level, the abundance of several genes related to sulfur metabolism and methylotrophy increased during the enrichment and the allelic distribution of gene msmA diagnostic for MSA monooxygenase altered considerably. Even more dramatic was the disappearance of MSA import-related gene msmE, which suggests that alternative transporters must be present in the enriched community and illustrate the inadequacy of msmE as an ecofunctional marker for MSA degradation at sea.

  4. Crystal arthritides - gout and calcium pyrophosphate arthritis : Part 2: clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, S; Bollheimer, L C; Bertsch, T; Sieber, C C; Härle, P

    2017-02-23

    Gout develops in four stages beginning with an asymptomatic increase in blood levels of uric acid. An acute gout attack is an expression of an underlying inflammatory process, which in the course of time is self-limiting. Without therapy monosodium urate crystals remain in the synovial fluid and synovial membrane and trigger more acute attacks. In the course of the disease monosodium urate crystals form deposits (tophi) leading in severe forms to irreversible joint deformities with loss of functionality. In 20% of cases gout leads to involvement of the kidneys. Overproduction of uric acid can cause nephrolithiasis. These stones can be composed of uric acid or calcium phosphate. Another form of kidney disease caused by gout is uric acid nephropathy. This is a form of abacterial chronic inflammatory response with deposition of sodium urate crystals in the medullary interstitium. Acute obstructive nephropathy is relatively rare and characterized by renal failure due to uric acid precipitation in the tubules because of rapid cell lysis that occurs, for example, with chemotherapy. There is a causal interdependence between the occurrence of hyperuricemia and hypertension. Uric acid activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system and inhibits nitric oxide (NO) with the possible consequence of a rise in systemic vascular resistance or arteriolar vasculopathy; however, uric acid is also an apparently independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In contrast to young patients, the diagnosis of an acute gout attack in the elderly can be a challenge for the physician. Polyarticular manifestations and obscure symptoms can make it difficult to differentiate it from rheumatoid arthritis and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). Aspiration of synovial fluid with visualization of urate crystals using compensated polarized light microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of acute gout. Moreover, analysis of synovial fluid enables a distinction from septic

  5. Gouty arthritis: understanding the disease state and management options in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkureddi, Prashanth

    2011-09-01

    Acute gouty arthritis is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of monosodium urate crystal deposits into the joint space. The disease is associated with debilitating clinical symptoms and functional impairments as well as adverse economic and quality-of-life burdens. Because gouty arthritis is typically diagnosed and managed in the primary care setting, clinicians require a thorough knowledge of the presenting clinical features, risk factors, differential diagnoses, and treatment options for appropriate management. Although generally effective, the use of currently available therapies to control gouty arthritis is challenging because many medications used to treat comorbidities can exacerbate gouty arthritis and because current agents are associated with a number of adverse events, contraindications, or both. Based on an understanding of the underlying inflammatory pathogenesis of gouty arthritis, several new agents are being developed that may provide improved efficacy.

  6. Effect of Y2O3 Content on Microstructure of Gradient Bioceramic Composite Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qibin; Zou Jianglong; Zheng Min; Dong Chuang

    2005-01-01

    To eliminate thermal stress and cracks in the process of laser cladding, a kind of bioceramic coating with gradient compositional design was prepared on the surface of Ti alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. And effect of Y2O3 content on gradient bioceramic composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicate that adding rare earth can refine grain. Different rare earth contents affect formation of HA and β-TCP in bioceramic coating. When the content of rare earth ranges from 0.4% to 0.6%, the active extent of rare earth in synthesizing HA and β-TCP is the best, which indicates that "monosodium glutamate" effect of rare earth plays a dominant role. However, when rare earth content is up to 0.8%, the amount of synthesizing HA and β-TCP in coating conversely goes down, which demonstrates that rare earth gradually losts its catalysis in manufacturing HA and β-TCP.

  7. Directed assembly of carbon nanotubes on soft substrates for use as a flexible biosensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Juntae; Yi, Mihye; Lee, Byung Yang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Jhon, Young Min; Hong, Seunghun

    2008-12-01

    We have developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for use as flexible biosensors. In this strategy, a thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and a linker-free assembly process was applied on the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited a typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neurotransmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  8. Directed-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes on Soft Substrates for Flexible Biosensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Woo; Koh, Juntae; Lee, Byung Yang; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Joohyung; Hong, Seunghun; Yi, Mihye; Jhon, Young Min

    2009-03-01

    We developed a method to selectively assemble and align carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on soft substrates for flexible biosensors. In this strategy, thin oxide layer was deposited on soft substrates via low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and linker-free assembly process was applied onto the oxide surface where the assembly of carbon nanotubes was guided by methyl-terminated molecular patterns on the oxide surface. The electrical characterization of the fabricated CNT devices exhibited typical p-type gating effect and 1/f noise behavior. The bare oxide regions near CNTs were functionalized with glutamate oxidase to fabricate selective biosensors to detect two forms of glutamate substances existing in different situations: L-glutamic acid, a neuro-transmitting material, and monosodium glutamate, a food additive.

  9. FY2000 FRED Test Report - Final Report on the Crossflow Filter Optimization with 5.6M Sodium Salt Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2001-04-04

    The Filtration Research Engineering Demonstration (FRED) at the University of South Carolina ran a test campaign to confirm the utility of crossflow filtration for use with the MST sorption as a strontium-actinide removal technology that is expected to be coupled with the ion exchange and solvent extraction process alternatives. FRED has a Mott Metallurgical 7 tube filter with individual tubes 10 ft long and 3/4 inch o.d. having a nominal pore size of 0.5 microns. The blend sludge consisted of a 50/50 wt percent mixture of sludge simulants of SRS Tank 40H and Tank 8F simulated sludges previously manufactured at FRED. Monosodium Titanate (MST) was blended with the 50/50 sludge mixture in a proportion of 0.9167 MST-to-Sludge ratio to provide the solids loadings analyzed in this test.

  10. Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by Bacillus subtilis using response surface model-based ant colony optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Satya Eswari; M Anand; C Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of experiments was used to obtain data for Lipopeptide and Biomass concentrations from fermentation medium containing the following five components: glucose,monosodium glutamate, yeast extract,MgSO4·7H2O, and K2HPO4. Data was used to develop a second order regression response surface model (RSM) which was coupled with ant colony optimization (ACO) to optimize the media compositions so as to enhance the productivity of lipopeptide. The optimized media by ACO was found to yield 1.501 g/L of lipopeptide concentration which was much higher compared to 1.387 g/L predicted by Nelder–Mead optimization (NMO). The optimum from ACO was validated experimentally. RSM-based ACO is thus shown to be an effective tool for medium optimization of biosurfactant production.

  11. New Umami Amides: Structure-Taste Relationship Studies of Cinnamic Acid Derived Amides and the Natural Occurrence of an Intense Umami Amide in Zanthoxylum piperitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Neirynck, Nathalie; Cayeux, Isabelle; Yuan, Yoyo Hui-Juan; Yuan, Yong-Ming

    2015-08-19

    A series of aromatic amides were synthesized from various acids and amines selected from naturally occurring structural frameworks. These synthetic amides were evaluated for umami taste in comparison with monosodium glutamate. The effect of the substitution pattern of both the acid and the amine parts on umami taste was investigated. The only intensely umami-tasting amides were those made from 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The amine part was more tolerant to structural changes. Amides bearing an alkyl- or alkoxy-substituted phenylethylamine residue displayed a clean umami taste as 20 ppm solutions in water. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with a high quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC/MS) was subsequently used to show the natural occurrence of these amides. (E)-3-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)acrylamide was shown to occur in the roots and stems of Zanthoxylum piperitum, a plant of the family Rutaceae growing in Korea, Japan, and China.

  12. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by crystalline structures via cell surface contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Aswin; Zhang, Yifei; Tu, Zhongyuan; Detampel, Pascal; Stenner, Melanie; Ganguly, Anutosh; Shi, Yan

    2014-12-02

    Crystalline structures activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to the production of IL-1β, however, the molecular interactions responsible for NLRP3 activation are not fully understood. Cathepsin B release from the ruptured phagolysosome and potassium ion efflux have been suggested to be critical for this activation. Here, we report that Cathepsin B redistribution was not a crucial event in crystal-induced IL-1β production. Silica and monosodium urate crystal-treated macrophages with undisturbed lysosomes demonstrated strong co-localization of ASC and Caspase-1, indicative of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Importantly, we provided evidence to suggest that macrophage cell membrane binding to immobilized crystals was sufficient to induce IL-1β release, and this activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was inhibited by blocking potassium efflux. Therefore, this work reveals additional complexity in crystalline structure-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome regulations.

  13. Effects of damage of Hatschek's pit of amphioxus on its structure and function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is found for the first time that, after the structure and endocrine function of Hatschek's pit of Branchiostoma belcheri are damaged by monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment in breeding season, the ovulation of mature ovary, as well as the development of both ovary and testis of large-growth stage are obstructed and stagnated;and in non-breeding season, the process of gonadal development is delayed. The disturbed ovulation and gonadal development can definitely be restored with exogenous gonadotropic hormone as the therapeutical substitute. These results may provide new proof for the complete understanding of the evolutional process of pituitary function in vertebrates and playing an important role in the reproductive endocrine control system of Hatschek's pit of amphioxus.

  14. Tophi as first manifestation of gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koley Sankha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tophaceous gout classically occurs after 10 years or more of recurrent polyarticular gout. However, tophi can also occur as first sign of the disorder. Here we report a 20-year-old male presenting with multiple subcutaneous nodules on bilateral feet and toes, left palm, right elbow, helix of left ear since last one and half year prior to any other manifestation of gout. He was having mild intermittent arthritis since last six months. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of one tophus showed monosodium urate crystals, which are pathognomonic for gout. His serum uric acid was normal and ultrasound revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis. So far as we know, this is the first case report from India, demonstrating tophi as the initial clinical presentation of gout.

  15. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Characterization of a Novel Terbium(Ⅲ) Coordination Polymer Bridged by 5-Sulfoisophthalate Trivalent Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hydrothermal reaction of terbium( Ⅲ ) chloride with 5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt and 1, 10-phenanthroline(phen) at 415 K resulted in the formation of a novel coordination polymer, [Tb(sip) (phen) (H2O)]n( sip = 5-sulfoisophthalate trivalent anion) with a three-dimensional network structure. Each centrosymmetrically related pair of terbium ions are linked by two sip anions, forming a binuclear unit, and each binuclear unit links to four adjacent tetranuclear units, extending a two-dimensional hybrid layer at crystallographic bc plane. On the other hand,every three-terbium ion is connected by three sip anions, generating a trinuclear ring, and the trinuclear ring connects six neighboring trinuclear rings to produce another two-dimensional layer at crystallographic ab plane. Moreover, each sip anion acts as a pentadentate bridge, interconnecting two different types of layers to yield a novel three-dimensional framework.

  16. The coordination complex structures and hydrogen bonding in the three-dimensional alkaline earth metal salts (Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) of (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2017-01-01

    (4-Aminophenyl)arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) is used as an antihelminth in veterinary applications and was earlier used in the monosodium salt dihydrate form as the antisyphilitic drug atoxyl. Examples of complexes with this acid are rare. The structures of the alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) complexes with (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) have been determined, viz. hexaaquamagnesium bis[hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonate] tetrahydrate, [Mg(H2O)6](C6H7AsNO3)·4H2O, (I), catena-poly[[[diaquacalcium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O']-[diaquacalcium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O

  17. Impaired Sympathoadrenal Axis Function Contributes to Enhanced Insulin Secretion in Prediabetic Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eliza Andreazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of sympathoadrenal axis activity in obesity onset was investigated using the experimental model of treating neonatal rats with monosodium L-glutamate. To access general sympathetic nervous system activity, we recorded the firing rates of sympathetic superior cervical ganglion nerves in animals. Catecholamine content and secretion from isolated adrenal medulla were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed, and isolated pancreatic islets were stimulated with glucose and adrenergic agonists. The nerve firing rate of obese rats was decreased compared to the rate for lean rats. Basal catecholamine secretion decreased whereas catecholamine secretion induced by carbachol, elevated extracellular potassium, and caffeine in the isolated adrenal medulla were all increased in obese rats compared to control. Both glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia were observed in obese rats. Adrenaline strongly inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in obese animals. These findings suggest that low sympathoadrenal activity contributes to impaired glycaemic control in prediabetic obese rats.

  18. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1–100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed. PMID:28373994

  19. Synthesis and ultraviolet visible spectroscopy studies of chitosan capped gold nanoparticles and their reactions with analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sultan, Norfazila; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been synthesized with various molarities and weights of reducing agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and stabilizer chitosan, respectively. The significance of chitosan as stabilizer was distinguished through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and UV-Vis absorption spectra in which the interparticles distance increases whilst retaining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics peak. The most stable AuNPs occurred for composition with the lowest (1 g) weight of chitosan. AuNPs capped with chitosan size stayed small after 1 month aging compared to bare AuNPs. The ability of chitosan capped AuNPs to uptake analyte was studied by employing amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNT), copper oxide (Cu2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) as the target material. The absorption spectra showed dramatic intensity increased and red shifted once the analyte was added to the chitosan capped AuNPs.

  20. Multiarticular chronic tophaceous gout with severe and multiple ulcerations: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlakis Emmanouil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis caused by articular precipitation of monosodium urate crystals. It usually affects the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot and less commonly other joints, such as wrists, elbows, knees and ankles. Case presentation We report the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian man with tophaceous multiarticular gout, soft-tissue involvement and ulcerated tophi on the first metatarsophalangeal joint of the left foot, on the first interphalangeal joint of the right foot and on the left thumb. Conclusion Ulcers due to tophaceous gout are currently uncommon considering the positive effect of pharmaceutical treatment in controlling hyperuricemia. Surgical treatment is seldom required for gout and is usually reserved for cases of recurrent attacks with deformities, severe pain, infection and joint destruction.

  1. Management of Gout and Hyperuricemia in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Neogi, Tuhina

    2017-09-01

    Hyperuricemia and gout, the clinical manifestation of monosodium urate crystal deposition, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the presence of CKD poses additional challenges in gout management, effective urate lowering is possible for most patients with CKD. Initial doses of urate-lowering therapy are lower than in the non-CKD population, whereas incremental dose escalation is guided by regular monitoring of serum urate levels to reach the target level of gout flares with presently available agents can be more challenging due to potential nephrotoxicity and/or contraindications in the setting of other common comorbid conditions. At present, asymptomatic hyperuricemia is not an indication for urate-lowering therapy, though emerging data may support a potential renoprotective effect. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of five flavour enhancers (glutamates) on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Şifa

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different treatments with flavour enhancers monosodium glutamate, monopotassium glutamate, calcium diglutamate, monoammonium glutamate, and magnesium diglutamate on the cytology, DNA content, and interphase nuclear volume (INV) of A. cepa were investigated. Three concentrations of these additives - 20, 40, and 60 ppm - were applied for 6, 12, and 24 h. All the concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all the treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities, among them are micronuclei, c-mitosis, anaphase bridges, stickiness, binucleus, laggards, and breaks. The nuclear DNA content and INV decreased when compared with control groups.

  3. Synthesis and Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Studies of Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles and Their Reactions with Analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfazila Mohd Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs had been synthesized with various molarities and weights of reducing agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG, and stabilizer chitosan, respectively. The significance of chitosan as stabilizer was distinguished through transmission electron microscopy (TEM images and UV-Vis absorption spectra in which the interparticles distance increases whilst retaining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR characteristics peak. The most stable AuNPs occurred for composition with the lowest (1 g weight of chitosan. AuNPs capped with chitosan size stayed small after 1 month aging compared to bare AuNPs. The ability of chitosan capped AuNPs to uptake analyte was studied by employing amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNT, copper oxide (Cu2O, and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 as the target material. The absorption spectra showed dramatic intensity increased and red shifted once the analyte was added to the chitosan capped AuNPs.

  4. PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus) PADA PENAMBAHAN DUA SUMBER NUTRISI

    OpenAIRE

    Afina Shifriyah; Kaswan Badami; Sinar Suryawati

    2012-01-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) harvest tend to reduced because  of  nutrients decreasing in the  growth media.  An effort  to increase its  production    is by adding nutrients  into  the growth media. This research aims to determine the effect of  nutrition  on growth  and production of  white oyster mushrooms. The nutrients used in this study is monosodium glutamate (MSG) and old  coconut  water.      The research method  used was  Complete Randomized Design  (CRD)  analysis  o...

  5. Could MicroRNAs be Regulators of Gout Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangang Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of noncoding RNAs that mainly negatively regulate gene expression. miRNAs have important roles in many diseases, including inflammatory diseases. Gout is a common arthritis caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals within joints. Recent studies suggested that miRNAs may be involved in the development of inflammatory arthritis, including acute gouty arthritis. In the present review, we systemically discuss relevant publications in order to provide a better understanding on the possible role of miRNAs in gout. miRNAs may act as regulators of gout pathogenesis via several pathways. Targeting miRNAs may be a promisingstrategy in the treatment of gout.

  6. Tophi - surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, Iwona; Słowiński, Radosław; Rutkowska-Sak, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory joint disease associated with deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the bones forming the joints, in periarticular tissues and in other organs. The disease is one of the most frequent causes of disability. This paper presents the case of a 57-year-old male patient treated for generalised gout. A "clinical mask" suggesting another disease was the cause of making the correct diagnosis only six years after the occurrence of the first manifestations. The patient, with high values of inflammatory markers, severe pain and advanced joint destruction, was given an aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment. The unsatisfactory effect of the conservative treatment forced the authors to perform surgical resection of the gouty nodules in the hands. After several operations the function of the hand joints operated on, appearance of the hands and the quality of the patient's life improved significantly.

  7. Tophi – surgical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, Iwona; Słowiński, Radosław

    2016-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory joint disease associated with deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the bones forming the joints, in periarticular tissues and in other organs. The disease is one of the most frequent causes of disability. This paper presents the case of a 57-year-old male patient treated for generalised gout. A “clinical mask” suggesting another disease was the cause of making the correct diagnosis only six years after the occurrence of the first manifestations. The patient, with high values of inflammatory markers, severe pain and advanced joint destruction, was given an aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment. The unsatisfactory effect of the conservative treatment forced the authors to perform surgical resection of the gouty nodules in the hands. After several operations the function of the hand joints operated on, appearance of the hands and the quality of the patient’s life improved significantly. PMID:27994273

  8. [Gout as a systemic disease: systemic manifestations and comorbidities of hyperuricaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasnović, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a recurrent inflammation of one or more joints that occurs because of disposal monosodium urate crystals in joints and other structures in soft tissues. Gout is a common metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperuricemia, serum urate levels > or = 360 mmol/1 (> 6.8 mg/ dl), which exceeds the physiological threshold of saturation. Well known complications of gout are tophi, deforming arthropathy, urolithiasis, chronic urate nephropathy, acute uric nephropathy (usually secondary due to chemotherapy), avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The risk of developing gout is directly linked to the development of hyperuricemia. Numerous evidence-based clinical and epidemiological study of urinary acid as an independent risk factor for developing hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome revalued the role of uric acid in human health and disease. In gout, as in other rheumatic disease, extraarticular manifestations are of utmost importance for morbidity and mortality.

  9. Harmful Effects of MSG on Function of Hypothalamus—Pituitary—Target Gland System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONGSHUO-LIANG; XIAFENG-QIN; 等

    1995-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate(MSG)results in a clearly defined lesion of the arcuate nucleus(AN)of the hypothalamus.The present study shows that fat was accumulated in the abdomen of male rats treated with MSG;weights of the body,pituitary and testis were lower;β-EP content in hypothalamus decreased while L-EnK content increased;serum LH,FSH,TSH,GH and TS levels all decreased in varying degrees while serum PRL level significantly increased.The cAMP content lowered in pituitary,but nor in testes;clear histological changes occurred in testicular tissue;Se-GSH-Px activity in both testis and adrenal gland lowered while LPO level significantly increased.Both Se-GSH-Px activity and LPO level in liver increased.These results indicate that MSG is harmful to the function of the hypothalamus-pituitarytarget system of neonatal rats.

  10. Contribution of the net charge to the regulatory effects of amino acids and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Azusa; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The effects of lysine (Lys), monosodium glutamate (GluNa), glycine, alanine and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) (PL) with different degrees of polymerization on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules were investigated by DSC, viscosity and swelling measurements, microscopic observation, and measurement of the retained amino acid amount to clarify the contribution of the net charge to their regulatory effects on the gelatinization behavior. The amino acids and PL each contributed to an increase in the gelatinization temperature, and a decrease in the peak viscosity and swelling. These effects strongly depended on the absolute value of their net charge. The disappearance of a negative or positive net charge by adjusting the pH value weakened the contribution. The swelling index and size of the potato starch granules changed according to replacement of the swelling medium. The amino acids and PL were easily retained by the swollen potato starch granules according to replacement of the outer solution of the starch granules.

  11. Analysis of a Lipid/Polymer Membrane for Bitterness Sensing with a Preconditioning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yatabe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to evaluate the taste of foods or medicines using a taste sensor. The taste sensor converts information on taste into an electrical signal using several lipid/polymer membranes. A lipid/polymer membrane for bitterness sensing can evaluate aftertaste after immersion in monosodium glutamate (MSG, which is called “preconditioning”. However, we have not yet analyzed the change in the surface structure of the membrane as a result of preconditioning. Thus, we analyzed the change in the surface by performing contact angle and surface zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS and gas cluster ion beam time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-TOF-SIMS. After preconditioning, the concentrations of MSG and tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB, contained in the lipid membrane were found to be higher in the surface region than in the bulk region. The effect of preconditioning was revealed by the above analysis methods.

  12. Review of the ophthalmic manifestations of gout and uric acid crystal deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Jack; Goldblatt, Fiona; Casson, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Gout is a clinical disorder that is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) in joints and tendons, usually in the presence of prolonged hyperuricaemia. Following an asymptomatic phase of hyperuricaemia, gout usually presents as acute monoarthritis followed by periods of remission and exacerbation. Conjunctival hyperaemia and subconjunctival haemorrhage exacerbated by purine intake are two of the more common manifestations that may go unrecognized. Other ocular and adnexal structures can be affected by urate crystal deposition and associated inflammation, with potentially vision-threatening consequences; however, ocular manifestations of gout are rare and may have been over-reported in the older literature, but our understanding of the clinic-pathological features of ocular urate deposits remains limited.

  13. Difficult diagnosis of gout: the benefit of dual energy computed tomography, initial experience in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Löckmann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gout, one of the most common inflammatory arthritides in humans, is still difficult to diagnose in challenging situations, when fluid for arthrocentesis or an apparent tophus are absent and, for example, an infection as differential diagnosis has to be ruled out. Dual energy computed tomography (DECT is an established tool for detection and characterisation of uric acid stones in the urinary tract and has recently been used to detect and display urate deposits. Our first experiences with DECT as a diagnostic tool in routine clinical practice show, that DECT is a promising imaging technique which allows the detection of monosodium urate deposits and benefits the routine diagnosis of tophaceous gout particularly in diffuse soft tissue swelling of the limbs, without the possibility of needle aspiration. However, DECT does not seem suitable to detect dissolved urate crystals, neither in vitro nor in vivo.

  14. Efficient production of ectoine using ectoine-excreting strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-hua; Lang, Ya-jun; Nagata, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    Halophilic bacteria strain Halomonas salina DSM 5928 was found to excrete ectoine, suggesting its potential in the development of a new method of ectoine production. We performed HPLC and LC-MS analyses that showed that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 excreted ectoine under constant extracellular osmolarity. Medium adopting monosodium glutamate as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was beneficial for ectoine synthesis. The total concentration of ectoine was not affected by NaCl concentration in the range 0.5-2 mol l(-1). The total concentration of ectoine and productivity in a 10-l fermentor with 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl were 6.9 g l(-1) and 7.9 g l(-1) d(-1), respectively. These findings show that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 efficiently produces ectoine at relatively low NaCl concentration. This research also indicates the potential application of free or immobilized cells for continuous culture to produce ectoine.

  15. Corrosion resistance of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy modified by polymer plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric nano-film on the surface of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy was fabricated by polymer plating of 6-dihexylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium(DHN)to improve its corrosion resistance.The electrochemical reaction process was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and two obvious peaks of oxidation reaction were observed.The static contact angle of distilled water on polymer-plated surface can be up to 106.3°while on the blank surface it is 45.8°.Potentiodynamic polarization results show that the polymeric film Can increase the corrosion potential from-1.594 V VS SCE for blank to-0.382 V VS SCE.The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that the charge transfer resistances of blank and polymer-plated fabricating hydrophobic film on Mg-Mn-Ce alloy surface and improving its anti-corrosion property.

  16. Test Results for CSTR Test 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-05-31

    One of the 3 technologies currently being developed for the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate and remove radioactive Cs from the waste and monosodium titanate to sorb and remove radioactive Sr and actinides. ORNL is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-liter continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The primary goal of Test 4 was to verify that the STTP process could achieve and maintain the necessary Cs decontamination while TPB was actively decomposing. Even with TPB being decomposed by the off-normal conditions of this test, the decontaimination factor for {sup 137}Cs obtained for the filtrate from the Slurry Concentrating Tank ranged from 47,000 to 646,000, exceeding the WAC standard.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D

    2007-11-15

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs D. T.; Poirier, M. R.; Barnes, M. J.; Stallings, M. E.; Nyman, M. D.

    2005-11-22

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D

    2008-01-22

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal. The MST and separated Cs-137 will be encapsulated into a borosilicate glass waste form for eventual entombment at the federal repository. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  20. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF MACROBATCH 3 DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION (DSS) COALESCER AND PRE-FILTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-06-13

    SRNL analyzed the pre-filter and Decontamination Salt Solution (DSS) coalescer from MCU by several analytical methods. The results of these analyses indicate that overall there is light to moderate solids fouling of both the coalescer and pre-filter elements. The majority of the solids contain aluminum, sodium, silicon, and titanium, in oxide and/or hydroxide forms that we have noted before. The titanium is presumably precipitated from leached, dissolved monosodium titanate (MST) or fines from MST at ARP, and the quantity we find is significantly greater than in the past. A parallel report discusses potential causes for the increased leaching rate of MST, showing that increases in free hydroxide concentration of the feed solutions and of chemical cleaning solutions lead to faster leaching of titanium.

  1. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1-100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed.

  2. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Rada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1–100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed.

  3. Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA production were investigated in Escherichia coli. Glutamate decarboxylase was overexpressed alone or with the glutamate/GABA antiporter to enhance GABA synthesis. GABA aminotransferase, which redirects GABA into the TCA cycle, was knock-out mutated. When gadB and gadC were co-overexpressed in the gabT mutant strain, a final GABA concentration of 5.46 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which corresponded to a GABA yield of 89.5%.

  4. Chronic tophaceous gout with unusual large tophi: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradoini, Nassira; Talbi, Sofia; Berrada, Khadija; Abourazzak, Fatima Zahra; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disease, which is characterized by acute or chronic arthritis, and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joint, bones, soft tissues, and kidneys. But large tophi are unusual in chronic gout. We report the case of a 67-year-oldArabman presenting chronic tophaceous gout with unusual large tophi involving multiple joints: hands, feet, elbows, and knees. Laboratory workup revealed elevated serum uric acid (96 mg/l, normal: 20-74 mg/l), with normal renal function test. In untreated patients, chronic tophaceous gout may develop, which is characterized by chronic destructive polyarticular involvement and tophi. The treatment consists to decrease serum uric acid level which eventually allows the regression of tophi. PMID:26889313

  5. Beyond Joints: a Review of Ocular Abnormalities in Gout and Hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Yael; Schlesinger, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis among middle-aged men and postmenopausal women and can be a debilitating disease. Gout results from an elevated body uric acid pool, which leads to deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, mainly in and around the joints. The MSU crystals trigger release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Ocular manifestations have been uncommonly reported in patients with gout. These include descriptions of tophaceous deposits in different locations of the eye including the eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, sclera, and orbit. Some depositions were coincidentally diagnosed in asymptomatic patients, while the majority were symptomatic. Other ocular abnormalities include dry eye syndrome, red eye, uveitis, intraocular hypertension, glaucoma, and cataracts. Herein, we review the medical literature pertaining to ocular manifestations in gout and hyperuricemia and propose a possible association between ocular abnormalities, hyperuricemia, and gout, including their common risk factors and comorbidities.

  6. Monitoring of the degradation in the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis using common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D. H.; Park, S. H.; Kim, B. Y.; Lee, M. Y.; Baik, H. K.; Seo, J. H.; Kang, J. U.; Song, C. G.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the utility and limitations of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time, high-resolution structural analysis. We monitored the degradation of the rat's articular cartilage inducing osteoarthritis (OA) and the change of the rat's articular cartilage recovery by treatment medication, using our developed common-path Fourier-domain (CP-FD) OCT. Also, we have done a comparative analysis the rat's articular cartilage and OA grade. To observe the progression of OA, we induced OA by injecting the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee joint. After the injection of MIA, we sacrificed the rats at intervals of 3 days and obtained OCT and histological images. OCT and histological images showed the OA progress of similar pattern. These results illustrated the potential for non-invasive diagnosis about the grade of OA using CP-FD OCT.

  7. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  9. Epidemiology of gout and chondrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Govoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis affecting at least 1% of the population in industrialized countries. It is closely associated with hyperuricemia and is characterized by formation and reversible deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and extra-articular tissues. Several studies suggest that the prevalence and incidence of gout are rising. Numerous risk factors may in part explain this increasing trend including dietary and lifestyle changes, genetic factors, diuretic use and comorbid conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal disease and the metabolic syndrome. Chondrocalcinosis is characterized by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in articular tissues, most commonly fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Sporadic chondrocalcinosis is a common condition in the elderly and frequently associates with osteoarthritis. Hereditary haemochromatosis, hyperparathyroidism and hypomagnesaemia are metabolic disorders that predispose to secondary chondrocalcinosis.The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis is still rather uncertain and varies depending on the diagnostic criterion used in different studies.

  10. Mechanistic aspects of inflammation and clinical management of inflammation in acute gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronstein, Bruce N; Sunkureddi, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that interleukin 1β (IL-1β) plays a central role in monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation and that the NALP3 inflammasome plays a major role in IL-1β production. These discoveries have offered new insights into the pathogenesis of acute gouty arthritis. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which monosodium urate crystals induce acute inflammation and examine the mechanisms of action (MOAs) of traditional anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, and glucocorticoids) and biologic agents (e.g., the IL-1β antagonists anakinra, rilonacept, and canakinumab) to understand how their MOAs contribute to their safety profiles. Traditional anti-inflammatory agents may act on the IL-1β pathway at some level; however, their MOAs are broad-ranging, unspecific, and biologically complex. This lack of specificity may explain the range of systemic adverse effects associated with them. The therapeutic margins of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, and glucocorticoids are particularly low in elderly patients and in patients with cardiovascular, metabolic, or renal comorbidities that are frequently associated with gouty arthritis. In contrast, the IL-1β antagonists act on very specific targets of inflammation, which may decrease the potential for systemic adverse effects, although infrequent but serious adverse events (including infection and administration reactions) have been reported. Because these IL-1β antagonists target an early event immediately downstream from NALP3 inflammasome activation, they may provide effective alternatives to traditional agents with minimal systemic adverse effects. Results of ongoing trials of IL-1β antagonists will likely provide clarification of their potential role in the management of acute gouty arthritis.

  11. 即食海带脯的加工%Processing Technology of Instant Preserved Kelp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹辰; 陈丽娇; 洪佳敏; 张浩

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the processing technology of instant preserved kelp,the kelp is deodorized by the compound of garlic and ginger solution to remove its fishy smell.When deodorized at 25 ℃ for 25 min,the ratio of fresh ginger juice and garlic juice is 2∶3 and the concentration of the complex solution is 3%,the optimum hardening conditions determined by U5 (5 3 )orthogonal test are obtained:CaCl2 adding amount of 1%,at 25 ℃ for 25 min.The effects of the concentration of salt,sugar and monosodium glutamate on the flavor of kelp through single factor experiment are examined.The best formula of preserved kelp and the experimental conditions are:salt of 4%,sugar of 9%,monosodium glutamate of 1%,time of 70 min.%探究了即食海带脯的加工工艺,结果表明:新鲜姜汁与蒜汁按2∶3混合,添加量3%,在25℃下脱腥25 min 效果最好,通过均匀实验得到最佳硬化条件:硬化剂CaCl2添加量为1.5%,硬化温度为25℃,硬化时间为5 min。最终通过二次旋转组合试验得到即食海带脯的最优加工工艺:食盐、砂糖、味精添加量为4%,9%,1%,调味时间为70 min。

  12. Optimization of the liquid biofertilizer production in batch fermentation with by-product from MSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namfon, Panjanapongchai; Ratchanok, Sahaworarak; Chalida, Daengbussade

    2017-03-01

    The long term use of chemical fertilizers destroyed the friability of soil which obviously decreased quantity and quality of crops and especially affect microorganisms living in soils. The bio-fertilizer with microbial consortium is an environmental friendly alternative to solve this bottleneck due to harboring soil microorganisms such as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Deinococcus sp. produced with natural by-product or waste from industries that is alternative and sustainable such as nutrient-rich (by-product) from Mono Sodium Glutamate (MSG) for producing liquid biofertilizer by batch fermentation. In this work, the concentration of reducing sugar from substrate as main carbon source was evaluated in shake flask with mixed cultures. The optimal conditions were studied comparing with two levels of reducing sugar concentration (10, 20 g/L) and inoculums concentration (10, 20 %v/v) with using (2×2) full factorial design. The results indicated that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for fermentation and inoculums concentration is mainly influenced the batch fermentation process. Moreover, the combined 20 g/L and 10%v/v were considerably concluded as an optimal condition, of which the concentration of vegetative cells and spores attained at 8.29×109 CFU/mL and 1.97×105 CFU/mL, respectively. Their spores cell yields from reducing sugar (Yx/s) were obtained at 1.22×106 and 3.34×105 CFU/g were markedly different. In conclusion, the liquid Biofertilizer was produced satisfactorily at 20 g/L reducing sugar and 10% v/v inoculums in shake flask culture. Moreover, these results suggested that the by-product from monosodium glutamate is feasible for low-cost substrate in economical scale and environmental-friendly.

  13. 炸牛柳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 秦凤贤

    2014-01-01

    In this study,use raw materials of fresh beef,salt,monosodium glutamate(MSG),sugar as accessories,by the processing technology of cutting,preserved,wrapped powder,fried,withthe use of orthogonal test method,the beef formula and process is studied from the salt dosage,the amount of monosodium glutamate, sugar consumption and the amount of papain. From the color,texture,taste,organized in four areas to assess the state of the sensory quality of beef,the optimum formula of beef production is obtained as follows salt 1.5%,sugar 4%,papain 0.007%,MSG 2%.%以新鲜牛肉为原料,食盐、味精、白砂糖等为辅料,通过切条、腌制、裹粉、油炸等加工工艺,采用正交试验的方法,从食盐用量、味精用量、白砂糖用量、木瓜蛋白酶用量进行牛柳的配方筛选和加工工艺的研究,从色泽、口感、味道、组织状态4个方面来评价牛柳的感官品质,得出制作牛柳的最佳配方是食盐1.5%,白砂糖4%,木瓜蛋白酶0.007%,味精2%。

  14. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainer, Barry L; Matheson, Eric; Wilkes, R Travis

    2014-12-15

    Gout is characterized by painful joint inflammation, most commonly in the first metatarsophalangeal joint, resulting from precipitation of monosodium urate crystals in a joint space. Gout is typically diagnosed using clinical criteria from the American College of Rheumatology. Diagnosis may be confirmed by identification of monosodium urate crystals in synovial fluid of the affected joint. Acute gout may be treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, or colchicine. To reduce the likelihood of recurrent flares, patients should limit their consumption of certain purine-rich foods (e.g., organ meats, shellfish) and avoid alcoholic drinks (especially beer) and beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup. Consumption of vegetables and low-fat or nonfat dairy products should be encouraged. The use of loop and thiazide diuretics can increase uric acid levels, whereas the use of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan increases urinary excretion of uric acid. Reduction of uric acid levels is key to avoiding gout flares. Allopurinol and febuxostat are first-line medications for the prevention of recurrent gout, and colchicine and/or probenecid are reserved for patients who cannot tolerate first-line agents or in whom first-line agents are ineffective. Patients receiving urate-lowering medications should be treated concurrently with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine, or low-dose corticosteroids to prevent flares. Treatment should continue for at least three months after uric acid levels fall below the target goal in those without tophi, and for six months in those with a history of tophi.

  15. Influence of Different Foliar Fertilizers Application on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content in Tea%叶面肥喷施对茶叶中GABA含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琴燕; 杨敬辉; 陈宏州; 陈露; 庄义庆

    2013-01-01

    Influence of three foliar fertilizers (Monosodium Glutamate, CaCl2 and VB6) by spraying tea plants on GABA content in fresh tea leaves and black tea were investigated. The result showed that: the three foliar fertilizers could increase significantly the GABA content in fresh tea leaves. The GABA content in fresh leaves maximum reach 0.77, 0.51, 0.48 mg/g at three foliar fertilizers concentration of 5, 5,0.3 g/L, respectively, Which made from black tea, the GABA content significantly reduced to 0.45, 0.1, 0.08 mg/g. It was found that the foliar fertilizers (Monosodium Glutamate, CaCl2 and VB6) could promote the GABA enrichment of tea, while the processing operations of black tea may result in a substantial loss of GABA.%采用谷氨酸钠、CaCl2和VB 6三种叶面肥喷施茶树,调查三种叶面肥喷施对茶鲜叶和产品红茶中GABA含量的影响。结果表明,三种叶面肥均可显著提高茶鲜叶中GABA含量,在浓度分别为5、5、0.3 g/L时,茶鲜叶中GABA含量最高分别为0.77、0.51、0.48 mg/g,制成的产品红茶中GABA含量显著降低至0.45、0.1、0.08 mg/g。说明三种叶面肥喷施均可促进茶叶中GABA的富集,而红茶加工工序可造成GABA大量损失。

  16. Optimization of cryoprotectants for Lactobacillus casei using response surface methodology%响应面法对干酪乳杆菌冻干保护剂的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 刘晓辉; 赵征; 于景华

    2012-01-01

    采用响应面方法,以存活率为指标优化了干酪乳杆菌冻干保护剂的配方.Plackett-Burman实验表明,脱脂乳、乳糖和谷氨酸钠对存活率具有显著的影响,通过中心复合实验进一步优化保护剂的比例,当脱脂乳、乳糖和谷氨酸钠的质量浓度分别为15.8 g/100 mL,5.73 g/100 mL和0.42 g/100 mL时细胞存活率为92.4%,明显高于不添加保护剂时细胞的存活率(5.25%).%Based on survival rate, the formulation of cryoprotectants for lyophilized Lactobacillus casei was optimized by means of response surf ace methodology in this study. Plackett-Burman design show that skim milk, lactose and monosodium glutamate exerted the stronger effect on the survival rate. Central composite design was employed to investigate the optimal compound cryoprotectant formula. Results indicated the optimal amounts in 100 mL of cryoprotectants formula were skimmed milk 15.8 g, lactose 5.73 g and monosodium glutamate 0.42 g. The optimal cell survival rate was observed to be 92.4% using the optimal compound cryoprotectant,higher than that(5.25%) without cryoprotectant.

  17. Effects of microbial inoculants and amino acid production by-product on fermentation and chemical composition of sugarcane silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation patterns and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages with addition of amino acid production (monosodium glutamate by-product (APB and microbial inoculants. Mature sugarcane was chopped and ensiled in laboratory silos (n = 4/treatment without additives (control and with APB (10 g/kg, Pioneer 1174® (PIO, 1.0 mg/kg, Lactobacillus plantarum + Streptoccoccus faecium, Pioneer, Lalsil Cana (2.0 mg/kg, Lactobacillus buchineri, Lallemand or Mercosil Maís 11C33® (1.0 mg/kg, Lactobacillus buchineri + Lactobacillus plantarum + Streptoccoccus faecium, Timac Agro. Fresh silage and silage liquor samples were obtained to assess pH, chemical composition and organic acid concentrations. Silage temperature was recorded throughout seven days to evaluate aerobic stability. The addition of APB decreased lactic acid levels, increased pH and N-NH3 and did not alter ethanol, acetic and butyric acids concentrations or dry matter (DM losses. Microbial inoculants enhanced acetic acid levels, although only Pioneer 1174® and Mercosil Maís 11C33® lowered ethanol, butyric acid and DM losses. The addition of APB increased CP content and did not modify DM, soluble carbohydrates contents or in vitro dry matter digestibility. Additives did not alter silage maximum temperature or temperature increasing rate; however, Pioneer 1174® and Mercosil Maís 11C33® increased the time elapsed to reach maximum temperature. Monosodium glutamate production by-product does not alter fermentation patterns or aerobic stability of sugarcane silages, whereas homofermentative bacteria can provide silages of good quality.

  18. Buffering agents modify the hydration landscape at charged interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewby, William; Livesey, Duncan; Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2016-03-07

    Buffering agents are widely used to stabilise the pH of solutions in soft matter and biological sciences. They are typically composed of weak acids and bases mixed in an aqueous solution, and can interact electrostatically with charged surfaces such as biomembranes. Buffers can induce protein aggregation and structural modification of soft interfaces, but a molecular-level picture is still lacking. Here we use high-resolution atomic force microscopy to investigate the effect of five commonly used buffers, namely 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES), monosodium phosphate, saline sodium citrate (SSC) and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) on the hydration landscape of Muscovite mica in solution. Mica is an ideal model substrate due to its negative surface charge and identical lattice parameter when compared with gel-phase lipid bilayers. We show that buffer molecules can produce cohesive aggregates spanning over tens of nanometres of the interface. SSC, Tris and monosodium phosphate tend to create an amorphous mesh layer several molecules thick and with no preferential ordering. In contrast, MES and HEPES adopt epitaxial arrangements commensurate with the underlying mica lattice, suggesting that they offer the most suitable solution for high-resolution studies. To confirm that this effect persisted in biologically-relevant interfaces, the experiments were repeated on a silica-supported lipid bilayer. Similar trends were observed for this system using atomic force microscopy as well as ellipsometry. The effect of the buffering agents can be mitigated by the inclusion of salt which helps displace them from the interface.

  19. PROCESSING ALTERNATIVES FOR DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-02-27

    Two processes were chosen in the 1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to decontaminate the soluble High Level Waste (HLW). The In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process (1,2) was developed at SRS for the removal of radioactive cesium and actinides from the soluble HLW. Sodium tetraphenylborate was added to the waste to precipitate cesium and monosodium titanate (MST) was added to adsorb actinides, primarily uranium and plutonium. Two products of this process were a low activity waste stream and a concentrated organic stream containing cesium tetraphenylborate and actinides adsorbed on monosodium titanate (MST). A copper catalyzed acid hydrolysis process was built to process (3, 4) the Tank 48H cesium tetraphenylborate waste in the SRS's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Operation of the DWPF would have resulted in the production of benzene for incineration in SRS's Consolidated Incineration Facility. This process was abandoned together with the ITP process in 1998 due to high benzene in ITP caused by decomposition of excess sodium tetraphenylborate. Processing in ITP resulted in the production of approximately 1.0 million liters of HLW. SRS has chosen a solvent extraction process combined with adsorption of the actinides to decontaminate the soluble HLW stream (5). However, the waste in Tank 48H is incompatible with existing waste processing facilities. As a result, a processing facility is needed to disposition the HLW in Tank 48H. This paper will describe the process for searching for processing options by SRS task teams for the disposition of the waste in Tank 48H. In addition, attempts to develop a caustic hydrolysis process for in tank destruction of tetraphenylborate will be presented. Lastly, the development of both a caustic and acidic copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation process will be discussed.

  20. The potential of various foods to serve as a carrier for micronutrient fortification, data from remote areas in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melse-Boonstra, A; Pee, S; Martini, E; Halati, S; Sari, M; Kosen, S; Muhilal; Bloem, M

    2000-11-01

    To estimate the potential of various industrially produced foods, to serve as a carrier for micronutrient fortification based on the frequency of their consumption in different socio-economic strata; to determine the role of fortified instant noodles as a source of micronutrients; to assess the contribution of plant foods, animal foods and fortified foods to vitamin A intake. A survey was conducted in rural South Sulawesi and urban South Kalimantan between November 1996 and January 1997. Households (1500 in South Sulawesi; 2112 in South Kalimantan) were selected randomly by multi-stage cluster sampling. From each household, data were collected from the mother and her youngest child (0-5 y). Mothers were interviewed on various topics, including socio-economic status, food consumption, receipt of high-dose vitamin A capsules, health and nutritional status. Monosodium glutamate and salt were consumed daily in almost all households in both areas, and consumption was not associated with socio-economic status. Instant noodles were consumed in nearly all households in both areas, but consumption of fortified noodles was related to socio-economic status; it was highest among households of government employees and private investors, and lowest among farmers and share-croppers. Vegetables were the most important source of vitamin A in rural South Sulawesi, while foods of animal origin were the most important source in urban South Kalimantan. The results support double or triple fortification of salt and/or monosodium glutamate with iodine, vitamin A and/or iron. Efforts to overcome associated technical and logistical difficulties are urgently needed. Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions (OMNI); United States Agency for International Development (USAID). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 822-827

  1. Magnetic field-induced phase transformation in NiMnCoIn magnetic shape-memory alloys - A new actuation mechanism with large work output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaca, Haluk E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University College Station, TX (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Karaman, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University College Station, TX (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Graduate Program, Texas A and M University College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Basaran, Burak [Materials Science and Engineering Graduate Program, Texas A and M University College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ren, Yang [Advanced Photon Source Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chumlyakov, Yuny I. [Siberian Physical-Technical Institute Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Maier, Hans J. [Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde, University of Paderborn 33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2009-04-09

    Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) have recently been developed into a new class of functional materials that are capable of magnetic-field-induced actuation, mechanical sensing, magnetic refrigeration, and energy harvesting. In the present work, the magnetic and hyphen; field-induced martensitic phase transformation (FIPT) in Ni{sub 45}Mn{sub 36.5}Co{sub 5}In{sub 13.5} MSMA single crystals is characterized as a new actuation mechanism with potential to result in ultra-high actuation work outputs. The effects of the applied magnetic field on the transformation temperatures, magnetization, and superelastic response are investigated. The magnetic work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is determined to be more than 1 MJ m{sup -3} per Tesla, which is one order of magnitude higher than that of the most well-known MSMAs, i.e., NiMnGa alloys. In addition, the work output of NiMnCoIn alloys is orientation independent, potentially surpassing the need for single crystals, and not limited by a saturation magnetic field, as opposed to NiMnGa MSMAs. Experimental and theoretical transformation strains and magnetostress levels are determined as a function of crystal orientation. It is found that [111]-oriented crystals can demonstrate a magnetostress level of 140 MPa T{sup -1} with 1.2% axial strain under compression. These field-induced stress and strain levels are significantly higher than those from existing piezoelectric and magnetostrictive actuators. A thermodynamical framework is introduced to comprehend the magnetic energy contributions during FIPT. The present work reveals that the magnetic FIPT mechanism is promising for magnetic actuation applications and provides new opportunities for applications requiring high actuation work-outputs with relatively large actuation frequencies. One potential issue is the requirement for relatively high critical magnetic fields and field intervals (1.5-3 T) for the onset of FIPT and for reversible FIPT, respectively. (Abstract Copyright

  2. Possibilidade de aplicação de misturas de herbicidas de ação total com Jato dirigido em mamoneira de porte anão Possibility of applaying total action herbicide tank mixture using direct sprayer on dwarf internode castor bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação em jato dirigido com e sem proteção do bico de pulverização através de chapéu-de-napoleão para misturas de herbicidas de ação total na cultura da mamoneira de porte anão, na safra 2004/2005, um experimento foi conduzido no município de Garça-SP, utilizando-se o híbrido Lyra e espaçamento de 1,0 x 0,5 m. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 x 10, com quatro repetições, em que o primeiro fator representou a forma de aplicação de jato dirigido com e sem uso de chapéu-de-napoleão e o segundo os herbicidas: glyphosate (0,72 kg ha-1; glyphosate + 2,4-D (0,72 + 0,35 kg ha-1; glyphosate + flumioxazin (0,72 + 0,025 kg ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl (0,72 + 0,016 kg ha-1; glyphosate + diuron (0,72 + 0,75 kg ha-1; MSMA + diuron (1,44+ 0,75 kg ha-1; paraquat + diuron (0,9 kg ha-1; paraquat + diquat (0,20 + 0,20 kg ha-1; paraquat + bentazon (0,40 + 0,48 kg ha-1; e testemunha capinada. A aplicação dos herbicidas foi feita em pós-emergência das plantas daninhas, nas entrelinhas da cultura, utilizando-se pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, com uma ponta XR 8002-VS para o uso de chapéu-de-napoleão e duas pontas XR 11002-VS, espaçadas de 50 cm, para condição sem proteção, ambas com consumo de calda equivalente a 200 L ha-1. O herbicida glyphosate e as misturas de paraquat + bentazon, glyphosate + 2,4-D e paraquat + diquat proporcionaram os maiores níveis de produtividade da mamoneira Lyra quando aplicados em jato dirigido e com auxílio de chapéu-de-napoleão. As misturas paraquat + bentazon (0,40 + 0,48 kg ha-1 e paraquat + diquat (0,20 + 0,20 kg ha-1 demonstraram ser as mais indicadas para aplicação em jato dirigido com proteção do bico de pulverização.An experiment was carried out in Garca-SP to evaluate the effects of application using a direct sprayer with and without "Napoleons's hat

  3. Efeitos do período e volume de aplicação na segurança dos tratoristas aplicando herbicidas na cultura de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. Effects of herbicide spraying period and volume on the safety of tractor drivers spraying herbicides on sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Momesso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do período e volume de aplicação na segurança da atividade de tratoristas aplicando herbicidas na cultura de cana-de-açúcar com o pulverizador de barra montado em trator e a eficiência de equipamentos de proteção individual (EPIs e de uma cabina acoplada ao trator. As exposições dérmicas de 13 condições de trabalho foram avaliadas e analisadas estatisticamente por meio do delineamento inteiramente ao acaso e do esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1. O fator A foi a condição de exposição: 1 exposição dérmica potencial (EDP - sem nenhuma medida de segurança; 2 exposição com cabina no trator (Cabina; e 3 exposição com as vestimentas (EPI. O fator B foi o volume de aplicação: 1 200 L ha-1 e 2 100 L ha-1; e o fator C foi o período de aplicação: 1 diurno e 2 noturno. Como testemunha foi avaliada a EDP do tratorista aplicando na atividade usual de 300 L de calda ha-1, no período diurno. As exposições dérmicas (EDs aos herbicidas considerados nessas condições de trabalho foram estimadas por meio de dados substitutos das EDs avaliadas ao cátion Cu+2 adicionado como traçador nas caldas aplicadas. O pulverizador utilizado foi do modelo PJ 600, com barra de 12 m de comprimento e 24 bicos de jato plano TT 110 04 ou TT 110 02. As 13 condições de trabalho avaliadas foram classificadas como seguras (MS>1 para o tratorista aplicando os herbicidas glyphosate (48% i.a., MSMA (48%, diuron (46,8% + hexazinone (13,2%, clomazone (50%, sulfentrazone (50%, ametryne (50%, diuron (50%, isoxaflutole (75%, metribuzin (48%, 2,4-D (80,6%, ametryne (30% + clomazone (20%, ametryne (73,25% + trifloxysulfuron (1,85% e tebuthiuron (80 % e inseguras para o herbicida atrazine (50%, nos dois períodos e nos três volumes de aplicação, e ametryne (50%, na aplicação diurna e 100 L de calda ha-1. As aplicações noturnas e os volumes de aplicação reduzidos tornaram as condições de trabalho mais

  4. The effect of xitong powder on acute gouty arthritis in rats%息痛散对大鼠急性痛风性关节炎的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 李娟娥; 李静; 衣蕾; 姜小帆; 吉海旺

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To study the effects and mechanisms of Xitong Powder on Acute Gouty Arthritis in rats . Methods :The rats of Acute Gouty Arthritis stimulated by monosodium urate crystals were divided randomly according to body weight into Models ,Allopurinol group ,Xitong Powder Ⅰgroup(18g/kg/d) ,Xitong PowderⅡgroup(36g/kg/d) ,Xi‐tong Powder Ⅲ group(72g/kg/d) ,and 8 normal SD rats as normal control group .All rats were treated by corresponding drugs or physiological saline for 5 days .The ankle jionts’ swelling degree and gait profile score were tested at different time ,and plasma IL‐1β、TNF‐αlevels were tested by Radioimmuno assay at the end of the experiment .Results :Xitong Powder dose‐dependently decreased ankle jionts’ swelling degree and improved gait profile score ,and induced the levels of serum IL‐1β,TNF‐αin Acute Gouty Arthritis rats stimulated by monosodium urate crystals .There was no difference be‐tween Allopurinol group and Xitong PowderⅢ group .Conclusion Xitong Powder decreased ankle jionts’ swelling degree in Acute Gouty Arthritis rats stimulated by monosodium urate crystals .The mechanism is possibly mainly related to in‐flammatory parameters .%目的:观察息痛散对尿酸钠晶体诱导的大鼠急性痛风性关节炎的作用。方法:通过关节局部注射尿酸钠晶体建立急性痛风性关节炎大鼠模型,将模型成功的大鼠随机分为模型组、别嘌醇组、息痛散高、中、低剂量组(18g/kg/d、36g/kg/d、72g/kg/d),并灌胃治疗5d ,观察各组大鼠的足跖肿胀度、步态学评分,并检测大鼠血清炎性因子白介素1‐lβ(I L‐lβ)、肿瘤坏死因子(Tumor necrosis factor‐α,TNF‐α)水平。结果:息痛散呈剂量依赖性抑制急性痛风性关节炎模型大鼠关节足跖肿胀度,改善大鼠步态学评分,降低血清炎性因子IL‐1β、T N F‐α水平,息痛散高剂量组与别嘌醇组比较无统计

  5. CB1 receptors down-regulate a cAMP/Epac2/PLC pathway to silence the nerve terminals of cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Beatris; Bartolomé-Martín, David; Ferrero, José Javier; Ramírez-Franco, Jorge; Torres, Magdalena; Sánchez-Prieto, José

    2017-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptors mediate short-term retrograde inhibition of neurotransmitter release, as well as long-term depression of synaptic transmission at excitatory synapses. The responses of individual nerve terminals in VGLUT1-pHluorin transfected cerebellar granule cells to cannabinoids have shown that prolonged activation of cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1Rs) silences a subpopulation of previously active synaptic boutons. Adopting a combined pharmacological and genetic approach to study the molecular mechanisms of CB1R-induced silencing, we found that adenylyl cyclase inhibition decreases cAMP levels while it increases the number of silent synaptic boutons and occludes the induction of further silencing by the cannabinoid agonist HU-210. Guanine nucleotide exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac proteins) mediate some of the presynaptic effects of cAMP in the potentiation of synaptic transmission. ESI05, a selective Epac2 inhibitor, and U-73122, the specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC), both augment the number of silent synaptic boutons. Moreover, they abolish the capacity of the Epac activator, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate monosodium hydrate, to prevent HU-210-induced silencing consistent with PLC signaling lying downstream of Epac2 proteins. Furthermore, Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM)1α KO cells have many more basally silent synaptic boutons (12.9 ± 3.5%) than wild-type cells (1.1 ± 0.5%). HU-210 induced further silencing in these mutant cells, although 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate monosodium hydrate only awoke the HU-210-induced silence and not the basally silent synaptic boutons. This behavior can be rescued by expressing RIM1α in RIM1α KO cells, these cells behaving very much like wild-type cells. These findings support the hypothesis that a cAMP/Epac/PLC signaling pathway targeting the release machinery appears to mediate cannabinoid

  6. Study on Optimization and Processing Technology of Hot and Sour Vermicelli of Sichuan%四川小吃酸辣粉的加工工艺及优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文

    2015-01-01

    以四川小吃酸辣粉的制作为研究对象,首先对红薯粉丝复水工艺进行研究,再对影响酸辣粉的色泽、口感等风味的主要因素食盐、味精、胡椒粉、醋、酱油、花椒粉和辣椒油进行单因素试验和正交试验,根据试验数据分析确定了酸辣粉的最佳配方.结果表明:以红薯粉丝100 g、绿豆芽25 g为主料制成的酸辣粉的最佳配方为:食盐2.5 g、味精1 g、胡椒粉0.2 g、醋9 g、酱油7 g、花椒粉0.5 g、辣椒油20 g,制成的产品粉条滑爽劲道,味咸鲜酸辣,鲜香可口.%Taking Sichuan Hot and Sour Vermicelli as object of study ,first to study the rehydration process of the sweet potato vermicellies after water technology , to influence the hot and sour vermicellies color , taste the flavor of main factors such as salt, monosodium glutamate, pepper,vinegar, soy sauce, Chinese prickly ash, chili oil has carried on the single factor experiment and orthogonal test, according to the analysis of experiment analysis to determine the best formula of hot and sour vermicellies. Results showed that with sweet potato vermicellies100 g,and mungbean sprout 25 g as the main ingredient, hot and sour vermicellies made of the best formula is:salt 2.5 g, monosodium glutamate 1 g, pepper 0.2 g, vinegar 9 g, soy sauce 7 g, Chinese prickly ash 0.5 g, chili oil 20 g, products vermicellies made dishes, quite smooth hot and sour taste salty, delicious and tasty.

  7. 外加剂对脱硫石膏制备现浇墙体材料性能影响%Effect of Additive on Desulfurization Gypsum Cast-in-place Wall Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武丽霞; 李冬; 任彦茹

    2015-01-01

    In order to broaden the usage of desulfurization gypsum, and fulfill the directly use of it, Monosodium glutamate was selected as retarder, poly carboxylic acid was selected as reducing agent, effects of which on desulfurization gypsum cast-in-place wall material were studied. Desul-furization gypsum was prebaked for 2 hours at 55℃, and then burned for 3 hours at 160℃, the standard consistency water demand was determined according to GB/T 17669.4-1999. The experi-ment results were as follows:with adding 3%Monosodium glutamate as retarder, 0.5%Poly carbo-xylic acid as reducing agent, and initial setting time of desulfurization gypsum cast-in-place wall material is about 54 min and final setting time extends to 96 min, which meet the requirements of construction. Dry flexural strength of the wall material is 3.31 MPa, dry compressive strength is 12.27 MPa.%为了拓宽我国脱硫石膏的利用途径,实现对脱硫石膏直接利用,本研究选取谷氨酸钠作为缓凝剂,聚羧酸作为减水剂,对脱硫石膏现浇墙体材料进行改性研究。试验结果表明:电厂的脱硫石膏经过55℃预烘干2 h,160℃烘干3 h,按照GB/T 17669.4-1999确定标稠需水量,添加3%谷氨酸钠作为缓凝剂,0.5%聚羧酸作为减水剂时,现浇墙体材料的初凝时间约54 min,终凝时间延长至96 min,复配后初终凝时间满足施工要求;墙体材料的绝干抗折强度为3.31 MPa,绝干抗压强度为12.27 MPa。

  8. Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urine specimens from 5,677 stone-forming patients throughout the United States were analyzed for seasonal variations in urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Determinations were performed for urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, uric acid, and the relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, brushite, monosodium urate, and uric acid. Criteria for significant seasonal variation included a significant difference in monthly means of risk factors, seasonal grouping of the data by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, consistent year-to-year trends and a physiologically significant range. Minimum urine volume of 1.54 +/- 0.70 SD L/day occurred in October while a maximum urine volume of 1.76 +/- 0.78 SD L/day was observed during February. Minimum urine pH of 5.94 +/- 0.64 SD was observed during July and August while a maximum pH of 6.18 +/- 0.61 SD was observed during February. Daily urinary excretion of sodium was lowest during August, 158 +/- 74 SD mEq/day and highest during February 177 +/- 70 SD mEq/day. The RS of brushite and uric acid were found to display significant pH-dependent seasonal variation with a maximum RS of uric acid 2.26 +/- 1.98 SD in June and a low of 1.48 +/- 1.30 SD in February. Maximum RS of brushite 2.75 +/- 2.58 was observed during February. Minimum RS of brushite 1.93 +/- 1.70 SD was observed in June. Phosphorus excretion displayed seasonal variation about a spring-fall axis with a maximum value 1042 +/- 373 SD mg/day in April and a minimum value of 895 +/- 289 SD mg/day. Urine volume, sodium, and pH were significantly lower during the summer (June, July, August) than in the winter (December, January, February). The RS of uric acid was higher, but that of brushite and monosodium urate was lower in the summer than in the winter. The seasonal changes observed in urine volume, pH, sodium, and the RS of brushite and uric acid are consistent with summertime sweating

  9. 蒲菜罐头加工工艺的优化%Optimization of Processing Technic of Typha latifolia Can

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万国福

    2012-01-01

    In order to enrich the food types and methods of T. latifolia and eliminate rush food seasonal limited, and provide vast thinking for deep processing the characteristic agricultural product T. latifolia. Taking T. latifolia as the major raw material, the processing technic was optimized and unique T. latifolia can was produced. According to analyzing the ratio of material to water, the time of color-protection, the concentration of color-protection, salt, monosodium glutamate and chilies, the optimum processing conditions were got as follows: T. latifolia-water ratio (g : mL) 1 :1, color-protection time 1 minute, 0. 15% Na2SO3 , 0. 2% salt, 1. 2% monosodium glutamate, 1. 0% dried chilli and 0. 2% five spices. Under these conditions, T. latifolia can could be obtained with milky color, crisp taste, aromatic flavor and rich nutrient.%为了丰富蒲菜的食用种类和方法,打破蒲菜季节性时令性局限,为淮安特色农产品蒲菜的精深加工提供广阔的思路,以蒲菜为主要原料,对蒲菜罐头加工工艺进行优化,制得风味独特的蒲菜罐头.试验通过对料水比、护色时间、护色剂浓度、食盐、味精、五香粉等因素的试验分析,得到特色风味蒲菜罐头制作的最佳工艺条件,即料水比(g:mL)为1:1、护色时间1 min、护色剂亚硫酸钠浓度0.15%、食盐0.2%、味精1.2%、干辣椒1.0%、五香粉0.2%,在此条件下能得到色泽乳白、口感清脆、香味浓郁、营养丰富的蒲菜罐头.

  10. Response Times to Gustatory–Olfactory Flavor Mixtures: Role of Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy G.; Veldhuizen, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    A mixture of perceptually congruent gustatory and olfactory flavorants (sucrose and citral) was previously shown to be detected faster than predicted by a model of probability summation that assumes stochastically independent processing of the individual gustatory and olfactory signals. This outcome suggests substantial integration of the signals. Does substantial integration also characterize responses to mixtures of incongruent flavorants? Here, we report simple response times (RTs) to detect brief pulses of 3 possible flavorants: monosodium glutamate, MSG (gustatory: “umami” quality), citral (olfactory: citrus quality), and a mixture of MSG and citral (gustatory–olfactory). Each stimulus (and, on a fraction of trials, water) was presented orally through a computer-operated, automated flow system, and subjects were instructed to press a button as soon as they detected any of the 3 non-water stimuli. Unlike responses previously found to the congruent mixture of sucrose and citral, responses here to the incongruent mixture of MSG and citral took significantly longer (RTs were greater) and showed lower detection rates than the values predicted by probability summation. This outcome suggests that the integration of gustatory and olfactory flavor signals is less extensive when the component flavors are perceptually incongruent rather than congruent, perhaps because incongruent flavors are less familiar. PMID:26304508

  11. Application of a Novel Diagnostic Rule in the Differential Diagnosis between Acute Gouty Arthritis and Septic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Choi, Sang-Tae; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Yoon, Bo-Young

    2015-06-01

    Septic arthritis and gout are major diseases that should be suspected in patients with acute monoarthritis. These two diseases are clinically similar and often indistinguishable without the help of synovial fluid analysis. Recently, a novel diagnostic rule for gout without synovial fluid analysis was developed and showed relevant performances. This study aimed to determine whether this diagnostic rule could perform well in distinguishing gout from septic arthritis. The diagnostic rule comprises 7 clinical and laboratory variables, each of which is given a specified score. The probability of gout is classified into 3 groups according to the sum of the scores: high (≥ 8), intermediate (> 4 to arthritis (n = 54) based on synovial fluid analysis. The mean sum of scores of acute gout patients was significantly higher than that of those with septic arthritis (8.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.32, P arthritis (Eta[η]: 0.776). The prevalence of acute gouty arthritis, as confirmed by the presence of monosodium crystal, was 95.5% (61/64), 57.5% (19/33), and 5.1% (2/39) in high, intermediate and low probability group, respectively. The recently introduced diagnostic rule properly discriminates acute gout from septic arthritis. It may help physicians diagnose gout in cases difficult to be differentiated from septic arthritis.

  12. Kinsenoside screening with a microfluidic chip attenuates gouty arthritis through inactivating NF-κB signaling in macrophages and protecting endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiao; Bing, Wang; Di, Yin; Hua, Li; Shi-he, Li; Yu-hua, Zheng; Xiu-guo, Han; Yu-gang, Wang; Qi-ming, Fan; Shih-mo, Yang; Ting-ting, Tang

    2016-01-01

    Gouty arthritis is a rheumatic disease that is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) in synovial joints cause by the increased serum hyperuricemia. This study used a three-dimensional (3D) flowing microfluidic chip to screen the effective candidate against MSU-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) damage, and found kinsenoside (Kin) to be the leading active component of Anoectochilus roxburghi, one of the Chinese medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of gouty arthritis clinically. Cell viability and apoptosis of HUVECs were evaluated, indicating that direct Kin stimulation and conditioned medium (CM) from Kin-treated macrophages both negatively modulated with MSU crystals. Additionally, Kin was capable of attenuating MSU-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (NF-κB/MAPK) signaling, targeting IκB kinase-α (IKKα) and IKKβ kinases of macrophages and influencing the expressions of NF-κB downstream cytokines and subsequent HUVEC bioactivity. Inflammasome NLR pyrin domain-containing 3 (NALP3) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) were also inhibited after Kin treatment. Also, Kin downregulated CD14-mediated MSU crystals uptake in macrophages. In vivo study with MSU-injected ankle joints further revealed the significant suppression of inflammatory infiltration and endothelia impairment coupled with alleviation of ankle swelling and nociceptive response via Kin treatments. Taken together, these data implicated that Kin was the most effective candidate from Anoectochilus roxburghi to treat gouty arthritis clinically. PMID:27584788

  13. The pathogenesis of bone erosions in gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi; Thiele, Ralf G

    2010-11-01

    The characteristic radiographic hallmarks of chronic gouty arthritis are the presence of macroscopic tophi and erosions with overhanging edges and relative preservation of the joint space. In recent years there has been more insight into the processes underlying the development of bone erosions in gouty arthritis. This review discusses the mechanical, pathological, cellular and immunological factors that may have a role in the pathogenesis of bone erosions in gouty arthritis. It highlights the evidence suggesting that monosodium urate crystal deposition is associated with the presence of underlying osteoarthritis and the important role of osteoclasts and the receptor for activation of nuclear factor κ B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANK-RANKL) pathway in the pathogenesis of gouty erosions. Gouty arthritis is primarily driven by interleukin 1β (IL-1β). IL-1β has been implicated in bone destruction and erosions in other inflammatory arthridities. Thus, future IL-1 inhibitors may prevent and treat erosion formation due to tophaceous gouty arthritis. This review discusses imaging modalities and highlights ultrasongraphic evidence suggesting a significant relationship between the presence of the gouty tophus and bone erosions as well as the frequent presence of persistent low-grade inflammation in asymptomatic chronic tophaceous gouty arthritis on high-resolution ultrasonography. It is the tophus eroding the underlying bone that is pivotal for the development of bone erosions in gouty arthritis.

  14. Therapeutic effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae on gouty arthritis based on the SDF-1/CXCR 4 and p38 MAPK pathway: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Dong-hua; Li, Xu-zhao; Zhou, Qi; Liu, Shu-min

    2014-02-01

    Rhizoma Dioscoreae Nipponicae (RDN) is a widely used traditional Chinese herb, which is used to treat arthroncus, arthrodynia and arthritis. As is known to us, inflammatory mechanisms have played an important role in the occurrence, course and prognosis of gouty arthritis (GA). The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic expressed proteins of synovium in GA rat and synovial cell. The rat model of GA was induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal. Tissue samples were assayed by immunohistochemical method. The effects of RDN on Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), CXCR 4 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were investigated in MSU crystal-induced rat. The levels of SDF-1 and mitogen-activated kinase kinase (MKK) 3/6 were measured by Western Blot in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) incubated fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). A significant increase in the levels of SDF-1, CXCR 4 and p38 MAPK were observed in MSU crystal-induced rat. The increased SDF-1 and MKK 3/6 levels were observed in IL-1β incubated FLS. With the treatment of RDN, the above changes were reverted back to near normal levels. RDN might have some therapeutic effects on GA through SDF-1/CXCR 4 and p38 MAPK pathway, and dioscin may be the active compound in RDN to exert therapeutic effect on GA.

  15. Blood-borne phagocytes internalize urate microaggregates and prevent intravascular NETosis by urate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Elmar; Jeremic, Ivica; Czegley, Christine; Weidner, Daniela; Biermann, Mona H.C.; Veissi, Susan; Maueröder, Christian; Schauer, Christine; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Dumych, Tetiana; Hoffmann, Markus; Munoz, Luis E.; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Schett, Georg; van der Vlag, Johan; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to cardiovascular complications including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In individuals with hyperuricemia, needle-shaped monosodium urate crystals (nsMSU) frequently form within joints or urine, giving rise to gouty arthritis or renal calculi, respectively. These nsMSU are potent instigators of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Little is known on the mechanism(s) that prevent nsMSU formation within hyperuricemic blood, which would potentially cause detrimental consequences for the host. Here, we report that complement proteins and fetuins facilitate the continuous clearance by blood-borne phagocytes and resident macrophages of small urate microaggregates (UMA; <1 μm in size) that initially form in hyperuricemic blood. If this clearance fails, UMA exhibit bipolar growth to form typical full-sized nsMSU with a size up to 100 μm. In contrast to UMA, nsMSU stimulated neutrophils to release NETs. Under conditions of flow, nsMSU and NETs formed densely packed DNase I-resistant tophus-like structures with a high obstructive potential, highlighting the importance of an adequate and rapid removal of UMA from the circulation. Under pathological conditions, intravascularly formed nsMSU may hold the key to the incompletely understood association between NET-driven cardiovascular disease and hyperuricemia. PMID:27917897

  16. PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone affects rat gouty arthritis by regulating cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R-C; Jiang, D-M

    2014-08-28

    The objective was to study peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone regulation effect and its mechanism of expression of cytokines on acute gouty arthritis synovial in rats. Rats with unilateral ankle were injected with artificial monosodium urate (MSU) crystals to make the acute gouty arthritis model. Taking the synovium 48 h after the injection of MSU and using RT-PCR, we assessed the effect of pioglitazone (20 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), oral administration) on synovial expression, by detecting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The pioglitazone treatment group showed synovial expression of TNF-α, and IFN-γ was significantly lower than in the control group; the inhibition rates were 78.5 and 60.4%. The IL-1 expression difference was not statistically significant between the two groups. Pioglitazone has anti-inflammatory effects on acute gouty arthritis by inhibiting the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ.

  17. An improved acute gouty arthritis rat model and therapeutic effect of rhizoma Dioscoreae nipponicae on acute gouty arthritis based on the protein-chip methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Dong, Wanru; Lu, Fang; Liu, Shumin

    2012-01-01

    Rhizoma Dioscoreae nipponicae (RDN) is an herbal medicine. In the theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the function of RDN is to expel wind and remove dampness. Inflammatory mechanisms play an important role in the pathological process and prognosis of acute gouty arthritis (AGA). The aim of this study was to determine the specially expressed proteins through testing the proteins of the synovium in rats with AGA. The animal model of AGA was set up by Monosodium urate crystal (MSU) combined with hypoxanthine (HX), which was ameliorated in our previous experiment. Blood samples for measurement of serum uric acid were collected prior to sacrifice. Outcomes were assessed (two days after injection) by histological stain and protein quantitation. Three chips of RayBio® Human Label-based Antibody Array I were applied to detect 90 proteins in the synovium tissue of AGA rats. 14 differently expressed proteins were found in the synovium of AGA rats, and nine of them were first found in this model. There were seven up-regulated and seven down-regulated proteins, both TRAIL and Neuropilin-2 could be identified as key contributors to the pathomechanism of AGA.

  18. The effect of resveratrol on the recurrent attacks of gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zheng, Shucong; Wang, Yuankai; Zhu, Huiqing; Liu, Qiong; Xue, Yu; Qiu, Jianhua; Zou, Hejian; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2016-05-01

    Gouty arthritis is characterized by inflammation induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition, which is resulted by an increase of serum urate concentration. The management of gout, especially the recurrent acute attacks of chronic gouty arthritis, is still a problem to be resolved. In this study, we aimed to develop the preventive and therapeutic effect of resveratrol on gouty arthritis. MSU was used to induce gouty arthritis in the foot pad of C57BL/6 mice. Yeast polysaccharide and potassium oxonate were used to induce hyperuricemia in Kunming mice. Resveratrol was intraperitoneal injected to the mice in the treatment group. The pad inflammation and the level of serum uric acid were investigated to estimate the effect of resveratrol in gouty arthritis. Hyperuricemia was significantly detected in the mice treated with yeast polysaccharide and potassium oxonate, and gouty arthritis was successfully induced with MSU in mice. We further identified that resveratrol inhibited pad swelling and pad 99mTc uptake in gouty mice. Moreover, serum uric acid level was also decreased by resveratrol in hyperuricemia mice. This study highlighted that resveratrol might be applied to prevent the recurrent acute attack of gouty arthritis because of its inhibition of articular inflammation and down-regulation of serum uric acid.

  19. Effect of acupuncture on rats with acute gouty arthritis inflammation: a metabonomic method for profiling of both urine and plasma metabolic perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Si-Lan; Liu, Yu-Jie; Yin, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Liu; Xiao, Jin; Zhu, Hong-Yuan; Xue, Jin-Tao; Ye, Li-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Acute gouty arthritis is a common inflammation model with multiple pathogenic mechanisms seen in clinical practice, for which acupuncture may potentially be an alternative therapy. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on acute gouty arthritis and search for its mechanism, a metabonomic method was developed in this investigation. Acute gouty arthritis model rats were induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. The urine and plasma samples were collected at several time points and the endogenous metabolites were analyzed by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analysis to compare metabolic profiles of MSU crystal-induced acute gouty arthritis rats with MSU crystal-induced acute gouty arthritis, treated with acupuncture rats. The results showed that acupuncture could restore the metabolite network that disturbed by MSU administration. Our study indicates that UPLC-MS-based metabonomics can be used as a potential tool for the investigation of biological effect of acupuncture on acute gouty arthritis.

  20. (13)C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Yuan, Bin; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-02

    It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK), whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS) and Taiwan (China) light (TL), which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  1. Polyester monomers lack ability to bind and activate both androgenic and estrogenic receptors as determined by in vitro and in silico methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimitz, Thomas G; Welsh, William J; Ai, Ni; Toole, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results from the screening of seven monomers used by Eastman Chemical to make various polymers. Ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, polytetramethylene glycol, isophthalic acid, monosodium-5-sulfoisophthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and dimethylcyclohexanedicarboxylate were screened for potential androgenicity or estrogenicity. The following studies were conducted: QSAR for binding to the AR and ER, in vitro Androgen Receptor Binding Assay, in vitro Estrogen Receptor Binding Assays (alpha and beta isoforms), in vitro Androgen Receptor Transactivation Assay in human cells, and in vitro Estrogen Receptor Transactivation Assay in human cells. None of the QSAR models predicted that any of the monomers possessed appreciable binding affinity for either AR or ER. Binding assays showed no evidence of interaction with either the AR or the alpha or beta ER receptors. Similarly, the AR and ER transactivation assays were negative. Moreover, six of the seven monomers have been subjected to 13-week and developmental toxicity studies in rats with no androgen- or estrogen-related effects being noted. Given the negative results of the in vitro screening assays (except PMG which demonstrated cytotoxicity) as well as available repeated dose and developmental and reproductive studies, the data suggest that none of the monomers tested exhibit androgenic or estrogenic hazards.

  2. Inhibition of interleukin-6 function attenuates the central sensitization and pain behavior induced by osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuangui; Liu, Lian; Jiang, Haixia; Zhou, Jieshu; Tang, Yuying

    2017-09-15

    Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom in the patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and the underlying mechanism largely remains unclear. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, is critically involved in the development and maintenance of central sensitization in several rodent models of chronic pain. The present study aims to elucidate the IL-6 mediated neurological adaptation in dorsal horn in the rat with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) - induced OA. Significant upregulation of IL-6 expression was detected in the dorsal horn in the modeled rats. Blockade of IL-6 function by tocilizumab markedly suppressed the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, reduced c-Fos immunoreactivity in dorsal horn neurons, and attenuated the upregulation of glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and NR2B in dorsal horn in the rats with MIA-induced OA. It was further reported that administration of tocilizumab significantly improved the performance in weight-bearing test and mitigated the mechanical allodynia in the modeled rats. These data illustrated spinal IL-6 mediated mechanism underlying the chronic pain, and proposed the potential therapeutic effect of tocilizumab on the chronic pain in the setting of OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wide-field imaging of birefringent synovial fluid crystals using lens-free polarized microscopy for gout diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Lee, Seung Yoon Celine; Zhang, Yun; Furst, Daniel; Fitzgerald, John; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    Gout is a form of crystal arthropathy where monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposit and elicit inflammation in a joint. Diagnosis of gout relies on identification of MSU crystals under a compensated polarized light microscope (CPLM) in synovial fluid aspirated from the patient’s joint. The detection of MSU crystals by optical microscopy is enhanced by their birefringent properties. However, CPLM partially suffers from the high-cost and bulkiness of conventional lens-based microscopy, and its relatively small field-of-view (FOV) limits the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis. Here we present a lens-free polarized microscope which adopts a novel differential and angle-mismatched polarizing optical design achieving wide-field and high-resolution holographic imaging of birefringent objects with a color contrast similar to that of a standard CPLM. The performance of this computational polarization microscope is validated by imaging MSU crystals made from a gout patient’s tophus and steroid crystals used as negative control. This lens-free polarized microscope, with its wide FOV (>20 mm2), cost-effectiveness and field-portability, can significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis, reduce costs, and can be deployed even at the point-of-care and in resource-limited clinical settings.

  4. Alternative products in the "in vitro" inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The white mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a very important disease in tomato crops. The objective of this work was to study the effect of plant extracts, animal residues and industrial by-products extracts on the fungus in vitro growth. Treatments consisted of different concentrations of pyrolignous oil, neem oil, monosodium glutamate, sewage sludge and organic compost [coffee residue (50% coal residue (10%, maize residue (25%, poultry waste (12.5%, poultry meal (2.5%]. Positive control consisted of Petri dishes with PDA medium and negative control treatment consisted of PDA medium with procymidone. Fungus colonies were incubated at 22ºC and light intensity of 260 lux. Variables such as mycelium growth rate, sclerotia production, and viability 7 and 17 days after the transfer of mycelium disc to neon media were assessed. The extract of organic compost at 30% was effective in controlling mycelial growth and sclerotia production. This treatment, as well as neem oil at 0.5% increased soil respiration.

  5. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2016-09-22

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  6. Maternal Diet Supplementation with n-6/n-3 Essential Fatty Acids in a 1.2 : 1.0 Ratio Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in MSG-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Josiane Morais; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Alves, Vander Silva; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Pavanello, Audrei; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Banafé, Elton Guntendeorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0) throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day) for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model. PMID:28050167

  7. 纸型毛木耳的加工工艺研究%Studv on the Properties of Veeetable Paper Based on Auricularia Dolvtricha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    清源

    2012-01-01

    The consumptions of soluble starch, glycerol and flavoring were studied as the influence of the Auricularia polytricha papers quantity. The best composition and the technics of the Auricularia polytricha papers were determined by the optimized experiments. The results showed that: the optimal content of the soluble starch, glycerol, sucrose, salt, monosodium glutamate and five spices powder were 4%, 5%, 16%, 2.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Under this condition, the quantity of this Auricularia polvtricha papers were best.%研究了可溶性淀粉、甘油以及调味料的用量对毛木耳纸质量的影响。通过优化试验,确定毛木耳纸的最佳配方和工艺为:可溶性淀粉添加量为4%,甘油添加量为5%,白砂糖添加量16%,食盐添加量2.4%,味精添加量0.5‰五香粉添加量0.7%。在此条件下,毛木耳纸的质量最好。

  8. TRATAMENTO AGUDO COM CAFEÍNA E L-ARGININA REDUZ OS NÍVEIS GLICEMICOS EM RATOS OBESOS SUBMETIDOS AO EXERCÍCIO AERÓBICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. This syndrome comprises a group of conditions including insulin resistance, diabetes type two and hypertension. Obese individuals may develop in parallel insulin resistance with obesity, while it remains normal glucose tolerance, the pancreatic beta cells to increase production and secretion of insulin as a compensatory mechanism. Studies have shown positive effects of caffeine and L-arginine on the reduction in glucose tolerance and increased insulin sensitivity. Methods: We used 10 adult male Wistar rats, 4-month-old boy with obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG. We conducted a swim test lasting 30 minutes and measured blood glucose levels before and after exercise and supplementation. Results: The animals that received caffeine reduced (14%, for L-Arg was reduced to L-Arg was reduced (10% or placebo (65%. Conclusion: The results showed that acute caffeine intake could be modifying the availability or glucose metabolism in obese mice along with exercise, however these data should be supplemented in the new study however try to follow the results of studies in the literature.

  9. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura

    Full Text Available Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG, and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP. A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  10. Comparative study of electroless copper film on different self-assembled monolayers modified ABS substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiushuai; Fan, Ruibin; Wang, Jiaolong; Jia, Mengke; Xiong, Xuanrui; Wang, Fang

    2014-04-15

    Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 6-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino)-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111) preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance.

  11. Constructing quality profiles for taste compounds in rats: a novel paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Connie L; Spector, Alan C

    2008-10-20

    We developed a novel behavioral method, adapted from the work by Morrison (1967), for the assessment of taste quality in rats. Four groups of rats were trained to discriminate a standard stimulus (either NaCl, sucrose, quinine, or citric acid, which are widely thought to represent the four basic human taste qualities of salty, sweet, bitter, and sour, respectively) from the remaining three compounds (each at multiple concentrations). Animals were then tested for generalization to the standard stimuli when test compounds were presented and a quality profile was constructed. Rats generalized novel concentrations of standard stimuli completely to their training concentrations and generalized their responses to mixtures of NaCl and sucrose on the basis of the relative concentrations of the stimulus components. In general, the sugars (at high concentrations), denatonium, tartaric acid, and sodium gluconate generalized to sucrose, quinine, citric acid, and NaCl, respectively. Monosodium glutamate generalized to a mixture of sucrose and NaCl. KCl produced a complex generalization profile with notable quinine and citric acid components. Our procedure supplements the current use of the conditioned taste aversion generalization procedure which has some procedural and interpretive limitations. Although our procedure involves the use of a complex stimulus delivery and response measurement apparatus and requires substantial initial conditioning of animals, once trained, a single cohort of animals can be tested for its response to a substantial number of test stimuli over the course of many months without any ostensible loss of stimulus control.

  12. Changes in taste perception and eating behavior after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Bradley, David; Eagon, J. Christopher; Sullivan, Shelby; Abumrad, Nada A.; Klein, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes greater weight loss than laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). We tested the hypothesis that RYGB has weight loss-independent effects on taste perception which influence eating behavior and contribute to the greater weight loss. Design and Methods Subjects were studied before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n=17) or LAGB (n=10). We evaluated: taste sensitivity for sweet, salty and savory stimuli; sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) preferences; sweetness palatability; eating behavior; and expression of taste-related genes in biopsies of fungiform papillae. Results Weight loss induced by both procedures caused the same decrease in: preferred sucrose concentration (−12±10%), perceived sweetness of sucrose (−7±5%), cravings for sweets and fast-foods (−22 ±5%), influence of emotions (−27±5%) and external food cues (−30±4%) on eating behavior, and expression of α-gustducin in fungiform papillae (all P-values <0.05). RYGB, but not LAGB, shifted sweetness palatability from pleasant to unpleasant when repetitively tasting sucrose (P=0.05). Neither procedure affected taste detection thresholds or MSG preferences. Conclusions LAGB and RYGB cause similar alterations in eating behaviors, when weight loss is matched. These changes in eating behavior were not associated with changes in taste sensitivity, suggesting other, as yet unknown, mechanisms are involved. PMID:24167016

  13. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  14. Comparative Study of Electroless Copper Film on Different Self-Assembled Monolayers Modified ABS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiushuai Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS, (3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and 6-(3-(triethoxysilylpropylamino-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES self-assembled monolayers (SAMs modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111 preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance.

  15. The effects of pre-emptive low-dose X-ray irradiation on MIA induced inflammatory pain in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Suk-Chan; Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun; Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Wonho

    2013-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of pre-emptive low-dose irradiation on the development of inflammatory pain and to characterize the potential mechanisms underlying this effect in osteoarthritis (OA) animal model. Whole-body X-irradiations with 0.1, 0.5, 1 Gy or sham irradiations were performed for 3 days before the induction of ostearthritis with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) (40 µl, in saline) into the right knee joint in male Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests for arthritic pain including evoked and non-evoked pain were conducted before and after MIA injection and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression level was measured by western blot. Low-dose radiation significantly prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and reduction in weight bearing that is regarded as a behavioral signs of non-evoked pain following MIA injection. Low-dose radiation significantly inhibited the increase in iNOS expression after MIA injection in spinal L3-5 segments in rat. These data suggest that low-dose X-irradiation is able to prevent the development of arthritic pain through modulation of iNOS expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, low-dose radiotherapy could be substituted in part for treatment with drugs for patients with chronic inflammatory disease in clinical setting.

  16. Partially Fluorinated Sulfonated Poly(ether amide Fuel Cell Membranes: Influence of Chemical Structure on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsung Bae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated sulfonated poly (ether amides (SPAs were synthesized for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. A polycondensation reaction of 4,4’-oxydianiline, 2-sulfoterephthalic acid monosodium salt, and tetrafluorophenylene dicarboxylic acids (terephthalic and isophthalic or fluoroaliphatic dicarboxylic acids produced SPAs with sulfonation degrees of 80–90%. Controlling the feed ratio of the sulfonated and unsulfonated dicarboxylic acid monomers afforded random SPAs with ion exchange capacities between 1.7 and 2.2 meq/g and good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. Their structures were characterized using NMR and FT IR spectroscopies. Tough, flexible, and transparent films were obtained with dimethylsulfoxide using a solution casting method. Most SPA membranes with 90% sulfonation degree showed high proton conductivity (>100 mS/cm at 80 °C and 100% relative humidity. Among them, two outstanding ionomers (ODA-STA-TPA-90 and ODA-STA-IPA-90 showed proton conductivity comparable to that of Nafion 117 between 40 and 80 °C. The influence of chemical structure on the membrane properties was systematically investigated by comparing the fluorinated polymers to their hydrogenated counterparts. The results suggest that the incorporation of fluorinated moieties in the polymer backbone of the membrane reduces water absorption. High molecular weight and the resulting physical entanglement of the polymers chains played a more important role in improving stability in water, however.

  17. Experimental study on disinfectant for Chlorine by small model test%氯气洗消剂小尺寸实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓宁; 伍昱; 胡源

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of different disinfectant, such as disinfectant of Sodium malate, monosodium glutamate and Sodium Glycinate, was studied through small model test of Chlorine outlet combining with the features of water mist.The Sodium Glycinate has the best disinfection efficiency and it is most efficiency in 200 s after the beginning of spray.80% of Chlorine was disinfected when the concentration of Chlorine is high and more 90% of Chlorine was disinfected when the concentration of Chlorine is low by Sodium Glycinate after 10 min.%结合细水雾的特性,采用苹果酸钠、谷氨酸钠和甘氨酸钠作为洗消剂,通过设计小尺寸氯气泄漏的洗消模拟实验,研究不同洗消剂的洗消效率.甘氨酸钠的洗消效果最好,其洗消最有效时间基本就是喷淋后的200 s内,10 min后甘氨酸钠的洗消效率在氯气浓度较高的情况下达到了80%,而在氯气低浓度时效果更好,均达到了90%以上.

  18. Fucoidan Prevents the Progression of Osteoarthritis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Don-Gil; Park, Sang-Yong; Chung, Won-Seok; Park, Jae-Hee; Hwang, Eunson; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Tom; Kim, In-Ho; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of fucoidan (extract from Hizikia fusiforme) on symptoms and inflammatory cytokine activation in rats with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Forty male SD rats were divided into five groups, including normal, negative control (MIA), positive control (Lyprinol), and two experimental groups treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg fucoidan. Weight-bearing assessments were done after MIA injection into the right knee to induce OA. After 14 days of treatment, microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) images were made of rat knee joints, and then animals were sacrificed for joint histology and inflammatory cytokine level assessments. MIA injection successfully induced OA by causing 40% weight-bearing imbalance, severe bone loss and cartilage degeneration, and markedly increased cytokine levels. However, fucoidan groups showed over 45% of imbalance and no articular cartilage surface lesions or change in subchondral trabecular bones in Micro-CT images. Histological analysis revealed that cartilage morphology and cell counts were also normal in the 100 mg/kg fucoidan group. In addition, the 100 mg/kg fucoidan groups exhibited lower serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (30%), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) (48%), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) (65%) compared to the MIA groups. These results suggest that administration of fucoidan prevents the progression of OA in a MIA-induced OA rat model.

  19. Plasma membrane electron transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the presence of mitochondrial respiratory subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herst, Patries M; Perrone, Gabriel G; Dawes, Ian W; Bircham, Peter W; Berridge, Michael V

    2008-09-01

    Most investigations into plasma membrane electron transport (PMET) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have focused on the inducible ferric reductase responsible for iron uptake under iron/copper-limiting conditions. In this paper, we describe a PMET system, distinct from ferric reductase, which reduces the cell-impermeable water-soluble tetrazolium dye, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-1), under normal iron/copper conditions. WST-1/1-methoxy-phenazine methosulphate reduction was unaffected by anoxia and relatively insensitive to diphenyleneiodonium. Dye reduction was increased when intracellular NADH levels were high, which, in S. cerevisiae, required deletion of numerous genes associated with NADH recycling. Genome-wide screening of all viable nuclear gene-deletion mutants of S. cerevisiae revealed that, although mitochondrial electron transport per se was not required, the presence of several nuclear and mitochondrially encoded subunits of respiratory complexes III and IV was mandatory for PMET. This suggests some form of interaction between components of mitochondrial and plasma membrane electron transport. In support of this, mitochondrial tubular networks in S. cerevisiae were shown to be located in close proximity to the plasma membrane using confocal microscopy.

  20. Chronic Glibenclamide Treatment Attenuates Walker-256 Tumour Growth in Prediabetic Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Previate, Carina; de Barros Machado, Kátia Gama; Piovan, Silvano; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Prates, Kelly Valério; Moreira, Veridiana Mota; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Pavanello, Audrei; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Malta, Ananda; de Souza, Aline Amenencia; Alves, Vander Silva; da Silva Silveira, Sandra; Marçal Natali, Maria Raquel; Fernando Besson, Jean Carlos; de Morais, Hely; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Sant Anna, Juliane Rocha; Alves de Castro Prado, Marialba Avezum; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2017-01-01

    The sulphonylurea glibenclamide (Gli) is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its antidiabetic effects, low incidences of certain types of cancer have been observed in Gli-treated diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether obese adult rats that were chronically treated with an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, exhibit resistance to rodent breast carcinoma growth. Neonatal rats were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to induce prediabetes. Control and MSG groups were treated with Gli (2 mg/kg body weight/day) from weaning to 100 days old. After Gli treatment, the control and MSG rats were grafted with Walker-256 tumour cells. After 14 days, grafted rats were euthanized, and tumour weight as well as glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Treatment with Gli normalized tissue insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, suppressed fasting hyperinsulinaemia, reduced fat tissue accretion in MSG rats, and attenuated tumour growth by 27% in control and MSG rats. Gli treatment also resulted in a large reduction in the number of PCNA-positive tumour cells. Although treatment did improve the metabolism of pre-diabetic MSG-rats, tumour growth inhibition may be a more direct effect of glibenclamide. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. NLRP3 activation and mitosis are mutually exclusive events coordinated by NEK7, a new inflammasome component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hexin; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Zhan, Xiaoming; Tang, Miao; Fina, Maggy; Su, Lijing; Pratt, David; Bu, Chun Hui; Hildebrand, Sara; Lyon, Stephen; Scott, Lindsay; Quan, Jiexia; Sun, Qihua; Russell, Jamie; Arnett, Stephanie; Jurek, Peter; Chen, Ding; Kravchenko, Vladimir V; Mathison, John C; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Monson, Nancy L; Ulevitch, Richard J; Beutler, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to microbes and danger signals by processing and activating proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. We found here that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was restricted to interphase of the cell cycle by NEK7, a serine-threonine kinase previously linked to mitosis. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome required NEK7, which bound to the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP3 in a kinase-independent manner downstream of the induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). This interaction was necessary for the formation of a complex containing NLRP3 and the adaptor ASC, oligomerization of ASC and activation of caspase-1. NEK7 promoted the NLRP3-dependent cellular inflammatory response to intraperitoneal challenge with monosodium urate and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in mice. Our findings suggest that NEK7 serves as a cellular switch that enforces mutual exclusivity of the inflammasome response and cell division.

  2. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive.

  3. A comparison of retinyl palmitate and red palm oil β-carotene as strategies to address Vitamin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-08-15

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content.

  4. Analytical Results from Routine DSSHT and SEHT Monthly Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-17

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 8B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal for times when monosodium titanate (MST) is used. Even with no MST strike being performed there exists some small Pu and Sr removal, likely from filtration of fines containing these elements. The Cs removal continues to be excellent, with decontamination factors (DF) averaging 16,400. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior. SRNL recommends that a sample of the strip feed be analyzed for cation and anion content if a further decline in boron concentration is noted in future SEHT samples.

  5. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  6. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF COBAMIDE COENZYMES IN CLOSTRIDIUM TETANOMORPHUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, J. I.; Barker, H. A.

    1964-01-01

    Toohey, J. I. (University of California, Berkeley), and H. A. Barker. Factors affecting the formation of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 87:504–509. 1964.—Tests were carried out to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum strain H1. A method is described for carrying out coenzyme determinations on the cells from 10-ml cultures of the bacterium. In a basal medium containing magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium molybdate, calcium chloride, and potassium phosphate, the optimal concentration of monosodium glutamate was 0.1 m and of yeast extract was 3 g per liter. Addition of glucose at a concentration of 0.05 m was found to double the yield of cells and to increase tenfold the specific coenzyme yield. Addition of cobaltous chloride (2 × 10−5m) also increased coenzyme production. Addition of benzimidazole caused an apparent increase in coenzyme production by causing the synthesis of the highly active benzimidazole analogue. Addition of methionine (5 × 10−6m) appeared to inhibit coenzyme production. PMID:14127565

  8. DWPF FLOWSHEET STUDIES WITH SIMULANT TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT ON THE CPC PROCESS AND GLASS FORMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.; Hay, M.; Stone, M.

    2011-06-29

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS), a new strip acid, and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) will be deployed. The NGS is comprised of four components: 0.050 M MaxCalix (extractant), 0.50 M Cs-7SB (modifier), 0.003 M guanidine-LIX-79, with the balance ({approx}74 wt%) being Isopar{reg_sign} L. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST was required to determine the impact of these changes in 512-S and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) operations, as well as Chemical Process Cell (CPC), glass formulation activities, and melter operations. Because of these changes, experimental testing with the next generation solvent and mMST is required to determine the impact of these changes. A Technical Task Request (TTR) was issued to support the assessments of the impact of the next generation solvent and mMST on the downstream DWPF flowsheet unit. The TTR identified five tasks to be investigated: (1) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for NGS; (2) Solvent Stability for DWPF CPC Conditions; (3) Glass Formulation Studies; (4) Boron Volatility and Melt Rate; and (5) CPC Flowsheet Demonstration for mMST.

  9. GUSTATORY RESPONSES OF NEURONS IN THE PARABRACHIAL NUCLEUS OF RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the gustatory neural response of the neurons to five basic taste stimuli in the parabrachial nucleus(PBN),Methods:Evoked responses from PBN taste neurons to tastants were recorded using standard extracellular microelectrode technique.Results:46 taste neurons were recorded in PBN,and most of them were broadly responsive.On the basis of their most effective taste stimuli,these taste neurons were classified into five types.Those are NaCl-,HCl-,quinine-sucrose-,and monosodium glutamate(MSG)-best neurons.Except for the quinine-best neurons,the responses of each best-stimulus category to its best stimulus were significantly stronger than those of others(P<0.01),The results of correlation analysis showed that the correlations between sucrose and each of the other 4 tastants were smaller than those among others.Conclusion:The results suggest that PBN taste neurons probably play an important role in discriminating for hedonic taste.

  10. GUSTATORY RESPONSES OF NEURONS IN THE PARABRACHIAL NUCLEUS OF RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 闫剑群; 康怡

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gustatory neural r esponse of the neurons to five basic taste stimuli in the parabrachial nucleus ( PBN). Methods Evoked responses from PBN taste neurons to t astants were recorded using standard extracellular microelectrode technique. Results 46 taste neurons were recorded in PBN, and most of th em were broadly respo nsive. On the basis of their most effective taste stimuli, these taste neurons w ere classified into five types. Those are NaCl-, HCl-, quinine-, sucrose-, and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-best neurons. Except for the quinine-best neur ons, the responses of each best-stimulus category to its best stimulus were sig nificantly stronger than those of others (P<0.01). The results of correlati on analysis showed that the correlations between sucrose and each of the other 4 tastants were smaller than those among others. Conclusion Th e results suggest that PBN taste neurons probably play an important role in disc riminating for hedonic taste.

  11. Human taste and umami receptor responses to chemosensorica generated by Maillard-type N²-alkyl- and N²-arylthiomethylation of guanosine 5'-monophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Degenhardt, Andreas; Billmayer, Sylvia; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    Structural modification of the exocyclic amino function of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) by Maillard-type reactions with reducing carbohydrates was recently found to increase the umami-enhancing activity of the nucleotide upon S-N(2)-1-carboxyalkylation and S-N(2)-(1-alkylamino)carbonylalkylation, respectively. Since the presence of sulfur atoms in synthetic N(2)-alkylated nucleotides was reported to be beneficial for sensory activity, a versatile Maillard-type modification of 5'-GMP upon reaction with glycine's Strecker aldehyde formaldehyde and organic thiols was performed in the present study. A series of N(2)-(alkylthiomethyl)guanosine and N(2)-(arylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphates was generated and the compounds were evaluated to what extent they enhance the umami response to monosodium L-glutamate in vivo by a paired-choice comparison test using trained human volunteers and in vitro by means of cell-based umami taste receptor assay. Associated with a high umami-enhancing activity (β-value 5.1), N(2)-(propylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphate could be generated when 5'-GMP reacted with glucose, glycine, and the onion-derived odorant 1-propanethiol, thus opening a valuable avenue to produce high-potency umami-enhancing chemosensorica from food-derived natural products by kitchen-type chemistry.

  12. Quantitative studies and taste reconstitution experiments of the sour and lingering mouthful orosensation in a debittered extract of traditional Japanese dried and fermented skipjack tuna (hongarebushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseleu, Gesa; Lubian, Elisabetta; Mueller, Stefan; Shi, Feng; Koenig, Thorsten

    2013-04-03

    Hongarebushi, Japanese dried skipjack tuna and a high quality ingredient of Japanese dashi, was investigated for its taste active composition. The recent investigation focused on a debittered fish fraction, which revealed a strong umami and salt impact accompanied with a pleasant and pronounced sourness. Whereas the umami and salt tastes could be correlated to monosodium glutamate (MSG), ribonucleotides, and mineral salts, the pleasant sourness was not exclusively induced by organic acids. The essential compound imparting the sour orosensation, persistence, and mouthfulness of the debittered skipjack tuna extract was investigated, and omission experiments emphasized the impact of N-acetylglutamic acid (NAG) on the overall taste sensation of the debittered fish extract. This metabolite, which is known to be present as a minor constituent in animal- and plant-derived foods, was quantified in this study for the first time in seafood, soybean products, dried shiitake mushrooms, and dried fish in notable amounts. Furthermore, it was described for the first time as an essential taste contributor to the nonvolatile profile of a foodstuff, in this case of a debittered extract of hongarebushi.

  13. Meltability and Stretchability of White Brined Cheese: Effect of Emulsifier Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abu-Alruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was based on the hypothesis that by adding low concentrations of emulsifier salts, may specifically act on the cross linking bonds of the protein matrix, to the original brine (storage medium it would be possible to induce meltability and stretchability in white brined cheese. Approach: A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheese samples proved its validity and reliability to measure stretchability. The apparatus was used to evaluate the effect of five types of emulsifier salts under different processing conditions. Results: It was found that by adding 0.2% (w/w Puromelt C1 or Monosodium phosphate to the brine of white brined cheese, higher levels of stretchability and meltability were induced after 2-4 weeks of storage. Conclusion: Addition of emulsifying salts was proved to be effective method in inducing meltability and stretchability of white brined cheese. Type of salt, its concentration, type of cheese and soaking time are factors that should be controlled to attain the optimum results.

  14. Determination of Sodium Glutamate in Chicken powder by Amino Acid Autoanalyzer%氨基酸分析仪测定鸡粉调味料中谷氨酸钠的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱惠绵; 冯志强; 罗小宝; 周兴起

    2013-01-01

    本文利用氨基酸自动分析仪测定鸡粉调味料中谷氨酸钠的含量,测得鸡粉调味科谷氨酸钠含量达0.27~0.32 g/g.该方法自动化程度高,重现性和准确度都较好,样品前处理简便易操作,经处理后直接上机分析,排出了其他物质的干扰,能够快速、准确地测出鸡粉中谷氨酸钠的含量.通过不同样品和相同样品两种加标方式,测得回收率可达到99.41~103.66%,方法精密度为0.39%.%This paper determined the content of sodium glutamate in chicken powder by amino acid autoanalyzer.The monosodium glutamate content in chicken powder was up to 0.27~0.32 g/g.This method had high degree of automation,reproducibility and accuracy.It was also easily operated with good reproducibility.Sample preparation was simple and direct.Its recovery can achieve 99.41~103.66% and the precision was 0.39 %.

  15. Transmembrane TNF-α is sufficient for articular inflammation and hypernociception in a mouse model of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Flávio A; Bastos, Leandro F S; Oliveira, Thiago H C; Dias, Ana C F; Oliveira, Vívian L S; Tavares, Lívia D; Costa, Vivian V; Galvão, Izabela; Soriani, Frederico M; Szymkowski, David E; Ryffel, Bernhard; Souza, Danielle G; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2016-01-01

    Gout manifests as recurrent episodes of acute joint inflammation and pain due to the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals within the affected tissue in a process dependent on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The synthesis, activation, and release of IL-1β are crucial for MSU-induced inflammation. The current study evaluated the mechanism by which TNF-α contributed to MSU-induced inflammation. Male C57BL/6J or transgenic mice were used in this study and inflammation was induced by the injection of MSU crystals into the joint. TNF-α was markedly increased in the joint after the injection of MSU. There was inhibition in the infiltration of neutrophils, production of CXCL1 and IL-1β, and decreased hypernociception in mice deficient for TNF-α or its receptors. Pharmacological blockade of TNF-α with Etanercept or pentoxyfylline produced similar results. Mechanistically, TNF-α blockade resulted in lower amounts of IL-1β protein and pro-IL-1β mRNA transcripts in joints. Gene-modified mice that express only transmembrane TNF-α had an inflammatory response similar to that of WT mice and blockade of soluble TNF-α (XPro™1595) did not decrease MSU-induced inflammation. In conclusion, TNF-α drives expression of pro-IL-1β mRNA and IL-1β protein in experimental gout and that its transmembrane form is sufficient to trigger MSU-induced inflammation in mice.

  16. Large Particle Titanate Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    This research project was aimed at developing a synthesis technique for producing large particle size monosodium titanate (MST) to benefit high level waste (HLW) processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two applications were targeted, first increasing the size of the powdered MST used in batch contact processing to improve the filtration performance of the material, and second preparing a form of MST suitable for deployment in a column configuration. Increasing the particle size should lead to improvements in filtration flux, and decreased frequency of filter cleaning leading to improved throughput. Deployment of MST in a column configuration would allow for movement from a batch process to a more continuous process. Modifications to the typical MST synthesis led to an increase in the average particle size. Filtration testing on dead-end filters showed improved filtration rates with the larger particle material; however, no improvement in filtration rate was realized on a crossflow filter. In order to produce materials suitable for column deployment several approaches were examined. First, attempts were made to coat zirconium oxide microspheres (196 µm) with a layer of MST. This proved largely unsuccessful. An alternate approach was then taken synthesizing a porous monolith of MST which could be used as a column. Several parameters were tested, and conditions were found that were able to produce a continuous structure versus an agglomeration of particles. This monolith material showed Sr uptake comparable to that of previously evaluated samples of engineered MST in batch contact testing.

  17. The effect of intraarticular serum rich in growth factors (SRGF) on knee osteoarthritis in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Kheirandish, Reza; Farsinejad, Alireza; Rasouli, Najmeh

    2017-03-12

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with high incidence in world. Various treatments have been used for decreasing pain and improving physical function without clearly beneficial evidences. Nowadays, platelet-rich therapy is used as a novel approach in field of regenerative medicine. The present study evaluated the effect of intraarticular serum rich in growth factors (SRGF) on the monosodium iodoacetate induced-osteoarthritis in rat model. SRGF was injected 3 times weekly. Femorotibial joints were examined 2 weeks after last injection. Histopathologic results showed remarkable articular regeneration in the SRGF treated rats. Our findings were less surface irregularities and articular clefts, proliferation of chondrocytes and increasing synthesis of matrix proteoglycan with toluidine blue staining. Destroyed articular cartilage was repaired by fibro-hyaline cartilage in contrast to the OA rats that filled with fibrovascular tissues. The microscopic score had decreased in the treatment group. We concluded that SRGF, as a source of growth factors, have chondroinductive capacity with regard to enhancement of cartilage regeneration.

  18. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  19. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

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    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  20. 痛风的诊治现状及进展%Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of gout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞青; 肖镇

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is an elevated uric acid level in blood. Gout is a common systemic metabolic disease characterized by deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals with resultant acute intense inflammation of the involved joint and soft tissues. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic hyperuricemia to intermittent acute episodes of gouty arthritis to chronic tophaceous gout and chronic gouty arthropathy. With the rapid development of economy, the incidence rate of hyperuricemia and gout is increasing annually around the world. Therefore, related studies have attracted much attention. This article reviewed the pathophysiology, clinical management and current therapeutic options for hyperuricemia and gout.%高尿酸血症是血尿酸水平增高。痛风是尿酸盐结晶在体内沉积引起组织损伤的一种代谢性疾病。随着各国经济的发展,全球的高尿酸血症及痛风的患病率呈上升趋势,因此相关研究日益增多,本文就近年来有关痛风的现状及进展作一综述。

  1. GLUT4 content decreases along with insulin resistance and high levels of inflammatory markers in rats with metabolic syndrome

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    Leguisamo Natalia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, which is closely related to GLUT4 content in insulin-sensitive tissues. Thus, we evaluated the GLUT4 expression, insulin resistance and inflammation, characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, in an experimental model. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive neonate rats (18/group were treated with monosodium glutamate (MetS during 9 days, and compared with Wistar-Kyoto (C and saline-treated SHR (H. Blood pressure (BP and lipid levels, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6, TNF-α and adiponectin were evaluated. GLUT4 protein was analysed in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius. Studies were performed at 3 (3-mo, 6 (6-mo and 9 (9-mo months of age. Results MetS rats were more insulin resistant (pvs H, but adiponectin was lower in MetS at 9 months (MetS: 32 ± 2, H: 42 ± 2, C: 45 ± 2 pg/mL; p Conclusions MSG-treated SHR presented all metabolic syndrome characteristics, as well as reduced GLUT4 content, which must play a key role in the impaired glycemic homeostasis of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

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    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  3. Effect of diet composition and mixture of selected food additives on the erythrocytic system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Metabolic processes of food additives which are “exogenous xenobiotics” are catalysed, primarily, by enzymes located in microsomes of hepatocytes affiliated to P-450 cytochrome superfamily, containing iron. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of diet composition and selected food additives on the erythrocyte system and iron metabolism in peripheral blood of male rats. Material and methods. The experiment was carried out on 30 male rats sorted into three equinumerous groups. For drinking animals received pure, settled tap water, animals from group III were receiving additionally an aqueous solution of sodium (nitrate, potassium nitrite, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and monosodium glutamate. Results. Ascertained a significant effect of changes in diet composition on the increase in hematocrit marker value and the count of red blood cells in blood of animals examined. Used food additives diminished hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value and red blood cell count, diminishing also iron concentration in serum, the total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation with iron. Conclusions. Analysis of the results allowed ascertain adverse changes in values of the erythrocytic system markers, occurring under the influence of the applied mixture of food additives. Used food additives change the iron metabolism, most likely from the necessity of applied xenobiotics biotransformation by heme-containing monoxygenases of P-450 cytochrome.  

  4. [Effects of different forms of P fertilizers on phytoremediation for As-contaminated soils using As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chen, Tong-Bin; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Hua; Xiao, Xi-Yuan; Zhai, Li-Mei

    2008-10-01

    Fertilization has become one of the essential measures for enhancing efficiency of phytoremediating contaminated soils with heavy metal. In order to screen optimal P fertilizer for As-phytoremediation, a greenhouse study was conducted on the growth, As-accumulation and uptake of N, P and K by Pteris vittata L. in As-contaminated soils with different forms of P fertilizers. The results indicated that the biomass of plant with As addition decreased compared to no As-addition treatments except fused calcium magnesium phosphate (CaMg-P) treatment. The plants in As addition soils with CaMg-P, calcium dihydrogen phosphate (CDP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) had higher biomass than those with other P fertilizer and control (0.83 g/pot). The As accumulations of plant aboveground in As addition soils are in order of CDP > CaMg-P> DAP> Potassium Phosphate Monobasic > Monosodium phosphate > control > Calcium superphosphate. The efficiency of As removal from As addition soils with CDP was the highest, 7.28%. Thus it can be seen the ability of phytoremediation using P. vittata could be improved by P fertilization, which CDP should be recommended preferentially and CaMg-P and DAP is considered as replaceable fertilizer for sake of pH, N, P and available As in phytoremediated soils.

  5. Study on processing technology of shark-head sauce%鲨鱼头高级调味汁工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣; 卢晓黎; 肖凯

    2001-01-01

    Using shark-head as main material,a nutrition rich sauce wasprepared sauce by means of enzymatic hydrolysis.The composition was:s hark-head extract 100%,salt 7.0%,cane sugar 10%,monosodium glutamate 0.5%,cooki ng wine 2.0%,starch 2.0%,sucrose fatty acid ester 0.5%,β-cyclic dextrin 1.0%.%用鲨鱼头为主要原料,经酶法水解等工艺研制成营养丰富的高档调味汁。其配方为:鲨鱼头汁100%,食盐7.0%,白砂糖10%,谷氨酸钠0.5%,料酒2.0%,淀粉2.0%,CMC1.5%,蔗糖酯0.5%,β-环状糊精1.0%。

  6. Biological formation of 5-aminolevulinic acid by photosynthetic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-yan; XU Xiang-yang; MA Qing-lan; WU Wei-hong

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 7 stains of Rhodopseudomonas sp. were selected from 36 photosynthetic bacteria stains storied in our laboratory.Rhodopseudomonas sp. strain 99-28 has the highest 5-aminolevulinic acid(ALA) production ability in these 7 strains. Rhodopseudomonas sp. 99-28 strain was mutated using ultraviolet radiation and a mutant strain L-1, which ALA production is higher than wild strain 99-28 about one times, was obtained. The elements affecting ALA formation of strain 99-28 and L-1 were studied. Under the optimal condition(pH 7.5,supplement of ALA dehydratase(ALAD) inhibitor, levulinic acid(LA) and precursors of ALA synthesis, glycine and succinat, 3000 Ix of light density), ALA formation of mutant L-1 was up to 22.15 mg/L. Strain L-1 was used to treat wastewater to remove CODCr and produce ALA. ALA production was 2.819 my/L, 1.531 rog/L, 2.166 mg/L, and 2.424 mg/L in monosodium glutamate wastewater(MGW),succotash wastewater(SW), brewage wastewater(BW), and citric acid wastewater(CAW) respectively. More than 90% of CODCr was removed in four kinds of wastewater. When LA, glycin and succinate were supplied, ALA production was dramatically increased,however, CODCr could hardly be removed.

  7. Unimpaired thermogenic response to noradrenaline in genetic (ob/ob) and hypothalamic (MSG) obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duloo, A G; Miller, D S

    1984-04-01

    The thermogenic response to noradrenaline administration was investigated at 25 degrees C in two models of obese mice (genetic ob/ob obesity of the ' QEC ' strain and monosodium-glutamate-induced obesity) and in their respective lean littermates. Subcutaneous injections of a low dose of noradrenaline (100 micrograms/kg body wt.) elevated metabolic rate by about 30% in both obese models but not in their respective lean counterparts. In contrast, the increase in metabolic rate after injections of a high dose of noradrenaline (600 micrograms/kg body wt.) was of a similar magnitude in both lean and obese animals: metabolic rate was increased by 70-80%. These results indicate that the overall whole body thermogenic capacity is unimpaired at room temperature in this ' QEC ' strain of ob/ob mice and in the hypothalamic damaged obese mice. Obesity in these models is therefore not associated with a reduced ability to respond to noradrenaline but could rather be due to a failure to release noradrenaline.

  8. The effect of parasympathetic drugs on energy expenditure: relevance to the autonomic hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Miller, D S

    1986-05-01

    The influence of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of energy expenditure was investigated in obese and lean rodents during chronic administration of drugs that alter parasympathetic transmission. In the genetically obese ob/ob mice and fa/fa rats and in monosodium glutamate induced hypothalamic obese mice, administration of the parasympathetic inhibitors hyoscine, benztropine, and mecamylamine either had no effect on energy balance or caused losses in body weight that could entirely be accounted for by a reduction in food intake; 24-h oxygen consumption in drug-treated animals was no different from that of the nontreated controls. In the lean animals, both the parasympathetic inhibitors (hyoscine, benztropine, and mecamylamine) and stimulators (bethanecol and neostigmine) had no influence on energy balance nor on body composition. These studies refute the concept that an overactive parasympathetic tone underlies the elevated energetic efficiency of obese models and suggests that the parasympathetic nervous system is unlikely to play an important role in the long-term control of energy expenditure.

  9. Buffer-free production of gamma-aminobutyric acid using an engineered glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taek Jin; Ho, Ngoc Anh Thu; Pack, Seung Pil

    2013-08-15

    Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) converts glutamate into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through decarboxylation using proton as a co-substrate. Since GAD is active only at acidic conditions even though pH increases as the reaction proceeds, the conventional practice of using this enzyme involved the use of relatively high concentration of buffers, which might complicate the downstream purification steps. Here we show by simulation and experiments that the free acid substrate, glutamic acid, rather than its monosodium salt can act as a substrate and buffer at the same time. This yielded the buffer- and salt-free synthesis of GABA conveniently in a batch mode. Furthermore, we engineered GAD to hyper active ones by extending or reducing the length of the enzyme by just one residue at its C-terminus. Through the buffer-free reaction with engineered GAD, we could synthesize 1M GABA in 3h, which can be translated into a space-time yield of 34.3g/L/h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MINYAK ATSIRI KUNYIT SEBAGAI ANTI RADANG PADA PENDERIT GOUT ARTRITIS DENGAN DIET TINGGI PURIN

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    Rondius Solfaine

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma Domestica Volatile Oil (Curcuma domestica, Val as Anti Inflamation Agent on Gout Arthritis Patient with High Purin Diet. Increased concentrations of crystal monosodium urea at joint and soft tissue represent induced of inflammation at gout arthritis (GA. Incidence and prevalence GA disseminate wide in developed countries in Asian range from 2-15% and In Indonesia, GA prevalence was 29% and mostly found in Minahasa, Toraja, and Batak ethnics. This research was aimed to analyse application of curcuma domestica volatile oil as anti inflammation agent on gout arthritis patient who has high purin diet and to assess specific cellular mediator Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α. The design of the study was randomized pretest-posttest control group design with single blind treatment. The GCMS test was performed to identify active component in volatile oil. The sample was the new gout arthritis patient in Haji Public Hospital Surabaya. For a week, treatment group was assigned with volatile oil with dose 25 mg/kg body weight and the control group was given indometasin 150 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment. Volatile oil of curcuma domestica (Curcuma domestica, val has four fraction of active component. There was decreasing in blood urea level in treatment group (p = 0.001 and control group (p = 0.007. Both in control and treatment group, there was also decreasing in TNF-α, however it was not statistically significant.

  11. Effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ren, Dunlin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Meiju; Wang, Robin; Wang, Yan-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while sodium alginate is a common pharmaceutic adjuvant with antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We performed an animal study to investigate the effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis. Twenty-four SPF Wistar mice were randomized to four groups receiving the combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol, resveratrol alone, colchicine, and placebo, respectively. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by injection of 0.05 ml monosodium urate (MSU) solution (25g/mL) into ankle joint cavity. IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 levels in both serum and synovial fluid were measured using ELISA. NLRP3 expression in the synovial tissues was measured using western plot. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol significantly reduced synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 when compared with colchicines, and all P values were less than 0.0001. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol was also superior to resveratrol in terms of both serum levels and synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10. In addition, resveratrol, with or without sodium alginate, could reduce NLRP3 expression obviously in the synovial tissues. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol has better effect over colchicines in treating MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis.

  12. Synthesis of nylon 4 from gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) produced by recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Jae; Kim, Eun Young; Noh, Won; Oh, Young Hoon; Kim, Hye Young; Song, Bong Keun; Cho, Kwang Myung; Hong, Soon Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jegal, Jonggeon

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we developed recombinant Escherichia coli strains expressing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Il1403 glutamate decarboxylase (GadB) for the production of GABA from glutamate monosodium salt (MSG). Syntheses of GABA from MSG were examined by employing recombinant E. coli XL1-Blue as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution. By increasing the concentration of E. coli XL1-Blue expressing GadB from the OD₆₀₀ of 2-10, the concentration and conversion yield of GABA produced from 10 g/L of MSG could be increased from 4.3 to 4.8 g/L and from 70 to 78 %, respectively. Furthermore, E. coli XL1-Blue expressing GadB highly concentrated to the OD₆₀₀ of 100 produced 76.2 g/L of GABA from 200 g/L of MSG with 62.4 % of GABA yield. Finally, nylon 4 could be synthesized by the bulk polymerization using 2-pyrrolidone that was prepared from microbially synthesized GABA by the reaction with Al₂O₃ as catalyst in toluene with the yield of 96 %.

  13. Cytotoxicity of crystals involves RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Shrikant R.; Desai, Jyaysi; Kumar, Santhosh V.; Eberhard, Jonathan N.; Thomasova, Dana; Romoli, Simone; Grigorescu, Melissa; Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Popper, Bastian; Vielhauer, Volker; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Romagnani, Paola; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Munoz, Luis E.; Herrmann, Martin; Liapis, Helen; Krautwald, Stefan; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Crystals cause injury in numerous disorders, and induce inflammation via the NLRP3 inflammasome, however, it remains unclear how crystals induce cell death. Here we report that crystals of calcium oxalate, monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and cystine trigger caspase-independent cell death in five different cell types, which is blocked by necrostatin-1. RNA interference for receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) or mixed lineage kinase domain like (MLKL), two core proteins of the necroptosis pathway, blocks crystal cytotoxicity. Consistent with this, deficiency of RIPK3 or MLKL prevents oxalate crystal-induced acute kidney injury. The related tissue inflammation drives TNF-α-related necroptosis. Also in human oxalate crystal-related acute kidney injury, dying tubular cells stain positive for phosphorylated MLKL. Furthermore, necrostatin-1 and necrosulfonamide, an inhibitor for human MLKL suppress crystal-induced cell death in human renal progenitor cells. Together, TNF-α/TNFR1, RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL are molecular targets to limit crystal-induced cytotoxicity, tissue injury and organ failure. PMID:26817517

  14. Study of Influencing Factors and the Mechanism of Preparing Triazinedithiol Polymeric Nanofilms on Aluminum Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Triazinedithiol polymeric nanofilm was prepared on a pure aluminum surface by electrochemical polymerization of AF17N. The mechanism of the process was proposed and electrochemical polymerization parameters were investigated. The triazinedithiol polymeric nanofilm had notable lubricity, high dielectric property and superhydrophobic property due to the allyl and fluoro alkyl groups in the AF17N monomer. The chemical structure of poly (6-(N-allyl-1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium nanofilm (PAF17 was investigated by analysis of FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The optimal conditions for the preparation process were based on the data of film weight and thickness. The optimal parameters of monomer concentration, electropolymerization time and temperature were 5 mM, 6 min and 15 °C, respectively. The electropolymerization mechanism was a radical polymerization reaction. It is expected that this technique will be applied in industrial fields for aluminum and aluminum alloy to achieve functional surfaces.

  15. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

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    Regina Moench-Pfanner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO, for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content.

  16. Cytotoxicity of Titanate-Calcium Complexes to MC3T3 Osteoblast-Like Cells

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    Yen-Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium titanates (MST are a relatively novel form of particulate titanium dioxide that have been proposed for biological use as metal sorbents or delivery agents, most recently calcium (II. In these roles, the toxicity of the titanate or its metal complex is crucial to its biological utility. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of MST and MST-calcium complexes with MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells; MST-Ca(II complexes could be useful to promote bone formation in various hard tissue applications. MC3T3 cells were exposed to native MST or MST-Ca(II complexes for 24–72 h. A CellTiter-Blue® assay was employed to assess the metabolic activity of the cells. The results showed that MST and MST-Ca(II suppressed MC3T3 metabolic activity significantly in a dose-, time-, and cell-density-dependent fashion. MST-Ca(II suppressed MC3T3 metabolism in a statistically identical manner as native MST at all concentrations. We concluded that MST and MST-Ca(II are significantly cytotoxic to MC3T3 cells through a mechanism yet unknown; this is a potential problem to the biological utility of these complexes.

  17. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

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    Wen Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells.

  18. Uric Acid, Hyperuricemia and Vascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ming; Yang, Fan; Yang, Irene; Yin, Ying; Luo, Jin Jun; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Uric acid is the product of purine metabolism. It is known that hyperuricemia, defined as high levels of blood uric acid, is the major etiological factor of gout. A number of epidemiological reports have increasingly linked hyperuricemia with cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Studies highlighting the pathogenic mechanisms of uric acid point to an inflammatory response as the primary mechanism for inducing gout and possibly contributing to uric acid's vascular effects. Monosodium urate (MSU) crystals induce an inflammatory reaction, which are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These TLRs then activate NALP3 inflammasome. MSU also triggers neutrophil activation and further produces immune mediators, which lead to a proinflammatory response. In addition, soluble uric acid can also mediate the generation of free radicals and function as a pro-oxidant. This review summarizes the epidemiological studies of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease, takes a brief look at hyperuricemia and its role in neurological diseases, and highlights the studies of the advanced pathological mechanisms of uric acid and inflammation. PMID:22201767

  19. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  20. Evaluating drug delivery with salt formation: Drug disproportionation studied in situ by ATR-FTIR imaging and Raman mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Andrew V; Wray, Patrick S; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-01-01

    Two different vibrational spectroscopic approaches, ATR-FTIR spectroscopic imaging and Raman mapping, were used to investigate the components within a tablet containing an ionised drug during dissolution experiments. Delivering certain drugs in their salt form is a method that can be used to improve the bioavailability and dissolution of the poorly aqueous soluble materials. However, these ionised species have a propensity to covert back to their thermodynamically favourable free acid or base forms. Dissolution experiments of the ionised drug in different aqueous media resulted in conversion to the more poorly soluble free acid form, which is detrimental for controlled drug release. This study investigates the chemical changes occurring to formulations containing a development ionised drug (37% by weight), in different aqueous pH environments. Firstly, dissolution in a neutral medium was studied, showing that there was clear release of ionised monosodium form of the drug from the tablet as it swelled in the aqueous medium. There was no presence of any drug in the monohydrate free acid form detected in these experiments. Dissolution in an acidic (0.1M HCl) solution showed disproportionation forming the free acid form. Disproportionation occurred rapidly upon contact with the acidic solution, initially resulting in a shell of the monohydrate free acid form around the tablet edges. This slowed ingress of the solution into the tablet before full conversion of the ionised form to the free acid form was characterised in the spectroscopic data.