WorldWideScience

Sample records for mononuclear hydrido hydroxy

  1. Syntheses, spectral, electrochemical and thermal studies of mononuclear manganese(III) complexes with ligands derived from 1,2-propanediamine and 2-hydroxy-3 or 5-methoxybenzaldehyde: Self-assembled monolayer formation on nanostructure zinc oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Askari, Elham; Amirnasr, Mehdi; Amiri, Ahmad; Yamane, Yuki; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2011-08-01

    Mononuclear Mn(III) complexes have been prepared via the Mn(II) reaction of an equimolar of Schiff-bases derived from reaction of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde or 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde with 1,2-diaminopropane. Axial ligands L include: pyridine (py) and H 2O. The resulting complexes have been characterized by FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structures of the complexes were determined and indicate that in the solid state the complex adopts a slightly distorted octahedral environment of the imine N and hydroxo O with the two axial ligands. The electrochemical reduction of these complexes at a glassy carbon electrode in acetonitrile solution indicates that the first reduction process corresponding to Mn III-Mn II is electrochemically quasi-reversible. Thermal stability of these complexes was determined by TG and DTG. Layers of these complexes were formed on nanostructure zinc oxide thin film and a red shift was observed when zinc oxide thin film is modified by complex.

  2. Bis(μ-diisopropylphosphanido-κ2P:Pbis[hydrido(triisopropylphosphane-κPplatinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Arnold

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric molecular structure of the title compound [Pt2(C6H14P2H2(C9H21P2], each PtII atom is bound on one side to a phosphane ligand (PiPr3 and a hydrido ligand. On the other side, it is bound to two phosphanide ligands (μ-PiPr2, which engage a bridging position between the two PtII atoms, forming a distorted square-planar structure motif. The Pt...Pt distance is 3.6755 (2 Å. A comparable molecular structure was observed for bis(μ-di-tert-butylphosphanidobis[hydrido(triethylphosphaneplatinum(II] [Itazaki et al. (2004. Organometallics, 23, 1610–1621].

  3. Si-H activation of hydrosilanes leading to hydrido silyl and bis(silyl) nickel complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Thomas; Schaub, Thomas; Radacki, Krzysztof; Radius, Udo

    2011-03-07

    A general route for the synthesis of novel NHC stabilized nickel bis(silyl) and nickel hydrido silyl complexes is presented. The reaction of [Ni(2)((i)Pr(2)Im)(4)(COD)] 1 ((i)Pr(2)Im = 1,3-di-isopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene) with hydrosilanes H(n)SiR(4-n) leads to complexes of the type [Ni((i)Pr(2)Im)(2)(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))(H)] or [Ni((i)Pr(2)Im)(2)(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))(2)].

  4. Reactions of alkyl malonates with molybdenum and tungsten complexes. Syntheses and structure of hydrido-malonato complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, Makoto; Kurishima, Susumu; Nagai, Ko-ichiro; Ito, Takashi [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamasaki, Mikio

    1994-12-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten hydrido-malonato complexes have been prepared by the photochemical or thermal reactions of [MoH{sub 4}(dppe){sub 2}] or trans-[W(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(dppe){sub 2}] with an excess of alkyl malonates. The structure of the complex is reported, and a possible mechanism is proposed for the reaction. (author).

  5. LDRD final report on chemical functionalization of oligo(hydrido)silanes, economically attractive routes to new photoresponsive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Loy, D.A.; Curro, J.G. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Metathesis-catalyzed polymerizations of primary silanes were performed to generate polysilanes suitable for functionalization with a variety of side groups. Modeling was employed to predict conformations and estimate electronic properties of candidate functionalized polysilanes. Chemical functionalization of oligo(hydrido)silanes with terminal {alpha}, {omega}-dienes under free radical conditions yielded highly crosslinked, nonporous polysilane networks. Ketone reduction with oligo(hydrido)silanes under free radical conditions led to novel poly(phenylalkoxysilanes). Free radical reduction of terminal alkenyl(alkoxy)silanes forms functionalized polysilanes which can be further transformed into sol-gel matrices with the polysilane functionality intact. These gels may be processed into nonporous xerogels or high surface area aerogels.

  6. Mononuclear Phenolate Diamine Zinc Hydride Complexes and Their Reactions With CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil J; Harris, Jonathon E; Yin, Xinning; Silverwood, Ian; White, Andrew J P; Kazarian, Sergei G; Hellgardt, Klaus; Shaffer, Milo S P; Williams, Charlotte K

    2014-03-10

    The synthesis, characterization, and zinc coordination chemistry of the three proligands 2-tert-butyl-4-[tert-butyl (1)/methoxy (2)/nitro (3)]-6-{[(2'-dimethylaminoethyl)methylamino]methyl}phenol are described. Each of the ligands was reacted with diethylzinc to yield zinc ethyl complexes 4-6; these complexes were subsequently reacted with phenylsilanol to yield zinc siloxide complexes 7-9. Finally, the zinc siloxide complexes were reacted with phenylsilane to produce the three new zinc hydride complexes 10-12. The new complexes 4-12 have been fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses. The structures of the zinc hydride complexes have been probed using VT-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments. These data indicate that the complexes exhibit mononuclear structures at 298 K, both in the solid state and in solution (d8-toluene). At 203 K, the NMR signals broaden, consistent with an equilibrium between the mononuclear and dinuclear bis(μ-hydrido) complexes. All three zinc hydride complexes react rapidly and quantitatively with carbon dioxide, at 298 K and 1 bar of pressure over 20 min, to form the new zinc formate complexes 13-15. The zinc formate complexes have been analyzed by NMR spectroscopy and VT-NMR studies, which reveal a temperature-dependent monomer-dimer equilibrium that is dominated by the mononuclear species at 298 K.

  7. Stereoselective formation and catalytic activity of hydrido(acylphosphane)(chlorido)(pyrazole)rhodium(III) complexes. Experimental and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Nacianceno, Virginia; Azpeitia, Susan; Ibarlucea, Lourdes; Mendicute-Fierro, Claudio; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio; Seco, José M; San Sebastian, Eider; Garralda, María A

    2015-08-07

    The reaction of [{RhCl(COD)}2] (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) with L = pyrazole (Hpz), 3(5)-methylpyrazole (Hmpz) or 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Hdmpz) and PPh2(o-C6H4CHO) (Rh : L : P = 1 : 2 : 1) gives hydridoacyl complexes [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(L)2] (). Stereoselective formation of and with pyrazoles trans to hydrido and phosphorus and hydrogen bond formation with O-acyl and chlorido occur. is a mixture of two linkage isomers in a 9 : 1 ratio, with two 5-methylpyrazole ligands or with one 3- and one 5-methylpyrazole ligand, respectively. Fluxional undergoes metallotropic tautomerization and is a mixture of equal amounts of and , with hydrido trans to pyrazole or chlorido, respectively. Complexes readily exchange hydrido by chlorido to afford [RhCl2{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(L)2] (, and ) as single isomers with cis chloridos and two N-HCl hydrogen bonds. The reaction of with PPh3 or PPh2OH affords static [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(PPh3)L] () or [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}(PPh2OH)L] () respectively with trans P-atoms and pyrazoles forming N-HCl hydrogen bonds. and contain single species with hydrido cis to chlorido, while is a mixture of equal amounts of and . Complexes , with an additional O-HO hydrogen bond, selectively contain only the cis-H,Cl species with all the three ligands. The reaction of [{RhCl(COD)}2] with L and PPh2(o-C6H4CHO) (Rh : L : P = 1 : 1 : 2) led to complexes with trans P-atoms, [RhHCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}{PPh2(o-C6H4CHO)-κP}L] (, and ), at room temperature, and to [RhCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}{PPh2(o-C6H4CHOH)}(Hmpz)] () or [RhCl{PPh2(o-C6H4CO)}2L] () with hydrogen evolution in refluxing benzene. DFT calculations were used to predict the correct isomers, their ratios and the particular intramolecular hydrogen bonds in these complexes. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on , and . Complexes are efficient homogeneous catalysts (0.5 mol% loading) in the hydrolysis of amine- or ammonia-borane (AB) to generate up to 3 equivalents

  8. Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Ménard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, initially multiplies inside liver cells and then in successive cycles inside erythrocytes, causing the symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss interactions between the extracellular and intracellular forms of the Plasmodium parasite and innate immune cells in the mammalian host, with a special emphasis on mononuclear phagocytes. We overview here what is known about the innate immune cells that interact with parasites, mechanisms used by the parasite to evade them, and the protective or detrimental contribution of these interactions on parasite progression through its life cycle and pathology in the host.

  9. (μ3-Hydrido[μ3-2-(trimethylsilylethylidyne-κ3C1:C1:C1]tetrakis[(η5-cyclopentadienylcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Rosenthal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Co4(C5H54(μ3-CCH2SiMe3(μ3-H], the Co atoms form a distorted tetrahedron with the ethylidyne moiety bridging three of the Co atoms as well as the hydrido ligand also bridging three of the Co atoms. The Co—Co bond lengths in the Co4 tetrahedron vary from 2.3844 (4 to 2.4608 (4 Å. Each Co atom is additionally η5-bonded to a cyclopentadienyl (Cp anion.

  10. Reaction of BH4- with [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)n] species to give tetrahydroborato, hydrido or dimetallaborane compounds: control of product by ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabon, Nolwenn; Petillon, Francois Y; Schollhammer, Philippe; Talarmin, Jean; Muir, Kenneth W

    2004-09-07

    The reaction of mono- or dichloro-dimolybdenum(III) complexes [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-Cl)(mu-Y)] (Cp=eta5-C5H5; 1, Y=SMe; 2, Y=PPh2; 3, Y=Cl) with NaBH4 at room temperature gave in high yields tetrahydroborato (8), hydrido (9) or metallaborane (12) complexes depending on the ancillary ligands. The correct formulation of derivatives and has been unambigously determined by X-ray diffraction methods. That of the hydrido compound 9 has been established in solution by NMR analysis and confirmed by an X-ray study of the mu-azavinylidene derivative [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-PPh2)(mu-N=CHMe)] (10) obtained from the insertion of acetonitrile into the Mo-H bond of 9. Reaction of NaBH4 with nitrile derivatives, [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)4-n(CH3CN)2n]n+(5, n=1; 6 n=2), afforded the tetrahydroborato compound 8, together with a mu-azavinylidene species [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)3(mu-N=CHMe)](14), when n=1, and the metallaborane complex 12, together with a mixed borohydrato-azavinylidene derivative [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-BH4)(mu-N=CHMe)] (13), when n=2. The molecular structures of these complexes have been confirmed by X-ray analysis. Preparations of some of the starting complexes (3 and 4) are also described, as are the molecular structures of the precursors [Mo2Cp2(mu-SMe)2(mu-X)(mu-Y)] (1, X/Y=Cl/SMe; 2, X/Y=Cl/PPh2; 4, X/Y=SMe/PPh2).

  11. Hydrido phosphanido bridged polynuclear complexes obtained by protonation of a phosphinito bridged Pt(I) complex with HBF4 and HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latronico, Mario; Mastrorilli, Piero; Gallo, Vito; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Creati, Francesco; Re, Nazzareno; Englert, Ulli

    2011-04-18

    The protonation of the phosphinito-bridged Pt(I) complex [(PHCy(2))Pt(μ-PCy(2)){κ(2)P,O-μ-P(O)Cy(2)}Pt(PHCy(2))](Pt-Pt) (1) by aqueous HBF(4) or hydrofluoric acid leads selectively to the hydrido-bridged solvento species syn-[(PHCy(2))(H(2)O)Pt(μ-PCy(2))(μ-H)Pt(PHCy(2)){κP-P(OH)Cy(2)}](Y)(2)(Pt-Pt) ([2-H(2)O]Y(2)) {Y = BF(4), F(HF)(n)} when an excess of acid was used. On standing in halogenated solvents, complex [2-H(2)O](BF(4))(2) undergoes a slow but complete isomerization to [(PHCy(2))(2)Pt(μ-PCy(2))(μ-H)Pt{κP-P(OH)Cy(2)}(H(2)O)](BF(4))(2)(Pt-Pt) ([4-H(2)O][BF(4)](2)) having the P(OH)Cy(2) ligand trans to the hydride. The water molecule coordinated to platinum in [2-H(2)O][BF(4)](2) is readily replaced by halides, nitriles, and triphenylphosphane, and the acetonitrile complex [2-CH(3)CN][BF(4)](2) was characterized by XRD analysis. Solvento species other than aqua complexes, such as [2-acetone-d(6)](2+) or [2-CD(2)Cl(2)](2+) were obtained in solution by the reaction of excess etherate HBF(4) with 1 in the relevant solvent. The complex [2-H(2)O](Y)(2) [Y = F(HF)(n)] spontaneously isomerizes into the terminal hydrido complexes [(PHCy(2))Pt(μ-PCy(2)){κ(2)P,O-μ-P(O)Cy(2)}Pt(H)(PHCy(2))](Y)(Pt-Pt) ([6](Y)). In the presence of HF, complex [6](Y) transforms into the bis-phosphanido-bridged Pt(II) dinuclear complex [(PHCy(2))(H)Pt(μ-PCy(2))(2)Pt{κP-P(OH)Cy(2)}](Y)(Pt-Pt) ([7](Y)). When the reaction of 1 with HF was carried out with diluted hydrofluoric acid by allowing the HF to slowly diffuse into the dichloromethane solution, the main product was the linear 60e tetranuclear complex [(PHCy(2)){κP-P(O)Cy(2)}Pt(1)(μ-PCy(2))(μ-H)Pt(2)(μ-PCy(2))](2)(Pt(1)-Pt(2)) (8). Insoluble compound 8 is readily protonated by HBF(4) in dichloromethane, forming the more soluble species [(PHCy(2)){κP-P(OH)Cy(2)}Pt(1)(μ-PCy(2))(μ-H)Pt(2)(μ-PCy(2))](2)(BF(4))(2)(Pt(1)-Pt(2)) {[9][BF(4)](2)}. XRD analysis of [9][BF(4)](2)·2CH(2)Cl(2) shows that [9](2+) is comprised of

  12. Piperidinium 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Zhu Wan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystals of the title salt, C5H12N+·C11H7O3−, were obtained from a methanol/water solution of 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and piperidine at room temperature. In the crystal structure, the piperidinium cations display a chair conformation and link with hydroxynaphthoate anions via N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds. An intramolecular O—H...O interaction is also present.

  13. N′-(2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylidenebenzenesulfonohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapipah M. Ali

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C13H11N3O5S, shows a phenyl group and an almost planar intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded N′-(2-hydroxy-5-phenylebenzylidenehydrazino group disposed about the S atom. Adjacent molecules are linked by N—H...Onitro hydrogen bonds, producing a linear chain that runs along the b axis of the unit cell.

  14. Unprecedented solvent-assisted reactivity of Hydrido W3CuS4 cubane clusters: the non-innocent behaviour of the cluster-core unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra, Andrés G; Feliz, Marta; Fernández-Trujillo, M Jesús; Llusar, Rosa; Safont, Vicent S; Vicent, Cristian; Basallote, Manuel G

    2009-01-01

    Opening the cluster core: Substitution of the chloride ligand in the novel cationic cluster [W(3)CuS(4)H(3)Cl(dmpe)(3)](+) (see figure; dmpe=1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) by acetonitrile is promoted by water addition. Kinetic and density functional theory studies lead to a mechanistic proposal in which acetonitrile or water attack causes the opening of the cluster core with dissociation of one of the Cu--S bonds to accommodate the entering ligand.Reaction of the incomplete cuboidal cationic cluster [W(3)S(4)H(3)(dmpe)(3)](+) (dmpe=1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) with Cu(I) compounds produces rare examples of cationic heterodimetallic hydrido clusters of formula [W(3)CuClS(4)H(3)(dmpe)(3)](+) ([1](+)) and [W(3)Cu(CH(3)CN)S(4)H(3)(dmpe)(3)](2+) ([2](2+)). An unexpected conversion of [1](+) into [2](2+), which involves substitution of chloride by CH(3)CN at the copper centre, has been observed in CH(3)CN/H(2)O mixtures. Surprisingly, formation of the acetonitrile complex does not occur in neat acetonitrile and requires the presence of water. The kinetics of this reaction has been studied and the results indicate that the process is accelerated when the water concentration increases and is retarded in the presence of added chloride. Computational studies have also been carried out and a mechanism for the substitution reaction is proposed in which attack at the copper centre by acetonitrile or water causes disruption of the cubane-type core. ESI-MS experiments support the formation of intermediates with an open-core cluster structure. This kind of process is unprecedented in the chemistry of M(3)M'Q(4) (M=Mo, W; Q=S, Se) clusters, and allows for the transient appearance of a new coordination site at the M' site which could explain some aspects of the reactivity and catalytic properties of this kind of clusters.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of mononuclear phagocyte development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane eTussiwand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe mononuclear-phagocyte system (MPS, which comprises dendritic cells (DCs, macrophages and monocytes, is a heterogeneous group of myeloid cells. The complexity of the MPS is equally reflected by the plasticity in function and phenotype that characterizes each subset depending on their location and activation state. Specialized subsets of Mononuclear Phagocytes (MP reside in defined anatomical locations, are critical for the homeostatic maintenance of tissues, and provide the link between innate and adaptive immune responses during infections. The ability of MP to maintain or to induce the correct tolerogenic or inflammatory milieu also resides in their complex subset specialization. Such subset heterogeneity is obtained through lineage diversification and specification, which is controlled by defined transcriptional networks and programs. Understanding the MP biology means to define their transcriptional signature, which is required during lineage commitment, and which characterizes each subset’s features. This review will focus on the transcriptional regulation of the MPS; in particular what determines lineage commitment and functional identity; we will emphasizes recent advances in the field of single cell analysis and highlight unresolved questions in the field.

  16. Si-H bond activation at {(NHC)₂Ni⁰} leading to hydrido silyl and bis(silyl) complexes: a versatile tool for catalytic Si-H/D exchange, acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of hydrosilanes, and hydrogenation of disilanes to hydrosilanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David; Zell, Thomas; Schaub, Thomas; Radius, Udo

    2014-07-28

    The unique reactivity of the nickel(0) complex [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(COD)] (1) (iPr2Im = 1,3-di-isopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene) towards hydrosilanes in stoichiometric and catalytic reactions is reported. A series of nickel hydrido silyl complexes cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(H)(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))] (n = 1, 2) and nickel bis(silyl) complexes cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))2] (n = 1, 2, 3) were synthesized by stoichiometric reactions of 1 with hydrosilanes H(n)SiR(4-n), and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods. These hydrido silyl complexes are examples where the full oxidative addition step is hindered. They have, as a result of the remaining Si-H interactions, remarkably short Si-H distances and feature a unique dynamic behavior in solution. Cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(H)(SiMePh2)] (cis-5) shows in solution at room temperature a dynamic site exchange of the NHC ligands, H-D exchange with C6D6 to give the deuteride complex cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(D)(SiMePh2)] (cis-5-D), and at elevated temperatures an irreversible isomerization to trans-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(D)(SiMePh2)] (trans-5-D). Reactions with sterically less demanding silanes give cis-configured bis(silyl) complexes accompanied by the release of dihydrogen. These complexes display, similarly to the hydrido silyl complexes, interestingly short Si-Si distances. Complex 1 reacts with 4 eq. HSi(OEt)3, in contrast to all the other silanes used in this study, to give the trans-configured bis(silyl) complex trans-[Ni(iPr2Im)2Ni(Si(OEt)3)2] (trans-12). The addition of two equivalents of Ph2SiH2 to 1 results, at elevated temperatures, in the formation of the dinuclear complex [{(iPr2Im)Ni-μ(2)-(HSiPh2)}2] (6). This diamagnetic, formal Ni(I) complex exhibits a long Ni-Ni bond in the solid state, as established by X-ray diffraction. The capability of the electron rich {Ni(iPr2Im)2} complex fragment to activate Si-H bonds was applied catalytically in the deuteration of Et3Si-H to Et3Si-D employing C6D6 as a convenient deuterium source

  17. Selective activation of C-F and C-H bonds with iron complexes, the relevant mechanism study by DFT calculations and study on the chemical properties of hydrido iron complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Jia, Jiong; Sun, Hongjian; Liu, Yuxia; Xu, Wengang; Shi, Yujie; Zhang, Dongju; Li, Xiaoyan

    2013-03-14

    The reactions of (2,6-difluorophenyl)phenylmethanone (2,6-F(2)C(6)H(3)-C(=O)-C(6)H(5)) (1) and (2,6-difluorophenyl)phenylmethanimine (2,6-F(2)C(6)H(3)-C(=NH)-C(6)H(5)) (3) with Fe(PMe(3))(4) afforded different selective C-F/C-H bond activation products. The reaction of 1 with Fe(PMe(3))(4) gave rise to bis-chelate iron(II) complex [C(6)H(5)-C(=O)-3-FC(6)H(3))Fe(PMe(3))](2) (2) via C-F bond activation. The reaction of 3 with Fe(PMe(3))(4) delivered chelate hydrido iron(II) complex 2,6-F(2)C(6)H(3)-C(=NH)-C(6)H(4))Fe(H)(PMe(3))(3) (4) through C-H bond activation. The DFT calculations show the detailed elementary steps of the mechanism of formation of hydrido complex 4 and indicate 4 is the kinetically preferred product. Complex 4 reacted with HCl, CH(3)Br and CH(3)I delivered the chelate iron halides (2,6-F(2)C(6)H(3)-C(=NH)-C(6)H(4))Fe(PMe(3))(3)X (X = Cl (5); Br (6); I (7)). A ligand (PMe(3)) replacement by CO of 4 was observed giving (2,6-F(2)C(6)H(3)-C(=NH)-C(6)H(4))Fe(H)(CO)(PMe(3))(2) (8). The chelate ligand exchange occurred through the reaction of 4 with salicylaldehydes. The reaction of 4 with Me(3)SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH afforded (2,6-F(2)C(6)H(3)-C([double bond, length as m-dash]N)-C(6)H(5))Fe(C≡C-SiMe(3))(PMe(3))(3) (11). A reaction mechanism from 4 to 11 was discussed with the support of IR monitoring. The molecular structures of complexes 2, 4, 6, 7, 10 and 11 were determined by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Iron metabolism in the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weina Kong; Xianglin Duan; Zhenhua Shi; Yanzhong Chang

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance of body iron homeostasis requires the coordination of multiple regulatory mechanisms of iron metabolism.The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS,composed of monocytes,macrophages,and their precursor cells) is crucial in the maintenance of iron homeostasis.Recycling of iron is carried out by specialized macrophages via engulfment of aged erythrocytes.The iron stores of macrophages depend on the levels of recovered and exported iron.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying iron homeostasis in macrophages are poorly understood.Recent studies characterizing the function and regulation of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nrampl),divalent metal transporter 1 (DMTI),HLA-linked hemechromatosis gene (HFE),ferroportin 1 (FPN1),and hepcidin are rapidly expanding our knowledge on the molecular level of MPS iron handling.These studies are deepening our understanding about the molecular mechanism of iron homeostasis and iron-related diseases.

  19. Homeostasis in the mononuclear phagocyte system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Stephen J; Hume, David A

    2014-08-01

    The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is a family of functionally related cells including bone marrow precursors, blood monocytes, and tissue macrophages. We review the evidence that macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are separate lineages and functional entities, and examine whether the traditional view that monocytes are the immediate precursors of tissue macrophages needs to be refined based upon evidence that macrophages can extensively self-renew and can be seeded from yolk sac/foetal liver progenitors with little input from monocytes thereafter. We review the role of the growth factor colony-stimulating factor (CSF)1, and present a model consistent with the concept of the MPS in which local proliferation and monocyte recruitment are connected to ensure macrophages occupy their well-defined niche in most tissues.

  20. N′-[(2-Hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene]-2-nitrobenzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Hao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title Schiff base compound, C18H13N3O4, prepared by the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-nitrobenzohydrazide, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and naphthyl ring system is 23.0 (2°. There is an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond involving the naphthalene hydroxy substituent and a hydrazide N atom. In the crystal structure, symmetry-related molecules are linked through intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating in [101].

  1. Mononuclear Cells and Vascular Repair in HHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calinda eDingenouts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a rare genetic vascular disorder known for its endothelial dysplasia causing arteriovenous malformations and severe bleedings. HHT-1 and HHT-2 are the most prevalent variants and are caused by heterozygous mutations in endoglin and ALK1, respectively. An undervalued aspect of the disease is that HHT patients experience persistent inflammation. Although endothelial and mural cells have been the main research focus trying to unravel the mechanism behind the disease, wound healing is a process with a delicate balance between inflammatory and vascular cells. Inflammatory cells are part of the mononuclear cells (MNCs fraction, and can, next to eliciting an immune response, also have angiogenic potential. This biphasic effect of MNC can hold a promising mechanism to further elucidate treatment strategies for HHT patients. Before MNC are able to contribute to repair, they need to home to and retain in ischemic and damaged tissue. Directed migration (homing of mononuclear cells following tissue damage is regulated by the stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1. MNCs that express the C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 migrate towards the tightly regulated gradient of SDF1. This directed migration of monocytes and lymphocytes can be inhibited by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4. Interestingly, MNC of HHT patients express elevated levels of DPP4 and show impaired homing towards damaged tissue. Impaired homing capacity of the MNCs might therefore contribute to the impaired angiogenesis and tissue repair observed in HHT patients. This review summarizes recent studies regarding the role of MNCs in the etiology of HHT and vascular repair, and evaluates the efficacy of DPP4 inhibition in tissue integrity and repair.

  2. Synthesis of alkenyl 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubareva, N. D.; Godunova, L. F.; Kurilov, D. V.; Razmanov, I. V.; Klabunovskii, E. I.; Stakheev, A. Yu.; Kustov, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    Esterification of 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid with homologous primary and secondary alkenyl alcohols with different chain lengths in the presence of N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and 1,8-diazabicyclo[ 5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) in N,N-dimethylformamide gave the corresponding esters.

  3. Synthesis of lesquerella a-hydroxy phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) have found a number of uses in today’s market, with uses ranging from industrial materials to pharmaceuticals. Castor oil, which is obtained from castor seeds, has served as a source of a versatile HFA; its principle component, ricinoleic acid, can be isolated from castor ...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6485 - Hydroxy terminated polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydroxy terminated polyester. 721.6485... Substances § 721.6485 Hydroxy terminated polyester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydroxy terminated...

  5. Synthesis of Gingerenone C and 5-Hydroxy-1-(4'-hydroxy- 3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The two diarylheptanoids (E)-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl) hept-4-en-3-one 1 (Gingerenone C) and (±)-5-hydroxy-1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4"-hydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone 2 were synthesized from vanillin 3 and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde 9.

  6. Phenalenyl-based mononuclear dysprosium complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Lan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenalenyl-based dysprosium complexes [Dy(PLN2(HPLNCl(EtOH] (1, [Dy(PLN3(HPLN]·[Dy(PLN3(EtOH]·2EtOH (2 and [Dy(PLN3(H2O2]·H2O (3, HPLN being 9-hydroxy-1H-phenalen-1-one, have been synthesized. All compounds were fully characterized by means of single crystal X-ray analysis, paramagnetic 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV–vis spectrophotometry and magnetic measurements. Both static (dc and dynamic (ac magnetic properties of these complexes have been investigated, showing slow relaxation of magnetization, indicative of single molecule magnet (SMM behavior. Attempts to synthesize sublimable phenalenyl-based dysprosium complexes have been made by implementing a synthetic strategy under anhydrous conditions. The sublimed species were characterized and their thermal stability was confirmed. This opens up the possibility to deposit phenalenyl-based lanthanides complexes by sublimation onto surfaces, an important prerequisite for ongoing studies in molecular spintronics.

  7. Hydrido-ruthenium cluster complexes as models for reactive surface hydrogen species of ruthenium nanoparticles. Solid-state 2H NMR and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Torsten; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Yeping, Xu; Wächtler, Maria; del Rosal, Iker; Grünberg, Anna; Poteau, Romuald; Axet, Rosa; Lavigne, Guy; Chaudret, Bruno; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2010-08-25

    The (2)H quadrupolar interaction is a sensitive tool for the characterization of deuterium-metal binding states. In the present study, experimental solid-state (2)H MAS NMR techniques are used in the investigations of two ruthenium clusters, D(4)Ru(4)(CO)(12) (1) and D(2)Ru(6)(CO)(18) (2), which serve as model compounds for typical two-fold, three-fold, and octahedral coordination sites on metal surfaces. By line-shape analysis of the (2)H MAS NMR measurements of sample 1, a quadrupolar coupling constant of 67 +/- 1 kHz, an asymmetry parameter of 0.67 +/- 0.1, and an isotropic chemical shift of -17.4 ppm are obtained. In addition to the neutral complex, sample 2 includes two ionic clusters, identified as anionic [DRu(6)(CO)(18)](-) (2(-)) and cationic [D(3)Ru(6)(CO)(18)](+) (2(+)). By virtue of the very weak quadrupolar interaction (Quantum chemical DFT calculations at different model structures for these ruthenium clusters were arranged in order to help in the interpretation of the experimental results. It is shown that the (2)H nuclear quadrupolar interaction is a sensitive tool for distinguishing the binding state of the deuterons to the transition metal. Combining the data from the polynuclear complexes with the data from mononuclear complexes, a molecular ruler for quadrupolar interactions is created. This ruler now permits the solid-state NMR spectroscopic characterization of deuterium adsorbed on the surfaces of catalytically active metal nanoparticles.

  8. Methyl 6-dimethylamino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Hyeak Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H15NO3, the ester group is oriented so that the carbonyl group points in the opposite direction to the hydroxy group. The molecule as a whole is almost planar (the r.m.s. deviation of the non-H atoms is 0.0268 Å. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite chains that propagate parallel to the c axis.

  9. Synthesis of mononuclear copper(II) complexes of acyclic Schiff's base ligands: Spectral, structural, electrochemical, antibacterial, DNA binding and cleavage activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamani, Arumugam; Thamilarasan, Vijayan; Sengottuvelan, Nallathambi; Manisankar, Paramasivam; Kang, Sung Kwon; Kim, Young-Inn; Ganesan, Vengatesan

    2014-03-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes (1&2) of ligands L1 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl)piperazine] or L2 [N,N";-bis(2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzyl)-1,4-bis(3-iminopropyl) piperazine] have been synthesized and characterised. The single crystal X-ray study had shown that ligands L1 and L2 crystallize in a monoclinic crystal system with P21/c space group. The mononuclear copper(II) complexes show one quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response near cathodic region (-0.77 to -0.85 V) in DMF assignable to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. Binding interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) investigated by absorption studies and fluorescence spectral studies show good binding affinity to CT DNA, which imply both the copper(II) complexes can strongly interact with DNA efficiently. The copper(II) complexes showed efficient oxidative cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as reducing agent through a mechanistic pathway involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species. The Schiff bases and their Cu(II) complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities which indicates that the complexes exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands.

  10. Coordination diversity of new mononuclear ONS hydrazone with transition metals: Synthesis, characterization, molecular modeling and antimicrobial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Omima M. I.; Taha, A.

    2013-04-01

    The mononuclear hydrazone ligand, H2L, a condensation product of 4-amino-6-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-5(2H)-one with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and its metal chelates of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), VO(IV) and UO2(VI) ions were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, spectral, magnetic and molar conductance studies as well as thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The physico-chemical studies support that the ligand acts as mono- or dibasic tridentate ONS donor toward metal ions forming a mononuclear square planar, tetrahedral, square pyramidal and octahedral geometrical arrangements except UO2(VI) complex in which the metal ion is octa-coordinated. The ligand field parameters, Dq, B and β values, in the case of the cobalt and nickel complexes are calculated. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition for some metal complexes studied and their thermodynamic parameters were reported. Structural parameters of the ligand and its metal chelates have been calculated and correlated with the experimental data. The ligand and its metal chelates were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium as Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans as fungus strain.

  11. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  12. Substituted 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippione, Agnese C.; Dosio, Franco; Ducime, Alex;

    2015-01-01

    Bioisosterism and scaffold hopping are two widely used approaches in medicinal chemistry for the purpose of lead optimization. The study highlights the physicochemical properties of the 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazole scaffold, a less investigated heterocyclic system. Synthetic strategies to obtain diff......, with the 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazole scaffold. The 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazole system appears to be useful and versatile in drug design....

  13. (2-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl(2-hydroxyphenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H12O4, is an asymmetric substitution product of benzophenone. Both hydroxy groups are orientated towards the O atom of the keto group. Intramolecular as well as intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds can be observed in the crystal structure, with the latter connecting the molecules into chains along the crystallographic b axis. C—H...O contacts [C...O = 3.3297 (18 Å] are also apparent. The closest centroid–centroid distance between two aromatic systems is 4.9186 (9 Å.

  14. Methyl N-hydroxy-N-(2-methylphenylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There are three independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C9H11NO3, which are connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming an R33(15 ring. The dihedral angles between the planes of the benzene and amide groups are 75.16 (3, 71.47 (3 and 70.56 (3°. The hydroxy O atom lies 0.912 (3, 1.172 (2 and 1.339 (2 Å from the mean plane of the corresponding benzene ring in the three molecules.

  15. Chiral hydroxy phosphonates: synthesis, configuration and biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I [Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Petrochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-03-31

    Published data on the synthesis, absolute configurations and biological properties of chiral hydroxy phosphonates are generalised and described systematically. Examples of asymmetric synthesis of hydroxy phosphonates by the phospho-aldol reaction, reduction of keto phosphonates, chemo-enzymatic approach, and so on are discussed. Methods for determination of the optical purity and absolute configuration of hydroxy phosphonates using modification by chiral reagents, NMR, circular dichroism, GLC and HPLC on columns with chiral sorbents are considered. The significance of hydroxy phosphonates as promising compounds for the development of new drugs and bioregulators is demonstrated.

  16. Chiral hydroxy phosphonates: synthesis, configuration and biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I.

    2006-03-01

    Published data on the synthesis, absolute configurations and biological properties of chiral hydroxy phosphonates are generalised and described systematically. Examples of asymmetric synthesis of hydroxy phosphonates by the phospho-aldol reaction, reduction of keto phosphonates, chemo-enzymatic approach, and so on are discussed. Methods for determination of the optical purity and absolute configuration of hydroxy phosphonates using modification by chiral reagents, NMR, circular dichroism, GLC and HPLC on columns with chiral sorbents are considered. The significance of hydroxy phosphonates as promising compounds for the development of new drugs and bioregulators is demonstrated.

  17. Cytotoxicity of bovine and porcine collagen membranes in mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Carneiro, Karine Fernandes; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Magalhães, Denildo

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the cytotoxicity and the release of nitric oxide induced by collagen membranes in human mononuclear cells. Peripheral blood was collected from each patient and the separation of mononuclear cells was performed by Ficoll. Then, 2x10(5) cells were plated in 48-well culture plates under the membranes in triplicate. The polystyrene surface was used as negative control. Cell viability was assessed by measuring mitochondrial activity (MTT) at 4, 12 and 24 h, with dosage levels of nitrite by the Griess method for the same periods. Data had non-normal distribution and were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (pporcine membrane induced a higher release of nitrite compared with the control and bovine membrane, respectively (pporcine collagen membrane induces an increased production of proinflammatory mediators by mononuclear cells in the first hours of contact, decreasing with time.

  18. ACTIVATION OF HUMAN BLOOD MONONUCLEARS BY LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zubova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS composition upon activation of human blood mononuclears was investigated, by measuring levels of pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL-6 cytokines released by the cells. It is shown that LPS from Rhodobacter capsulatus PG, in contrast to E. coli LPS, did not activate the target cells for synthesis of the cytokines.

  19. Mononuclear spin-transition materials based on the bapbpy scaffold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Sipeng

    2014-01-01

    Spin-crossover compounds showing thermal hysteresis exhibit magnetic and colourmetric bistablility, which is of interest for a number of applications such as information storage and optical displays. Mononuclear iron(II) complexes hold considerable potential in this field, and their cooperative prop

  20. Urinary 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic (vanillylmandelic) acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic (homovanillic) acid, and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid determined by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Maruta, K; Ito, S; Nagatsu, T

    1983-05-01

    We describe a simple liquid-chromatographic assay of urinary 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic (vanillylmandelic) acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic (homovanillic) acid, and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid with electrochemical detection, with direct injection of the sample. The first two analytes are measured simultaneously; 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid is measured separately. Chromatographic conditions for assay of the three were: column temperature, 65 and 60 degrees C; mobile phase, potassium phosphate buffer (0.2 mol/L, pH 3.0) for 6 min, then potassium phosphate buffer plus acetonitrile (9/1 by vol) for 20 min; flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; oxidation potential, 600 and 450 mV vs an Ag/AgCl reference electrode; and sensitivity, 40 and 160 nA at full scale. Values so obtained agreed well with those obtained for samples that were first solvent-extracted.

  1. A mononuclear zinc(II) complex with piroxicam: crystal structure, DNA- and BSA-binding studies; in vitro cell cytotoxicity and molecular modeling of oxicam complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesari, Zahra; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Amirghofran, Zahra; Simpson, Jim; Khayamian, Taghi; Maleki, Batool

    2015-02-05

    A new mononuclear Zn(II) complex, trans-[Zn(Pir)2(DMSO)2], where Pir(-) is 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide (piroxicam), has been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of the complex was obtained by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The interaction of the complex with DNA and BSA was investigated. The complex interacts with FS-DNA by two binding modes, viz., electrostatic and groove binding (major and minor). The microenvironment and the secondary structure of BSA are changed in the presence of the complex. The anticancer effects of the seven complexes of oxicam family were also determined on the human K562 cell lines and the results showed reasonable cytotoxicities. The interactions of the oxicam complexes with BSA and DNA were modeled by molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation methods.

  2. A mononuclear zinc(II) complex with piroxicam: Crystal structure, DNA- and BSA-binding studies; in vitro cell cytotoxicity and molecular modeling of oxicam complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannesari, Zahra; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Amirghofran, Zahra; Simpson, Jim; Khayamian, Taghi; Maleki, Batool

    2015-02-01

    A new mononuclear Zn(II) complex, trans-[Zn(Pir)2(DMSO)2], where Pir- is 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide (piroxicam), has been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of the complex was obtained by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The interaction of the complex with DNA and BSA was investigated. The complex interacts with FS-DNA by two binding modes, viz., electrostatic and groove binding (major and minor). The microenvironment and the secondary structure of BSA are changed in the presence of the complex. The anticancer effects of the seven complexes of oxicam family were also determined on the human K562 cell lines and the results showed reasonable cytotoxicities. The interactions of the oxicam complexes with BSA and DNA were modeled by molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation methods.

  3. Synthesis, spectral, photolysis and electrochemical studies of mononuclear copper(II) complex with a new asymmetric tetradentate ligand: Application as copper nanoparticle precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mikhak, Maryam

    2012-10-01

    A copper(II) complex with asymmetric tetradentate Schiff base ligand, obtained by the single condensation of 1,2-diaminopropane with 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde was prepared. The ligand and complex were characterized by their IR, UV-Vis, FT-IR, NMR spectra and CV. Crystal structures of the mononuclear copper complex have been obtained by X-ray diffraction studies which revealed to be distorted square planner coordination geometry. The spectral data confirm coordination of ligand to copper ion center. The redox properties of complex at different scan rates exhibit grossly similar features consisting of an electrochemically pseudo-reversible Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction at ca. -0.97 V and pseudo-reversible Cu(I)/Cu(II) oxidation at ca. -0.81 V. The copper nanoparticles with average size of 73 nm were formed by thermal reduction of copper complex in the presence of triphenylphosphine.

  4. Synthesis, spectral, photolysis and electrochemical studies of mononuclear copper(II) complex with a new asymmetric tetradentate ligand: application as copper nanoparticle precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mikhak, Maryam

    2012-10-01

    A copper(II) complex with asymmetric tetradentate Schiff base ligand, obtained by the single condensation of 1,2-diaminopropane with 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzaldehyde was prepared. The ligand and complex were characterized by their IR, UV-Vis, FT-IR, NMR spectra and CV. Crystal structures of the mononuclear copper complex have been obtained by X-ray diffraction studies which revealed to be distorted square planner coordination geometry. The spectral data confirm coordination of ligand to copper ion center. The redox properties of complex at different scan rates exhibit grossly similar features consisting of an electrochemically pseudo-reversible Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction at ca. -0.97 V and pseudo-reversible Cu(I)/Cu(II) oxidation at ca. -0.81 V. The copper nanoparticles with average size of 73 nm were formed by thermal reduction of copper complex in the presence of triphenylphosphine.

  5. O-hydroxy-functionalized diamines, polymides, methods of making each, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua

    2016-01-21

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for an ortho (o)-hydroxy-functionalized diamine, a method of making an o-hydroxy-functionalized diamine, an o-hydroxy-functionalized diamine-based polyimide, a method of making an o-hydroxy-functionalized diamine imide, methods of gas separation, and the like.

  6. Bone marrow mononuclears from murine tibia after spaceflight on biosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena; Roe, Maria; Buravkova, Ludmila; Andrianova, Irina; Goncharova, Elena; Gornostaeva, Alexandra

    Elucidation of the space flight effects on the adult stem and progenitor cells is an important goal in space biology and medicine. A unique opportunity for this is provided by project "BION -M1". The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 30-day flight on biosatellite "BION - M1" and the subsequent 7-day recovery on the quantity, viability, immunophenotype of mononuclears from murine tibia bone marrow. Also the in vitro characterization of functional capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) was scheduled. Under the project, the S57black/6 mice were divided into groups: spaceflight/vivarium control, recovery after spaceflight/ vivarium control to recovery. Bone marrow mononuclears were isolated from the tibia and immunophenotyped using antibodies against CD45, CD34, CD90 on a flow cytometer Epics XL (Beckman Coulter). A part of the each pool was frozen for subsequent estimation of hematopoietic colony-forming units (CFU), the rest was used for the evaluation of fibroblast CFU (CFUf) number, MSC proliferative activity and osteogenic potency. The cell number in the flight group was significantly lower than in the vivarium control group. There were no differences in this parameter between flight and control groups after 7 days of recovery. The mononuclears viability was more than 95 percent in all examined groups. Flow cytometric analysis showed no differences in the bone marrow cell immunophenotype (CD45, CD34, CD90.1 (Thy1)), but the flight animals had more large-sized CD45+mononuclears, than the control groups of mice. There was no difference in the CFUf number between groups. After 7 days in vitro the MSC number in flight group was twice higher than in vivarium group, after 10 days - 4 times higher. These data may indicate a higher proliferative activity of MSCs after spaceflight. MSCs showed the same and high alkaline phosphatase activity, both in flight and in the control groups, suggesting no effect of spaceflight factors on early

  7. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.J.; Kapdi, S.G.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.P.

    The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described...

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray studies on three new mononuclear Ni(II) pincer type complexes: DFT calculations and their antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samaresh; Agrahari, Bhumika; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Kumari, Chanda; Anuradha; Ganguly, Rakesh; Pathak, Devendra D.

    2017-08-01

    Three new mononuclear square planar Ni(II) complexes, containing pincer type tridentate Schiff base ligands, having general formula [(NiL1(4-MePy)] (1), [(NiL1(2-AzNp)] (2), and [(NiL2(4-MePy)] (3) [where L1 = anion of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) benzoylhydrazide (HL1), L2 = anion of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) thiosemicarbazide (HL2), 4-MePy = 4-Methylpyridine and 2-AzNp = 2-Azanapthalene] have been synthesized and fully characterized by FT-IR, UV-visible, NMR, single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and elemental analysis. All the three complexes show square planar geometry around the nickel atom. The pincer type ligand occupies three coordination sites, while the fourth site is occupied by the monodentate nitrogen containing ligand. The Quantum chemical DFT calculations have also been carried out using DFT/B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The synthesized nickel complexes were screened for antimicrobial activities by agar well diffusion method against E. coli bacteria. Out of three complexes, [(NiL2(4-MePy)] (3) only showed the antimicrobial activity against E. coli bacteria.

  9. Fetal hemoglobin accumulation in vitro. Effect of adherent mononuclear cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Javid, J; Pettis, P K

    1983-01-01

    In clonal cultures of erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) obtained from blood, the accumulation of fetal and adult hemoglobins (Hb F and Hb A) was measured by radioligand immunoassay. Inclusion of adherent mononuclear cells in the culture promoted a striking increase in the relative amount of Hb F in each of 44 experiments with 14 donors. In two-thirds of the instances, this was accounted for by a selective increase in the absolute amount of Hb F. The differential effect on Hb F and Hb A ac...

  10. Cryptococcal 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids Protect Cells Against Amoebal Phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Uju L; Ogundeji, Adepemi O; Mochochoko, Bonang M; Pohl, Carolina H; Albertyn, Jacobus; Swart, Chantel W; Allwood, J William; Southam, Andrew D; Dunn, Warwick B; May, Robin C; Sebolai, Olihile M

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on a 3-hydroxy fatty acid that is secreted via cryptococcal capsular protuberances - possibly to promote pathogenesis and survival. Thus, we investigated the role of this molecule in mediating the fate of Cryptococcus (C.) neoformans and the related species C. gattii when predated upon by amoebae. We show that this molecule protects cells against the phagocytic effects of amoebae. C. neoformans UOFS Y-1378 (which produces 3-hydroxy fatty acids) was less sensitive toward amoebae compared to C. neoformans LMPE 046 and C. gattii R265 (both do not produce 3-hydroxy fatty acids) and addition of 3-hydroxy fatty acids to C. neoformans LMPE 046 and C. gattii R265 culture media, causes these strains to become more resistant to amoebal predation. Conversely, addition of aspirin (a 3-hydroxy fatty acid inhibitor) to C. neoformans UOFS Y-1378 culture media made cells more susceptible to amoebae. Our data suggest that this molecule is secreted at a high enough concentration to effect intracellular signaling within amoeba, which in turn, promotes fungal survival.

  11. Cryptococcal 3-hydroxy fatty acids protect cells against amoebal phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uju Lynda Madu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported on a 3-hydroxy fatty acid that is secreted via cryptococcal capsular protuberances - possibly to promote pathogenesis and survival. Thus, we investigated the role of this molecule in mediating the fate of Cryptococcus (C. neoformans and the related species C. gattii when predated upon by amoebae. We show that this molecule protects cells against the phagocytic effects of amoebae. C. neoformans UOFS Y-1378 (which produces 3-hydroxy fatty acids was less sensitive towards amoebae compared to C. neoformans LMPE 046 and C. gattii R265 (both do not produce 3-hydroxy fatty acids and addition of 3-hydroxy fatty acids to C. neoformans LMPE 046 and C. gattii R265 culture media, causes these strains to become more resistant to amoebal predation. Conversely, addition of aspirin (a 3-hydroxy fatty acid inhibitor to C. neoformans UOFS Y-1378 culture media made cells more susceptible to amoebae. Our data suggest that this molecule is secreted at a high enough concentration to effect intracellular signalling within amoeba, which in turn, promotes fungal survival.

  12. Antiangiogenic activity of 2-formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K-H; Lee, K K-H; Kok, S H-L; Wong, R S-M; Lau, F-Y; Cheng, G Y-M; Wong, W-Y; Tong, S-W; Chan, K-W; Chan, R Y-K; Tang, J C-O; Cheng, C-H; Hau, D K-P; Bian, Z-X; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2016-05-01

    Tumour growth is closely related to the development of new blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to cancer cells. Without the neovascular formation, tumour volumes cannot increase and undergo metastasis. Antiangiogenesis is one of the most promising approaches for antitumour therapy. The exploration of new antiangiogenic agents would be helpful in antitumour therapy. Quinoline is an aromatic nitrogen compound characterized by a double-ring structure which exhibits a benzene ring fused to pyridine at two adjacent carbon atoms. The high stability of quinoline makes it preferable in a variety of therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, including antitumour treatment. This work is to examine the potential antiangiogenic activity of the synthetic compound 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride. We found that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Using the diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride showed strong antiangiogenic activity. Furthermore, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of large Hep3B xenografted tumour from the nude mice. We assume that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could be a potential antiangiogenic and antitumour agent and it is worthwhile to further study its underlying working mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Giovanni; Pozzi, Silvia; Pignataro, Mauro; Lauranzano, Eliana; Spano, Giorgia; Garbelli, Silvia; Mantovani, Stefania; Marinou, Kalliopi; Papetti, Laura; Monteforte, Marta; Torri, Valter; Paris, Luca; Bazzoni, Gianfranco; Lunetta, Christian; Corbo, Massimo; Mora, Gabriele; Bendotti, Caterina; Bonetto, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments. We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%), and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%), between two levels of disease severity (90%), and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing. Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  15. Increased oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannelli, Lisa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lisag@pharm.unifi.it; Bellandi, Serena [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Pitozzi, Vanessa [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Fabbri, Paolo [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Dolara, Piero [Department of Preclinical and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy); Moretti, Silvia [Department of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence (Italy)

    2004-11-22

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of the skin of unknown aetiology. The autocytotoxic hypothesis suggests that melanocyte impairment could be related to increased oxidative stress. Evidences have been reported that in vitiligo oxidative stress might also be present systemically. We used the comet assay (single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis) to evaluate DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation, measured as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites, in peripheral blood cells from patients with active vitiligo and healthy controls. The basal level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes was increased in vitiligo compared to normal subjects, whereas DNA strand breaks (SBs) were not changed. This alteration was not accompanied by a different capability to respond to in vitro oxidative challenge. No differences in the basal levels of DNA damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found between patients and healthy subjects. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that in vitiligo a systemic oxidative stress exists, and demonstrates for the first time the presence of oxidative alterations at the nuclear level. The increase in oxidative DNA damage shown in the mononuclear component of peripheral blood leukocytes from vitiligo patients was not particularly severe. However, these findings support an adjuvant role of antioxidant treatment in vitiligo.

  16. Crystal structure of 5-hydroxy-5-propylbarbituric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gelbrich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound, C7H10N2O4, systematic name 5-hydroxy-5-propylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H-trione, form a hydrogen-bonded framework which is based on three independent hydrogen bonds, N—H...O(carbonyl, N—H...O(hydroxy and O—H...O(carbonyl. This framework has the topology of the 5-connected nov net. Each molecule is linked to five other molecules via six hydrogen bonds, and the descriptor of the hydrogen-bonded structure is F65[44.66-nov]. The crystal packing is isostructural with that of the previously reported 5-hydroxy-5-ethyl analogue.

  17. (4-Chlorophenyl(2-hydroxy-7-methoxynaphthalen-1-ylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yonezawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H13ClO3, has an intramolecular O—H...O=C hydrogen bond between the carbonyl group and the hydroxy substituent on the naphthalene ring system. The angle between the C=O bond plane and the naphthalene ring system is relatively small [20.96 (8°]. The angle between the benzene ring and the carbonyl group is rather large [35.65 (9°] compared to that in an analogous compound [3.43 (11°] having a methoxy group instead of a hydroxy substituent.

  18. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast...... harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3...

  19. Adsorption of As on hydroxy-Fe-montmorillonite complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Libing; Donald G. Fraser

    2005-01-01

    Arsenate has high affinity for soluble hydroxy-Fe species and Fe-oxyhydroxide precipitates. In addition, the hydrolysis of Fe(III) and the growth of the initially precipitated Fe(III) phases are strongly influenced by the presence of montmorillonite. In this paper, the adsorption of As onto various hydroxy-Fe-montmorillonite (H-F-M) complexes was studied. Three systems of samples were prepared by mixing montmorillonite, hydroxy-Fe and arsenate in different sequences: (1) Prior mixing of montmorillonite and hydroxy-Fe before the addition of arsenate; (2) prior mixing of hydroxy-Fe and arsenate before the addition of montmorillonite; and (3) prior mixing of montmorillonite and arsenate before the addition of hydroxy-Fe. For each system, the effects of pH, ionic strength, temperature, initial Fe and As concentrations and adsorption duration on the overall uptake of As by H-F-M complexes were studied. Results showed that the uptake of As increased with increasing pH, temperature, initial Fe concentration and adsorption duration, and decreased with increasing ionic strength and initial As concentration to different extents for the three systems. The variation of the As uptake of H-F-M complexes with pH in the range of study is opposite to that reported previously for Fe-O-H systems in the absence of montmorillonite and similar to that reported for montmorillonite in the absence of hydroxy-Fe. The marked influence of ionic strength on the As uptake of H-F-M complexes indicates that outer-sphere complexation plays an important role. This is quite different from the adsorption of As on the surface of either Fe-oxyhydroxides or montmorillonite alone in which inner-sphere complexation dominates. Under all experimental conditions, the H-F-M complexes studied displayed a very strong affinity for As, among which system 2 had the highest As adsorption capacity and system 1 the lowest. The authors attribute this to the differences in mixing sequence which resulted in more hydroxy

  20. Immunohistochemical demonstration of lysozyme in normal, reactive and neoplastic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi,Makoto

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP method, lysozyme (LZM was shown to exist in normal, reactive and neoplastic cells belonging to the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS, but was not detected in histiocytosis X cells. Immunostaining for cytoplasmic LZM by the PAP method is useful for identification of mononuclear phagocytes and for diagnosis of the diseases in which these cells participate.

  1. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel 4-Hydroxy-7-hydroxy- and 3-Carboxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Wen Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin derivatives are used as fluorescent dyes and medicines. They also have some notable physiological effects, including the acute hepatoxicity and carcinogenicity of certain aflatoxins, the anticoagulant action of dicoumarol, and the antibiotic activity of novobicin and coumerymycin A1. Because the number of drug resistant strains is increasing at present, the synthesis of new antibacterial compounds is one of the critical methods for treating infectious diseases. Therefore, a series of coumarin-substituted derivatives, namely 4-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxycoumarins, and 3-carboxycoumarins were synthesized. 4-Hydroxycoumarin derivatives 4a–c underwent rearrangement reactions. Both 4- and 7-hydroxycoumarins were treated with activated aziridines which produced series of ring-opened products 7, 8, 10, and 11. 3-Carboxy-coumarin amide dimer derivatives 14–21 were prepared by reacting aliphatic alkylamines and alkyldiamines with PyBOP and DIEA. In this study, we use a new technique called modified micro-plate antibiotic susceptibility test method (MMAST, which is more convenient, more efficient, and more accurate than previous methods and only a small amount of the sample is required for the test. Some of the compounds were produced by reactions with acid anhydrides and demonstrated the ability to inhibit Gram-positive microorganisms. The dimer derivatives displayed lower antibacterial activities.

  2. Lactam hydrolysis catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-ß-bactamases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars; Antony, J; Ryde, U

    2003-01-01

    . For most studied systems, the tetrahedral structure is a stable intermediate. Moreover, the C-N bond in the lactam ring is intact in this intermediate, as well as in the following transition state-its cleavage is induced by proton transfer to the nitrogen atom in the lactam ring. However, for the model...... with Asp as a proton shuttle, attack of the zinc-bond hydroxide ion seems to be concerted with the proton transfer. We have also studied the effect of replacing one of the histidine ligands by an asparagine or glutamine residue, giving a zinc site representative of other subclasses of metallo......Two central steps in the hydrolysis of lactam antibiotics catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases, formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and its breakdown by proton transfer, are studied for model systems using the density functional B3LYP method. Metallo-beta-lactamases have two metal...

  3. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per...... strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...... that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE). These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic...

  4. Characteristics of spontaneously proliferating mononuclear cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebel, K; Dickson, R; Lewis, D; Jasani, M K; Sturrock, R D

    1984-10-01

    The phenomenon of increased spontaneous incorporation of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) into peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been investigated. The activity was found to be short lived and affected less than 1% of cells. Using a Percoll density gradient we identified two populations of active cells. RA patients with active synovitis and increased 3H-TdR incorporation in the low density population of cells have higher overall 3H-TdR incorporation than normal controls and patients with inactive RA. The low density cell population is enriched for Ia+ cells. The data are consistent with raised spontaneous 3H-TdR incorporation being due to an in-vivo cell mediated immune response.

  5. Metabolic reprogramming of mononuclear phagocytes and progressive multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePluchino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Accumulation of brain damage in progressive MS is partly the result of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs attacking myelin sheaths in the CNS. Although there is no cure yet for MS, significant advances have been made in the development of disease modifying agents. Unfortunately, most of these drugs fail to reverse established neurological deficits and can have adverse effects. Recent evidence suggests that MPs polarisation is accompanied by profound metabolic changes, whereby pro-inflammatory MPs (M1 switch toward glycolysis, whereas anti-inflammatory MPs (M2 become more oxidative. It is therefore possible that reprogramming MPs metabolism could affect their function and repress immune cell activation. This minireview describes the metabolic changes underpinning macrophages polarisation and anticipates how metabolic re-education of MPs could be used for the treatment of MS.

  6. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood c....... We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B....../T-lymphocytes and monocytes was measured in phytohemaglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultures at different time intervals. The results showed a higher DNA repair activity in cryopreserved samples compared with fresh samples. We also found differences in mutant frequencies with higher values in fresh samples. A significant...

  7. 4-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydes: proton transfer or deprotonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y; Kurteva, V; Antonov, L

    2015-01-01

    A series of naphthaldehydes, including a Mannich base, have been investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, NMR and theoretical methods to explore their potential tautomerism. In the case of 4-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde concentration dependent deprotonation has been detected in methanol and acetonitrile...

  8. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  9. 2-Hydroxy-6-[(m-tolyliminio)methyl]phenolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuja, Shaukat; Ali, Saqib; Khalid, Nasir; Meetsma, Auke

    2007-01-01

    In the solid state, the title compound, C14H13NO2, crystallizes as a zwitterion. Two molecules comprise the asymmetric unit. The molecules exhibit two types of hydrogen bonds: N-H center dot center dot center dot O hydrogen bonds involving hydroxy and imine groups generate an S(6) ring motif, and O-

  10. Separation of Process Water using Hydroxy Sodalite Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajavi, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis, characterization, and application of Hydroxy Sodalite (H-SOD) membranes in selective separation of water from aqueous solutions and reaction media. The emphasis has been put on the development of a tight membrane film that could be primarily used for water separa

  11. Separation of Process Water using Hydroxy Sodalite Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajavi, S.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis, characterization, and application of Hydroxy Sodalite (H-SOD) membranes in selective separation of water from aqueous solutions and reaction media. The emphasis has been put on the development of a tight membrane film that could be primarily used for water

  12. Biotechnology for improving hydroxy fatty acid production in lesquerella

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Lesquerella [Physaria fendleri (A. Gray)], formerly Lesquerella fendleri, (Brassicaceae), being developed as a new industrial oilseed crop in the southwestern region of the United States, is valued for its unusual hydroxy fatty acid (HFA) in seed. The majority of HFA in lesquerella is lesquerolic...

  13. Palladium catalyzed C3-arylation of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Elissavet E; Fotiadou, Anna D; Demertzidou, Vera; Zografos, Alexandros L

    2014-07-01

    The direct arylation of N-substituted-4-hydroxy-2-pyridones with aryl boronic acids has been achieved under palladium catalysis. The mild reaction conditions applied in this method and the use of a conventional catalytic system offer an attractive protocol for the efficient synthesis of a variety of 3-arylated products.

  14. Seed development and hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis in physaria lindheimeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) are valuable industrial raw materials used in many industries. Physaria lindheimeri (Pl) accumulates over 80% HFA, in the form of lesquerolic acid (20:1OH), in its seed oil. Understanding the seed development of Pl is an important step to utilizing this unique wild specie...

  15. First total synthesis of (+/-)-3-hydroxy-11-norcytisine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yohannes, Daniel; Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Akireddy, Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis of the natural product 3-hydroxy-11-norcytisine ( 1), structurally related to cytisine ( 2), a benchmark ligand at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs), has been achieved. The synthesis permits the unambiguous confirmation of the structure originally proposed...

  16. Influence of acute renal failure on the mononuclear phagocytic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.A. Sousa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the ability of macrophages to remove particles injected into the bloodstream. This function seems to be increased in the presence of acute renal failure. The objective of the present study was to assess the phagocytic function of the main organs (spleen, liver and lung of the mononuclear phagocytic system in renal and postrenal failures. Fifteen rats (250-350 g were divided into three groups (N = 5: group I - control; group II - ligature of both ureters, and group III - bilateral nephrectomy. On the third postoperative day, all animals received an iv injection of 1 ml/kg 99mTc sulfur colloid. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of plasma urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium concentrations and arterial gasometry. Samples of liver, spleen, lung and blood clots were obtained and radioactivity was measured. Samples of liver, spleen, lung and kidney were prepared for routine histopathological analysis. Plasma urea, creatinine and potassium concentrations in groups II and III were higher than in group I (P<0.05. Plasma sodium concentrations in groups II and III were lower than in group I (P<0.05. Compensated metabolic acidosis was observed in the presence of postrenal failure. Group II animals showed a lower level of radioactivity in the spleen (0.98 and lung (2.63, and a higher level in the liver (105.51 than control. Group III animals showed a lower level of radioactivity in the spleen (11.94 and a higher level in the liver (61.80, lung (11.30 and blood clot (5.13 than control. In groups II and III liver steatosis and bronchopneumonia were observed. Renal and postrenal failures seem to interfere with blood clearance by the mononuclear phagocytic system.

  17. Autologous Intravenous Mononuclear Stem Cell Therapy in Chronic Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The regenerative potential of brain has led to emerging therapies that can cure clinico-motor deficits after neurological diseases. Bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy is a great hope to mankind as these cells are feasible, multipotent and aid in neurofunctional gains in Stroke patients. Aims: This study evaluates safety, feasibility and efficacy of autologous mononuclear (MNC stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic ischemic stroke (CIS using clinical scores and functional imaging (fMRI and DTI. Design: Non randomised controlled observational study Study: Twenty four (n=24 CIS patients were recruited with the inclusion criteria as: 3 months–2years of stroke onset, hand muscle power (MRC grade at least 2; Brunnstrom stage of recovery: II-IV; NIHSS of 4-15, comprehendible. Fugl Meyer, modified Barthel Index (mBI and functional imaging parameters were used for assessment at baseline, 8 weeks and at 24 weeks. Twelve patients were administered with mean 54.6 million cells intravenously followed by 8 weeks of physiotherapy. Twelve patients served as controls. All patients were followed up at 24 weeks. Outcomes: The laboratory and radiological outcome measures were within normal limits in MNC group. Only mBI showed statistically significant improvement at 24 weeks (p<0.05 whereas the mean FM, MRC, Ashworth tone scores in the MNC group were high as compared to control group. There was an increased number of cluster activation of Brodmann areas BA 4, BA 6 post stem cell infusion compared to controls indicating neural plasticity. Cell therapy is safe and feasible which may facilitate restoration of function in CIS.

  18. CCR1+/CCR5+ mononuclear phagocytes accumulate in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebst, C; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Kivisäkk, P

    2001-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) are considered central to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Molecular cues that mediate mononuclear phagocyte accumulation and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients may include chemokines RANTES/CCL5...

  19. Novel synthetic route to molybdenum hydrido-thiocarbamoyl and hydrosulfido-carbyne complexes by reactions of trans-Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} with N,N-dimethylthioformamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L.; Kubas, G.J.; Burns, C.J.; Butcher, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The reactions of bis(dinitrogen)molybdenum complexes trans-Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph, Et) with N,N-dimethylthioformamide (HC(S)NMe{sub 2}) in refluxing benzene under argon give the molybdenum hydrido-thiocarbamoyl complexes MoH({eta}{sup 2}-C(S)NMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph (1a), Et (1b)). On heating at 125{degree}C in toluene solutions, compounds 1a and 1b rearrange to form the molybdenum hydrosulfido-aminocarbyne complexes trans-Mo(SH)-(=CNMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph (2a), Et (2b)). A mechanism is proposed for this thermal rearrangement which involves migration of the hydride ligand from molybdenum to the sulfur atom of the thiocarbamoyl ligand to give the 16-electron Fischer carbene intermediate Mo-(=C(SH)NMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2}, followed by migration of the hydrosulfido group from the carbene carbon to molybdenum. The molecular structures of compounds 1a and 2a have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. 78 FR 70878 - Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester With 2-Methyloxirane Polymer With Oxirane...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester With 2- Methyloxirane Polymer... residues of Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester with 2-Methyloxirane Polymer with Oxirane... a maximum permissible level for residues of Octadecanoic Acid, 12-Hydroxy-, Homopolymer, Ester...

  1. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Copper(II) Complex with Mixed Bipyridine and 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜平宇; 程鹏; 赵斌; 阎世平; 瘳代正; 姜宗慧; 刘松岩; 姚心侃; 王宏根

    2002-01-01

    A mononuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu(bipy)(naph)(ClO4)] (where bipy is bipyridine and naph is 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde), was synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis. The crystal is triclinic, space group P ī with a = 9.245(4), b = 9.962(4), c = 10.809(7) A, α = 84.83(5), β =82.35(4), γ = 81.02(4)°, V = 972.1 >3, C21H15ClCuN2O6 Mr = 490.36, Z = 2, F(000) = 498, Dx = 1.68 g/cm3, μ = 13.05 cm-1, R = 0.078, Rw = 0.081 for 2295 observed reflections with I > 3σ(I). The copper(II) ion is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms of bipy and two oxygen atoms of naph in the equatorial plane, with an axial perchlorate oxygen-copper(II) bond to copper(II) ion to form square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The coordination environment of copper(II) is similar to the active site of galactose oxidase and this compound may also be considered as the structural model of galactose oxidase.

  2. Studies on poly (hydroxy alkanoates)/(ethylcellulose) blends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaishali Suthar; Arun Pratap; Heta Raval

    2000-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers represent one of the most significant area of research today. Among these polymers, poly (-hydroxy butyrate co '-hydroxy valerate) i.e. PHBV have received special attention because of their unique combination of properties. They are perfectly biocompatible, biodegradable polymers and can be processed by any conventional technique. In the present study an attempt has been made to develop the biodegradable blends of PHBV by blending them with ethyl cellulose (EC). Ethyl cellulose has been selected to monitor the biodegradation rate of PHBV and also for making the blends cost effective. The blends are thoroughly characterized for their compatibility, by the measurement of viscosity of blends and through FT-IR. Various applications of PHBV/EC blend in agriculture and pharmaceutical industries are being explored.

  3. Antifouling activity of green-synthesized 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Ruiz, Diego; Autino, Juan Carlos; Romanelli, Gustavo; Blustein, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    In the search for new environmental-friendly antifoulants for replace metallic biocides, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was synthesized according to green chemistry procedures. This compound was characterized by current organic analysis and its antifouling properties were firstly evaluated on the bivalve Mytilus edulis platensis in the laboratory. In the second stage, a soluble matrix antifouling coating formulated with this compound was assayed in marine environment. Laboratory experiments showed that 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was effective in inhibiting both the settlement as well as the byssogenesis of mussels. In addition, after exposure time in the sea, painted panels containing this compound showed strong antifouling effect on conspicuous species of the fouling community of Mar el Plata harbor. In conclusion, green-synthesized coumarin could be a suitable antifoulant candidate for marine protective coatings.

  4. Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions.

  5. Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kornhauser

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrija Kornhauser1, Sergio G Coelho2, Vincent J Hearing21US Food and Drug Administration [retired], Annandale, VA, USA; 2Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Hydroxy acids (HAs represent a class of compounds which have been widely used in a number of cosmetic and therapeutic formulations in order to achieve a variety of beneficial effects for the skin. We review and discuss the most frequently used classes of these compounds, such as a-hydroxy acids, β-hydroxy acids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, and describe their applications as cosmetic and therapeutic agents. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, in particular on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. Furthermore, we summarize the very limited number of studies dealing with the modifications evoked by topical application of products containing HAs on photocarcinogenesis. In spite of the large number of reports on the cosmetic and clinical effects of HAs, their biological mechanism(s of action still require more clarification. Some of these mechanisms are discussed in this article along with important findings on the effect of HAs on melanogenesis and on tanning. We also emphasize the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Thus, HAs play an important role in cosmetic formulations, as well as in many dermatologic applications, such as in treating photoaging, acne, ichthyosis, rosacea, pigmentation disorders, and psoriasis.Keywords: hydroxy acids, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, UV, erythema, cosmetics

  6. A Novel Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Hui; LI Shuo; XU Pen-gFei

    2003-01-01

    @@ β-hydroxy-α-amino acids constitute an important class of compounds as naturally occurring amino acids and as components of many complex natural products possessing a wide range of biological activities. [1] As a consequence of the essential role played by these amino acids in the biological systems and their utility as synthetic building blocks, a number of useful strategies have been devised for their preparation. [2

  7. Fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparation for future monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, Marie-Aline; Roland, Kathleen; Kestemont, Patrick; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2012-07-15

    Fish species possess many specific characteristics that support their use in ecotoxicology. Widely used in clinical research, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can reasonably be exploited as relevant target cells in the assessment of environmental chemical toxicity. The current article focuses on the methods necessary to isolate, characterize, and culture fish PBMCs. These procedures were successfully applied on an endangered species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and on an economically important and worldwide exported species, the Asian catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus S.). Proteomic approaches can be useful to screen xenobiotic exposure at the protein expression level, giving the opportunity to develop early warning signals thanks to molecular signatures of toxicity. To date, a major limitation of proteomic analyses is that most protein expression profiles often reveal the same predominant and frequently differentially expressed families of proteins regardless of the experimental stressing conditions. The current study describes a methodology to get a postnuclear fraction of high quality isolated from fish PBMCs in order to perform subsequent subproteomic analyses. Applied on samples from eel, the subproteomic analysis (two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis) allowed the identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and searches in the full NCBInr (National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant) database of 66 proteins representing 36 different proteins validated through Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold software.

  8. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  9. MicroRNA Expression in Alzheimer Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Various coding genes representing multiple functional categories are downregulated in blood mononuclear cells (BMC of patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD. Noncoding microRNAs (miRNA regulate gene expression by degrading messages or inhibiting translation. Using BMC as a paradigm for the study of systemic alterations in AD, we investigated whether peripheral miRNA expression is altered in this condition. MicroRNA levels were assessed using the microRNA microarray (MMChip containing 462 human miRNA, and the results validated by real time PCR. Sixteen AD patients and sixteen normal elderly controls (NEC were matched for ethnicity, age, gender and education. The expression of several BMC miRNAs was found to increase in AD relative to NEC levels, and may differ between AD subjects bearing one or two APOE4 alleles. As compared to NEC, miRNAs signifi cantly upregulated in AD subjects and confi rmed by qPCR were miR-34a and 181b. Predicted target genes downregulated in Alzheimer BMC that correlated with the upregulated miRNAs were largely represented in the functional categories of Transcription/Translation and Synaptic Activity. Several miRNAs targeting the same genes were within the functional category of Injury response/Redox homeostasis. Taken together, induction of microRNA expression in BMC may contribute to the aberrant systemic decline in mRNA levels in sporadic AD.

  10. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Intrathecal Transplantation in Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is being widely explored in the management of stroke and has demonstrated great potential. It has been shown to assist in the remodeling of the central nervous system by inducing neurorestorative effect through the process of angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and reduction of glial scar formation. In this study, the effect of intrathecal administration of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs is analyzed on the recovery process of patients with chronic stroke. 24 patients diagnosed with chronic stroke were administered cell therapy, followed by multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation. They were assessed on functional independence measure (FIM objectively, along with assessment of standing and walking balance, ambulation, and hand functions. Out of 24 patients, 12 improved in ambulation, 10 in hand functions, 6 in standing balance, and 9 in walking balance. Further factor analysis was done. Patients of the younger groups showed higher percentage of improvement in all the areas. Patients who underwent cell therapy within 2 years after the stroke showed better changes. Ischemic type of stroke had better recovery than the hemorrhagic stroke. This study demonstrates the potential of autologous BMMNCs intrathecal transplantation in improving the prognosis of functional recovery in chronic stage of stroke. Further clinical trials are recommended. This trial is registered with NCT02065778.

  11. NMR study of hydroxy and amide protons in hyaluronan polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Gustav; Sandström, Corine

    2017-02-10

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an important and well characterized glycosaminoglycan with high viscosity and water-retaining capacity. Nonetheless, it is not fully understood whether conformational properties of the easily characterized HA oligomers can be transferred to HA polymers. To investigate possible differences in hydration, hydrogen bonding and flexibility between HA polymers and oligomers, hydroxy and amide protons of HA polymers were studied by solution-state and high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Measurements of chemical shifts, temperature coefficients and NOEs in HA polymers revealed that the NMR data are very similar compared to the interior of a HA octasaccharide, supporting transient hydrogen bond interactions across the β(1→3) and β(1→4) glycosidic linkages. However, differences in NOEs suggested a cis-like orientation between NH and H2 in the HA polymer. The lack of concentration dependence of the hydroxy proton chemical shifts suggests that there are no direct inter-chain interactions involving hydroxy protons at the concentrations investigated.

  12. A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives: Formal synthesis of naturally occurring norephedrine, virolin and 3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl adenine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Saha; P Chakraborty; S C Roy

    2014-05-01

    A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives has been achieved following classical organic transformations using commercially available chiral pools. The said derivatives were explored for the synthesis of naturally occurring bio-active small molecules. Formal synthesis of norephedrine, virolin and 3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl adenine has been demonstrated.

  13. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, are attributed to poly- γ-D-glutamate acid (PGA) capsule, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) [10-12]. These toxins...M, Hellman M, Muhie S, et al. (2013) Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro...author and source are credited. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro Rasha

  14. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  15. Preparation and characterization of mixed hydroxy-Fe-Al pillared montmorillonite with large basal spacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiu-qiong; LIU Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    Mixed hydroxy-Al-Fe pillared montmorillonites with large basal spacing were successfully prepared through cation-exchanging of Na+ - montmorillonite with mixed hydroxy-Al and hydroxy-Fe pillaring solutions made from hydrolysis of corresponding metal salts, followed by calcination to convert hydroxy-Al and hydroxy-Fe into intercalated polycations. According to XRD analysis, the basal spacing d(001 ) of pillared products dramatically enlarged from 12.7 A in the Na-montmorillonite to 81 A in the hydroxy-Fe -montmorillonite and 77.5 A in mixed hydroxy-Al-Fe-montmorillonite. The N2 BET surface areas of the pillared montmorillonites also greatly increased to more than 200m2/g as compared to about 27 m2/g for the Na-montmorillonite. IR analysis of hydroxy-Fe, and mixed hydroxy-Al-Fe pillared montmorillonites revealed a new absorption vibration at 1384 cm-1 wavelength. XRF elemental analysis data also showed a high content of Fe2 O3 in the hydroxy-Fe pillared montmorillonite.

  16. Human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks: a tale of two species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eReynolds

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs, monocytes and macrophages are a heterogeneous population of mononuclear phagocytes that are involved in antigen processing and presentation to initiate and regulate immune responses to pathogens, vaccines, tumour and tolerance to self. In addition to their afferent sentinel function, DCs and macrophages are also critical as effectors and coordinators of inflammation and homeostasis in peripheral tissues. Harnessing DCs and macrophages for therapeutic purposes has major implications for infectious disease, vaccination, transplantation, tolerance induction, inflammation and cancer immunotherapy. There has been a paradigm shift in our understanding of the developmental origin and function of the cellular constituents of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Significant progress has been made in tandem in both human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology. This progress has been accelerated by comparative biology analysis between mouse and human, which has proved to be an exceptionally fruitful strategy to harmonise findings across species. Such analyses have provided unexpected insights and facilitated productive reciprocal and iterative processes to inform our understanding of human and mouse mononuclear phagocytes. In this review, we discuss the strategies, power and utility of comparative biology approaches to integrate recent advances in human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte biology and its potential to drive forward clinical translation of this knowledge. We also present a functional framework on the parallel organisation of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte networks.

  17. Absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells priming in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the proinflammatory environment occurring in dialytic patients, cytokine overproduction has been implicated in hemodialysis co-morbidity. However, there are discrepancies among the various studies that have analyzed TNF-alpha synthesis and the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC priming in this clinical setting. We measured bioactive cytokine by the L929 cell bioassay, and evaluated PBMC TNF-alpha production by 32 hemodialysis patients (HP and 51 controls. No difference in TNF-alpha secretion was observed between controls and HP (859 ± 141 vs 697 ± 130 U/10(6 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (5 µg/ml did not induce any further TNF-alpha release, showing no PBMC priming. Paraformaldehyde-fixed HP PBMC were not cytotoxic to L929 cells, suggesting the absence of membrane-anchored TNF-alpha. Cycloheximide inhibited PBMC cytotoxicity in HP and controls, indicating lack of a PBMC TNF-alpha pool, and dependence on de novo cytokine synthesis. Actinomycin D reduced TNF-alpha production in HP, but had no effect on controls. Therefore, our data imply that TNF-alpha production is an intrinsic activity of normal PBMC and is not altered in HP. Moreover, TNF-alpha is a product of de novo synthesis by PBMC and is not constitutively expressed on HP cell membranes. The effect of actinomycin D suggests a putative tighter control of TNF-alpha mRNA turnover in HP. This increased dependence on TNF-alpha RNA transcription in HP may reflect an adaptive response to hemodialysis stimuli.

  18. Redox properties of a mononuclear copper(II)-superoxide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Tetsuro; Okubo, Yuri; Kunishita, Atsushi; Kubo, Minoru; Sugimoto, Hideki; Fujieda, Nobutaka; Ogura, Takashi; Itoh, Shinobu

    2013-09-16

    Redox properties of a mononuclear copper(II) superoxide complex, (L)Cu(II)-OO(•), supported by a tridentate ligand (L = 1-(2-phenethyl)-5-[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]-1,5-diazacyclooctane) have been examined as a model compound of the putative reactive intermediate of peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM) (Kunishita et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 2788-2789; Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 9465-9480). On the basis of the reactivity toward a series of one-electron reductants, the reduction potential of (L)Cu(II)-OO(•) was estimated to be 0.19 ± 0.07 V vs SCE in acetone at 298 K (cf. Tahsini et al. Chem.-Eur. J. 2012, 18, 1084-1093). In the reaction of TEMPO-H (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-hydroxide), a simple HAT (hydrogen atom transfer) reaction took place to give the corresponding hydroperoxide complex LCu(II)-OOH, whereas the reaction with phenol derivatives ((X)ArOH) gave the corresponding phenolate adducts, LCu(II)-O(X)Ar, presumably via an acid-base reaction between the superoxide ligand and the phenols. The reaction of (L)Cu(II)-OO(•) with a series of triphenylphosphine derivatives gave the corresponding triphenylphosphine oxides via an electrophilic ionic substitution mechanism with a Hammett ρ value as -4.3, whereas the reaction with thioanisole (sulfide) only gave a copper(I) complex. These reactivities of (L)Cu(II)-OO(•) are different from those of a similar end-on superoxide copper(II) complex supported by a tetradentate TMG3tren ligand (1,1,1-Tris{2-[N(2)-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidino)]ethyl}amine (Maiti et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 82-85).

  19. Production of hydroxy marilone C as a bioactive compound from

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama H. El Sayed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy marilone C is a bioactive metabolite produced from the culture broth of Streptomyces badius isolated from Egyptian soil. Hydroxy marilone C was purified and fractionated by a silica gel column with a gradient mobile phase dichloromethane (DCM:methanol then Sephadex LH-20 column using methanol as a mobile phase. It was subjected to many procedures such as infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Mass spectroscopy (MS and UV spectroscopy for elucidation of its structure. It was evaluated for antioxidant, cytotoxicity against human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A-549 and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 and antiviral activities; showed that the maximum antioxidant activity was 78.8% at 3 mg/ml after 90 min. and the IC50 value against DPPH radical found about 1.5 mg/ml after 60 min. Using MTT assay the effect of the pure compound on the proliferation of A-549 cells and MCF-7 cells was 443 μg/ml and 147.9 μg/ml, respectively, while for detection of antiviral activity using Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells the maximum cytotoxicity was at 27.9% and IC50 was 128.1 μg/ml. The maximum concentration required for protecting 50% of the virus-infected cells against H1N1 viral cytopathogenicity (EC50 was 33.25% for 80 μg/ml. These results indicated that the hydroxy marilone C has potential antitumor and antiviral activities.

  20. 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Flowers of Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZEN, Hasan Çetin; BAŞHAN, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters in the leaves and flowers of Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (Guttiferae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The flowers of H. lysimachioides var. lysimachioides produced unusual 3-hydroxy fatty acids [3-hydroxy- tetradecanoic acid (3-OH-C14:0) and 3-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid (3-OH-C18:0)], along with other normal fatty acids. Major components were linolenic and palmitic acids for both leaves and flowers.

  1. A Facile Method for Asymmetric Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Shuo; LI,Lei; ZHANG,Zhi-Hui; XU,Peng-Fei

    2004-01-01

    @@ β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids are an important class of amino acids due to their inherent biological investigations[1] and as structural components of more complex biomolecules.[2] β-Hydroxy-a-amino acids have been used as intermediates in the asymmetric synthesis of other compounds.[3] An efficient and convenient concise method for the preparation of optically pure enantiomers of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids would be of general interest.

  2. Radiation effects in x-irradiated hydroxy compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Edwin E.; Potter, William R.; Box, Harold C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation effects are compared in single crystals of xylitol, sorbitol, and dulcitol x-irradiated at 4.2 °K. In xylitol and dulcitol, but not in sorbitol, a primary oxidation product is identified as an alkoxy radical. ENDOR measurements detected three proton hyperfine couplings associated with the alkoxy ESR absorption, one of which is attributed to a proton three bond lengths removed from the seat of unpaired spin density. Intermolecular trapping of electrons is observed in all three crystals. ENDOR measurements were made of the hyperfine couplings between the trapped electron and the hydroxy protons forming the trap.

  3. Synthesis of library from amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Lundt, Inge; Andrews, Robert

    Based on radical induced carbocyclisation of unsaturated aldonolactones our group has elaborated procedures for the preparation of several amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentane derivatives [1]. These highly functionalized molecules are suitable for attachment to solid phase and subsequent parall...... in biological assays of interest to the company; these results will be presented in the poster. [1] S.K. Johansen, H. Kornøe, I. Lundt, Synthesis, 1999, 1, 171-177. S.K. Johansen, I. Lundt, J.Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1, 1999, 3615-3622....

  4. 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone pyridine monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-xiu Zhao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff base molecule of the title compound, C14H12N4O6·C5H5N, was obtained from the condensation reaction of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The C=N bond of the Schiff base has a trans arrangement and the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 3.49 (10°. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the Schiff base molecules.

  5. 6-Chloro-N′-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylenenicotinohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H12ClN3O2, was synthesized by the Schiff base condensation reaction of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 6-chloronicotinic acid hydrazide in a methanol solution. The molecule displays a trans configuration with respect to the C=N and C—N bonds. The dihedral angle between the naphthyl ring system and the pyridine ring is 7.6 (4°. There is an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains running along the b axis.

  6. 1-[(E-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylideneamino]-3-methylthiourea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Arafath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title thiosemicarbazone Schiff base compound, C10H13N3O2S, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and methyl carbothioamide side arm was found to be 17.4 (4°. The presence of two intramolecular hydrogen bonds is noted, namely hydroxy-O—H...O(methoxy and amine-N—H...N(imine. In the crystal, pairwise amine-N—H...S hydrogen bonds give rise to centrosymmetric {...HNCS}2 synthons, which lead to dimeric aggregates.

  7. Primary Screening of 10 - Hydroxy - 2 - Decenoic Acid Productive Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, eleven strains, which vere screened strictly from raw royal.jelly, soil and honeycomb etc. by means of dilution plate and spread plate methods, were cultured at 28°C for60 h with shaking. To determine whether they could yield 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid during fermentation, gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were used. The results showed that the strains BH002 and BH004. were both identified as Crvtococcaceae. where BH002 was primarily classified into Candida for possessing the abilities. The 10-HDA productivity of Candida BH002 and that of BH004 were 0.327% and 0.2648% respectively.

  8. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal—A Bioactive Lipid Peroxidation Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf J. Schaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review on recent research advances of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE has four major topics: I. the formation of HNE in various organs and tissues, II. the diverse biochemical reactions with Michael adduct formation as the most prominent one, III. the endogenous targets of HNE, primarily peptides and proteins (here the mechanisms of covalent adduct formation are described and the (patho- physiological consequences discussed, and IV. the metabolism of HNE leading to a great number of degradation products, some of which are excreted in urine and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  9. Preparation of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline and analogs thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Unkefer, Pat J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The compound 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline and analogs thereof may be used to produce an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth, dry weight, nutritional value (proteins and amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation and photosynthetically derived chemical energy when applied to plants through their roots and/or through their foliar portions. The present invention includes an essentially quantitative chemical synthesis for this compound which is performed in a single step reaction of Fremy's Salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) with either glutamine or 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid. Fremy's salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) is available commercially, or can be readily synthesized.

  10. A New Synthetic Compound, 2-OH, Enhances Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ Gene Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woan-Fang Tzeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new synthetic compound, 6-hydroxy-2-tosylisoquinolin-1(2H-one (2-OH, was selected for immunopharmacological activity tests. The effects of 2-OH on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation were determined by tritiated thymidine uptake. Compared to phytohemagglutinin (PHA; 5 μg/mL stimulation, 2-OH significantly enhanced PBMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% enhancement activity (EC50 for 2-OH was 4.4±0.1 μM. In addition, effects of 2-OH on interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in PBMC were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results demonstrated that 2-OH stimulated IL-2 and IFN-γ production in PBMC. Data from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time PCR indicated that IL-2 and IFN-γ mRNA expression in PBMC could be induced by 2-OH. Therefore, 2-OH enhanced IL-2 and IFN-γ production in PBMC by modulation their gene expression. We suggest that 2-OH may be an immunomodulatory agent.

  11. γ-Hydroxy-α,β-acetylenic esters:asymmetric syntheses and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-acetylenic esters are versatile synthetic precursors to many organic compounds.This paper reviews the synthesis of chiral γ-hydroxy-α,β-acetylenic esters by asymmetric reduction of γ-oxo-α,β-acetylenic esters,enantioselective addition to aldehydes in the presence of chiral catalysts,and diastereoselective addition to chiral aldehydes.The preparation of racemic γ-hydroxy-α,β-acetylenic esters is also included.Examples are provided for the application of γ-hydroxy-α,β-acetylenic esters in organic synthesis.

  12. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  13. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M.; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  14. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M.; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  15. Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(E-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino]benzoate: a p-hydroxy Schiff base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ling

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The title p-hydroxy Schiff base, C17H17NO4, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of benzocaine with vanillin. The benzylidine and benzoate rings are inclined to one another by 24.58 (8°, and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. Adjacent chains are linked by C—H...π and weak offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.819 (1 Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-2.

  16. Isoniazid cocrystals with anti-oxidant hydroxy benzoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2014-11-01

    Isoniazid is the primary constituent of “triple therapy” used to effectively treat tuberculosis. In tuberculosis and other diseases, tissue inflammation and free radical burst from macrophages results in oxidative stress. These free radicals cause pulmonary inflammation if not countered by anti-oxidants. Therefore, in the present study cocrystals of isoniazid with four anti-oxidant hydroxy benzoic acids have been reported. Gallic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid resulted in the formation of cocrystals when reacted with isoniazid. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the cocrystals of isoniazid with Gallic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid. While cocrystal of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid formed the pyridine-hydroxy group synthon. Other synthons of different graph sets are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformers involving Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯N bonds. All the cocrystals were in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio.

  17. Crystal Structure of 3S-hydroxy-7 Melleine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-hong; Xu, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Li-hong; Huang, Hua-rong; She, Zhi-gang; Lin, Yong-cheng; Chan, Winglai

    2006-10-01

    A new compound, 3S-hydroxy-7 melleine was isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylariasp No.2508 from the mangrove tree on the South China Sea coast. It was the first time that this kind of compound was isolated from marine fungus. The structure was elucidated by NMR data, infrared spectrum (IR) and mass spectrometry (MS). In addition, its structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallized in monoclinic, space group P21 with a=10.8884(19) Å, b=7.2284(13) Å, c=13.398(2) Å, β=104.217(3)°, C10H10O4·H2O, Mr=212.20, V=1022.2(3) Å3, Z=4, Dc=1.379 mg/m3, F(000)=448, μ=0.112 mm-1, the final R=0.0498, ωR=0.101 for 2407 observed reflections (I>2σ(I)). The molecular backbone of the compound includes a benzopyran ring. By comparing with the melting point and the optical rotation of the known 3R-hydroxy-7 melleine in literature, the absolute configuration of the compound was determined as 3S. It didn't exhibit antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus at 200 μg/disk in the preliminary test.

  18. rac-N-[Hydroxy(4-pyridylmethyl]picolinamide: a hemiamidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Altaf

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H11N3O2, a hemiamidal, was synthesized by solvent-free aldol condensation at room temperature by grinding picolinamide with isonicotinaldehyde in a 1:1 molar ratio. In the molecule, the two pyridine rings are inclined to one another by 58.75 (6°. They are linked, at positions 2 and 4, by the hemiamidal bridge (–CO—NH—CHOH–. The NH-group H atom forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with the N atom of the picolinamide pyridine ring. In the crystal, symmetry-related molecules are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, involving the NH group H atom of the hemiamidal bridge and the hydroxy O atom, forming inversion-related dimers, with graph-set R22(8. Adjacent molecules are also linked via O—H...N hydrogen bonds, involving the hydroxy substituent and the 4-pyridine N atom. Together these interactions lead to the formation of double-stranded ribbon-like hydrogen-bonded polymers propagating in [010]. The latter are further connected via C—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the carbonyl O atom, so forming a two-dimensional network in (011.

  19. Bioactive heterocycles containing endocyclic N-hydroxy groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Reshma; Granchi, Carlotta

    2015-06-05

    Drug-likeness rules consider N-O single bonds as "structural alerts" which should not be present in a perspective drug candidate. In most cases this concern is correct, since it is known that N-hydroxy metabolites of branded drugs produce reactive species that cause serious side effects. However, this dangerous reactivity of the N-OH species generally takes place when the nitrogen atom is not comprised in a cyclic moiety. In fact, the same type of metabolic behavior should not be expected when the nitrogen atom is included in the ring of an aromatic heterocyclic scaffold. Nevertheless, heterocycles bearing endocyclic N-hydroxy portions have so far been poorly studied as chemical classes that may provide new therapeutic agents. This review provides an overview of N-OH-containing heterocycles with reported bioactivities that may be considered as therapeutically relevant and, therefore, may extend the chemical space available for the future development of novel pharmaceuticals. A systematic treatment of the various chemical classes belonging to this particular family of molecules is described along with a discussion of the biological activities associated to the most important examples.

  20. Naive Treg-like CCR7(+) mononuclear cells indicate unfavorable prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Yi; Duan, Meng; Sun, Qi-Man; Yang, Liuxiao; Wang, Zhi-Chao; Mynbaev, Ospan A; He, Yi-Feng; Wang, Ling-Yan; Zhou, Jian; Tang, Qi-Qun; Cao, Ya; Fan, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Gao, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Chemokine receptor-like 1 (CCRL1) has the potential in creating a low level of CCL19 and CCL21 to hinder CCR7(+) cell tracking to tumor tissue. Previously, we found a tumor suppressive role of CCRL1 by impairing CCR7-related chemotaxis of tumor cells in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we reported a contribution of CCR7(+) mononuclear cells in the tumor microenvironment to the progression of disease. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the distribution and clinical significance of CCR7(+) cells in a cohort of 240 HCC patients. Furthermore, the phenotype, composition, and functional status of CCR7(+) cells were determined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and in vitro co-culture assays. We found that CCR7(+) mononuclear cells were dispersed around tumor tissue and negatively related to tumoral expression of CCRL1 (P CCR7(+) mononuclear cells positively correlated with the absence of tumor capsule, vascular invasion, and poor differentiation (P CCR7(+) mononuclear cells was significantly associated with worse survival and increased recurrence. We found that CCR7(+) mononuclear cells featured a naive Treg-like phenotype (CD45RA(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)) and possessed tumor-promoting potential by producing TGF-β1. Moreover, CCR7(+) cells were also composed of several immunocytes, a third of which were CD8(+) T cells. CCR7(+) Treg-like cells facilitate tumor growth and indicate unfavorable prognosis in HCC patients, but fortunately, their tracking to tumor tissue is under the control of CCRL1.

  1. Heterogeneity of lung mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia: contribution of chemokine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanlin; Zhang, Zhimin; Barletta, Kathryn E; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

    2013-11-15

    Bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous illness. Mononuclear phagocytes, which comprise monocyte, resident and recruited macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets, are critical to antimicrobial defenses, but the dynamics of their recruitment to the lungs in pneumonia is not established. We hypothesized that chemokine-mediated traffic of mononuclear phagocytes is important in defense against bacterial pneumonia. In a mouse model of Klebsiella pneumonia, circulating Ly6C(hi) and, to a lesser extent, Ly6C(lo) monocytes expanded in parallel with accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and CD11b(hi) dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the lungs, whereas numbers of alveolar macrophages remained constant. CCR2 was expressed by Ly6C(hi) monocytes, recruited macrophages, and airway dendritic cells; CCR6 was prominently expressed by airway dendritic cells; and CX3CR1 was ubiquitously expressed by blood monocytes and lung CD11b(hi) dendritic cells during infection. CCR2-deficient, but not CCL2-, CX3CR1-, or CCR6-deficient animals exhibited worse outcomes of infection. The absence of CCR2 had no detectable effect on neutrophils but resulted in reduction of all subsets of lung mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs, including alveolar macrophages and airway and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, absence of CCR2 skewed the phenotype of lung mononuclear phagocytes, abrogating the appearance of M1 macrophages and TNF-producing dendritic cells in the lungs. Taken together, these data define the dynamics of mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia.

  2. Microarray-based gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dairy cows with experimental hypocalcemia and milk fever

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasaki, K; Yamagishi, N; Kizaki, K; Sasaki, K; Devkota, B; Hashizume, K

    2014-01-01

    .... Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dairy cows with experimentally induced hypocalcemia or spontaneous milk fever were subjected to oligo-microarray analysis to identify specific biomarker genes...

  3. 86Rubidium uptake in mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Pedersen, K E

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to assess any changes in mononuclear leucocytes from young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension and to determine whether any changes found were associated with borderline hypertension and/or heredity. To this end we used mononuclear leucocytes...... as a cellular model for in vitro measurement of total 86rubidium uptake to give an index of sodium-potassium pump activity. Four groups of subjects were evaluated, 28 normotensive and 20 borderline hypertensive offspring of hypertensives, and 12 borderline hypertensives and 28 normotensives with normotensive...... parents. 86Rubidium uptake was significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive subjects, especially in the borderline hypertensive offspring of hypertensive patients. Our results indicate that the sodium-potassium pump is activated in mononuclear leucocytes from borderline hypertensives...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8100 - Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis (hy-droxy-ethyl) tal-lo-wa-mine oxide phos-phate. 721.8100... Substances § 721.8100 Potassium N,N-bis (hydroxy-ethyl) cocoamine oxide phosphate, and potassium N,N-bis...

  5. Conditioning causes an increase in glucose transporter-4 levels in mononuclear cells in sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Reynolds, Arleigh J; Gustafson, Sally J; Duffy, Lawrence K; Dunlap, Kriya L

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of physical conditioning on the expression of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter-4 protein (GLUT4) on mononuclear cells and HOMA-IR levels in dogs and compared to results reported in human skeletal muscle and the skeletal muscle of rodent models. Blood was sampled from conditioned dogs (n = 8) and sedentary dogs (n = 8). The conditioned dogs were exercised four months prior the experiment and were following a uniform training protocol, whereas the sedentary dogs were not. GLUT4 expression in mononuclear cells and plasma insulin levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood glucose levels were determined using blood plasma. HOMA-IR was calculated using plasma insulin and blood glucose levels using the linear approximation formula. Our results indicate that the state of conditioning had a significant effect on the GLUT4 expression at the surface of mononuclear cells. HOMA-IR was also affected by conditioning in dogs. GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs were inversely correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrates that conditioning increases GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs as it has been previously reported in skeletal muscle. Our results support the potential of white blood cells as a proxy tissue for studying insulin signaling and may lead to development of a minimally invasive and direct marker of insulin resistance. This may be the first report of GLUT4 in mononuclear cells in response to exercise and measured with ELISA.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10063 - Halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amide (generic). 721.10063 Section 721.10063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10063 Halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (generic). (a) Chemical... as halo substituted hydroxy nitrophenyl amide (PMN P-04-792) is subject to reporting under...

  7. chiral Synthesis of 13-Acetyl-12-hydroxy-podocarpane-8, 11,13-triene-7-one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An enantioselective synthetic route to (+)-13-acetyl-12-hydroxy-podocarpane-8,11,13-triene-7-one 1a and (-)-13-acetyl-12-hydroxy-podocarpane-8,11,13-triene-7-one 1b was developed from (S)-(-)-a -cyclocitral 8a and (R)-(+)-a -cyclocitral 8b.

  8. Studies of biological properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Milena; Michałowicz, Jaromir; Pilarski, Radosław; Sicińska, Paulina; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Bukowska, Bożena

    2012-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC is a lignified climbing plant from South and Central America, which (under the name of "vilcacora" or "cat's claw") has become highly popular in many countries due to its proven immunostimmulatory and anti-inflammatory activities and also with respect to its anticancer and antioxidative effects. There are insufficient data on the mechanism of U. tomentosa action on normal blood mononuclear cells. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of ethanol and aqueous extracts from bark and leaves of Uncaria tomentosa on the structure and function of human mononuclear cells and to find out whether the kind of extractant used modulates biological activity of the extracts studied. Plant material consisted of four different extracts: (1) ethanol extract from leaves, (2) aqueous extract from leaves, (3) ethanol extract from bark and (4) aqueous extract from bark. The effect of these extracts on protein damage as well as on free-radical formation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed. Moreover, changes in viability, size, and granularity as well as apoptotic alterations in human blood mononuclear cells exposed to U. tomentosa extracts were investigated. The oxidative changes were observed in mononuclear blood cells exposed to both ethanol and aqueous extracts obtained from bark and leaves. Moreover, in the cells studied the extracts from U. tomentosa induced apoptosis and a decrease in viability of mononuclear blood cells, with the exception of aqueous extract from leaves. Additionally, no statistically significant changes in the cell size were observed both for aqueous extracts from leaves and bark. Changes in the blood mononuclear cell granularity were observed at 250 μg/mL for all extracts examined. The strongest changes were observed for the ethanol extract of the bark, which increased cell granularity at 50 μg/mL and changed cell size at 100 μg/mL. The conducted research showed differences in biological activity

  9. A hitchhiker's guide to myeloid cell subsets: practical implementation of a novel mononuclear phagocyte classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGuilliams

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The classification of mononuclear phagocytes as either dendritic cells or macrophages has been mainly based on morphology, the expression of surface markers and assumed functional specialization. We have recently proposed a novel classification system of mononuclear phagocytes based on their ontogeny. Here we discuss the practical application of such a classification system through a number of prototypical examples we have encountered while hitchhiking from one subset to another, across species and between steady state and inflammatory settings. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of such a classification system and propose a number of improvements to move from theoretical concepts to concrete guidelines.

  10. (2-Hydroxy-7-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl(phenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yonezawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C18H14O3, there is an intramolecular O—H...O=C hydrogen bond between the carbonyl and hydroxy groups on the naphthalene ring system. The angles between the C=O bond vector and the least-squares planes of the naphthalene ring system and the phenyl ring are 30.58 (6 and 42.82 (7°, respectively, while the dihedral angle between the naphthalene ring system and the phenyl ring is 58.65 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are connected by pairs of intermolecular O—H...O=C hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric dimers.

  11. (2-Hydroxy-7-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl(4-methylphenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nagasawa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H16O3, an intramolecular O—H...O=C hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxy and carbonyl groups on the naphthalene ring system, resulting in an S(6 ring. The angles between the C=O bond vector and the least-squares planes of the naphthalene ring system and the benzene ring are 27.63 (6 and 47.99 (7°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the latter planes is 61.39 (5°. In the crystal, two molecules are connected by pairs of intermolecular O—H...O=C hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric dimers with an R22(4 graph-set motif. The molecular packing features C—H...π interactions.

  12. Fibrinogen patterns and activity on substrates with tailored hydroxy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, José Carlos; Rico, Patricia; Moratal, David; Monleón Pradas, Manuel; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-08-11

    The influence of the surface fraction of OH groups on fibrinogen (FG) adsorption is investigated in copolymers of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethylacrylate. The amount of adsorbed FG, quantified by western-blotting combined with image analysis of the corresponding bands, decreases as the hydrophilicity of the substrate increases. The influence of substrate wettability on FG conformation and distribution is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The most hydrophobic substrate promotes FG fibrillogenesis, which leads to a fibrin-like appearance in the absence of any thrombin. The degree of FG interconnection was quantified by calculating the fractal dimension of the adsorbed protein from image analysis of the AFM results. The biological activity of the adsorbed FG is correlated to cell adhesion on FG-coated substrates.

  13. Photo-isomerization of Aromatic α-Hydroxy Hydrazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jing-yi; PAN Yan; LI Xiu-hua; HOU Jun; WU Xue; SU Zhong-min

    2012-01-01

    Photo-isomerization of aromatic α-hydroxy hydrazone was reported.We investigated the structures of salicylaldehyde phenylhydrozone(SP) in the ground state using density functional theory(DFT) with the B3LYP functional and the 6-31 l+G(d) basis set.All nine possible isomers of SP in the ground state consist of seven phenol forms and two ketone forms.Intrisic reaction coordinate(IRC) analysis discloses the existence of a cycle driven by the two proton transfer processes in the ground and excited states of SP,which suggests that no ketonic form could exist in the ground state.Further theoretical studies of the potential energy surfaces support a trans-cis conversion followed by a relaxation to the stable form of SP in the excited states.

  14. 5-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard K. Keppler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H6O3, is a member of the pyrone family. The molecules are planar (r.m.s. deviation of the asymmetric unit is 0.0248 Å, whereas that of the dimer is 0.0360 Å and they are dimerized due to intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are connected to each other through hydrogen bonds involving the CH3 group and the hydroxy O atom. There are π–π interactions between the centroids of the pyrone rings at a distance of 3.8552 (13 Å. A C—H...π interaction also exists between the carbonyl group and the centroid CgA of the pyrone ring, with O...CgA = 3.65 (1 Å and C...CgA = 4.363 (2 Å.

  15. Hydrido thiolato and thiolato complexes of ruthenium(II) carbonyl phosphines. [cis,cis,trans-RuH(SR)(CO) sub 2 L sub 2 , cis,cis,trans-RuH(SR) sub 2 (CO) sub 2 L sub 2 where R = aryl and L = triphenylphosphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, P.G.; Rettig, S.J.; Chungli Lee; James, B.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-11-27

    Oxidative addition of RSH (R = H, alkyl, aryl) or RSSR (R = aryl) to Ru(CO){sub 2}L{sub 3} (L = PPh{sub 3}, 1) yields respectively cct-RuH(SR)(CO){sub 2L}{sub 2} (type 2) (cct = cis, cis, trans) or cct-Ru(SR){sub 2}(CO){sub 2}L{sub 2} (type 3); a hydrido selenolate species is made similarly using PhSeH. Methods for in situ formation of corresponding mixed bis(thiolate) species are also given. 1 is generally unreactive toward thioethers, although with propylene sulfide cct-Ru({eta}{sup 2}-S{sub 2}) (CO){sub 2}L{sub 2} is produced. Metathesis reaction of cct-RuCl{sub 2}(CO){sub 2}L{sub 2} with NaSR salts yield 3 (R = aryl) or, when R = Et, cct-RuCl(SEt)(CO){sub 2}L{sub 2} or (L(CO){sub 2}Ru({mu}{sub 3}-SEt)Na(THF)){sub 2} (4), depending on reaction conditions. The complexes are characterized by IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 31}P, and, in some cases, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, and for 2g and 3g(R = SC{sub 6}H{sub 4}pMe) and 4, X-ray crystallography. All three complexes crystallized in the space group P {bar 1} 1. 4 has an unprecedented network of transition-metal and alkali-metal ions bridged by thiolate ligands: four thiolates bridge one Ru and one Na, and two thiolates bridge one Ru and two Na atoms. The geometries at Ru and Na are close to octahedral and square pyramidal respectively. Trends are noted for the {sup 1}H NMR shifts and {sup 2}J{sub PH} values for the hydride in 2, and an additivity rule formulated for the {sup 31}P shift within the cct-Ru(SR)(SR')(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} species. Limited kinetic data suggest that the oxidative addition reactions to 1 probably proceed via a nonradical process, following dissociation of a PPh{sub 3} ligand.

  16. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  17. Nuclear thyroid hormone receptor binding in human mononuclear blood cells after goitre resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E; Blichert-Toft, M

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear thyroxine and triiodothyronine receptor-binding in human mononuclear blood cells were examined in 14 euthyroid persons prior to and 1, 6, 24 and 53 weeks after goitre resection. One week after resection decreased serum T3 from 1.47 nmol/l to 1.14 nmol/l (P less than 0.05), FT4I from 103 a...

  18. Administration of liposomal agents and blood clearance capacity of the mononuclear phagocyte system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.M. van Etten (Els); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); S.V. Snijders (Susan); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAs liposomes are cleared from the circulation to a substantial extent by the phagocytic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), there is a question whether administration of liposome-based therapeutic agents interferes with clearance of infectious o

  19. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF NANOPARTICLES TO OPPOSE UPTAKE BY THE MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STORM, G; BELLIOT, SO; DAEMEN, T; LASIC, DD

    1995-01-01

    An overview of recent advances in the surface modification of colloidal particles to oppose uptake by the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is presented. First, we describe the colloidal particles and hydrophilic coating materials investigated, with particular focus on the literature concerning par

  20. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains (Agaric

  1. Slc27a2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a marker for overweight development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caimari, A.; Oliver, P.; Rodenburg, W.; Keijer, J.; Palou, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) can be collected easily and repeatedly. Their potential use to reflect the individual's biological status is increasingly explored. Obesity is becoming the most common health problem of the 21st century, being dietary intake an important determin

  2. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged...

  3. Evidence for a dual function of monocyte-derived mononuclear phagocytes during chronic intestinal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivollier, Aymeric Marie Christian; Pool, Lieneke; Frising, Ulrika

    Mononuclear phagocytes derived from tissue-infiltrating monocytes play diverse roles in immunity, ranging from pathogen killing to immune regulation. We and others showed that, upon recruitment to the intestinal mucosa, the differentiation of Ly6Chi monocytes into phagocytes with anti- versus pro...... suggest a dual and time-restricted contribution of MDP during the development and healing phases of the disease....

  4. Four-site cooperative spin crossover in a mononuclear FeII complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennartson, Anders; Bond, Andrew; Piligkos, Stergios;

    2012-01-01

    Round and round: A mononuclear Fe(II) complex (see picture) with an N(4)S(2) coordination set has been characterized in four polymorphic forms. Two of the polymorphs display four-site cooperative spin crossover (SCO), shown conclusively by the crystal structure of a fully ordered 1:3 high-spin/lo...

  5. Intracoronary infusion of mononuclear cells after PCI-treated myocardial infarction and arrhythmogenesis : is it safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, L. F. H. J.; Nijveldt, R.; Beek, A. M.; Kemme, M. J. B.; Delewi, R.; Hirsch, Alexander; van der Laan, A. M.; van der Vleuten, P. A.; Piek, J. J.; Zijlstra, F.; van Rossum, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    To reduce long-term morbidity after revascularised acute myocardial infarction, different therapeutic strategies have been investigated. Cell therapy with mononuclear cells from bone marrow (BMMC) or peripheral blood (PBMC) has been proposed to attenuate the adverse processes of remodelling and subs

  6. Role of mononuclear phagocyte function in endotoxin-induced tumor necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, F.M.A.; Bloksma, N.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1984-01-01

    The temporal susceptibility of tumors to induction of necrosis and regression by endotoxin was investigated further with a focus on the role of the putative mediator, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Production of this factor was shown earlier to require prior activation of the mononuclear phagocytic sy

  7. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Öster, Linda M.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The oxi

  8. Arecoline inhibits endothelial cell growth and migration and the attachment to mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuei-Kuen Tseng

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Arecoline impaired vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting their growth and migration and their adhesion to U937 mononuclear cells. These results reveal that arecoline may contribute to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis and cardiovascular diseases by affecting endothelial cell function in BQ chewers.

  9. Interleukin-8 transcripts in mononuclear cells determine impaired graft function after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Christoffer; Xia, Shengqiang; Bistrup, Claus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been associated with ischemia reperfusion injury after renal allograft transplantation. Impaired allograft function may cause major impact on patient morbidity and health care costs. We investigated whether transcript levels in mononuclear cells including IL-8 ...

  10. Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons,C.; Liu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Hao, Q.; Begley, T.; Karplus, P.; Stipanuk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin {beta}-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage.

  11. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Öster, Linda M.; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The

  12. Variation of DNA damage levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated in different laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godschalk, Roger W L; Ersson, Clara; Stępnik, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, as assessed by the comet assay, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy women from five different countries in Europe. The laboratory in each country (referred ...

  13. Vigorous, but differential mononuclear cell response of cirrhotic patients to bacterial ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varenka J Barbero-Becerra; María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz; Carmen Maldonado-Bernal; Félix I Téllez-Avila; Roberto Alfaro-Lara; Florencia Vargas-Vorácková

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in the pathogenesis of liver injury, specifically the activation of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 20 out-patients were studied, 10 of them with cirrhosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and exposed to lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid. CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression was determined by flow cytometry, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 secretion in supernatants was determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Higher CD14, Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cirrhotic patients, (P < 0.01, P < 0.006, P < 0.111) respectively. Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid induced a further increase in CD14 expression (P < 0.111 lipopolysaccharide, P < 0.013 lipoteichoic acid), and a decrease in Toll-like receptor 2 (P < 0.008 lipopolysaccharide, P < 0.008 lipoteichoic acid) and Toll-like receptor 4 (P < 0.008 lipopolysaccharide, P < 0.028 lipoteichoic acid) expression. With the exception of TNFα, absolute cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was lower in cirrhotic patients under nonexposure conditions (P < 0.070 IL-6, P < 0.009 IL-1β, P < 0.022 IL-12). Once exposed to lipopolysaccharide or lipoteichoic acid, absolute cytokine secretion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was similar in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, determining a more vigorous response in the former (P < 0.005 TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2 and IL-10 lipopolysaccharide; P < 0.037 TNFα; P < 0.006 IL-1β; P < 0.005 IL-6; P < 0.007 IL-12; P < 0.014 IL-10 lipoteichoic acid). Response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was more intense after lipopolysaccharide than after lipoteichoic acid exposure. CONCLUSION: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cirrhotic patients are able to respond to a sudden bacterial ligand exposure, particularly lipopolysaccharide

  14. Developing mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes relevant to reactive intermediates of biological oxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Shinobu

    2015-07-21

    Active-oxygen species generated on a copper complex play vital roles in several biological and chemical oxidation reactions. Recent attention has been focused on the reactive intermediates generated at the mononuclear copper active sites of copper monooxygenases such as dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM), tyramine β-monooxygenase (TβM), peptidylglycine-α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM), and polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMO). In a simple model system, reaction of O2 and a reduced copper(I) complex affords a mononuclear copper(II)-superoxide complex or a copper(III)-peroxide complex, and subsequent H(•) or e(-)/H(+) transfer, which gives a copper(II)-hydroperoxide complex. A more reactive species such as a copper(II)-oxyl radical type species could be generated via O-O bond cleavage of the peroxide complex. However, little had been explored about the chemical properties and reactivity of the mononuclear copper-active-oxygen complexes due to the lack of appropriate model compounds. Thus, a great deal of effort has recently been made to develop efficient ligands that can stabilize such reactive active-oxygen complexes in synthetic modeling studies. In this Account, I describe our recent achievements of the development of a mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex using a simple tridentate ligand consisting of an eight-membered cyclic diamine with a pyridylethyl donor group. The superoxide complex exhibits a similar structure (four-coordinate tetrahedral geometry) and reactivity (aliphatic hydroxylation) to those of a proposed reactive intermediate of copper monooxygenases. Systematic studies based on the crystal structures of copper(I) and copper(II) complexes of the related tridentate supporting ligands have indicated that the rigid eight-membered cyclic diamine framework is crucial for controlling the geometry and the redox potential, which are prerequisites for the generation of such a unique mononuclear copper(II)-(end-on)superoxide complex

  15. Evaluation of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Premenapousal Psoriasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Vural

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in systemic treatment planned premenopausal psoriasis patients and compare it with the same age and sex matched healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Forty-one psoriasis patients and 57 healthy controls (total of 98 were included in the study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were compared between the two groups; also the relationship of disease activity and 25-hydroxy Vitamin D levels were examined in patients with psoriasis. Probability values of 0.05. In addition, the mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were not significantly different among the two groups (p>0.05. 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were no significantly different in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis (p>0.05. No significant correlation was found between psoriasis area severity index PASI values, age or 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels (p>0.05. Conclusion: The low levels of vitamin D in population is reported to be common. In our study, similar low vitamin D levels were found in healthy volunteers and premenopausal psoriasis patients. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were not correlated with disease activity in patients with psoriasis. Correlation between psoriasis, disease activity and vitamin D levels should be investigated in larger populations. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 93-7

  16. Elucidation of the Role of 3-Hydroxy Fatty Acids in Cryptococcus-amoeba Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Uju L; Ogundeji, Adepemi O; Pohl, Carolina H; Albertyn, Jacobus; Sebolai, Olihile M

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that 3-hydroxy fatty acids promoted the survival of cryptococcal cells when acted upon by amoebae. To expand on this, the current study sought to explain how these molecules may protect cells. Our data suggest that 3-hydroxy fatty acids may subvert the internalization of cryptococcal cells via suppression of the levels of a fetuin A-like amoebal protein, which may be important for enhancing phagocytosis. Additionally, we show that an acapsular strain (that is devoid of 3-hydroxy fatty acids) was protected against the effects of hydrogen peroxide when exogenous 3-hydroxy fatty acids were present, but not in the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids. A similar response profile was noted when a strain with a capsule was challenged with hydrogen peroxide. We also show that cryptococcal cells that naturally produce 3-hydroxy fatty acids were more resistant to the effects of amoebapore (an amoeba-specific hydrolytic enzyme), compared to cells that do not produce these molecules. Taken together, our findings suggest that 3-hydroxy fatty acids possess an anti-phagocytic activity that may be expressed when cells interact with macrophages. This may allow the yeast cells to evade immuno-processing.

  17. Adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells transdifferentiate in vitro and integrate into the retina in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Guan, Liping; Huang, Bing; Li, Weihua; Su, Qiao; Yu, Minbin; Xu, Xiaoping; Luo, Ting; Lin, Shaochun; Sun, Xuerong; Chen, Mengfei; Chen, Xigu

    2011-06-01

    Adult peripheral blood-derived cells are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types, including nerve cells, liver-like cells and epithelial cells. However, their differentiation into retina-like cells is controversial. In the present study, transdifferentiation potential of human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells into retina-like cells and integration into the retina of mice were investigated. Freshly isolated adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells were divided into two groups: cells in group I were cultured in neural stem cell medium, and cells in group II were exposed to conditioned medium from rat retinal tissue culture. After 5 days, several distinct cell morphologies were observed, including standard mononuclear, neurons with one or two axons and elongated glial-like cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of neural stem cell, neuron and retina cell markers demonstrated that cells in both groups were nestin-, MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein)- and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive. Flow cytometry results suggested a significant increase in nestin-, MAP2- and CD16-positive cells in group I and nestin-, GFAP-, MAP2-, vimentin- and rhodopsin-positive cells in group II. To determine survival, migration and integration in vivo, cell suspensions (containing group I or group II cells) were injected into the vitreous or the peritoneum. Tissue specimens were obtained and immunostained 4 weeks after transplantation. We found that cells delivered by intravitreal injection integrated into the retina. Labelled cells were not detected in the retina of mice receiving differentiated cells by intraperitoneal injection, but cells (groups I and II) were detected in the liver and spleen. Our findings revealed that human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be induced to transdifferentiate into neural precursor cells and retinal progenitor cells in vitro, and the differentiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can migrate and integrate

  18. Two Zn coordination polymers with meso-helical chains based on mononuclear or dinuclear cluster units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ling, E-mail: qinling@hfut.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Processing, Xuancheng Campus, Hefei University of Technology, Xuancheng 242000, Anhui (China); Jiangsu Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental Cleaning Materials (CEM), School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (China); State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiao, Wen-Cheng; Zuo, Wei-Juan; Zeng, Si-Ying; Mei, Cao; Liu, Chang-Jiang [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Processing, Xuancheng Campus, Hefei University of Technology, Xuancheng 242000, Anhui (China)

    2016-07-15

    Two zinc coordination polymers {[Zn_2(TPPBDA)(oba)_2]·DMF·1.5H_2O}{sub n} (1), {[Zn(TPPBDA)_1_/_2(tpdc)]·DMF}{sub n} (2) have been synthesized by zinc metal salt, nanosized tetradentate pyridine ligand with flexible or rigid V-shaped carboxylate co-ligands. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses. Compound 1 is a 2-fold interpenetrated 3D framework with [Zn{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}] clusters. Compound 2 can be defined as a five folded interpenetrating bbf topology with mononuclear Zn{sup 2+}. These mononuclear or dinuclear cluster units are linked by mix-ligands, resulting in various degrees of interpenetration. In addition, the photoluminescent properties for TPPBDA ligand under different state and coordination polymers have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: Two zinc coordination polymers have been synthesized by zinc metal salt, nanosized tetradentate pyridine ligand with flexible or rigid V-shaped carboxylate co-ligands. Compound 1 is a 2-fold interpenetrated 3D framework with [Zn{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}] clusters. Compound 2 can be defined as a five folded interpenetrating bbf topology with mononuclear Zn{sup 2+}. In addition, the photoluminescent properties for TPPBDA ligand under different status and coordination polymers have been investigated in detail. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two Zn coordination polymers based on mononuclear or dinuclear cluster units have been synthesized. • Compound 1 is a 2-fold interpenetrated 3D framework with [Zn{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}] clusters. • Compound 2 is a five folded interpenetrating bbf topology with mononuclear Zn{sup 2+}. • The photoluminescent properties for TPPBDA with different state and two coordination polymers have been investigated.

  19. Defining mononuclear phagocyte subset homology across several distant warm-blooded vertebrates through comparative transcriptomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mononuclear phagocytes are organized in a complex system of ontogenically and functionally-distinct subsets, that has been best described in mouse and to some extent in human. Identification of homologous mononuclear phagocyte subsets in other vertebrate species of biomedical, economic and environmental interest is needed to improve our knowledge in physiologic and physio-pathologic processes, and to design intervention strategies against a variety of diseases, including zoonotic infections.We developed a streamlined approach combining refined cell sorting and integrated comparative transcriptomics analyses which revealed conservation of the mononuclear phagocyte organization across human, mouse, sheep, pigs and, in some respect, chicken. This strategy should help democratizing the use of omics analyses for the identification and study of cell types across tissues and species. Moreover we identified conserved gene signatures that enable robust identification and universal definition of these cell types. We identified new evolutionarily conserved gene candidates and gene interaction networks for the molecular regulation of the development or functions of these cell types, as well as conserved surface candidates for refined subset phenotyping throughout species. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologous genes of the conserved signatures exist in teleost fishes and apparently not in Lamprey, indicating conservation of the genetic support for mononuclear phagocyte organization throughout jawed vertebrates but likely not in agnathans. Altogether this work provides molecular clues to the definition and functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets across vertebrates which shall be useful to rigorously identify these cells and to design universal strategies to manipulate them in many target species towards the goal to reach and maintain global health.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Studies of Binuclear Copper(II Complexes of (2E-2-(2-Hydroxy-3-Methoxybenzylidene-4N-Substituted Hydrazinecarbothioamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murali Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four novel binuclear copper(II complexes [1–4] of (2E-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-4N-substituted hydrazinecarbothioamides, (OH(OCH3C6H4CH=NNHC(SNHR, where R = H (L1, Me (L2, Et (L3, or Ph (L4, have been synthesized and characterized. The FT-IR spectral data suggested the attachment of copper(II ion to ligand moiety through the azomethine nitrogen, thioketonic sulphur, and phenolic-O. The spectroscopic characterization indicates the dissociation of dimeric complex into mononuclear [Cu(LCl] units in polar solvents like DMSO, where L is monoanionic thiosemicarbazone. The DNA binding properties of the complexes with calf thymus (CT DNA were studied by spectroscopic titration. The complexes show binding affinity to CT DNA with binding constant (Kb values in the order of 106 M−1. The ligands and their metal complexes were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities by agar disc diffusion method. Except for complex 4, all complexes showed considerable activity almost equal to the activity of ciprofloxacin. These complexes did not show any effect on Gram-negative bacteria, whereas they showed moderate activity for Gram-positive strains.

  1. Comparative study of Palladium (II using 4-Hydroxy 3, 5 dimethoxy benzaldehyde 4-hydroxy benzoyl hydrazone and Cinnamaldehyde 4-hydroxy benzoylhydrazone in presence of micellar medium by Spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Gopala Krishna,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Palladium (II using newly synthesized reagents 4-Hdroxy3,5dimethoxy benzaldehyde-4-hydroxybenzoylhydrazone (HDMBHBH and Cinnamaldehyde 4-hydroxy benzoylhydrazone (CMHBH in presence of neutral surfactant TritonX-100-5% (micellar medium. Palladium (II forms a brown coluored water-soluble complex with HDMBHBH and CMHBH-in the pH range 1.0-6.0. The Pd (II-HDMBHBH complex shows maximum absorbance at max 373 nm in the pH range 3.0-4.0 and Pd (II-CMHBH shows at max 375 nm in thepH range 4.0-5.0. At these wavelengths (max, the complex shows maximum absorbance while the reagent blanks shows negligible absorbance. Hence, analytical studies were carried out at max 373 nm at pH 3.0 for HDMBHBH and 375 nm at pH 4.0 for CMHBH against reagent blanks. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 0.106-1.064 μg ml-1 and the optimum concentration range from ringbom plot is 0.212-0.957 g/ml of Palladium (II for both reagents. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity for the coloured solution were found to be 7.5 x 104 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0015-μg. cm-2 for HDMBHBH, 6.0x104L mol-1 cm-1 , and 0.0017 -μg. cm-2 for CMHBH respectively. The interference effects of various diverse ions have been studied. Palladium (II forms 1:1 complex with HDMBHBH and CMHBH stoichiometry with stability constant 7.29 x 106 for HDMBHBH and 3.55 x 106 for CMHBH. The standard deviation in the determination of 0.638-μg ml-1 of Palladium (II is 0.003 for HDMBHBH and 0.008 for CMHBH. The Relative standard deviation is 0.71% for HDMBHBH and 2.5% for CMHBH. First and second order derivative spectroscopic methods were developed at max 422 nm and 444 nm for HDMBHBH and at 402 nm and438 nm for CMHBH respectively, for the determination of Palladium (II, which is more sensitive than the zero order method. The developed method has been employed for the determination of

  2. Computational screening of oxetane monomers for novel hydroxy terminated polyethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangapani, Radhakrishnan; Ghule, Vikas D; Sikder, Arun K

    2014-06-01

    Energetic hydroxy terminated polyether prepolymers find paramount importance in search of energetic binders for propellant applications. In the present study, density functional theory (DFT) has been employed to screen the various novel energetic oxetane derivatives, which usually construct the backbone for these energetic polymers. Molecular structures were investigated at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, and isodesmic reactions were designed for calculating the gas phase heats of formation. The condensed phase heats of formation for designed compounds were calculated by the Politzer approach using heats of sublimation. Among the designed oxetane derivatives, T4 and T5 possess condensed phase heat of formation above 210 kJ mol(-1). The crystal packing density of the designed oxetane derivatives varied from 1.2 to 1.6 g/cm(3). The detonation velocities and pressures were evaluated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equations, utilizing the predicted densities and HOFCond. It was found that most of the designed oxetane derivatives have detonation performance comparable to the monomers of benchmark energetic polymers viz., NIMMO, AMMO, and BAMO. The strain energy (SE) for the oxetane derivatives were calculated using homodesmotic reactions, while intramolecular group interactions were predicted through the disproportionation energies. The concept of chemical hardness is used to analyze the susceptibility of designed compounds to reactivity and chemical transformations. The heats of formation, density, and predicted performance imply that the designed molecules are expected to be candidates for polymer synthesis and potential molecules for energetic binders.

  3. Expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyu Chen; Jun Du; Luo Gu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Reactive oxygen species may be involved in the progression of gastric carcinomas. To clarify whether the pathology of gastric carcinoma are related to oxidative DNA damage, the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was examined in 30 patients with gastric carcinomas. Methods: The expression of 8-OHdG and apoptosis in the gastric carcinoma were measured using the methods of immunocytochemistry and deoxynucleartididyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. Results: Of the 30 cases, 25 (83%) showed stronger immunoreactivity than normal control. The patients with poorly differentiated gastric carcinoma had a larger tumor size and higher labeling indices of TUNEL- and 8-OHdG-positive cells than those with well and moderately differentiated gastric carcinoma. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that oxidative DNA damage is increased in association with necroinflammation in chronic gastric injuries and determination of 8-OHdG is useful in assessing high-grade malignancy in gastric carcinomas.

  4. Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K Mahanta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB and toluene diisocyanate (TDI polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (ɳ–time (t plots conform to the exponential function ɳ = aebt, where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm, evaluated from the slope of dɳ/dt versus ɳ plots at different temperatures, were found to vary from 0.0032 to 0.0052 min-1. It was observed that the increasing shear rate did not have significant effect on the reaction rate constants for viscosity build up of the propellant slurry. The activation energy (Eɳ, calculated from the Arrhenius plots, was found to be 13.17±1.78 kJ mole-1, whereas the activation enthalpy (∆Hɳ* and entropy (∆Sɳ* of the propellant slurry, calculated from Eyring relationship, were found to be 10.48±1.78 kJ mole-1 and –258.51± 5.38 J mole-1K-1, respectively. The reaction quenching temperature of the propellant slurry was found to be -9 ° C, based upon the experimental data. This opens up an avenue for a “freeze-and-store”, then “warm-up and cast”, mode of manufacturing of very large solid rocket propellant grains.

  5. Highly Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes of 1 Hydroxy-2-pyridinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Jocher, Christoph J.; Castro-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-11-01

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes formed from two differing bis-bidentate ligands incorporating either alkyl or alkyl ether linkages and featuring the 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelate group in complex with Eu(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) are reported. The Eu(III) complexes are among some of the best examples, pairing highly efficient emission ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Eu} {approx} 21.5%) with high stability (pEu {approx} 18.6) in aqueous solution, and are excellent candidates for use in biological assays. A comparison of the observed behavior of the complexes with differing backbone linkages shows remarkable similarities, both in stability and photophysical properties. Low temperature photophysical measurements for a Gd(III) complex were also used to gain insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree with corresponding TD-DFT calculations for a model complex. A comparison of the high resolution Eu(III) emission spectra in solution and from single crystals also revealed a more symmetric coordination geometry about the metal ion in solution due to dynamic rotation of the observed solid state structure.

  6. Highly Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes of 1 Hydroxy-2-pyridinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Jocher, Christoph J.; Castro-Rodriguez, Ingrid; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-11-01

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes formed from two differing bis-bidentate ligands incorporating either alkyl or alkyl ether linkages and featuring the 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelate group in complex with Eu(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) are reported. The Eu(III) complexes are among some of the best examples, pairing highly efficient emission ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Eu} {approx} 21.5%) with high stability (pEu {approx} 18.6) in aqueous solution, and are excellent candidates for use in biological assays. A comparison of the observed behavior of the complexes with differing backbone linkages shows remarkable similarities, both in stability and photophysical properties. Low temperature photophysical measurements for a Gd(III) complex were also used to gain insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree with corresponding TD-DFT calculations for a model complex. A comparison of the high resolution Eu(III) emission spectra in solution and from single crystals also revealed a more symmetric coordination geometry about the metal ion in solution due to dynamic rotation of the observed solid state structure.

  7. Resistance training & beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation on hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOIntroduction:In recent years, there was an increased interest on the effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB supplementation on skeletal muscle due to its anti-catabolic effects.Objectives:To investigate the effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, muscular strength and anabolic-catabolic hormones after resistance training.Methods:Twenty amateur male athletes were randomly assigned to supplement and control groups in a double-blind crossover design and participated in four weeks resistance training. Before and after the test period fasting blood samples were obtained to determine anabolic (the growth hormone and testosterone and catabolic (cortisol hormones, and fat mass, lean body mass (LBM and muscular strength were measured. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze data.Results:After the training period, there were no significant differen-ces between the groups with respect to fat mass, LBM and anabolic-catabolic hormones. HMB supplementation resulted in a significantly greater strength gain (p≤0.05.Conclusion:Greater increase in strength for HMB group was not accompanied by body composition and basal circulating anabolic-catabolic hormonal changes. It seems that HMB supplementation may have beneficial effects on neurological adaptations of strength gain.

  8. Production of hydroxy fatty acids by microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in chemical, food, and cosmetic industries as starting materials for the synthesis of polymers and as additives for the manufacture of lubricants, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. They have antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities and therefore can be applied for medicinal uses. Microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, including P450, lipoxygenase, hydratase, 12-hydroxylase, and diol synthase, synthesize regio-specific hydroxy fatty acids. In this article, microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, with a focus on region-specificity and diversity, are summarized and the production of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids is introduced. Finally, the production methods of regio-specific and diverse hydroxy fatty acids, such as gene screening, protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and combinatory biosynthesis, are suggested. © 2013.

  9. Clinical evaluation of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan as an antidepressant drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Kudo, Y; Kaneko, Z

    1978-01-01

    Effectiveness of 5-hydroxy-L-trytophan as an antidepressant drug was studied with 59 patients with depressive symptoms using Rating Scale for Depression made by Clinico-Psychopharmacology Research Group in Japan for a preparatory step of a double blind clinical study of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan treatment of depression. A daily dose of 150--300 mg of 5-hydroxyl-L-tryptophan was administered for three weeks. Favorable responses were observed in 40 patients (67.8%), of whom 13 patients were markedly improved. These effects were noticed in 32 patients (80% of the improved patients) within a week of the treatment. Analysis of General Improvement Rating in the various subtypes of depressive symptoms indicated that endogenous depression and involutional or senile depression were the preferable indication of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan loading. The main side effects of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan were gastrointestinal disturbances which were minimized by the simultaneous administration of metoclopromide or trihexyphenidyl.

  10. Inert Reassessment Document for 2-(2'-Hydroxy-5'-methylpheny)benzotriazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2-(2'-Hydroxy-5'-methylphenyl)benzotriazole commonly known as Drometrizole is most commonly used as an UV light absorber helping to stabilizeand protect plastics, polyesters, celluloses, acrylates, dyes, rubber, synthetic and natural fibers, waxes,

  11. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Jacob M; Fitschen, Peter J; Campbell, Bill; Wilson, Gabriel J; Zanchi, Nelo; Taylor, Lem; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Lopez, Hector L; Kreider, Richard B; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB...

  12. Improvement of RVNRL film properties by adding fumed silica and hydroxy apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adul Thiangchanya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding fumed silica and hydroxy apatite to Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL for improving tear strength, aging properties, degradability and water-soluble protein content of rubber films has been investigated. The addition of fumed silica and hydroxy apatite in RVNRL improves tear strength and aging properties of rubber films, whereas tensile strength and degradability of rubber films were unchanged during storage at room temperature. The water-soluble protein content in rubber films was reduced by immobilization of the fumed silica and hydroxy apatite and enhanced by addition of ZnO. This may reduce allergy problems of natural rubber latex products caused by water-soluble protein. The MST of the RVNRL with fumed silica and hydroxy apatite indicated that the latex must be used within two months after mixing because of its stability.

  13. 6-Alkoxymethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyranones: potential ligands for cell-labelling with indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, B.L. [Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sampson, C.B. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Rheumatology; Abeysinghe, R.D.; Porter, J.B. [Univ. Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Haematology,; Hider, R.C. [King' s College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pharmacy

    1999-11-01

    We have identified ligands for cell labelling with indium-111: 3-hydroxy-6-propoxymethyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 6-butoxymethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one. The leucocyte labelling efficiencies of {sup 111}In complexes of these ligands were higher and label stabilities were found to be similar compared with those obtained using {sup 111}In-tropolonate. High labelling efficiencies of neutrophils and lymphocytes were achieved with {sup 111}In complexes of pyranones. Tropolone was found to have a greater inhibitory effect on metalloenzymes and to cause greater impairment of platelet function than 3-hydroxy-6-propoxymethyl-4H-pyran-4-one. Thus 6-alkoxymethyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-ones may have advantages over current ligands used in cell labelling with {sup 111}In. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of 4-hydroxy-o-phenylphenol and 3,6-diallyl-4-hydroxy-o-phenylphenol against a cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, K H; Koo, S H; Seo, W J

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of survey of the antibacterial activity against a cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176 with the introduction of hydroxyl and allyl groups to o-phenylphenol (Fig. 2, 1), 4-hydroxy-o-phenylphenol (2), and 3,6-diallyl-4-hydroxy-o-phenylphenol (4) were synthesized, successively. The synthesized compounds, 2 and 4 showed more potent antibacterial activity than the starting material, 1. The hydroxyl group was supposed to the essential element for the antibacterial activity and the introduction of allyl group to phenolic ring to be another element to increase the activity.

  15. Synthesis of 8-[[sup 18]O]hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanns, R.C.A.; Zomer, G.; Jacquemijns, M.; Stavenuiter, J.F.C.; Teixeira, A.J.R.; Werken, G. van de (National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Westra, J.G. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-02-01

    8-[[sup 18]O]Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was synthesized starting from 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine and the sodium salt of [[sup 18]O]benzyl alcohol, resulting in the intermediate 8-[[sup 18]O]benzyloxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Subsequent reduction by catalytic transfer hydrogenation, yielded the desired product 8-[[sup 18]O]hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. (author).

  16. Zeolite-catalysed preparation of alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids and esters thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst.......A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst....

  17. Methanogenic Inhibition by Roxarsone (4-Hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) and Related Aromatic Arsenic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylarsonic acid) and p-arsanilic acid (4-aminophenylarsonic acid) are feed additives widely used in the broiler and swine industry. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of roxarsone, p-arsanilic, and other phenylarsonic compounds on the activity of acetate- and H2-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms. Roxarsone, p-arsanilic, and 4-hydroxy-3-aminophenylarsonic acid (HAPA) inhibited acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens when supplemented at concent...

  18. Research on the Sizing Performance of Starch Grafted Poly-hydroxy Alkyl-acid Esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO La-mei; GUO Liang-hong

    2010-01-01

    Starch grafted poly-hydroxy alkyl-acid esters were prepared via graft polymerization. Different characteristics of grafted starches were tested such as viscosity, viscosity stability, adhesion as well as properties of sized yams. Sizing performance was analyzed from the aspect of physical and chemical reactions between polymer molecules. It shows that starch grafted poly-hydroxy alkyl-acid esters have excellent sizing performance and could absolutely be used as sizes for polyester-cotton yarns.

  19. Efficient Domino Hydroformylation/Benzoin Condensation: Highly Selective Synthesis of α-Hydroxy Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kaiwu; Sang, Rui; Soule, Jean-Francois; Bruneau, Christian; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2015-12-07

    An improved domino hydroformylation/benzoin condensation to give α-hydroxy ketones has been developed. Easily available olefins are smoothly converted into the corresponding α-hydroxy ketones in high yields with excellent regioselectivities. Key to success is the use of a specific catalytic system consisting of a rhodium/phosphine complex and the CO2 adduct of an N-heterocyclic carbene. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α-Hydroxy Ketones: A Reaction Sensitive toward Electronic Effect of Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; MENG Qing-Hua; ZHANG Zhao-Guo

    2008-01-01

    An efficient asymmetric hydrogenation of a-hydroxy ketones was reported with the catalyst prepared from [RuCl2(benzene)]2 and SunPhos,chiral terminal 1,2-diols were obtained in up to 99% ee.This Ru-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation reaction of a-hydroxy ketones represents a new route for the synthesis of chiral terminal 1,2-diols.

  1. Characterization of an 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin:NADPH oxidoreductase from Streptomyces griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, A P; Hessels, J K; Meerwaldt, R

    1989-01-27

    An 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin-dependent oxidoreductase was isolated from the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and purified 590-fold with 72% overall yield. The enzyme catalyzes electron transfer between 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavins and NADPH. It seems to be more specific than methanogenic oxidoreductase as it has an absolute requirement for both the 5-deazaflavin structure and the presence of an 8-hydroxy group in the substrate. A molecular weight of 42,000 was found with gel permeation chromatography, while SDS gel electrophoresis indicated the presence of two identical subunits. Maximal enzymatic activity was found at 0.32 M NaCl and pH 5.9 for reduction of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin and pH 7.9 for the reverse reaction. From the kinetic constants it was estimated that the main function of this oxidoreductase is probably to provide cells with reduced 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin to be used in specific reduction reactions. These results indicate the occurrence of 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin-dependent electron transfer in microorganisms not belonging to the archaebacteria.

  2. Evaluation of renal allografts using {sup 99m} Tc mononuclear leukocytes; Avaliacao de transplantes renais utilizando-se {sup 99m} Tc-leucocitos mononucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de; Martins, Flavia Paiva Proenca; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Gutfilen, Bianca [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: sergioalsouza@ufrj.br; Goncalves, Renato Torres; Pontes, Daniela Salomao [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Nefrologia; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear

    2004-02-01

    Renal allograft acute rejection must be promptly diagnosed since its reversibility is related to the readiness in which treatment is initiated. The aim of this study was: to establish a quantitative method to evaluate kidney rejection and acute tubular necrosis (Attn); to assess the potential role of {sup 99m} Tc-mononuclear leukocytes scintigraphy in the diagnosis of renal rejection and differential diagnosis of Attn. One hundred and sixty studies were performed in 80 renal transplant patients at the first and fifth day after transplantation. Autologous cells were used for labeling. Images were obtained at 30 minutes, 3 hours and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 444 MBq (12 mCi) of labeled cells. There was abnormal labeled cells uptake in 27 of 31 cases of rejection and in 6 of 8 cases of Attn. The results of each patient were compared with clinical findings. Doppler scanning detected 18 of 31 cases of rejection. Rejection diagnosis sensitivity and specificity rates using scintigraphy were 87.1 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively, and 58.1 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively using ultrasound. Renal biopsy was performed in eight patients which demonstrated seven cases of rejection and one case of ATN. These results suggest that {sup 99m} Tc-mononuclear leukocytes imaging may be useful in the early diagnosis of rejection and in the differential diagnosis of ATN. (author)

  3. Effect of malaria components on blood mononuclear cells involved in immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsawad, Chuchard

    2013-09-01

    During malaria infection, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide production have been associated with pathogenesis and disease severity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have proposed that both Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols are able to modulate blood mononuclear cells, contributing to stimulation of signal transduction and downstream regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. The present review summarizes the published in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in blood mononuclear cells after being inducted by Plasmodium falciparum malaria components. Particular attention is paid to hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols which reflect the important mechanism of signaling pathways involved in immune response.

  4. Two Zn coordination polymers with meso-helical chains based on mononuclear or dinuclear cluster units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Qiao, Wen-Cheng; Zuo, Wei-Juan; Zeng, Si-Ying; Mei, Cao; Liu, Chang-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Two zinc coordination polymers {[Zn2(TPPBDA)(oba)2]·DMF·1.5H2O}n (1), {[Zn(TPPBDA)1/2(tpdc)]·DMF}n (2) have been synthesized by zinc metal salt, nanosized tetradentate pyridine ligand with flexible or rigid V-shaped carboxylate co-ligands. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses. Compound 1 is a 2-fold interpenetrated 3D framework with [Zn2(CO2)4] clusters. Compound 2 can be defined as a five folded interpenetrating bbf topology with mononuclear Zn2+. These mononuclear or dinuclear cluster units are linked by mix-ligands, resulting in various degrees of interpenetration. In addition, the photoluminescent properties for TPPBDA ligand under different state and coordination polymers have been investigated in detail.

  5. Effect of malaria components on blood mononuclear cells involved in immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuchard Punsawad

    2013-01-01

    During malaria infection, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide production have been associated with pathogenesis and disease severity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have proposed that both Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols are able to modulate blood mononuclear cells, contributing to stimulation of signal transduction and downstream regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. The present review summarizes the published in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in blood mononuclear cells after being inducted by Plasmodium falciparum malaria components. Particular attention is paid to hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols which reflect the important mechanism of signaling pathways involved in immune response.

  6. Reduced LAK cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Petersen, K R; Steven, K

    1990-01-01

    were analyzed using monoclonal antibodies against T cells, natural killer (NK) -cells, monocytes, and activation markers. The cytotoxicities of US-PBMC, PS-PBMC, and LAK cells were all significantly lower in the cancer patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). The percentages of PBMC positive......The cytotoxicity of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (US-PBMC), phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC (PS-PBMC) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated PBMC (LAK cells) was assessed in patients with noninvasive and invasive transitional-cell bladder cancer and compared with those...... determined in healthy controls. The differences in the cytotoxicities were correlated with specific changes in the subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC from 37 patients and 13 healthy controls were tested against the bladder cancer cell line T24 in 51Cr-release assays. The PBMC subsets...

  7. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of high-spin mononuclear iron(II) p-semiquinonate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Amanda E; Park, Heaweon; Lindeman, Sergey V; Fiedler, Adam T

    2014-12-01

    Two mononuclear iron(II) p-semiquinonate (pSQ) complexes have been generated via one-electron reduction of precursor complexes containing a substituted 1,4-naphthoquinone ligand. Detailed spectroscopic and computational analysis confirmed the presence of a coordinated pSQ radical ferromagnetically coupled to the high-spin Fe(II) center. The complexes are intended to model electronic interactions between (semi)quinone and iron cofactors in biology.

  8. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Characterization of High-Spin Mononuclear Iron(II) p-Semiquinonate Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Amanda E.; Park, Heaweon; Lindeman, Sergey V.; Fiedler, Adam T.

    2014-01-01

    Two mononuclear iron(II) p-semiquinonate (pSQ) complexes have been generated via one-electron reduction of precursor complexes containing a substituted 1,4-naphthoquinone ligand. Detailed spectroscopic and computational analysis confirmed the presence of a coordinated pSQ radical ferromagnetically coupled to the high-spin FeII center. The complexes are intended to model electronic interactions between (semi)quinone and iron cofactors in biology.

  9. Rapid Column-Free Enrichment of Mononuclear Cells from Solid Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D; Keller, Karen A; Cheng, Stephanie; Zhang, Michael; Zhang, Xiaoli; Caligiuri, Michael A; Freud, Aharon G

    2015-07-30

    We have developed a rapid negative selection method to enrich rare mononuclear cells from human tissues. Unwanted and antibody-tethered cells are selectively depleted during a Ficoll separation step, and there is no need for magnetic-based reagents and equipment. The new method is fast, customizable, inexpensive, remarkably efficient, and easy to perform, and per sample the overall cost is less than one-tenth the cost associated with a magnetic column-based method.

  10. Rapid Column-Free Enrichment of Mononuclear Cells from Solid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Steven D.; Keller, Karen A.; Cheng, Stephanie; Zhang, Michael; Zhang, Xiaoli; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Freud, Aharon G.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a rapid negative selection method to enrich rare mononuclear cells from human tissues. Unwanted and antibody-tethered cells are selectively depleted during a Ficoll separation step, and there is no need for magnetic-based reagents and equipment. The new method is fast, customizable, inexpensive, remarkably efficient, and easy to perform, and per sample the overall cost is less than one-tenth the cost associated with a magnetic column-based method. PMID:26223896

  11. UV/Vis, MCD and EPR Spectra of Mononuclear Manganese and Molybdenum Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Westphal, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis deals with the spectroscopic characterization of the electronic structures of mononuclear manganese and molybdenum complexes. At this, in addition to UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy were applied in this work. Additionally, new procedures for the general analysis of MCD C-term intensities were developed within the scope of this thesis. It is divided into four parts. Following a general p...

  12. Effects of carvedilol on oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Watanabe, Takanori; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Asada, Akira

    2004-04-01

    To compare the effects of carvedilol and propranolol on oxidative stress in leukocytes and C-reactive protein levels in patients with hypertension. Sixty hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to carvedilol (20 mg; n = 30) or propranolol (60 mg; n = 30) for 6 months. Thirty normotensive subjects who were given placebo served as controls. Oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured by gated flow cytometry. C-reactive protein levels were measured by immunonephelometric assay. Oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells was increased significantly in hypertensive patients compared with in normotensive controls. After 6 months of treatment, carvedilol decreased oxidative stress significantly in polymorphonuclear cells by a mean of 45 arbitrary units (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32 to 59 arbitrary units; P <0.001) and propranolol decreased oxidative stress significantly by 20 arbitrary units (95% CI: 7 to 33 arbitrary units; P <0.003; P = 0.001 for difference between treatments). Carvedilol also decreased oxidative stress significantly in mononuclear cells by 23 arbitrary units (95% CI: 15 to 31 arbitrary units; P <0.001), whereas propranolol decreased oxidative stress by 2 arbitrary units (95% CI: 7 to 12 arbitrary units; P = 0.62; P = 0.002 for difference between treatments). Carvedilol decreased C-reactive protein levels significantly by a median of 0.073 mg/dL (interquartile range, 0.034 to 0.112 mg/dL; P <0.001), whereas propranolol decreased levels by 0.012 mg/dL (interquartile range, 0.009 to 0.032 mg/dL; P = 0.26; P = 0.003 for difference between treatments). These findings suggest that carvedilol inhibits oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, as well as lowers C-reactive protein levels, to a greater extent than does propranolol in hypertensive patients.

  13. INFLUENCE OF ALPHA-1-ACID GLYCOPROTEIN UPON PRODUCTION OF CYTOKINES BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Osikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid is a multifunctional acute phase reactant belonging to the family of lipocalines from plasma alpha-2 globulin fraction. In present study, we investigated dosedependent effects of orosomucoid upon secretion of IL-1â, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4 by mononuclear cells from venous blood of healthy volunteers. Mononuclear cells were separated by means of gradient centrifugation, followed by incubation for 24 hours with 250, 500, or 1000 mcg of orosomucoid per ml RPMI-1640 medium (resp., low, medium and high dose. The levels of cytokine production were assayed by ELISA technique. Orosomucoid-induced secretion of IL-1â and IL-4 was increased, whereas IL-3 secretion was inhibited. IL-2 production was suppressed at low doses of orosomucoid, and stimulated at medium and high doses. The effect of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein upon production of IL-2, IL-3 and IL-4 was dose-dependent. Hence, these data indicate that orosomucoid is capable of modifying IL-1â, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-4 secretion by blood mononuclear cells.

  14. Modulation of adhesion molecules by cholesterol-lowering therapy in mononuclear cells from hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice Cristina; Alves, Camila; Genvigir, Fabiana Dalla Vecchia; Fajardo, Cristina Moreno; Dorea, Egidio Lima; Gusukuma, Maria Cecilia; Pinto, Gelba Almeida; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo

    2015-08-01

    Cholesterol-lowering therapy has been related with several pleiotropic effects including anti-inflammatory action in vascular endothelium; however, their influence on monocyte adhesion molecules is poorly described. To investigate the effect of inhibitors of synthesis (statins) and absorption (ezetimibe) of cholesterol on expression of adhesion molecules L-selectin, PSGL-1, VLA-4, LFA-1, and Mac-1 in mononuclear cells in vivo and in vitro using THP-1 cells. The influence of simvastatin (10 mg/day), ezetimibe (10 mg/day), and their combination (10 mg each/day) on mRNA expression of adhesion molecules was analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hypercholesterolemics. The effects of atorvastatin, simvastatin, and ezetimibe on mRNA and protein expression of adhesion molecules were also evaluated in THP-1 cells. Simvastatin/ezetimibe combination, but not the monotherapies, reduced the mRNA expression of the PSGL-1, LFA-1, and Mac-1 genes in PBMC from hypercholesterolemics. Total and LDL cholesterol in serum correlated with PSGL-1 mRNA expression, whereas HDL cholesterol negatively correlated with mRNA levels of L-selectin and VLA-4 genes (P molecules in PBMC from hypercholesterolemics and THP-1 cells. Simvastatin/ezetimibe combination gives more benefits by reducing to a larger extent the expression of adhesion molecules in mononuclear cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Defining Mononuclear Phagocyte Subset Homology Across Several Distant Warm-Blooded Vertebrates Through Comparative Transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Urien, Céline; Ruscanu, Suzana; Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickaël; Moroldo, Marco; Foucras, Gilles; Salmon, Henri; Marty, Hélène; Quéré, Pascale; Bertho, Nicolas; Boudinot, Pierre; Dalod, Marc; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes are organized in a complex system of ontogenetically and functionally distinct subsets, that has been best described in mouse and to some extent in human. Identification of homologous mononuclear phagocyte subsets in other vertebrate species of biomedical, economic, and environmental interest is needed to improve our knowledge in physiologic and physio-pathologic processes, and to design intervention strategies against a variety of diseases, including zoonotic infections. We developed a streamlined approach combining refined cell sorting and integrated comparative transcriptomics analyses which revealed conservation of the mononuclear phagocyte organization across human, mouse, sheep, pigs and, in some respect, chicken. This strategy should help democratizing the use of omics analyses for the identification and study of cell types across tissues and species. Moreover, we identified conserved gene signatures that enable robust identification and universal definition of these cell types. We identified new evolutionarily conserved gene candidates and gene interaction networks for the molecular regulation of the development or functions of these cell types, as well as conserved surface candidates for refined subset phenotyping throughout species. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologous genes of the conserved signatures exist in teleost fishes and apparently not in Lamprey.

  16. Use of {sup 99m}Tc-Mononuclear Leukocyte Scintigraphy in Nosocomial Fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfilen, B.; Lopes de Souza, S.A.; Martins, F.P.P.; Cardoso, L.R.; Pinheiro Pessoa, M.C.; Fonseca, L.M.B. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To determine the overall diagnostic accuracy of mononuclear leukocyte-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy in the routine detection of infectious lesions and fever of unknown origin (FUO) in inpatients. Material and Methods: The use of mononuclear leukocyte {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy is presented in 87 patients who fulfilled the Durack and Street diagnostic criteria of nosocomial FUO; 66 patients were suspected of having infectious lesions (myocarditis, endocarditis, infected catheters, diabetic foot, and osteomyelitis) and 21 patients presented with unknown causes of FUO. Scans were carried out 1, 3, and 24 h after injection of labeled leukocytes. Results: In three cases (3/27) where scintigraphs were negative, biopsies were positive. There were two (2/87) false-positive scintigrams. We found a 95.8% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity. PPV was 93.8%, PPN 94.7%, and accuracy 94.2%. Conclusion: Mononuclear leukocyte {sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy showed high sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values in patients with nosocomial FUO. These results suggest an important role for nuclear medicine in the management of patients with infection/inflammation.

  17. Study of the inhibition by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of TNF-α release from human mononuclear cells and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of human PMNs on the production of TNF-α by the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and to elucidate its tentative mechanism.

  18. Aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis: blood mononuclear cell gene expression and plasma protein levels of cytokines and cytokine inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars K; Havemose-Poulsen, Anne; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti-inflammatory c......BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti...

  19. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: heterogeneity in 5-nucleotidase and peroxidase activities of mononuclear phagocytes during in vivo and in vitro infection

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Côrte-Real; Gabriel Grimaldi Junior; Maria de Nazareth Leal de Meirelles

    1988-01-01

    The degree of maturation of cells of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS), during in vivo and in vitro infection by Leishmania mexicana amazonenesis, was evaluated in this study. The macrophages' differentiation was assayed by cytochemical characterization at the ultrastrctural level, using two well-established markers: 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activity, for revealing the mature cells, and the peroxidase activity present in the cell granules to demonstrate immature mononuclear phagocytes. onl...

  20. Validation of using gene expression in mononuclear cells as a marker for hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Amrita

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor are ubiquitously expressed in major tissues. Since the liver plays a major role in regulating circulating LDL, it is usually of interest to measure the effects of drug or dietary interventions on these proteins in liver. In humans, peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been used as a surrogate for liver to assess regulation of these genes, although there is concern regarding the validity of this approach. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between liver and mononuclear cell expression of HMG-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor in guinea pigs, a well established model for human cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. We extracted RNA from liver and mononuclear cells of guinea pigs from a previous study where the effects of rapamycin, an immunosuppresant drug used for transplant patients, on lipid metabolism were evaluated. Guinea pigs were assigned to three different diets containing the same amount of fat (15 g/100 g and cholesterol (0.08 g/100 g for a period of 3 weeks. The only difference among diets was the concentration of rapamycin: 0, 0.0028 or 0.028 g/100 g. There were no differences in plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C among groups. Values were 78.4 ± 14.3, 65.8 ± 17.2 and 68.4 ± 45.4 mg/dL (P > 0.05 for guinea pigs treated with 0, low or high doses of rapamycin, respectively. The mRNA abundance for the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase was measured both in liver (n = 30 and mononuclear cells (n = 22 using reverse transcriptase PCR. In agreement with the finding of no changes in plasma LDL-C, there were also no differences for the expression of HMG-CoA reductase or the LDL receptor among groups. However, a positive correlation was found between liver and mononuclear cells for both HMG-CoA reductase (r = 0.613, P

  1. Effect of methionine hydroxy analog supplementation on dairy cattle hoof growth and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A K; Rakes, A H

    1982-08-01

    Fifty lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to one of two treatments, control and control plus approximately 30 g methionine hydroxy analog, and confined on concrete for 11 mo. The control diet consisted of sorghum silage and concentrate fed as a blended ration. Sulfur contents of dry matter were .12% and .16% for control and methionine hydroxy analog rations. Hoof growth and hardness were measured on front and rear right abaxial claws in the dorsal and lateral regions. Hoof growth rates were measured for four periods; summer-fall, fall-winter, winter-spring, and spring-summer, each 70 to 90 days. Hooves of cows fed methionine hydroxy analog grew faster than those of control cows during spring-summer in all regions. Variations of growth rates of hooves were seasonal and tended to follow variations in daily photoperiod. Wear rates were not affected significantly by treatment. Hooves of cows fed methionine hydroxy analog were softer in the top dorsal region at the end of winter-spring and in the dorsal toe region at the end of spring-summer. All other locations were not affected significantly by treatment. The toe region was harder than the top of the hoof. Cows fed methionine hydroxy analog had less cysteine and proline in hoof than control cows and greater percentages of methionine lysine, tyrosine, and glutamic acid. These results suggest that a decrease of disulfide bonding occurred in the hoof tissue of cows fed methionine hydroxy analog. Cows fed methionine hydroxy analog produced more actual milk, milk fat, and 4% fat-corrected milk during 180 days than did control cows.

  2. Analysis of fluorescence quenching of coumarin derivatives by 4-hydroxy-TEMPO in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wiczk, Wiesław; Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of different coumarin derivatives (7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, 7-amino-4-methyl-3-coumarinylacetic acid, 7-ethoxy-4-methylcoumarin, 7-methoxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-coumarinylacetic acid and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) by 4-hydroxy-TEMPO in aqueous solutions at the room temperature was studied with the use of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy as well as a steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to understand the mechanism of quenching the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of all coumarins along with fluorescence decays were recorded under the action of 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. The Stern-Volmer plots (both from time-averaged and time-resolved measurements) displayed no positive (upward) deviation from a linearity. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was found to be entirely dynamic, what was additionally confirmed by the registration of Stern-Volmer plots at different temperatures. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and bimolecular quenching rate constants were obtained for all coumarins studied at the room temperature. The findings demonstrate the possibility of developing an analytical method for the quantitative determination of the free radicals' scavenger, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, DNA and BSA binding, molecular docking and in vitro anticancer activities of a mononuclear dioxido-uranium(VI) complex derived from a tridentate ONO aroylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Maryam; Ebrahimipour, S Yousef; Castro, Jesus; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2016-05-01

    A mononuclear dioxido-uranium(IV) complex [UO2(L)(DMSO)2], was prepared from the reaction of (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)benzohydrazide [HL] with UO2(OAc)2·2H2O in DMSO. The obtained complex was fully characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of [UO2(L)(DMSO)2] revealed that U(VI) ion has been coordinated by ONO donor atoms of the dianionic ligand (L(2-)), oxo groups and two DMSO molecules in a pentagonal bipyramid geometry. In addition, interactions of the complex with salmon sperm DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were thoroughly investigated using UV-vis absorption, voltammetry and molecular docking methods. The experimental studies showed an intercalative mode of interaction between the complex and DNA. Experiments on BSA interaction indicated a change in the polarity of the environment surrounded the complex as a result of the interaction between BSA and [UO2(L)(DMSO)2]. Finally, MTT assays indicated that the U(VI) complex had excellent cytotoxicity against human carcinoma cell lines of MCF-7, HPG-2, and HT-29, with IC50 values of 8.4, 10.6 and 10.0μM, respectively.

  4. IFN-{gamma} gene expression in pancreatic islet-infiltrating mononuclear cells correlates with autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Suarez-Pinzon, W.L.; Sorensen, O. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice results from selective destruction of pancreatic islet {beta}-cells following islet filtration by mononuclear leukocytes. Cytokines produced by islet-infiltrating mononuclear cells may be involved in {beta}-cell destruction. Therefore, we analyzed cytokine mRNA expression, by reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay, in mononuclear leukocytes isolated from pancreatic islets of four groups of mice: diabetes-prone female NOD mice; female NOD mice protected from diabetes by injection of CFA at an early age; male NOD mice with a low diabetes incidence; and female BALB/c mice that do not develop diabetes. We found that mRNA levels of IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-{gamma} in mononuclear cells from islets of diabetes-prone female NOD mice increased progressively as these cells infiltrated the islets from age 5 wk to diabetes onset (>13 wk). However, only IFN-{gamma} mRNA levels were significantly higher in islet mononuclear cells from 12-wk-old diabetes-prone female NOD mice than from less diabetes-prone NOD mice (CFA-treated females, and males) and normal mice (BALB/c). In contrast, IL-4 mRNA levels were lower in islet mononuclear cells from diabetes-prone female NOD mice than from NOD mice with low diabetes incidence (CFA-treated females and males). Splenic cell mRNA levels of IFN-{gamma} and IL-4 were not different in the four groups of mice. These results suggest that islet {beta}-cell destruction and diabetes in female NOD mice are dependent upon intra-islet IFN-{gamma} production by mononuclear cells, and that CFA-treated female NOD mice and male NOD mice may be protected from diabetes development by down-regulation of IFN-{gamma} production in the islets. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. 2-Hydroxy-2-trifluoromethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic ring in the title compound, C10H7F3O3, has a half-boat conformation with the hydroxy-bearing C atom lying 0.595 (3 Å out of the plane of the five remaining atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.022 Å in the direction of the hydroxy O atom. Linear supramolecular chains along the a axis, sustained by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the hydroxy H and ketone O atoms, feature in the crystal packing. These chains are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H...O and C—H...F contacts.

  6. Occurrence of 3-hydroxy acids in microalgae and cyanobacteria and their geochemical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Nagashima, Hideyuki

    1984-08-01

    3-Hydroxy acids were detected in pure cultured microalgae: Chlorophyta— Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Rhodophyta— Cyanidium caldarium (two strains), and cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta)— Anacystis nidulans, Phormidium foveolarum, Anabaena variabilis and Oscillatoria sp. Normal and branched (iso and anteiso) 3-hydroxy acids in the ranges of C 8-C 26 were found in all the samples studied at concentrations ranging from 0.036 to 2.3 and 0.000 to 0.12 mg g -1 of dry sample, respectively. The major constituents were generally even-carbon numbered normal acids with carbon chain lengths below C 20. Microalgae and cyanobacteria may be the important sources of 3-hydroxy acids in natural environments.

  7. Intra-arterial Infusion of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Stem Cells in Subacute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Azza Abass; Yousef, Mohamed Khalil; Ragab, Osama AbdAllah; ElZamarany, Enas Arafa

    2016-01-01

    Based on many preclinical and small clinical trials, stem cells can help stroke patient with the possibility of replacing the cells and supporting the remaining cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of bone marrow mononuclear (BMMN) stem cell transplantation in subacute ischemic stroke patients. Thirty-nine (n = 39) patients with subacute ischemic cerebral infarct due to large artery occlusion in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory were recruited. They were distributed into two groups: first group (n = 21) served as an experimental group, which received intra-arterial (IA) mononuclear stem cells (bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell), while the other group (n = 18) served as a control group. All the patients were evaluated clinically by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index, modified and standardized Arabic version of the Comprehensive Aphasia Test, and radiological for 12 months. The stem cell-treated group showed better improvement, but it was not significant when compared with the non-treated group. The volume of infarction changes at the end of the study was non-significant between both the groups. There was no, or minimal, adverse reactions in stem cell-treated group. The study results suggest that autologous BMMN stem cell IA transplantation in subacute MCA ischemic stroke patients is safe with very minimal hazards, but no significant improvement of motor, language disturbance, or infarction volume was detected in stem cell-treated group compared with the non-treated group.

  8. Role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in HBV intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingliang; Zhao, Xiaxia; Yao Li, M D

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection. Thirty HBsAg-positive pregnant women in the second trimester and their aborted fetuses were included in this study. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was utilized to detect HBsAg in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and the femoral vein blood of their aborted fetuses. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and GSTM1 alleles of pregnant women and their aborted fetuses were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seminested PCR, respectively. We also examined the location of placenta HBsAg and HBcAb using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of placenta HBV-DNA was detected by in situ hybridization. For the 30 aborted fetuses, the HBV intrauterine infection rate was 43.33%. The HBV-positive rates of HBsAg in peripheral blood, serum, and PBMC were 10% (3/30), 23.33% (7/30), and 33.33% (10/30), respectively. Maternal-fetal PBMC transport was significantly positively correlated with fetal PBMC HBV-DNA (P = 0.004). Meanwhile, the rates of HBV infection gradually decreased from the maternal side to the fetus side of placenta (decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells). However, no significant correlation between placenta HBV infection and HBV intrauterine infection was observed (P = 0.410). HBV intrauterine infection was primarily due to peripheral blood mononuclear cell maternal-fetal transportation in the second trimester in pregnant women.

  9. Electrochromic devices based on wide band-gap nanocrystalline semiconductors functionalized with mononuclear charge transfer compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; Argazzi, R.; Bignozzi, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    A series of ruthenium and iron mononuclear complexes were prepared and their spectroeletrochemical behavior characterized oil Optically Transparent Thin Layer Electrodes (OTTLE) and on Fluorine Doped SnO2 (FTO) conductive glasses coated with Sb-doped nanocrystalline SnO2. These systems display...... a reversible electrochemical response and offer potential application in electrochromic devices. On SnO2 films distinct spectral changes are observed in a narrow potential range (-0.5/0.9 V vs SCE) with switching times of the order of 0.8 s. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Usefulness of liver infiltrating CD86-positive mononuclear cells for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazutaka Kurokohchi; Shigeki Kuriyama; Tsutomu Masaki; Takashi Himoto; Akihiro Deguchi; Seiji Nakai; Asahiro Morishita; Hirohito Yoneyama; Yasuhiko Kimura; Seishiro Watanabe

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Although the pathogenic mechanism underlying autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) remains unclear, the immune system is thought to be critical for the progression of the disease. Cellular immune responses may be linked to the hepatocellular damage in AIH. Recently, much attention has been focused on the critical functions of costimulatory molecules expressed on mononuclear cells in the generation of effective T cell-mediated immune responses. Analysis of costimulatory molecule expressed on mononuclear cells from the patients with AIH may give us insight into the pathogenic mechanism of hepatocellular damage in AIH.METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)were taken from the patients with AIH (34 cases) and healthy controls (25 cases). Liver infiltrating mononuclear cells (LIMCs) were taken from the patients with AIH (18 cases), the patient with chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) (13 cases) and the patients with fatty liver (2 cases).Using flow cytometry, the cells were analyzed for the expression of costimulatory molecules, such as CD80,CD86, and CD152 (CTLA-4). The results were compared with clinical data such as the level of gammaglobulin,histological grade, presence or absence of corticosteroids administration and the response to corticosteroids.RESULTS: The levels of CD80+, CD86+ and CD152+PBMC were significantly reduced in the patients with AIH as compared with healthy controls. By contrast,those cells were significantly higher in LTMC than in PBMC of the patients with AIH. Especially, the level of CD86+ LIMC showed a marked increase irrespective of the degree of disease activity in the patients with ATH,although CD86+ cells were rarely present in PBMC. The levels of CD86+ cells were present in significantly higher frequency in patients with AIH than in the patients with CH-C. Furthermore, the patients with AIH with high levels of CD86+ LIMC showed good responses to corticosteroids, whereas 2 cases of AIH with low levels of CD86+ LIMC did not respond well

  11. Structure and reactivity of a mononuclear non-haem iron(III)–peroxo complex

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jaeheung; Jeon, Sujin; Wilson, Samuel A.; Liu, Lei V.; Kang, Eun A; Braymer, Joseph J.; Lim, Mi Hee; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Solomon, Edward I.; Nam, Wonwoo

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen-containing mononuclear iron species—iron(III)–peroxo, iron(III)–hydroperoxo and iron(IV)–oxo—are key intermediates in the catalytic activation of dioxygen by iron-containing metalloenzymes1–7. It has been difficult to generate synthetic analogues of these three active iron–oxygen species in identical host complexes, which is necessary to elucidate changes to the structure of the iron centre during catalysis and the factors that control their chemical reactivities with substrates. Here ...

  12. Generation of iPS Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruijun Jeanna; Neises, Amanda; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood is the easy-to-access, minimally invasive, and the most abundant cell source to use for cell reprogramming. The episomal vector is among the best approaches for generating integration-free induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells due to its simplicity and affordability. Here we describe the detailed protocol for the efficient generation of integration-free iPS cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With this optimized protocol, one can readily generate hundreds of iPS cell colonies from 1 ml of peripheral blood.

  13. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander;

    2013-01-01

    single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of these lesions, DSBs are the least frequent but the most dangerous for cells. We have measured the level of endogenous SSBs, SSB repair capacity, γ-H2AX response, and DSB repair capacity...... in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40-77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, γ-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl polymethylene from caesalpinia bonducella (L. flem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Kavitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound, α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-w-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-ylpolymethylene, isolated from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Flem. was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus citrus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. using agar diffusion method. The compound exerted inhibitory zone at all concentrations and revealed the concentration-dependent activity against all tested bacterial and yeast strains comparable to standards streptomycin sulphate and gentamycin for bacteria and fluconazole and griseofulvin for Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. The inhibition zones were wider and clear for C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. (IZ >20 mm and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and E. coli zones were greater than standards tested, whereas, zones for Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus were similar to standards.

  15. 5-[(3-Fluorophenyl(2-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-ylmethyl]-6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Barakat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 5-[(3-Fluorophenyl(2-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl-methyl]-6-hydroxy-1,3-di-methylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H-dione 3 was synthesized via a multicomponent reaction. The Aldol–Michael addition reactions of N,N-dimethylbarbituric acid, cyclohexane-1,3-dione, and 3-fluorobenzaldehyde in aqueous solution gave the product in high yield. The molecular structure of the compound was confirmed by spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystallography. The title compound (C19H19FN2O5·H2O crystallizes in the Monoclinic form, P21/c, a = 7.8630 (5 Å, b = 20.0308 (13 Å, c = 11.3987 (8 Å, β = 104.274 (3°, V = 1739.9 (2° Å3, Z = 4, Rint = 0.117, wR(F2 = 0.124, T = 100 K.

  16. The occurrence of 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen root bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lognay G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing search for natural fumigants from Senegalese plants, we have investigated Securicicidaca longepedunculata root barks and demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (methyl salicylate, I is responsible of their biocide effect against stored grain insects. A second unknown apparented product, II has been systematically observed in all analyzed samples. The present paper describes the identification of this molecule. The analytical investigations including GCMS, GLC and 1H-NMR. spectrometry led to the conclusion that II corresponds to the 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester.

  17. Isolation of hydroxy-Y base from rat liver tRNAPhe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, H; Yamaizumi, Z; Kuchino, Y; Nishimura, S

    1979-03-01

    A Y-base derivative was isolated from rat liver tRNAPhe and its structure was assigned to be alpha-(carboxyamino)-beta-hydroxy-4,9-dihydro-4,6-dimethyl-9-oxo-1H-imidazol[1,2-a]purine-7-butyric acid dimethyl ester (hydroxy-Y), based on the results of mass spectrometry and chemical degradation. This modified base seems to be the major fluorescent component of rat liver tRNAPhe; the peroxy-Y base previously isolated from rat liver tRNAPhe and characterized by Nakanishi and his coworkers (1,2) was not present in our preparation.

  18. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of α-methylene-γ-hydroxy esters against pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, P Veeraraghavan; Helppi, Matthew A; Lehmkuhler, Arlie L; Marchi, Jennifer M; Schmidt, C Max; Yip-Schneider, Michele T

    2015-10-01

    A systematic study to identify the factors influencing the cytotoxicity of α-methylene-γ-hydroxy esters against three pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1, MIA-PaCa-2, and BxPC-3) has established that, in addition to Michael acceptor abilities, the possibility to lactonize to α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones is as important. The substitution pattern and the number of carbons between the hydroxy and ester moieties also influence the bio-activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans facilitate spatial memory formation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Hritcu; Marius Stefan; Marius Mihasan; Roderich Brandsch

    2010-01-01

    Effects of 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine derived from nicotine catabolism in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans on learning and memory processes were examined in adult male Wistar rats. 6-hydroxy-L-nicotine (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., 7 consecutive days chronic administration) significantly increased spontaneous alternation in Y-maze task and working memory in radial arm-maze task, suggesting effects on short-term memory, without affecting long-term memory, explored by reference memory in radial arm-maze t...

  20. Tandem base-free synthesis of -hydroxy sulphides under ultrasound irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guang-Shu Lv; Fu-Junduan; Jin-Chang Ding; Tian-Xing Cheng; Wen-Xia Gao; Jiu-Xi Chen; Hua-Yue Wu

    2012-09-01

    Rongalite® promotes cleavage of diaryl disulphides generating the corresponding thiolate species in situ which then undergo facile ring-opening of epoxides in a regioselective manner under ultrasound irradiation, affording -hydroxy sulphides in good to excellent yields. The important features of this methodology are base-free, odourless, high yield, reasonably rapid reaction rate, simple workup, high regioselectivity, costeffective and no requirement of transition metal catalysts. It is noteworthy that ring-opening reaction of 1,2-diphenyldiselane with 2-(phenoxymethyl)oxirane are also conducted smoothly to afford -hydroxy selenide in excellent yield under the standard conditions.

  1. Divergent modulation of swine ileal microbiota by formic acid and methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apajalahti, J; Rademacher, M; Htoo, J K; Redshaw, M; Kettunen, A

    2009-06-01

    Management of intestinal microbiota of monogastric animals has increased in importance since the ban of growth promoting antibiotics in many countries. Organic acids have been used as alternatives to antibiotics by many feed manufacturers. Regardless of the wide usage, the effect, dose response and mode of action of acids on intestinal microbes is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of three commonly used products, namely formic acid (FA) (90%), dl-methionine (DLM) (99%) and liquid methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (88%), on ileal microbiota of pigs. Laboratory simulation system, mimicking swine ileum, was used to study the products at various concentrations and combinations. Furthermore, selected combinations were tested in a piglet trial to confirm the findings made in in vitro studies. FA turned out to have a dual effect on ileal microbiota. At concentrations below 0.5%, it significantly stimulated bacteria, but at higher inclusion rates it was highly inhibitory. This finding, which was consistent in in vitro and in vivo studies, implies that reducing the dose of FA does not lead to a diluted inhibitory effect, but in fact, an opposite, stimulatory effect on intestinal microbiota. It is highly important that feed compounders acknowledge this finding. Unlike FA, the inhibitory effect of methionine hydroxy analogue on ileal bacteria was linearly dose dependent and significant at inclusion levels above 0.2%, in vitro. Partial replacement of methionine hydroxy analogue by FA, or FA by methionine hydroxy analogue, led to an unpredictable outcome due to the dual effects of FA; e.g., a minor inclusion of added FA changed the inhibitory effect of methionine hydroxy analogue into microbial stimulation by FA. Inhibition of ileal microbiota by methionine hydroxy analogue was detected only in in vitro studies, suggesting that intact methionine hydroxy analogue may not have reached the ileum, in live animals. Therefore

  2. FeCl3 catalysed regioselective allylation of phenolic substrates with (-hydroxy)allylphosphonates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandala Anitha; Ramesh Kotikalapudi; K C Kumara Swamy

    2015-08-01

    Electrophilic allylation of phenolic substrates including salicylaldehydes with (-hydroxy) allylphosphonates is presented. It is observed that catalytic FeCl3 is sufficient to accomplish the allylation. Interestingly, the reaction led to the formation of allylphosphonates in addition to vinylphosphonates, depending upon the substituent. The vinylphosphonates obtained here are -isomers. More importantly, the reaction occurred regioselectively with respect to the phenolic substrates. Substituted allylphosphonates are formed when salicylaldehyde or (2-hydroxy-phenyl)arylmethanones are used. Conclusive proof for the formation of allylphosphontates as well as vinylphosphonates has been provided by single crystal X-ray crystallography.

  3. A Novel Approach to the Synthesis of 6-Amino-7-hydroxy-flavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Zhuang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to the synthesis of 6-amino-7-hydroxyflavone (1 is described. Reaction in acetone of 2′,4′-dihydroxy-5′-nitroacetophenone and benzoyl chloride in the presence of potassium carbonate affords 3-benzoyl-7-hydroxy-6-nitroflavone, which is cleaved in 5% ethanolic potassium hydroxide to give 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrophenyl-3- phenyl-1,3-propanedione. The 1,3-diketone thus formed is then transformed into 7-hydroxy- 6-nitroflavone, followed by reduction to afford the title compound.

  4. Microstructure and Properties of Poly(amide urethane)s : Comparison of the Reactivity of α-Hydroxy-ω-O-phenyl Urethanes and α-Hydroxy-ω-O-hydroxyethyl Urethanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Bhaskar; Ubaghs, Luc; Keul, Helmut; Höcker, Hartwig; Loontjens, Ton; Benthem, Rolf van

    2004-01-01

    Poly(amide urethane)s were prepared from ε-caprolactam, amino alcohols, and diphenyl carbonate or ethylene carbonate in three steps. Polycondensation was performed either with α-hydroxy-ω-O-phenyl urethanes or with α-hydroxy-ω-O-hydroxyethyl urethanes; it was found that the reactivity at 90 °C of th

  5. A comparison of the proinflammatory effects of 12(R)- and 12(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollard, P M; Cunnigham, F M; Murphy, G M; Camp, R D; Derm, F F; Greaves, M W

    1989-10-01

    Topical application of racemic 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid [12(R,S)-HETE] produces erythema and leucocyte accumulation in human skin. Since 12(R)-HETE is more potent than its epimer 12(S)-HETE as a neutrophil chemoattractant in vitro, their proinflammatory effects have now been compared in vivo. 12(R)- and 12(S)-HETE (0.5 - 20 ug/site) were applied topically to the forearm skin of 5 healthy volunteers and the sites occluded for 6 h. Five ug each of the two enantiomers were also applied to the opposite forearm. At 6 and 24 h blood flow and the areas of erythematous responses were measured. The 5 ug application sites were biopsied at 24 h. Both enantiomers caused dose related erythema and increased blood flow at 6 and 24 h, which were not significantly different at either of the time points tested. In contrast, pronounced neutrophil infiltrates were seen in the epidermis (25.2 +/- 13 cells/hpf) and dermis (13.2 +/- 5.1 cells/hpf) 24 h after application of 12(R)-, but not 12(S)-HETE (0.02 +/- 0.02 and 1.02 +/- 0.7 cells/hpf in epidermis and dermis respectively). However, the numbers of dermal mononuclear cells accumulating in response to the two enantiomers were similar. 12(R)-HETE thus appears to be a more potent neutrophil chemoattractant than 12(S)-HETE in human skin in vivo and may be of potential importance as a mediator of inflammation in man.

  6. Conserved balance of hepatocyte nuclear DNA content in mononuclear and binuclear hepatocyte populations during the course of chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidenori Toyoda; Takashi Kumada; Olivier Bregerie; Christian Brechot; Chantal Desdouets

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the percentages of hepatocytes with increased nuclear DNA content, i.e., tetraploid (4n) and octoploid (8n) nuclei, and then compared mononuclear and binuclear hepatocyte populations:METHODS: The percentages of mononuclear diploid(2n), 4n, and 8n hepatocytes and those of binuclear 2× 2n, 2 × 4n, and 2 × 8n hepatocytes were determined with a method that can simultaneously measure hepatocyte nuclear DNA content and binuclearity in 62patients with chronic hepatitis B or C. The percentage of 4n and 8n hepatocytes in the mononuclear hepatocyte population was compared with the percentage of 2 ×4n and 2 × 8n hepatocytes in the binuclear hepatocyte population.RESULTS: The percentages of 4n and 8n hepatocytes in mononuclear hepatocytes and 2 × 4n and 2 × 8n hepatocytes in binuclear hepatocytes were similar,regardless of the activity or fibrosis grade of chronic hepatitis and regardless of the infecting virus.CONCLUSION: The distribution of nuclear DNA content within mononuclear and binuclear hepatocyte populations was conserved during the course of chronic viral hepatitis.

  7. Therapeutic angiogenesis in Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) patients with critical limb ischemia by autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motukuru, Vishnu; Suresh, Kalkunte R; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Raj, Sumanth; Girija, K R

    2008-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a significant problem worldwide. In developing countries such as India, the increased incidence of smoking and other forms of nicotine intake has resulted in a large proportion of young individuals with Buerger's disease. The results of surgical and endovascular treatment for this condition have not been very rewarding. Hence, we focused on providing alternative therapies. Neovascularization by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation is being tried as an alternative therapeutic option. We have reviewed our series of patients who underwent autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation during the last 2 years. We enrolled 38 patients who were chosen to undergo autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation for nonreconstructible Buerger's disease. We injected the bone marrow mononuclear cells into the calf muscles of the affected limbs in 36 patients. We monitored ulcer healing, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and transcutaneous oximetry (TcPo(2)) level. No procedurally related complications occurred, although one injected sample of bone marrow aspirate later revealed infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis. Two patients were seropositive on the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and were not injected with the bone marrow mononuclear cells. Three patients (12%) underwent major amputations disease who have critical limb ischemia.

  8. Encapsulation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid with native and modified cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, N.; Jude Jenita, M.

    2015-02-01

    Inclusion complex formation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (HMBA) and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid (HDMBA) with α-CD, β-CD, HP-α-CD and HP-β-CD were studied by absorption, steady state fluorescence, time resolved fluorescence, FT-IR, 1H NMR and molecular modeling methods. The effect of the CDs with HMBA and HDMBA were studied in pH ∼ 1, pH ∼ 7 and pH ∼ 10 buffer solutions. The study revealed that both hydroxybenzoic acids formed 1:1 complex with the four CDs. The theoretical values suggest that both guests are partially encapsulated into the CDs cavity. The hydroxy group is present in the interior part of the CD cavity and carboxyl group is present in the hydrophilic part of the CD cavity. Molecular modeling studies proved that (i) the negative Gibbs energy and enthalpy changes for the inclusion complexes indicated that the formation of these complexes were spontaneous and exothermic, (ii) hydrogen bonding interactions played a major role in the inclusion process, (iii) the dipole moment values for guests increased when they entered into the CDs cavities which is an indication of the increase of the polarity and the formation of complex and (iv) differences in binding energy and enthalpy change suggest that the β-CD formed more stable complex than α-CD.

  9. Mass spectrometry of the lithium adducts of diacylglycerols containing hydroxy FA in castor oil and two normal FA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil can be used in industry. The molecular species of triacylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty acids (FA) in castor oil have been identified. We report here the identification of twelve diacylglycerols (DAG) containing hydroxy FA in castor oil using positive ion electrospray ionization mass ...

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis of α-hydroxy aromatic ketones from α-bromo aromatic ketones in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Liu; Hai Bo Chen; Zheng Guang Pan; Jian He Xu; He Xing Li

    2011-01-01

    A reaction of α-bromo aromatic ketones in water with microwave irradiation gave the corresponding α-hydroxy aromatic ketones in good yields.The use of microwaves was found to significantly improve yields and shorten the reaction time.This reaction afforded a very clean,convenient method for the synthesis of α-hydroxy aromatic ketones.

  11. Treatment with at Homeopathic Complex Medication Modulates Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A homeopathic complex medication (HCM, with immunomodulatory properties, is recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the medication induces an increase in leukocyte number. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of growth factors, stromal cells, an extracellular matrix and progenitor cells that differentiate into mature blood cells. Mice were our biological model used in this research. We now report in vivo immunophenotyping of total bone marrow cells and ex vivo effects of the medication on mononuclear cell differentiation at different times. Cells were examined by light microscopy and cytokine levels were measured in vitro. After in vivo treatment with HCM, a pool of cells from the new marrow microenvironment was analyzed by flow cytometry to detect any trend in cell alteration. The results showed decreases, mainly, in CD11b and TER-119 markers compared with controls. Mononuclear cells were used to analyze the effects of ex vivo HCM treatment and the number of cells showing ring nuclei, niche cells and activated macrophages increased in culture, even in the absence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Cytokines favoring stromal cell survival and differentiation in culture were induced in vitro. Thus, we observe that HCM is immunomodulatory, either alone or in association with other products.

  12. Catalytic water oxidation by mononuclear Ru complexes with an anionic ancillary ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lianpeng; Inge, A Ken; Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Zou, Xiaodong; Sun, Licheng

    2013-03-04

    Mononuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalysts containing anionic ancillary ligands have shown promising catalytic efficiency and intriguing properties. However, their insolubility in water restricts a detailed mechanism investigation. In order to overcome this disadvantage, complexes [Ru(II)(bpc)(bpy)OH2](+) (1(+), bpc = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-carboxylate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(II)(bpc)(pic)3](+) (2(+), pic = 4-picoline) were prepared and fully characterized, which features an anionic tridentate ligand and has enough solubility for spectroscopic study in water. Using Ce(IV) as an electron acceptor, both complexes are able to catalyze O2-evolving reaction with an impressive rate constant. On the basis of the electrochemical and kinetic studies, a water nucleophilic attack pathway was proposed as the dominant catalytic cycle of the catalytic water oxidation by 1(+), within which several intermediates were detected by MS. Meanwhile, an auxiliary pathway that is related to the concentration of Ce(IV) was also revealed. The effect of anionic ligand regarding catalytic water oxidation was discussed explicitly in comparison with previously reported mononuclear Ru catalysts carrying neutral tridentate ligands, for example, 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy). When 2(+) was oxidized to the trivalent state, one of its picoline ligands dissociated from the Ru center. The rate constant of picoline dissociation was evaluated from time-resolved UV-vis spectra.

  13. High Insulin and Leptin Increase Resistin and Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayoula C. Tsiotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistin and the proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, produced by adipocytes, and macrophages, are considered to be important modulators of chronic inflammation contributing to the development of obesity and atherosclerosis. Human monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells, from ten healthy individuals, were exposed to high concentrations of insulin, leptin, and glucose (alone or in combination for 24 hours in vitro. Resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production was examined and compared to that in untreated cells. High insulin and leptin concentrations significantly upregulated resistin and the cytokines. The subsequent addition of high glucose significantly upregulated resistin and TNF-α mRNA and protein secretion, while it did not have any effect on IL-6 or IL-1β production. By comparison, exposure to dexamethasone reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production, while at this time point it increased resistin protein secretion. These data suggest that the expression of resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β from human mononuclear cells, might be enhanced by the hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and possibly by the hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the above increased production may contribute to detrimental effects of their increased adipocyte-derived circulating levels on systemic inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function of these patients.

  14. A comparative DFT study of oxygen reduction reaction on mononuclear and binuclear cobalt and iron phthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Mengke; Yu, Zongxue; Ke, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by mononuclear and planar binuclear cobalt (CoPc) and iron phthalocyanine (FePc) catalysts is investigated in detail by density functional theory (DFT) methods. The calculation results indicate that the ORR activity of Fe-based Pcs is much higher than that of Co-based Pcs, which is due to the fact that the former could catalyze 4e- ORRs, while the latter could catalyze only 2e- ORRs from O2 to H2O2. The original high activities of Fe-based Pcs could be attributed to their high energy level of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), which could lead to the stronger adsorption energy between catalysts and ORR species. Nevertheless, the HOMO of Co-based Pcs is the ring orbital, not the 3 d Co orbital, thereby inhibiting the electron transfer from metal to adsorbates. Furthermore, compared with mononuclear FePc, the planar binuclear FePc has more stable structure in acidic medium and more suitable adsorption energy of ORR species, making it a promising non-precious electrocatalyst for ORR.

  15. Prevention of diabetic microangiopathy by prophylactic transplant of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHOU; Xiao-cang CAO; Zhi-hong FANG; Cui-lin ZHENG; Zhi-bo HAN; He REN; Man-chiu POON; Zhong-chao HAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the prophylactic local delivery of mobilized periph-eral blood mononuclear cells (M-PBMNC) could prevent peripheral microangio-pathy in diabetic nude mice. Methods: Diabetic nude mice were induced with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. With the time course of diabetes, we detected the capillary and arteriole density of mice adductor muscles by immuno-histopathy. In situ apoptosis was detected by using TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. M-PBMNC were labeled and locally delivered to the adductor muscles. Mononuclear cells were also isolated and cultured in vitro for the detection and counting of endothelial progenitor cells(EPC). Results: Rarefication of capillaries and arterioles, enhanced apoptosis in adductor muscles,and reduced circulating EPC in diabetic nude mice. Prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC halted the progression of microvascular rarefaction in hind-limb skel-etal muscles by inhibiting apoptosis. We detected the survival, migration and incorporation of transplanted M-PBMNC into the murine vasculature in vivo. In addition, more EPC were available from M-PBMNC than non-mobilized cells.Conclusion: These results suggested that the prophylactic local delivery of M-PBMNC may represent a novel approach for the treatment of microvascular complications in diabetics.

  16. EXPRESSION OF GENETIC LOCI IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR FRACTION FROM PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis and radical treatment of aggressive prostate cancers (PC is an effective way of improving survival and quality of life in patients. To develop mini-invasive tests is one of the ways of solving the problem. The cells of a peripheral blood mononuclear fraction in the expression patterns of their genetic loci reflect the presence or absence of cancers, including information on therapeutic effectiveness. RT-PRC was used to study the relative expression of 15 genetic loci in a chromosome and one locus of mitochondrial DNA in the cells of the peripheral blood mononuclear fraction in patients with PC or benign prostate hyperplasia and in healthy men. The genetic locus patterns whose change may be of informative value for differential diagnosis in patients with different stages of PC were revealed. The authors studied the relationship and showed the prognostic role and non-relationship of the altered transcriptional activity of loci in the TP53, GSTP1, and IL10 genes in PC to the changes in prostate-specific antigen the level with 90 % specificity and 93 % specificity.

  17. Obesity alters the expression profile of clock genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, Kazunobu; Fukuda, Noboru; Aoyama, Takahiko; Tsunemi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Siroh; Nagura, Chinami; Matsumoto, Taro; Soma, Masayoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the variation in expression profile of clock genes and obesity using peripheral blood mononuclear (PMN) cells. Material and methods The subjects comprised 10 obese patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Blood was collected at different time-points during the day and levels of blood sugar, IRI, adiponectin and leptin were determined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were sampled, and expression levels of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), Period (PER)1, PER2, Cryptochrome (CRY)1, CRY2, and REV-ERBα mRNA were quantified. Results During the day, the expression levels of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells of the obese group were all significantly higher compared to those in the non-obese group. In addition, expression of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells increased between 12:00 and 21:00 in the obese group. In PMN cells of both groups, PER1 gene expression showed a bimodal pattern, with high expression at 9:00 and 18:00. Conclusions Differences were observed in the expression profile variation of clock genes between the obese and non-obese groups. This study reveals the differences in clock gene expression profiles between obese and non-obese subjects, with evidence for two distinct chronotypes, and suggests a contribution of these chronotypes to fat accumulation in humans. PMID:22328874

  18. Outcomes of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for cerebral palsy: an open label uncontrolled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Liem Thanh; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Vu, Chinh Duy; Ngo, Doan V; Bui, Anh V

    2017-04-12

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising method for improving motor function of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and effectiveness of autologous bone marrow mononuclear stem cell transplantation in patients with cerebral palsy related to oxygen deprivation. An open label uncontrolled clinical trial was carried out at Vinmec International Hospital. The intervention consisted of two administrations of stem cells, the first at baseline and the second 3 months later. Improvement was monitored at 3 months and 6 months after the first administration of stem cells, using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Modified Ashworth Score which measures muscle tone. No severe complications were recorded during the study. After transplantation, 12 patients encountered fever without infections and 9 patients experienced vomiting which was easily managed with medications. Gross motor function was markedly improved 3 months or 6 months after stem cell transplantation than at baseline. The post-transplantation GMFM-88 total score, each of its domains and the GMFM-66 percentile were all significantly higher (p-value  0.05). Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation appears to be a safe and effective therapy for patients with cerebral palsy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02569775 . Retrospectively registered on October 15, 2015.

  19. EXPRESSION OF GENETIC LOCI IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR FRACTION FROM PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis and radical treatment of aggressive prostate cancers (PC is an effective way of improving survival and quality of life in patients. To develop mini-invasive tests is one of the ways of solving the problem. The cells of a peripheral blood mononuclear fraction in the expression patterns of their genetic loci reflect the presence or absence of cancers, including information on therapeutic effectiveness. RT-PRC was used to study the relative expression of 15 genetic loci in a chromosome and one locus of mitochondrial DNA in the cells of the peripheral blood mononuclear fraction in patients with PC or benign prostate hyperplasia and in healthy men. The genetic locus patterns whose change may be of informative value for differential diagnosis in patients with different stages of PC were revealed. The authors studied the relationship and showed the prognostic role and non-relationship of the altered transcriptional activity of loci in the TP53, GSTP1, and IL10 genes in PC to the changes in prostate-specific antigen the level with 90 % specificity and 93 % specificity.

  20. Effects of bone marrow ablation on compartmental prostaglandin synthesis by mononuclear phagocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, A.; Shibata, Y.; Dempsey, W.; Morahan, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocyte functions were studied in mice selectively deprived of bone marrow and rendered profoundly monocytopenic by the administration of the bone seeking isotope, 89Sr. Characteristics of such mice include severe impairment of monocyte-M phi elicitation, ablation of C. parvum induction of PGSM but the persistence of resident peritoneal and pulmonary alveolar M phi populations; splenic M phi increase in number concomitantly with splenic hemopoiesis. Studies on compartmental regulation in this model suggest that the capacity of splenic M phi to synthesize and release PGE2 is dependent upon a function of the bone marrow and is not wholly determined by the local environment. The relationship of blood monocytes to PGSM is uncertain. In contrast to splenic M phi, the capacity of resident peritoneal M phi for eicosanoid synthesis appears to be independent of bone marrow function. Monocyte influx, moreover, does not appear necessary for the maintenance of the resident peritoneal and alveolar M phi populations. We do not yet know whether bone marrow ablation destroys a migratory precursor of PGSM or the source of a crucial regulatory agent. In conclusion, the observations discussed show that prostaglandin metabolism within the spleen is subject to extracompartmental influence. It is clearly important to determine the regulatory characteristics of individual M phi compartments and generalizations about functional properties of mononuclear phagocytes should be made with circumspection. 19 references.

  1. IL-23-mediated mononuclear phagocyte crosstalk protects mice from Citrobacter rodentium-induced colon immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aychek, Tegest; Mildner, Alexander; Yona, Simon; Kim, Ki-Wook; Lampl, Nardy; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Boon, Louis; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Cua, Daniel J; Jung, Steffen

    2015-03-12

    Gut homeostasis and mucosal immune defense rely on the differential contributions of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. Here we show that colonic CX3CR1(+) mononuclear phagocytes are critical inducers of the innate response to Citrobacter rodentium infection. Specifically, the absence of IL-23 expression in macrophages or CD11b(+) DC results in the impairment of IL-22 production and in acute lethality. Highlighting immunopathology as a death cause, infected animals are rescued by the neutralization of IL-12 or IFNγ. Moreover, mice are also protected when the CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC compartment is rendered deficient for IL-12 production. We show that IL-12 production by colonic CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC is repressed by IL-23. Collectively, in addition to its role in inducing IL-22 production, macrophage-derived or CD103(-) CD11b(+) DC-derived IL-23 is required to negatively control the otherwise deleterious production of IL-12 by CD103(+) CD11b(-) DC. Impairment of this critical mononuclear phagocyte crosstalk results in the generation of IFNγ-producing former TH17 cells and fatal immunopathology.

  2. Synthesis and structure of new mononuclear octahedral cobalt(III) dioximates derived from isonicotinic hydrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocu, Maria; Bulhac, Ion; Coropceanu, Eduard; Melnic, Elena; Shova, Sergiu; Ciobanica, Olga; Gutium, Victoria; Bourosh, Paulina

    2014-04-01

    New organic ligand L (1) resulting from isonicotinic hydrazide and 2,4-pentanedione has been prepared and investigated by physicochemical methods, including elemental analysis, 1H and 13C NMR, IR spectroscopy and X-ray studies. The X-ray investigation revealed that the condensation of 2,4-pentanedione with isonicotinic hydrazide is accompanied by the formation of a five-membered ring including three carbon atoms of 2,4-pentanedione and two nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinic hydrazide fragment. The reaction between [Co(DfgH)2Br(H2O)] (DfgH2 = diphenylglyoxime) and L resulted in the formation of the mononuclear octahedral complex [Co(DfgH)2BrL] (2) with the substitution of the water molecule in the apical position by the ligand L. The reaction starting from [Co(DmgH)2Cl(H2O)] (DmgH = dimethylglyoxime) and L resulted in the mononuclear octahedral Co(III) complex with the composition [Co(DmgH)2ClL‧] (3), where L‧ unexpectedly represents a dehydrated derivative of L. The two coordination compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction method. The IR, 1H NMR spectral studies of new compounds are also reported.

  3. Mononuclear cells in subcutaneous haemorrhage with special consideration of myeloid percursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Windisch, A; Meissner, C

    2000-10-01

    Various hematogenous markers were used to differentiate and quantify the types of mononuclear cells present in subcutaneous haemorrhages. Fifty samples of subcutaneous bleeding with a survival time of a few minutes to more than 48 hours were studied. The various cell types were detected using the following stains: Naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase for myeloid cells, including mast cells; (alpha1-antichymotrypsin for monocytes/macrophages; UCHL1 for T-lymphocytes; and L26 for B lymphocytes. The percentage of monocytes/macrophages was found to increase in dependence on survival time, whereas T-lymphocytes declined. Within minutes of injury neutrophilic granulocytes had emigrated into the surrounding tissue and mast cell degranulation had occurred within the haemorrhagic zone. Esterase-positive mononuclear cells, namely metamyelocytes, were detected within minutes after injury and were still present after survival times exceeding 48 hours; however, no dependence on survival time or cause of death was found. Although the increasing number of monocytes/ macrophages and T-lymphocytes was expected, the sometimes high percentage of myeloid precursor cells within the wound were surprising. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed.

  4. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Paranjape, Amruta; Bhagawanani, Khushboo; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Badhe, Prerna

    2014-01-01

    Male, 9 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Duchenne muscular dystrophy Symptoms: Hyporeflexia • hypotonia • weaknes of lower limbs - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Neurology. Congenital defects/diseases. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, genetic, progressive, degenerating muscle disorder. Current treatment options are palliative. Newer options of cellular therapy promise to alter the disease process. Preclinical studies have successfully tested myogenic, neurogenic potential and dystrophin expression of bone marrow mononuclear cells. We treated a 9-year-old boy suffering from DMD with serial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantations followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Brooke-Vignos score was 10 and he was wheelchair-bound. Over 36 months, gradual progressive improvement was noticed in muscle strength, ambulation with assistive devices, fine motor movements, Brooke-Vignos score, and functional independence measure score. Nine months after the transplantation, electromyography findings showed development of new normal motor unit potentials of the vastus medialis muscle. Magnetic resonance imaging scan of musculoskeletal systems showed no increase in fatty infiltration. This case report provides early investigative findings or the restorative effects of cellular therapy in DMD.

  5. Beryllium alters lipopolysaccharide-mediated intracellular phosphorylation and cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Shannon; Ganguly, Kumkum; Fresquez, Theresa M; Gupta, Goutam; McCleskey, T Mark; Chaudhary, Anu

    2009-12-01

    Beryllium exposure in susceptible individuals leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease, a lung disorder marked by release of inflammatory cytokine and granuloma formation. We have previously reported that beryllium induces an immune response even in blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. In this study, we investigate the effects of beryllium on lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in blood mononuclear and dendritic cells from healthy individuals. We found that in vitro treatment of beryllium sulfate inhibits the secretion of lipopolysaccharide-mediated interleukin 10, while the release of interleukin 1beta is enhanced. In addition, not all lipopolysaccharide-mediated responses are altered, as interleukin 6 release in unaffected upon beryllium treatment. Beryllium sulfate-treated cells show altered phosphotyrosine levels upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Significantly, beryllium inhibits the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transducer 3, induced by lipopolysaccharide. Finally, inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase mimic the effects of beryllium in inhibition of interleukin 10 release, while they have no effect on interleukin 1beta secretion. This study strongly suggests that prior exposures to beryllium could alter host immune responses to bacterial infections in healthy individuals, by altering intracellular signaling.

  6. Association of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in circulating mononuclear cells with myocardial dysfunction in patients with septic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Hu Bangchuan; Gong Shijin; Yu Yihua; Dai Haiwen; Yan Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe sepsis and septic shock are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients.This study aimed to investigate the association of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activity in circulating mononuclear cells with myocardial dysfunction in patients with septic shock.Methods A total of 64 patients with septic shock were divided into the survival group (n=41) and the nonsurvival group (n=23) according to mortality at 28 days after enrollments.PARP-1 activity in circulating mononuclear cells,brain natriuretic peptide,Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ score,the cardiac index (CI),the cardiac function index (CFI),global ejection fraction (GEF),and the left ventricular contractility index (dp/dt max) were measured after admission to the intensive care unit.Results PARP-1 activity in circulating mononuclear cells of nonsurvival patients with septic shock was significantly higher than that in survival patients.PARP-1 activity in circulating mononuclear cells was strongly,negatively correlated with the CI,the CFI,GEE and dp/dt max.Multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that PARP-1 activity in circulating mononuclear cells was an independent risk factor of myocardial dysfunction.The optimal cutoff point of PARP-1 activity for predicting 28-day mortality was 942 nmol/L with a sensibility of 78.2% and specificity of 65.1%.Conclusion PARP-1 activity in circulating mononuclear cells is significantly associated with myocardial dysfunction and may have prognostic value in patients with septic shock.

  7. 3-Hydroxy-2-[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl(2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-6-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-ylmethyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C25H32O7, the 3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enone rings adopt slightly distorted envelope conformations with the two planes at the base of the envelope forming dihedral angles of 57.6 (4 and 53.9 (9° with the benzene ring. There is an intramolecular hydroxy–ketone O—H...O interaction between the two substituted cyclohexane rings as well as a short intramolecular phenol–methoxy O—H...O interaction.

  8. Synthesis and pharmacology of 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane analogues of glutamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, P; De Amici, M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and pharmacology of two potential glutamic acid receptor ligands are described. Preparation of the bicyclic 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane derivatives (+/-)-7 and (+/-)-8 was accomplished via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of bromonitrile oxide to suitably protected 1-amino...

  9. Structural identification of skin ceramides containing ω-hydroxy acyl chains using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhexue; Shon, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jong Yei; Cho, Yunhi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) acts as a barrier that protects organisms against the environment and from transepidermal water loss. It consists of corneocytes embedded in a matrix of lipid metabolites (ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids). Of these lipids, ceramides are sphingolipids consisting of sphingoid bases, linked to fatty acyl chains. Typical fatty acid acyl chains are composed of α-hydroxy fatty acids (A), esterified ω-hydroxy fatty acids (EO), non-hydroxy fatty acids (N), and ω-hydroxy fatty acids (O). Of these, O-type ceramides are ester-linked via their ω-hydroxyl group to proteins in the cornified envelope and can be released and extracted following mild alkaline hydrolysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of O-type ceramides using chip-based direct infusion nanoelectrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry generated the characteristic fragmentation pattern of both acyl and sphingoid units, suggesting that this method could be applied to the structural identification of O-type ceramides. Based on the MS/MS fragmentation patterns of O-type ceramides, comprehensive fragmentation schemes are proposed. In addition, we have also developed a method for identifying and profiling O-type ceramides in the mouse and guinea pig SC. This information may be used to identify O-type ceramides in the SC of animal skin.

  10. A novel synthesis of 2'-hydroxy-1',3'-xylyl crown ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leij, van der M.; Oosterink, H.J.; Hall, R.H.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Six novel 2' - hydroxy - 1',3' - xylyl crown ethers (8a–e and 13)1 have been synthesized utilizing the allyl group to protect the OH function during the cyclization reaction. The macrocycles 6a-e were formed in yields of 26 to 52%, by intermolecular reaction of 4 - chloro - 2,6 - bis(bromomethyl) -

  11. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  12. Isolation and structure elucidation of new radical oxidation products of 5-hydroxy steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.A.; Zhabinskii, V.N.; Kuchto, A.I.; Zhiburtovich, Y.Y.; Lyakhov, A.S.; Govorova, A.A.; Groen, M.B.; Louw, van der J.; Groot, de Æ.

    2006-01-01

    Three new products have been isolated from the lead-tetraacetate version of the hypoiodite oxidation of 3 beta,17 beta-diacetoxy-5-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstane. Along with the expected 1(10)unsaturated 5,10-seco steroidal 5-ketones, the fragmentation reaction gave two epimeric C-4 iodides. Their struc

  13. Rotational isomers of hydroxy deuterated o- and m-cresols studied by ultraviolet high resolution experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.; Meerts, W.L.; Ratzer, C.; Schmitt, M.

    2005-01-01

    The laser induced fluorescence spectra of several torsional transitions of the S-1 &LARR; S-0 electronic transition were recorded for the hydroxy deuterated o- and m- cresols. Both cis and trans rotamers were observed in a high resolution molecular beam experiment. The spectra were analyzed using a

  14. Reduced serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in children with autism: Relation to autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gehan A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aside from the skeletal health affection, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a potential environmental factor triggering for some autoimmune disorders. Vitamin D might play a role in the regulation of the production of auto-antibodies. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D may act not only through modulation of T-helper cell function, but also through induction of CD4+CD25high regulatory T-cells. We are the first to investigate the relationship between serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG auto-antibodies in autistic children. Methods Serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and anti-MAG auto-antibodies were measured in 50 autistic children, aged between 5 and 12 years, and 30 healthy-matched children. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels 10–30 ng/mL and Results Autistic children had significantly lower serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D than healthy children (P P P Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency was found in some autistic children and this deficiency may contribute to the induction of the production of serum anti-MAG auto-antibodies in these children. However, future studies looking at a potential role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology and treatment of autism are warranted.

  15. Structural Changes of 6a-Hydroxy-Pterocarpans Upon Heating Modulate Their Estrogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van de M.G.M.; Vincken, J.P.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Cervantes, A.D.; Logtenberg, M.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    The isoflavonoid composition of an ethanolic extract of fungus-treated soybean sprouts was strongly altered by a combined acid/heat treatment. UHPLC-MS analysis showed that 6a-hydroxy-pterocarpans were completely converted to their respective, more stable, 6a,11a-pterocarpenes, whereas other isoflav

  16. Hydroxy-fipronil is a new urinary biomarker of exposure to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational medical surveillance is highly desirable in manufacturing facilities where exposure to chemicals is significant. The insecticide fipronil is generally considered safe for humans but with increasing use, exposure to fipronil is of concern. Identification of urinary metabolites of fipronil may allow development of affordable, cheap and rapid procedures for human exposure evaluation. In this study we developed a fast and easy approach for synthesis of hydroxy-fipronil, a potential urinary metabolite of fipronil. This standard was used to develop a sensitive analytical LC-MS/MS method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.4 ng/mL. Fipronil sulfone, a known metabolite, and hydroxy-fipronil were quantified in urine samples from rats treated with a fipronil containing diet. Fipronil sulfone concentration centered around 20 ng/mL, while the concentration of hydroxy-fipronil was dose-dependent ranging in 10–10,000 ng/mL and thus being a more sensitive marker of fipronil exposure. A fipronil immunoassay with cross-reactivity to hydroxy-fipronil showed a good correlation in signal intensity with LC-MS data. It was also used to demonstrate the applicability of the method for sample screening in the evaluation of exposure levels. Fipronil is a broad spectrum insecticide from the phenylpyrazole family. It is often used in four major domains: pest control in a wide variety of field crops, urban pest management, veterinary applications (especially in topical

  17. 4-[(2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Schiff base, 4-[(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester was synthesized and its UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  18. 4-Acetyl-2-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Akazaki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The facile synthesis of 4-acetyl-2-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H-one (4 was achieved by the Mn(OAc3-mediated aerobic oxidation of 2,4-pentanedione or the direct reaction of Mn(acac3 in AcOH-TFE at room temperature under a dried air stream.

  19. Absolute Stereochemistry of the β-Hydroxy Acid Unit in Hantupeptins and Trungapeptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Ding, Gary Chi Ying; Teo, Yong Chua; Tan, Lik Tong

    2016-01-01

    The β-hydroxy/amino acid unit is a common structural feature of many bioactive marine cyanobacterial depsipeptides. In this study, the absolute stereochemistry of the β-hydroxy acid moieties in hantupeptins and trungapeptins were determined through their synthesis and HPLC analysis of the Mosher ester derivatives. Synthesis of two3-hydroxy-2-methyloctanoic acid (Hmoa) stereoisomers, (2S,3R)-Hmoa and (2S,3S)-Hmoa, were achieved using diastereoselective asymmetric method and the retention times of all four Hmoa isomers were established indirectly by RPLC-MS analysis of their Mosher ester derivative standards. Based on the retention times of the standards, the absolute configuration of the Hmoa unit in hantupeptin C (3) and trungapeptin C (6) was assigned as (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)-Hmoa, respectively. The use of the Mosher's reagents, coupled with HPLC analysis, provided a viable alternative to the absolute stereochemical determination of β-hydroxy acid units in depsipeptides.

  20. Facile synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids from the corresponding α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Padrah, Shahrokh; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    An effective and improved procedure is developed for the synthesis of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids by treatment of the corresponding protonated α-amino acid with tert-butyl nitrite in 1,4-dioxane-water. The amino moiety must be protonated and located α to a carboxylic acid function in order...

  1. Central and peripheral antinociceptive activity of 3-(2-oxopropyl)-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorno, Thais Biondino Sardella; Ballard, Yáskara L L; Cordeiro, Millena Santos; Silva, Bárbara V; Pinto, Angelo C; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2015-08-01

    Convolutamydine A has been shown to develop a significant antinociceptive effect. Here we demonstrated that new analogues (5-iodo-3-(2-oxopropyl)-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole (5-Iisa), 5-fluoro-3-(2-oxopropyl)-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole (5-Fisa), 5-chloro-3-(2-oxopropyl)-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole (5-Clisa) and 5-methyl-3-(2-oxopropyl)-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole (5-Meisa)), at 0.1-10mg/kg doses, have significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in thermal and chemical models of nociception. Oral administered analogues demonstrated more pronounced antinociceptive effects than that obtained with the classical opioid drug morphine (5mg/kg) in the first and second phases of formalin-induced licking. In the tail flick model, 5-Clisa and 5-Meisa antinociceptive effect was almost twice as that observed with the same dose of morphine. The concomitant administration of diverse antagonists and the analogues indicates that 5-Iisa effects involve the activation of opioid pathway. On the other hand, 5-Fisa and 5-Clisa have the participation of opioid, nitrergic, cholinergic adrenergic and serotoninergic pathways and 5-Meisa has the involvement of opioid, serotoninergic and cholinergic pathways. In conclusion, our results suggest that the new four analogues from Convolutamydine A have significant antinociceptive effects in thermal and chemical induced nociception and could be used in development of new drugs to be used in pain treatment with reduced side effects.

  2. Synthesis and pharmacology of 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane analogues of glutamic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, P; De Amici, M; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis and pharmacology of two potential glutamic acid receptor ligands are described. Preparation of the bicyclic 3-hydroxy-delta2-isoxazoline-cyclopentane derivatives (+/-)-7 and (+/-)-8 was accomplished via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of bromonitrile oxide to suitably protected 1-amino...

  3. Influence of temperature and hydroxide concentration on the settling time of hydroxy-catalysis bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, S. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.reid@physics.gla.ac.uk; Cagnoli, G. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Elliffe, E. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Faller, J. [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hough, J. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Martin, I. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Rowan, S. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-09

    Many applications using bonded optical components have stringent requirements on the strength, rigidity, stability and alignment of the bonds. Hydroxy-catalysis bonding fulfills these requirements. Here we investigate methods by which the bonding time may be extended to better aid the precise prealignment of optical components through controlling the temperature and concentration of the bonding solution.

  4. Identification of hydroxy fatty acids in Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters obtained from clinical isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, and A. caviae revealed the presence of two hydroxy fatty acid species, 3-OH 12:0 and 3-OH 14:0.

  5. A Convenient Method to Construct Chroman Skeleton: Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-4'-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Boyan; XUE, Jijun; ZHANG, Huabing; LI, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a naturally occurring 4'-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavane was developed by an asymmetric reduction and a microwave-assistant aromatic C-O bond formation to construct the benzopyran skele- ton. Key features of this method include its brevity, its preserved stereochemical integrity and two different syn- thetic routes to choose.

  6. Assessment value of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D content detection for patients with diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Luo; Li-Nong Chen; Qi Guo; Jie Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the assessment value of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D content detection for patients with diabetic nephropathy.Methods:Healthy subjects, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and patients with diabetic nephropathy were selected for study and enrolled in control group, diabetes group and diabetic nephropathy group respectively, and contents of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, RAS molecules and chemokines in serum as well as contents of podocyte injury molecules in urine were detected.Results: Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D content as well as Nephrin, Podocin, CD2AP and α3β1 integrin contents in urine all showed the trend of diabetic nephropathy group diabetes group > control group, and contents of PRA, AngII, ALD, MCP-1, FKN, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, OPN and MIF in serum as well as contents of Nesmin in urine of patients with macroalbuminuria were significantly higher than those of patients with microalbuminuria. Conclusion:Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D content significantly decreases in patients with diabetic nephropathy, and it can also assess the activity of RAS system, the degree of inflammatory response and the degree of podocyte injury.

  7. Formation of DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine induced by man-made mineral fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanderson, P; Söderkvist, P; Tagesson, C; Axelson, O

    1988-01-01

    Two man-made mineral fibres, rockwool and glasswool, were found to mediate hydroxylation of deoxyguanosine and calf thymus DNA to form the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. The modification of the nucleoside is probably mediated by hydroxyl radicals and may play a role in fibre-induced carcinogenesis.

  8. Antioxidation behavior of milkweed oil 4-hydroxy-3-methyoxycinnamate esters in phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepia syriaca) has seed oil that is rich in polyunsaturated triacylglycerides that contain olefinic groups. The olefinic groups can be chemically oxidized to form either epoxy or polyhydroxy triacylglycerides that can be esterified with trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxoycinnamic acid, commonly...

  9. Kinetic properties and inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado-Guerrrero, Ramón; Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, Andrea;

    2002-01-01

    A detailed kinetic analysis of the recombinant soluble enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) from Trypanosoma cruzi has been performed. The enzyme catalyzes the normal anabolic reaction and the reductant is NADPH. It also catalyzes the oxidation of mevalonate but at a lower propo...

  10. Poly(hydroxy urethane)s based on renewable diglycerol dicarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthoven, van Juliën L.J.; Gootjes, Linda; Es, van Daan S.; Noordover, Bart A.J.; Meuldijk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we present a series of amorphous non-isocyanate poly(hydroxy urethane)s (PHU) synthesized from diglycerol dicarbonate in bulk conditions at mild temperatures, without using a catalyst. Diglycerol dicarbonate has been synthesized from diglycerol and dimethyl carbonate and w

  11. Cell wall-specific ω-hydroxy fatty acids in some freshwater green microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Blokker, P.; Schouten, S.; Ende, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Ester-bound lipids from the cell walls of the green algae, Tetraedron minimum, Scenedesmus communis and Pediastrum boryanum, were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The double bond positions of the C30, C32 and C34 mono- and C30 and C32 diunsaturated -hydroxy fatty acids obtained were

  12. Biological roles and therapeutic potential of hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashan eAhmed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, deorphanization studies have described intermediates of energy metabolism to activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and to thereby regulate metabolic functions. GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, formerly known as the nicotinic acid receptor family, are encoded by clustered genes and share a high degree of sequence homology. Recently, hydroxy-carboxylic acids were identified as endogenous ligands of GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, and therefore these receptors have been placed into a novel receptor family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA receptors. The HCA1 receptor (GPR81 is activated by the glycolytic metabolite 2-hydroxy-propionic acid (lactate, the HCA2 receptor is activated by the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid and the HCA3 receptor (GPR109B is a receptor for the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. While HCA1 and HCA2 receptors are present in most mammalian species, the HCA3 receptor is exclusively found in humans and higher primates. HCA receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and mediate anti-lipolytic effects in adipocytes through Gi-type G-protein-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. HCA2 and HCA3 inhibit lipolysis during conditions of increased β-oxidation such as prolonged fasting, whereas HCA1 mediates the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in the fed state. As HCA2 is a receptor for the established anti-dyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid, HCA1 and HCA3 also represent promising drug targets and several synthetic ligands for HCA receptors have been developed. In this article, we will summarize the deorphanization and pharmacological characterization of HCA receptors. Moreover, we will discuss recent progress in elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the HCA receptor family for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  13. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for patients with lower limb ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yong-quan; LI Xue-feng; YU Heng-xi; CUI Shi-jun; WANG Zhong-gao; ZHANG Jian; GUO Lian-rui; QI Li-xing; ZHANG Shu-wen; XU Juan; LI Jian-xin; LUO Tao; JI Bing-xin

    2008-01-01

    Background Many treatment options for lower limb ischemia are difficult to apply for the patients with poor arterial outflow or with poor general conditions.The effect of medical treatment alone is far from ideal.especially in patients with diabetic foot.A high level amputation is inevitable in these patients.This study aimed to explore the effect of transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells on the treatment of lower limb ischemia and to compare the effect of intra-artedal transplantation with that of intra-muscular transplantation.Methods In this clinical trial,32 patients with lower limb ischemia were divided into two groups.Group 1 (16 patients with 18 affected limbs) received transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells by intra-muscular injection into the affected limbs;and group 2(16 patients with 17 affected limbs)received transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononucJear cells by intra-arterial injection into the affected limbs.Rest pain,coldness,ankle/brachial index (ABI),claudication,transcutaneous oxygen pressure(tcPO2)and angiography(15 limbs of 14 patients)were evaluated before and after the mononuclear cell transplantation to determine the effect of the treatment.Results Two patients died from heart failure.The improvement of rest pain was seen in 76.5%(13/17)of group 1 and 93.3%(14/15)of group 2.The improvement of coldness was 100%in both groups.The increase of ABI was 44.4%(8/18)in group 1 and 41.2%(7,17)in group 2.The value of tcPO2 increased to 20 mmHg or more in 20 limbs.Nine of 15 limbs which underwent angiography showed rich collaterals.Limb salvage rate was 83.3%(15,18)in group 1 and 94.1%(16/17)in group 2.There was no statistically significant difference in the effectiveness of the treatment between the two groups.Conclusions Transplantation of autologous bone marrow mononucJear cells is a simple,safe and effective method for the treatment of lower limb ischemia,and the two approaches for the implantation

  14. Effects of lethal and non-lethal malaria on the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects ofone non-lethal species ofmalarialparasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and one lethal species, P. berghei, on the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of BALB/c mice were studied. P. yoelii caused a greater and more sustained expansion and activation of the MPS, and the two major populations of spleen phagocytic cells-red pulp and marginal zone macrophages - exhibited a greater increase in numbers in this infection. During the course of P. berghei mataria, the spleen was progressively occupied by haematopoietic tissue and, at the terminal stage of infection, an extensive depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages was apparent. The possibility was suggested that the outcome of mataria may be inftuenced by the particular way the parasite interacts with the MPS.Estudou-se o efeito da infecção causada por espécie letal (Plasmodium berghei e não- letal (P. yoelii de plasmódio sobre o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares de camundongo BALB/c. O P. yoelii causou maior e mais prolongada expansão e ativação do sistema de macrófagos. As duas mais importantes populações de fagócitos esplênicos - macrófagos de polpa vermelha e da zona marginal - exibiam maior aumento do número de células nesta infecção. Durante a evolução da malária por P. berghei, o baço foi progressivamente ocupado por tecido hematopoiético e, na fase terminal da infecção, observou-se significativa depleção dos linfócitos e macrófagos esplênicos. Os dados apresentados indicam que a evolução da malária depende do tipo de interação entre o plasmódio e o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares.

  15. [Preliminary study on autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation for lower limb chronic venous ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Wang, Liwei; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Guozhen; Zhao, Yu; Ren, Guosheng

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation on lower limb chronic venous ulcer. Between May 2009 and September 2010, 17 patients with lower limb chronic venous ulcer were treated with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation (transplantation group) and 10 patients treated without cells transplantation served as control group. In the transplantation group, there were 9 males and 8 females with age of (33.3 +/- 6.1) years, including 11 cases of simple great saphenous vein varicosity and 6 cases of chronic venous insufficiency; the area of ulcer was (4.39 +/- 2.46) cm2; and the duration of ulcer ranged from 3 months to 6 years. In the control group, there were 4 males and 6 females with age of (39.2 +/- 10.3) years, including 7 cases of simple great saphenous vein varicosity and 3 cases of chronic venous insufficiency; and the area of ulcer was (5.51 +/- 2.63) cm2; and the duration of ulcer ranged from 3 months to 2 years. All patients in both groups were classified as C6 according to clinical etiology anatomy pathophysiology (CEAP) classification. No significant difference was found in the general data between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The healing process of ulcer was observed. The granulation tissue was harvested for HE staining before operation and at 3 days after operation in the transplantation group. The microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of ulcer granulation tissue were observed. In the transplantation group, ulcer healing was accelerated; complete healing was observed in 15 cases, partial healing in 1 case, and no healing in 1 case with the median healing time of 22 days. However, in the control group, the healing process was slower; complete healing of ulcer was observed in 7 cases and no healing in 3 cases with the median healing time of 57.5 days. There was significant difference in the healing time between 2 groups (Z = 0.001 4, P = 0.0027). HE

  16. The Evaluation of the Role of Beta-Hydroxy Fatty Acids on Chronic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Soydan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available β-hydroxy fatty acids are a major component of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccaride. We aimed to investigate the role of free β-hydroxy fatty acids on inflammation, as well as to evaluate their effects on cytokine release from human blood cells, and whether they exist in plasma of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases with/without insulin resistance. Peripheral venous blood was incubated with β-hydroxy lauric and β-hydroxy myristic acids (each 100 ng, 1 μg, 10 μg/mL up to 24 hours. Cytokines were measured from culture media and plasma. Free fatty acids and biochemical parameters were also measured from patients' plasma. Only β-hydroxy lauric acid significantly stimulated interleukin-6 production at 10 μg/mL compared to control (533.9±218.1 versus 438.3±219.6 pg/mL, P<.05. However, free β-hydroxy lauric and myristic acids were not found in patients' plasma. Therefore, free β-hydroxy lauric and myristic acids do not seem to have a role on sterile inflammation in chronic inflammatory diseases associated with insulin resistance.

  17. Antiangiogenic activity of mononuclear copper(II) polypyridyl complexes for the treatment of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagababu, Penumaka; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Thulasiram, Bathini; Devi, C Shobha; Satyanarayana, S; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2015-07-09

    A series of four new mononuclear copper(II) polypyridyl complexes (1-4) have been designed, developed, and thoroughly characterized by several physicochemical techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of 1-4 have been investigated by absorption, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. All the complexes especially 1 and 4 exhibit cytotoxicity toward several cancer cell lines, suggesting their anticancer properties as observed by several in vitro assays. Additionally, the complexes show inhibition of endothelial cell (HUVECs) proliferation, indicating their antiangiogenic nature. In vivo chick embryo angiogenesis assay again confirms the antiangiogenic properties of 1 and 4. The formation of excessive intracellular ROS (H2O2 and O2(•-)) and upregulation of BAX induced by copper(II) complexes may be the plausible mechanisms behind their anticancer activities. The present study may offer a basis for the development of new transition metal complexes through suitable choice of ligands for cancer therapeutics by controlling tumor angiogenesis.

  18. Chemokine receptor expression on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvani, Andre; Rocha, Manoel O C; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2004-01-15

    We evaluated the expression of chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4) on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) and noninfected individuals. Only CCR5 and CXCR4 expression was different on the surface of the subsets (CD4, CD8, and CD14) evaluated. Patients with mild CCC had elevated leukocyte expression of CCR5, compared with noninfected individuals or those with severe disease. CXCR4 expression was lower on leukocytes from patients with severe CCC. The differential expression of both receptors on leukocytes of patients with CCC was consistent and clearly correlated with the degree of heart function such that the lower the heart function, the lower the expression of either CCR5 or CXCR4. These results highlight the possible participation of the chemokine system in early forms of chagasic cardiomyopathy and the relevance of heart failure-induced remodeling in modifying immune parameters in infected individuals.

  19. Impact of fexofenadine, osthole and histamine on peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina Kordulewska, Natalia; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Matysiewicz, Michał; Cieślińska, Anna; Jarmołowska, Beata

    2015-08-15

    This paper compares results of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) incubation with fexofenadine (FXF) and osthole. FXF is a third-generation antihistamine drug and osthole is assumed a natural antihistamine alternative. To our best knowledge, this is the first comparative study on FXF, osthole and histamine cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity in PBMC in vitro cultures using cell proliferation ELISA BrdU. The cultures were treated 12, 42, 48 and 72h with FXF and osthole at 150, 300 and 450ng/ml concentrations and histamine at 50, 100 and 200ng/ml. Our study results confirm that FXF, osthole and histamine exert no cytotoxic effect on PBMCs and that IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α cytokine secretion following osthole cell stimulation was similar to that by FXF stimulation.This confirms our hypothesis that osthole is a natural histamine antagonist, and can therefore be beneficially applied in antihistamine treatment.

  20. Lactam hydrolysis catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases: A density functional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Olsen, L.; Antony, J.

    2003-01-01

    . For most studied systems, the tetrahedral structure is a stable intermediate. Moreover, the C-N bond in the lactam ring is intact in this intermediate, as well as in the following transition state-its cleavage is induced by proton transfer to the nitrogen atom in the lactam ring. However, for the model...... with Asp as a proton shuttle, attack of the zinc-bond hydroxide ion seems to be concerted with the proton transfer. We have also studied the effect of replacing one of the histidine ligands by an asparagine or glutamine residue, giving a zinc site representative of other subclasses of metallo......Two central steps in the hydrolysis of lactam antibiotics catalyzed by mononuclear metallo-beta-lactamases, formation of the tetrahedral intermediate and its breakdown by proton transfer, are studied for model systems using the density functional B3LYP method. Metallo-beta-lactamases have two metal...

  1. Inverse relationship of tumors and mononuclear cell leukemia infiltration in the lungs of F344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    In 1970 and F344 rat, along with the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse, were selected as the standard rodents for the National Cancer Institute Carcinogenic Bioassay program for studies of potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The F344 rat has also been used in a variety of other carcinogenesis studies, including numerous studies at ITRI. A major concern to be considered in evaluating carcinogenic bioassay studies using the F344 rat is the relatively high background incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia (MCL) (also referred to as large granular lymphocytic leukemia, Fischer rat leukemia, or monocytic leukemia). Incidences of MCL ranging from 10 to 72% in male F344 rats to 6 to 31% in female F344 rats have been reported. Gaining the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the negative correlations noted should enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of lung cancer.

  2. PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhagwant Kaur; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Chan, Wing Keung; Fan, Kei; Li, George Qian; Moore, Douglas Edwin; Roubin, Rebecca Heidi

    2013-06-15

    Polysaccharopeptide (PSP), from Coriolus versicolor, has been used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy, and has demonstrated anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects. However its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate how PSP affects immune populations, we compared PSP treatments both with and without prior incubation in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) - a process commonly used in immune population experimentation. We first standardised a capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting technique for PSP identification and characterisation. We then established the proliferative capability of PSP on various immune populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using flow cytometry, without prior PHA treatment. It was found that PSP significantly increased the number of monocytes (CD14(+)/CD16(-)) compared to controls without PHA. This increase in monocytes was confirmed using another antibody panel of CD14 and MHCII. In contrast, proliferations of T-cells, NK, and B-cells were not significantly changed by PSP. Thus, stimulating monocyte/macrophage function with PSP could be an effective therapeutic intervention in targeting tumors.

  3. DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils of dairy cows during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oikawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the apoptotic process in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN in dairy cattle during the transition period. Blood samples were collected from 4 dairy cattle at 3 weeks before the expected parturition (wk -3, parturition (wk 0 and 3 weeks after parturition (wk +3. The DNA damage of PBMC and PMN was evaluated based on the comet assay using visual scoring (arbitrary units. Undamaged DNA remained within the core (score 0 and the broken DNA migrated from the core towards the anode forming the tail of a comet (scores 1-4. Significantly higher scores in PBMC at wk 0 and wk +3 were observed compared with those in PMN although there were no significant changes of scores in either cell type during the experimental period. It is suggested that the apoptotic rate of PBMC is accelerated compared with that of PMC during the transition period.

  4. Dietary exposure to benzoxazinoids enhances bacteria-induced monokine responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2015-01-01

    -out, the groups switched diets. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or tetanus toxoid (TT). PBMCs from a healthy donor received the same stimuli in presence of serum from each participant receiving BXs. The production...... of monokines, T-cell cytokines and T-helper cell proliferation were assessed. A 3-wk diet with high BX content enhanced IL-1β responses against LPS and P. gingivalis, as well as TNF-α response against P. gingivalis, after 24 h of stimulation. Moreover, IL-6 was found to be increased after 7 days of stimulation......SCOPE: To examine potentially immunomodulating effects of dietary benzoxazinoids (BXs), present in cereal grains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nineteen healthy volunteers were randomly distributed into two groups, who received diets with high or low content of BXs for 3 wk. After a week's wash...

  5. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J;

    2006-01-01

    Spironolactone (SPIR) has been described to suppress accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, the suppression of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mononuclear cell cultures was confirmed. However, SPIR was also found to induce apoptosis, prompting the investigations...... of a possible association between the two effects: The apoptosis-inducing and the cytokine-suppressive effects of SPIR correlated with regard to the effective concentration range. Also, pre-incubation experiments demonstrated a temporal separation of the two effects of ... preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta...

  6. [Research advances on DNA extraction methods from peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Chen-Xi

    2014-10-01

    DNA extraction is a basic technology of molecular biology. The purity and the integrality of DNA structure are necessary for different experiments of gene engineering. As commonly used materials in the clinical detection, the fast, efficient isolation and extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is very important for the inspection and analysis of clinical blood. At present, there are many methods for extracting DNA, such as phenol-chloroform method, salting out method, centrifugal adsorption column chromatography method (artificial methods), magnetic beads (semi-automatic method) and DNA extraction kit. In this article, a brief review of the principle for existing DNA blood extraction method, the specific steps and the assessment of the specific methods briefly are summarized.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide and silica-stimulated mononuclear cell prostaglandin production in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville A. Punchard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and silica-stimulated prostaglandin (PG production were compared between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC from UC patients and healthy subjects (HS. Basal and LPS-stimulated PBMNC PGI2, but not PGE2, production was greater in UC. LPS stimulated both PGE2 and PGI2 by PBMNC from HS and UC patients. Silica stimulated production of both PGs by cells from HS but only PGE2 by cells from UC patients. The differences in responses to silica and LPS may result from differences in activation of NFκB or, alternatively, prior sensitisation to one of these agents. That PBMNC PGE2 production is not increased in UC, as it is in Crohn’s disease, suggests that there are differences in PBMNC behaviour between these two diseases.

  8. The use of the CELLection kit in the isolation of carcinoma cells from mononuclear cell suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F;

    2000-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate in vitro the sensitivity, specificity and variability of a new immunomagnetic microbead isolation technique which provides subsequent immunological staining of captured carcinoma cells. In a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human carcinoma...... cells the epithelial cancer cells were isolated with the Dynal((R)) RAM IgG1 CELLection Kit using Dynabeads M-280 coated with a rat monoclonal antibody (Mab) against mouse IgG1. The rat Mab was biotinylated and attached to Dynabeads via streptavidin and a DNA linker. The anti-epithelial monoclonal mouse...... an average recovery of approximately 60% of a human colon carcinoma cell line HCC-2998 seeded in 5.10(6) PBMCs was obtained, and the recovered cells could subsequently be immunologically stained for the surface antigen CD87 (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor). No positive stained cells were found...

  9. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mobilization of T cells in response to a stressful challenge (adrenalin stimulation), and to access T cells resided in the peripheral lymphoid organs in HIV infected patients. Seventeen patients and eight HIV seronegative controls received an adrenalin...... infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells...

  10. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Subset Studies in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, D B; Søndergaard, H B; Börnsen, L;

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) involves the need of a proper standard for normalizing the gene expression data. Different studies have shown the validity of reference genes to vary greatly depending on tissue, cell subsets and experimental context. This study aimed at the identification...... of suitable reference genes for qPCR studies using different peripheral blood cell subsets (whole blood (WB) cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMC subsets (CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, NK cells, monocytes, B cells and dendritic cells) from healthy controls (HC), patients with relapsing...... stable combination for analyses of cell subsets between HC and RRMS patients, while the combination of UBC and YWHAZ was superior for analysis of cell subsets between HC, RRMS and RRMS-IFN-β groups. GAPDH was generally unsuitable for blood cell subset studies in multiple sclerosis. In conclusion, we...

  11. Effects of lethal and non-lethal malaria on the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects ofone non-lethal species ofmalarialparasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and one lethal species, P. berghei, on the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of BALB/c mice were studied. P. yoelii caused a greater and more sustained expansion and activation of the MPS, and the two major populations of spleen phagocytic cells-red pulp and marginal zone macrophages - exhibited a greater increase in numbers in this infection. During the course of P. berghei mataria, the spleen was progressively occupied by haematopoietic tissue and, at the terminal stage of infection, an extensive depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages was apparent. The possibility was suggested that the outcome of mataria may be inftuenced by the particular way the parasite interacts with the MPS.

  12. Synthesis and properties of mononuclear group 10 alkoxy-biscarbene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alberca, María P; Mancheño, María J; Fernández, Israel; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Sierra, Miguel A; Torres, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, isolation, and complete characterization (NMR and X-Ray diffraction techniques) of stable mononuclear (palladium and platinum) alkoxy-biscarbene complexes is reported. These compounds are easily accessible through stoichiometric transmetalation reactions from Fischer alkoxy-chromium(0) carbene complexes. By a combination of experimental (UV/Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry) and computational methods (DFT), the structure, bonding situation, and the electronic and redox properties of these complexes are studied. Although they have structures quite similar, their electronic properties strongly depend on the metal and also on the substitution in the aromatic rings in the aniline moieties. Electron-withdrawing groups stabilize the HOMO causing the shifting of the oxidation waves to lower anodic potentials in the corresponding cyclic voltammograms.

  13. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Bai, Donghui; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2013-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine. Generating iPSCs from immunologically immature newborn umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMCs) is of great significance. Here we report generation of human iPSCs with great efficiency from UCBMCs using a dox-inducible lentiviral system carrying four Yamanaka factors. We generated these cells by optimizing the existing iPSC induction protocol. The UCBMC-derived iPSCs (UCB-iPSCs) have characteristics that are identical to pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This study highlights the use of UCBMCs to generate highly functional human iPSCs that could accelerate the development of cell-based regenerative therapy for patients suffering from various diseases.

  14. Evaluation of possible failure of the mononuclear phagocyte system after total splenectomy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Ruy Garcia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Young and adult Wistar rats were submitted to total splenectomy and compared to animals not submitted to any surgical manipulation in order to evaluate the phagocytic function of spleen. The animals were infected with Escherichia coli labeled with technetium-99m and killed 20 minutes later. Liver, lung, spleen and a blood clot sample were taken. No significant differences were found in the percentage of bacterial radioactivity uptake in mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS organs in young and adult splenectomized rats. However, phagocytosis index by macrophages of MPS organs was smaller in splenectomized animals than in control group. Splenectomized rats were associated with a higher blood bacterial radioactivity uptake than animals of the control group (p<0.0001 due to a larger bacterial remnant in the bloodstream. This finding suggested that some failure in the MPS occurred in the absence of the spleen, demonstrating the need to develop alternative surgical techniques for total splenectomy.

  15. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. An indirect intracellular staining (ICS method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels.

  16. Spironolactone induces apoptosis in human mononuclear cells. Association between apoptosis and cytokine suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Martin; Sønder, S U; Nersting, J;

    2006-01-01

    Spironolactone (SPIR) has been described to suppress accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, the suppression of TNF-alpha in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mononuclear cell cultures was confirmed. However, SPIR was also found to induce apoptosis, prompting the investigations...... of a possible association between the two effects: The apoptosis-inducing and the cytokine-suppressive effects of SPIR correlated with regard to the effective concentration range. Also, pre-incubation experiments demonstrated a temporal separation of the two effects of TNF-alpha suppression...... preceding apoptosis. An association between the two effects was also seen when testing several SPIR analogues. Contrary to TNF-alpha, the levels of IL-1beta increased in SPIR-treated cultures. However, the amount of IL-1beta in the supernatants depended upon the order of SPIR and LPS addition, as IL-1beta...

  17. Production of cytokines by mononuclear cells of hypertrophic adenoids in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Ilendo, Elzbieta; Skotnicka, Bozena; Wysocka, Jolanta; Kasprzycka, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic adenoids with otitis media with effusion is a common infectious disease and present a serious otological problem in children. Cytokines, potent inflammatory mediators, play important role in the initiation of immunological response in otitis media. Adenoids excised due to hypertrophy with or without chronic otitis media with effusion were used to isolate mononuclear cells. Secretion of cytokines by non-stimulated and PHA-stimulated cells was determined by specific ELISAs. We found a significant increase in the production of IL-5 and TNF-α secreted by adenoidal cells of children with otitis media with effusion compared to group with hypertrophic adenoids. No differences were found in the secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 between these two groups of patients. Our results suggest a difference between the immunological responses in the course of hypertrophic adenoids with otitis media as compared to hypertrophic adenoids.

  18. DCC/DMAP mediated esterification of hydroxy and non-hydroxy olefinic fatty acids with β-sitosterol: In vitro antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nida; N.Farshori; R.Banday

    2010-01-01

    A new series of fatty alkenoates were synthesized using an appropriate synthetic route involving DCC and DMAP as catalysts. Compounds were characterized by their spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bacterial concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined for test compounds as well as for reference standards. Among the compounds tested, compounds having hydroxy group at the fatty acid chain showed the most potent antibacterial as well as antifungal activities.

  19. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression in healthy adults rapidly transported to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman NM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicole M Herman,1 Diane E Grill,2 Paul J Anderson,1 Andrew D Miller,1 Jacob B Johnson,1 Kathy A O’Malley,1 Maile L Ceridon Richert,1 Bruce D Johnson1 1Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Although mechanisms of high altitude illness have been studied extensively, the processes behind the development of these conditions are still unclear. Few genome-wide studies on rapid exposure to high altitude have been performed. Each year, scientists and support workers are transferred by plane from McMurdo Station in Antarctica (sea level to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station at 2,835 meters. This uniform and rapid transfer to altitude provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of hypobaric hypoxia on gene expression that may help illustrate the body's adaptations to these conditions. We hypothesized that an extensive number of genes would change with rapid exposure to altitude and further expected that these genes would correspond to inflammatory pathways proposed as a mechanism in development of acute mountain sickness. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn from 98 healthy subjects at sea level and again on day two at altitude. Microarray analysis was performed on these samples. In total, 1,118 probe sets with significant P-values and fold changes (90% upregulated were identified and entered into MetaCore™ software. Several pathways, including oxidative phosphorylation, cytoskeleton remodeling, and platelet aggregation, were significantly represented by the data set and all were upregulated. Many genes changed expression, and the vast majority of these increased. Increased metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells suggests increased inflammatory activity. Keywords: peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microarray, gene expression, acute mountain sickness

  20. Immune effects of cocoa procyanidin oligomers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas P; Keen, Carl L; Schmitz, Harold H; Gershwin, M Eric

    2007-02-01

    There has been considerable work on the relationships between nutrition and the immune response, particularly on studies that have focused on adaptive responses. There is increasing recognition of the importance of innate immunity in host protection and initiation of cytokine networks. In this study, we examined the effect of select cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on innate responses in vitro. Peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as purified monocytes and CD4 and CD8 T cells, were isolated from healthy volunteers and cultured in the presence of cocoa flavanol fractions that differ from another by the degree of flavanol polymerization: short-chain flavanol fraction (SCFF), monomers to pentamers; and long-chain flavanol fraction (LCFF), hexamers to decamers. Parallel investigations were also done with highly purified flavanol monomers and procyanidin dimers. The isolated cells were then challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with quantitation of activation using CD69 and CD83 expression and analysis of secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The chain length of flavanol fractions had a significant effect on cytokine release from both unstimulated and LPS-stimulated PBMCs. For example, there was a striking increase of LPS-induced synthesis of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha in the presence of LCFF. LCFF and SCFF, in the absence of LPS, stimulated the production of GM-CSF. In addition, LCFF and SCFF increased expression of the B cell markers CD69 and CD83. There were also unique differential responses in the mononuclear cell populations studied. We conclude that the oligomers are potent stimulators of both the innate immune system and early events in adaptive immunity.

  1. Supramolecular control of a mononuclear biomimetic copper(II) center: bowl complexes vs funnel complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Jérôme; Višnjevac, Aleksandar; Rat, Stéphanie; Parrot, Arnaud; Hessani, Assia; Bistri, Olivia; Le Poul, Nicolas; Le Mest, Yves; Reinaud, Olivia

    2014-06-16

    Modeling the mononuclear site of copper enzymes is important for a better understanding of the factors controlling the reactivity of the metal center. A major difficulty stems from the difficult control of the nuclearity while maintaining free sites open to coordination of exogenous ligands. A supramolecular approach consists in associating a hydrophobic cavity to a tripodal ligand that will define the coordination spheres as well as access to the metal ion. Here, we describe the synthesis of a bowl Cu(II) complex based on the resorcinarene scaffold. This study supplements a previous work on Cu(I) coordination. It provides a complete picture of the cavity-copper system in its two oxidation states. The first XRD structure of such a bowl complex was obtained, evidencing a 5-coordinate Cu(II) ion with the three imidazole donors bound to the metal (two in the base of the pyramid, one in the apical position) and with an acetate anion, completing the base of the pyramid, and deeply included in the bowl. Solution studies conducted by EPR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopies as well as cyclic voltammetry highlighted interaction with coordinating solvents, various carboxylates that can sit either in the endo or in the exo position depending on their size as well as possible stabilization of hydroxo species in a mononuclear state. A comparison of the binding and redox properties of the bowl complex with funnel complexes based on the calix[6]arene core further highlights the importance of supramolecular features defining the first, second, and third coordination sphere for control of the metal ion.

  2. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dianrong Gong,1 Haiyan Yu,1 Weihua Wang,2 Haixin Yang,1 Fabin Han1,21Department of Neurology, 2Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential treatments for neurological disorders. Since human umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection and promote neural regeneration, we have attempted to transplant the human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs to treat patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication (DEACOI. The hUCB-MNCs were isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and were given to patients subarachnoidally. Physical examinations, mini-mental state examination scores, and computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the improvement of symptoms, signs, and pathological changes of the patient's brain before and after hUCB-MNC transplantation. A total of 12 patients with DEACOI were treated with hUCB-MNCs in this study. We found that most of the patients have shown significant improvements in movement, behavior, and cognitive function, and improved brain images in 1–4 months from the first transplantation of hUCB-MNCs. None of these patients have been observed to have any severe adverse effects. Our study suggests that the hUCB-MNC transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for DEACOI. Further studies and clinical trials with more cases, using more systematic scoring methods, are needed to evaluate brain structural and functional improvements in patients with DEACOI after hUCB-MNC therapy.Keywords: human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, transplantation, delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication, MMSE

  3. Cord blood versus age 5 mononuclear cell proliferation on IgE and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Frederica

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal immune responses following exposure of mothers to allergens during pregnancy may influence the subsequent risk of childhood asthma. However, the association of allergen-induced cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC proliferation and cytokine production with later allergic immune responses and asthma has been controversial. Our objective was to compare indoor allergen-induced CBMC with age 5 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation and determine which may be associated with age 5 allergic immune responses and asthma in an inner city cohort. Methods As part of an ongoing cohort study of the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH, CBMCs and age 5 PBMCs were cultured with cockroach, mouse, and dust mite protein extracts. CBMC proliferation and cytokine (IL-5 and IFN-γ responses, and age 5 PBMC proliferation responses, were compared to anti-cockroach, anti-mouse, and anti-dust mite IgE levels, wheeze, cough, eczema and asthma. Results Correlations between CBMC and age 5 PBMC proliferation in response to cockroach, mouse, and dust mite antigens were nonsignificant. Cockroach-, mouse-, and dust mite-induced CBMC proliferation and cytokine responses were not associated with allergen-specific IgE at ages 2, 3, and 5, or with asthma and eczema at age 5. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with anti-cockroach IgE, total IgE, and asthma (p Conclusion In contrast to allergen-induced CBMC proliferation, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with age 5 specific and total IgE, and asthma, in an inner-city cohort where cockroach allergens are prevalent and exposure can be high.

  4. [Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan-Jun; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Shang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Na; Wang, Lin; Cui, Shuang; Ni, Lei; Zhao, Bo-Tao; Wang, Dong-Mei; Gao, Song-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.

  5. Spectroscopic, thermal, antimicrobial and molecular modeling studies of mononuclear pentafunctional Schiff base metal chelates derived from 5-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1,3-thiazine-2,6(3H)-dione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Omima M. I.; Taha, Ali; Fahmy, Shery A.

    2015-03-01

    A new pentafunctional N3O2 Schiff base, H2L ligand, and its metal chelates with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), VO(IV), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ce(III), Cr(III), Fe(III) and UO2(VI) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, molar conductance, magnetic and thermal gravimetric studies. The results showed that the complexes have octahedral geometry except UO2 complex which has pentagonal bipyramidal arrangement. The TGA analyses suggest high stability for most complexes followed by thermal decomposition in different steps. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for decomposition steps of metal complexes thermograms have been calculated. Molecular orbital calculations were performed for the ligand and its metal complexes by means of hyperchem 7.52 program on the bases of semiempirical PM3 level and the results were correlated with the experimental data. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds were tested in vitro against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; yeast and fungus strains and the results were discussed in terms of extended Lewis acid-base interactions.

  6. Protective effects of curcumin on methylglyoxal-induced oxidative DMA damage and cell injury in human mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-hsiung CHAN; Hsin-jung WU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effect of curcumin on oxidative DNA damage and cell apoptosis and injury caused by the reaction of methylglyoxal(MG) with amino acids. Methods: We used DNA strand breaks to examine the effect of curcumin on oxidative DNA damage. In addition, reactive oxygen species(ROS) formation occurs in MG-treated mononuclear cells, so the effect of curcumin on ROS generation was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate(DCF-DA) as the detection reagent. Moreover, the impact effects of curcumin on MG-induced cell apoptosis and ROS injury were analyzed by TUNEL and ELISA assay. The collagen I attachment ability of mononuclear cells was examined by trypan blue staining. Results: Our results revealed that curcumin prevented MG/lysine-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage. Curcumin also inhibited MG-induced apoptosis and generation of ROS in mononuclear cells. MG-treated mononuclear cells displayed a lower degree of attachment to collagen (the major component of the vessel wall subendo-thelium), whereas cells pretreated with curcumin before MG treatment exhibited restored affinities for collagen. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a role in MG-induced cell injury and alterations in attachment ability, and that curcumin blocks these effects by virtue of its antioxidant properties.

  7. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust and traffic noise - Effects on oxidative stress and activation in mononuclear blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Møller, Peter; Jantzen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels...

  8. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Rua, Ruben

    2016-11-23

    Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.

  9. A comparative study of Mono Mac 6 cells, isolated mononuclear cells and Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay in pyrogen testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Jensen, S; Hansen, E W

    1999-01-01

    Pyrogen induced secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells was measured. The ability of the MM6 cell culture to detect pyrogens was compared to the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test and isolated mononuclear cells (MNC). The detection limit of MM6 for lipopolysaccharide (LPS...

  10. Rubidium uptake of mononuclear leukocytes from normotensive and borderline hypertensive first degree relatives to patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Nielsen, J R; Poulsgård, L

    1985-01-01

    Uptake of 86Rubidium of mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) was used as a measure of cellular sodium-potassium pump activity. 86Rb-uptake was determined with the pump stimulated mainly from inside the cells by sodium as well as with a combined stimulation from inside by sodium and from outside by Rb. In...

  11. Influence of sample preparation, temperature, light, and pressure on the two-step spin crossover mononuclear compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnet, S.A.; Molnar, G.; Sanchez Costa, José; Siegler, M.A.M.; Spek, A.L.; Bousseksou, A.; Fu, W.T.; Gamez, P.; Reedijk, J.

    2009-01-01

    The three phases of the mononuclear two-step spin crossover compound [Fe(bapbpy)(NCS)2] (1) are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, calorimetry, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Mo¨ssbauer and Raman spectroscopies confirm the results obtai

  12. A comparative study of Mono Mac 6 cells, isolated mononuclear cells and Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay in pyrogen testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Jensen, S; Hansen, E W;

    1999-01-01

    Pyrogen induced secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells was measured. The ability of the MM6 cell culture to detect pyrogens was compared to the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test and isolated mononuclear cells (MNC). The detection limit of MM6 for lipopolysaccharide (LPS...

  13. Tetra- and hexavalent uranium forms bidentate-mononuclear complexes with particulate organic matter in a naturally uranium-enriched peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikutta, Christian; Langner, Peggy; Bargar, John R.

    2016-01-01

    of bidentate-mononuclear U(IV/VI) complexes with carboxyl groups. We neither found evidence for U shells at ∼3.9 Å, indicative of mineral-associated U or multinuclear U(IV) species, nor for a substantial P/Fe coordination of U. Our data indicates that U(IV/VI) complexation by natural organic matter prevents...

  14. Quantitative analysis of antiretroviral drugs in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells using MALDI-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, JJ van; Burgers, P.C.; Gruters, R.A.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Groot, R. de; Luider, T.M.; Volmer, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report here on the use of a prototype matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitative analysis of six antiretroviral drugs in lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Of the five investigated MALDI matrixes, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoi

  15. Study of DNA adduct 8 hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation through fenton reaction with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and butyl hydroxy toluene (BHT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, S.; Dani, I. C.; Budiawan; Pakuanisa, D.

    2017-05-01

    The research of DNA adduct formation 8-hydroxy-2’-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker of DNA damage due to oxidative stress was carried out by reacting the DNA base 2’-deoxyguanosine-5’-monophosphate with TBHQ and BHT. The formationof 8-OHdG was carried out in various conditions, at temperature of 37° C and 60° C, pH 7.4 and pH 8.4, within 5 hours of incubation time and in the addition of FeSO4. The formation of DNA adducts profile were analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with UV detector at a wavelength of 254 nm. The results of the study showed that TBHQ and BHT can trigger the formation of 8-OHdG from the reaction of 2’-hydroxy Deoxyguanosine-5’-monophosphate in the presence of Fe (II). Meanwhile, in the addition of hydrogen peroxide, the formation of DNA adducts only occur in the test substance TBHQ. The results showed that the condition of higher temperature at 60°C and pH 8,4 affects the higher formation of DNA adducts.

  16. [Monograph for N-Methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) and human biomonitoring values for the metabolites 5-Hydroxy-NMP and 2-Hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1-Methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) is used as a solvent in many technical applications. The general population may be exposed to NMP from the use as ingredient in paint and graffiti remover, indoors also from use in paints and carpeting. Because of developmental toxic effects, the use of NMP in consumer products in the EU is regulated. The developmental effects accompanied by weak maternally toxic effects in animal experiments are considered as the critical effects by the German HBM Commission. Based on these effects, HBM-I values of 10 mg/l urine for children and of 15 mg/l for adults, respectively, were derived for the metabolites 5-Hydroxy-NMP and 2-Hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide. HBM-II-values were set to 30 mg/l urine for children and 50 mg/l for adults, respectively. Because of similar effects of the structural analogue 1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP), the possible mixed exposure to both compounds has to be taken into account when evaluating the total burden.

  17. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Mono-O-Hydroxy Bidentate Schiff Base: Quantum Chemical Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Labidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiempirical AM1 SCF method is used to study the first static hyperpolarizabilities β of some novel mono-O-Hydroxy bidentate Schiff base in which electron donating (D and electron accepting (A groups were introduced on either side of the Schiff base ring system. Geometries of all molecules were optimized at the semiempirical AM1. The first static hyperpolarizabilities of these molecules were calculated using Hyperchem package. To understand this phenomenon in the context of molecular orbital picture, we examined the molecular HOMO and molecular LUMO generated via Hyperchem. The study reveals that the mono-O-Hydroxy bidentate Schiff bases have large β values and hence in general may have potential applications in the development of nonlinear optical materials.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Trivalent and Tetravalent Derivatives of 2- Hydroxy-1-naphthoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Joshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trivalent derivatives (B, Al, As, Sb & Fe and tetravalent derivatives (Si, Ti & Se of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid have been prepared by the interaction of their corresponding isopropoxide with letter in different molar ratio viz. 1:3 &1:4 in benzene medium. The prepared compounds generally obtained as coloured solids and amongst them those containing isopropoxy groups were found to be hygroscopic. All these compound were characterized by azeotrope and elemental analysis as well as by IR, PMR and mass spectral measurements. These spectral data have facilitated in elucidating the mode of bonding of the said metals and non-metals in these compounds with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid.

  19. Supramolecular Assemblies Using Piperazine with Dicarboxylic Acids and Hydroxy-carboxylic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-Yun; PENG Meng-Xia

    2008-01-01

    The molecular self-assembly of piperazine (pip) with 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (H2chda),m-phthalic acid (H2mpda),6-hydroxy-2-naphthalic acid (Hohna) and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthalic acid (Hshna) results in four new supramolecular networks formulated as H2pip·chda (1),H2pip·2Hmpda (2),HEpip·ohna·2H2O(3) and H2pip·shna (4),respectively.Single-crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that compounds 1--3 are three-dimensional supramolecular networks,while 4 has a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded chain-based structure,with CCDC:672051 (1),672052 (2),672053 (3) and 672054 (4).

  20. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the presence of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasumarthi, Rajesh; Kumar, Vikash; Chandrasekharan, Sivaraman; Ganguly, Anasuya; Banerjee, Mainak; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2014-11-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major environmental pollutants with reduced bioavailability. The present study focuses on the effect of hydroxy cucurbit[6]uril on the bioavailability of hydrocarbons. A bacterial consortium was used for biodegradation studies under saline and non-saline conditions. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results it was found that the consortium under saline conditions had two different strains. The experiment was conducted in microcosms with tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane and mixture of the mentioned hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. The residual hydrocarbon was quantified using gas chromatography every 24h. It was found that biodegradation of tetradecane and hexadecane, as individual carbon source increased in the presence of hydroxy CB[6], probably due to the increase in their bioavailability. In case of octadecane this did not happen. Bioavailability of all three aliphatic hydrocarbons was increased when provided as a mixture to the consortium under saline conditions.

  1. Crystal structure, NMR and theoretical investigations on 2-( o-hydroxy-anilino)-1,4-napthoquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Nourollah; Pinjari, Rahul V.; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Sayyed, Fareed B.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Rane, Sandhya Y.

    2010-03-01

    Crystal structure, 1H NMR and cyclic voltammetric investigations of 2-( o-hydroxy-anilino)-1,4-napthoquinone (HAN), resulting from coupling of aminophenol with 2-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone, have been carried out. X-ray structure reveals that the HAN ligand crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pca2 1 with Z = 4, forming a chain via inter-molecular O2⋯H1A sbnd O1 and C15 sbnd H15⋯O3 interactions. Both 1H NMR and cyclic voltammetry experiments suggest the titled ligand is associated and exists as dimer in d6-DMSO while the monomer has been predicted in CDCl 3 solution. Density functional calculations can be utilized to gauge the strength of hydrogen-bonded interactions from the 1H chemical shifts in the NMR spectra. Self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations further support the inferences drawn from cyclic voltammetry experiments.

  2. Stabilization of ultrathin (hydroxy)oxide films on transition metal substrates for electrochemical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenhua; Chang, Kee-Chul; Kubal, Joseph; Markovic, Nenad M.; Greeley, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Design of cost-effective electrocatalysts with enhanced stability and activity is of paramount importance for the next generation of energy conversion systems, including fuel cells and electrolysers. However, electrocatalytic materials generally improve one of these properties at the expense of the other. Here, using density functional theory calculations and electrochemical surface science measurements, we explore atomic-level features of ultrathin (hydroxy)oxide films on transition metal substrates and demonstrate that these films exhibit both excellent stability and activity for electrocatalytic applications. The films adopt structures with stabilities that significantly exceed bulk Pourbaix limits, including stoichiometries not found in bulk and properties that are tunable by controlling voltage, film composition, and substrate identity. Using nickel (hydroxy)oxide/Pt(111) as an example, we further show how the films enhance activity for hydrogen evolution through a bifunctional effect. The results suggest design principles for this class of electrocatalysts with simultaneously enhanced stability and activity for energy conversion.

  3. 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tommy N; Janin, Yves L; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify new subtype-selective (S)-glutamate (Glu) receptor ligands we have synthesized (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(RS)-TDPA]. Resolution of (RS)-TDPA by chiral chromatography was performed using a Crownpac CR(+) column affording (R)- and (S......)-TDPA of high enantiomeric purity (enantiomeric excess=99.9%). An X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the early eluting enantiomer has R-configuration. Both enantiomers showed high affinity as well as high agonist activity at (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA...... a remarkably low AMPA receptor stereoselectivity, (S)-TDPA showing the highest affinity and (R)-TDPA the most potent agonist activity. In addition, (S)-TDPA was shown to interact with synaptosomal Glu uptake sites displacing [(3)H](R)-aspartic acid (IC(50 ) approximately 390 microM). An enantiospecific...

  4. Pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid effect on hepatic biomarkers in Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Surapaneni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Materials and Methods: Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH. Results: The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2 when compared to rats in control group (group 1. Conclusion: It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also

  5. Ethyl 3-(4-hydroxy-phen-oxy)-2-(4-methoxy-phen-yl)acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin

    2008-11-08

    In the title compound, C(18)H(18)O(5), the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 55.2 (3)°. The ethyl acrylate linkage is planar and forms dihedral angles of 21.3 (3) and 41.0 (3)°, respectively, with the hydroxy-phenyl and methoxy-phenyl rings. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked into zigzag chains along the b axis by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  6. STUDY ON THE EPOXY RESIN TOUGHENED BY HYDROXY-TERMINATED BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiaozu; LI Shaoying; ZHANG Qingyu

    1990-01-01

    Toughened epoxy resin with excellent properties was obtained by adding organic acid anhydride curing agent and hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (HTBN), which is cheaper than CTBN. The anhydride reacts with both epoxy groups on epoxy resin and hydroxyl groups on HTBN. As a result the soft long chains of HTBN and the rigid chain of epoxy resin form one network, giving the resin toughness. Two-phase structure of the toughened resin was observed by SEM and TEM.

  7. Angiogenic Potential of 3-Nitro-4-Hydroxy Benzene Arsonic Acid (Roxarsone)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Background Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsonic acid) is an arsenic compound widely used in the poultry industry as a feed additive to prevent coccidiosis, stimulate growth, and to improve tissue pigmentation. Little is known about the potential human health effects from roxarsone released into the environment from chicken waste or from residual compound in chicken products. Objective The growth potentiation and enhanced tissue pigmentation suggest that low levels of roxarsone exposur...

  8. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Röse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt(I-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers.

  9. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Novel Mono-O-Hydroxy Bidentate Schiff Base: Quantum Chemical Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Labidi

    2013-01-01

    The semiempirical AM1 SCF method is used to study the first static hyperpolarizabilities β of some novel mono-O-Hydroxy bidentate Schiff base in which electron donating (D) and electron accepting (A) groups were introduced on either side of the Schiff base ring system. Geometries of all molecules were optimized at the semiempirical AM1. The first static hyperpolarizabilities of these molecules were calculated using Hyperchem package. To understand this phenomenon in the context of molecular o...

  10. PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF HYDROXY CITRIC ACID, CATECHINS AND CALCIUM PANTOTHENATE PRESENT IN HERBAL FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Karuppiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for the estimation of phytochemical active ingredients present in Garginia combogia extract, Green tea extract with calcium pantothenate for herbal formulations are evaluated for it’s Assay content and dissolution release. This herbal formulation with slim formula consists of several active ingredients such as Hydroxy Citric acid, catechins and calcium pantothenate. The HPLC method for the estimation of active content and the in-vitro dissolution release is developed for the study.

  11. Functionalized 4-Hydroxy Coumarins: Novel Synthesis, Crystal Structure and DFT Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Igglessi-Markopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel short-step methodology for the synthesis in good yields of functionalized coumarins has been developed starting from an activated precursor, the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of O-acetylsalicylic acid. The procedure is based on a tandem C-acylation-cyclization process under mild reaction conditions. The structure of 3-methoxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy coumarin has been established by X-ray diffraction analysis and its geometry was compared with optimized parameters by means of DFT calculations.

  12. Novel 1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonates derived from indazole: synthesis and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Fátima C.; Antunes, Inês F.; Curto, M. João M.; Neves, M.; Teixeira, António P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are an important class of drugs used in the treatment of abnormal calcium metabolism diseases. The first syntheses of bisphosphonates derived from indazole, substituted at the N-1, N-2 and C-3 positions are reported. The 1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonates were synthesized from the corresponding carboxylic acid or acyl chloride compounds, by two different methods. These BPs have a side chain with different lengths ((CH2)n, n = 0-5) between the indazole ring and the bisphosphon...

  13. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal induces endothelial cell injury via PKCdelta and biphasic JNK activation

    OpenAIRE

    Goya, Sho; Hirata, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Shigenori; Inoue, Koji; Kashiwa, Yozo; Kawase, Ichiro; Kijima, Takashi; Kumagai, Toru; Mayumi, Masahiko; Osaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Tachibana, Isao; Takeda, Yoshito; Takimoto, Takayuki; Yano, Yukihiro

    2008-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a major product generated during oxidative stress, exhibits cytotoxic effects; however, the mechanisms of 4-HNE-induced endothelial cell injury are not well defined. To explore this issue, we examined how 4-HNE damages human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and found that 4-HNE induced biphasic activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Both pre- and post-treatment of HUVECs with SP600125, a specific JNK inhibitor, significantly suppresse...

  14. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New Schiff Base Compounds Containing 2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various novel Schiff base compounds have been synthesized by reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde with substituted benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide and different substituted aromatic or heterocyclic amines in the presence of acetic acid in ethanol. The structures of all these compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data and have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  15. Enhanced synthesis of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan through tetrahydropterin regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Ryotaro; Kino, Kuniki

    2013-01-01

    5-Hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP) is a naturally occurring aromatic amino acid present in the seeds of the African plant Griffonia simplicifolia. Although 5-HTP has therapeutic effects in various symptoms, efficient method of producing 5-HTP has not been established. In this study, we developed a novel cofactor regeneration process to achieve enhanced synthesis of 5-HTP by using modified l-phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase of Chromobacterium violaceum. For the synthesis of 5-HTP using Escherichia coli...

  16. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Derivatives on the Basis (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic Acid Hydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Has-Schon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available (7-Hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid hydrazide (2 was prepared from (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid ethyl ester (1 and 100% hydrazine hydrate. Compound 2, is the key intermediate for the synthesis of several series of new compounds such as Schiff’s bases 3a-l, formic acid N'-[2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H- chromen-4-ylacetyl] hydrazide (4, acetic acid N'-[2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4- yl-acetyl] hydrazide (5, (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-acetic acid N'-[2-(4- hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl-2-oxoethyl] hydrazide (6, 4-phenyl-1-(7-hydroxy-2- oxo-2H-chromen- 4-acetyl thiosemicarbazide (7, ethyl 3-{2-[2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H- chromen-4-yl-acetyl]hydrazono}butanoate (8, (7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl- acetic acid N'-[(4-trifluoromethylphenyliminomethyl] hydrazide (9 and (7-hydroxy-2- oxo-2H-chromen-4-ylacetic acid N'-[(2,3,4-trifluorophenylimino-methyl] hydrazide (10. Cyclo- condensation of compound 2 with pentane-2,4-dione gave 4-[2-(3,5- dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-2-oxoethyl]-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (11, while with carbon disulfide it afforded 7-hydroxy-4-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylmethyl]-2H- chromen-2-one (12 and with potassium isothiocyanate it gave 7-hydroxy-4-[(5- mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethyl]-2H-chromen-2-one (14. Compound 7 was cyclized to afford 2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl-N ́-(4-oxo-2-phenylimino- thiazolidin-3-yl acetamide (15.

  17. (-)-6 alpha hydroxy polyanthellian A - A novel antifouling diterpenoid from the Indian soft coral Cladiella krempfi (Hickson)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Kunnath, R.J.; Rajamohanan, P.R.

    Bioassay-guided purification of methanol extract of the soft coral Cladiella krempfi (Octocorallia: Alcynocea) yielded a novel eunicellin-type diterpenoid, (-)-6 alpha-hydroxy polyanthellin A (1), active against the cyprids of the fouling barnacle...

  18. Binding, tuning and mechanical function of the 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid chromophore in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.A. van der; Arents, J.C.; Kort, R.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial photoreceptor protein photoactive yellow protein (PYP) covalently binds the chromophore 4-hydroxy coumaric acid, tuning (spectral) characteristics of this cofactor. Here, we study this binding and tuning using a combination of pointmutations and chromophore analogs. In all photosensor

  19. Regioselective Ethanolamination and Ketalization of 3-Ph-2,4-diacetyl(diethoxycarbonyl-5-hydroxy-5-methylcyclohexanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly V. Sorokin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 3-phenyl-2,4-diacetyl(diethoxycarbonyl-5-hydroxy-5-methylcyclohexanones with ethanolamine and ethylene glycol proceeds regioselectively using the carbonyl group of the alicycle to produce the corresponding cyclohexenylethanolamines and dioxolanes.

  20. Application of the Beauveria bassiana Strain for the Enantioselective Oxidation of the Diethyl 1-Hydroxy-1-Phenylmethanephosphonate

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation of diethyl 1-hydroxy-1-phenylmethanephosphonate using fungi Beauveria bassiana allowed resolving the racemic mixture of the substrate and due to the biocatalyst and reaction conditions modifications, leading to desired optical isomer.

  1. Facile Synthesis of 3-Aryl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles from 2-Arylindoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hye Ran; Roh, Hwa Jung; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangku [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    An efficient synthetic route of 3-aryl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles has been developed from 2-arylindoles. The procedure provides a brand-new synthetic method of 3-aryl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles from readily available starting materials in high yields. We reported an aerobic transition metal-free synthesis of 2,3-diarylindoles via an oxidative nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen (ONSH) pathway from 2-arylindoles and nitroarenes. As an example, the reaction of 2-phenylindole (1a) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in DMSO in the presence of Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} under O{sub 2} balloon atmosphere afforded 2,3-diarylindole in good yield (78%) in short time, as shown in Scheme 1. During the study, we found the formation of 3-phenyl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole (2a), albeit in moderate yield (41%), under the same reaction condition for a long time (8 h) without 1,3-dinitrobenzene. Based on the experimental results, the reaction mechanism for the conversion of 1a to 2a is proposed, as shown in Scheme 2. The indole anion I was converted to 3-hydroxyindolenine intermediate III via the hydroperoxide intermediate II. Subsequently, III was changed to an epoxide intermediate IV under basic condition, and a following semipinacol type rearrangement of IV would produce 3-phenyloxindole VI. A subsequent aerobic oxidation of VI would produce 2a.

  2. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF DI-AND TRI-HYDROXY BENZOYL CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamad Taghi Taghizadeh; Ali Bahadori

    2013-01-01

    Modified chitosans with 3,4-di-hydroxy benzoyl groups (CS-DHBA) and 3,4,5-tri-hydroxy benzoyl groups (CSTHBA) were synthesized and their nanoparticles were prepared via ionic crosslinking by tripolyphosphate (TPP).The chemical structure and degree of substitution (DS) of di-and tri-hydroxy benzoyl chitosans are determined by FTIR and 1HNMR spectroscopy.The morphology of particles,size distribution and zeta potential of nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS),respectively.The mean diameters of particles of CS-DHBA and CS-THBA nanoparticles were 144 nm and 112 nm,respectively.It was found that the particles size decreased slightly with decreasing the degree of substitution and increasing degree of deacetylation (DD),due to increasing of ionic crosslinking of ammonium ions and polyanions of tripolyphosphate.The TEM photographs of CS-DHBA show that these particles are spherical in shape,but the particles of CS-THBA show some aggregation.In addition,the solubility and the mechanical properties of the prepared modified chitosans and their nanoparticles were evaluated for bio-adhesive and biomedical application.The results of solubility tests indicated that,the CS-DHBA and CS-THBA have higher solubility at pH > 7 comparing to CS.Also the CS-DHBA,CS-THBA and their nanoparticles showed a significant adhesive capacity and enhanced tensile strength and tensile modulus.

  3. Enzymatic tRNA acylation by acid and alpha-hydroxy acid analogues of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Alina; Safro, Mark; Wolfson, Alexey D

    2008-01-08

    Incorporation of unnatural amino acids with unique chemical functionalities has proven to be a valuable tool for expansion of the functional repertoire and properties of proteins as well as for structure-function analysis. Incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acids (primary amino group is substituted with hydroxyl) leads to the synthesis of proteins with peptide bonds being substituted by ester bonds. Practical application of this modification is limited by the necessity to prepare corresponding acylated tRNA by chemical synthesis. We investigated the possibility of enzymatic incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues (lacking amino group) of amino acids into tRNA using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). We studied direct acylation of tRNAs by alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues of amino acids and corresponding chemically synthesized analogues of aminoacyl-adenylates. Using adenylate analogues we were able to enzymatically acylate tRNA with amino acid analogues which were otherwise completely inactive in direct aminoacylation reaction, thus bypassing the natural mechanisms ensuring the selectivity of tRNA aminoacylation. Our results are the first demonstration that the use of synthetic aminoacyl-adenylates as substrates in tRNA aminoacylation reaction may provide a way for incorporation of unnatural amino acids into tRNA, and consequently into proteins.

  4. Anilides of (R)-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid as inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebernitz, G R; Aicher, T D; Stanton, J L; Gao, J; Shetty, S S; Knorr, D C; Strohschein, R J; Tan, J; Brand, L J; Liu, C; Wang, W H; Vinluan, C C; Kaplan, E L; Dragland, C J; DelGrande, D; Islam, A; Lozito, R J; Liu, X; Maniara, W M; Mann, W R

    2000-06-01

    The optimization of a series of anilide derivatives of (R)-3,3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionic acid as inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK) is described that started from N-phenyl-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide 1 (IC(50) = 35 +/- 1.4 microM). It was found that small electron-withdrawing groups on the ortho position of the anilide, i.e., chloro, acetyl, or bromo, increased potency 20-40-fold. The oral bioavailability of the compounds in this series is optimal (as measured by AUC) when the anilide is substituted at the 4-position with an electron-withdrawing group (i.e., carboxyl, carboxyamide, and sulfoxyamide). N-(2-Chloro-4-isobutylsulfamoylphenyl)-(R)-3,3, 3-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropionamide (10a) inhibits PDHK in the primary enzymatic assay with an IC(50) of 13 +/- 1.5 nM, enhances the oxidation of [(14)C]lactate into (14)CO(2) in human fibroblasts, lowers blood lactate levels significantly 2.5 and 5 h after oral doses as low as 30 micromol/kg, and increases the ex vivo activity of PDH in muscle, kidney, liver, and heart tissues. However, in contrast to sodium dichloroacetate (DCA), these PDHK inhibitors did not lower blood glucose levels. Nevertheless, they are effective at increasing the utilization and disposal of lactate and could be of utility to ameliorate conditions of inappropriate blood lactate elevation.

  5. Hydroxy-substituted polyenaminonitrile as a soluble precursor for rigid-rod polybenzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Heung; Lee, Jae Kwan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    (1-Chloro-2,2-dicyanovinyl)benzene or 1,4-bis(1-chloro-2,2-dicyanovinyl)benzene was reacted with 2-amino-phenol to give the model compound, hydroxy enaminonitrile, which was found to undergo thermal cyclization reaction to form the corresponding benzoxazole. This intramolecular cyclization reaction is expected to occur through nucleophilic attack to electropositive enamine carbon by ortho-hydroxy group on the phenyl ring, which is accompanied by the release of neutral malononitrile through rearrangement. From each bifunctional monomer, o-hydroxy substituted polyenaminonitrile was prepared and characterized as a new precursor polymer for well-known aromatic polybenzoxazole. Also the unusual macrocyclic dimer formation from the 1,4-bis(1-chloro-2,2-dicyanovinyl)benzene and 2,2-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane polymerization reaction system was discussed. The thermal cyclization reactions and the properties of polymers were investigated using FR-IR and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA)

  6. Hydroxy radical, hexanal, and decadienal generation by autocatalysts in autoxidation of linoleate alone and with eleostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Makio; Tokita, Masako

    2008-07-01

    The formation of hydroxy radicals, hexanal, and 2,4-decadienal was demonstrated from the autocatalytic dimer peroxide which had been reported by us in autoxidizing linoleate (Morita and Tokita in Lipids 41:91-95, 2006). Then, autoxidizing linoleate containing eleostearate was investigated for new autocatalytic substances. The substances obtained were identified as peroxide-linked polymers consisting of both linoleate- and eleostearate-origin units with one hydroperoxy group, and also revealed activity of hydroxy-radical generation. The background of this study is as follows: the above paper reported this autocatalytic dimer peroxide as one of the real radical generators in linoleate autoxidation; this is a peroxide-linked dimer consisting of two linoleate moieties with two hydroperoxy groups, and was much more important than the main-product hydroperoxide in autocatalytic radical supply; its proposed decomposition mechanism has suggested the generation of hydroxy radicals, hexanal, and 2,4-decadienal; on the other hand, analogy to the formation mechanism of this dimer peroxide has predicted the formation of similar polymeric products from conjugated polyene components in lipids. In this study, these two predictions were successfully verified and a discussion is presented in connection with them.

  7. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Edward H.; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thi...

  8. Preparation and Antimicrobial Activity of s-Triazine Hydrazones of 7-Hydroxy Coumarin and Their Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Jani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal complexes of 7-hydroxy coumarin hydrazone of s-triazine derivatives derived from 7-hydroxy-8-aceto-N-(4',6’-dichloro-1',3',5'-s-triazine coumarin hydrazone and transition metals have been synthesized and screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic activity. The geometry of the complexes has been proposed. The ligand system co-ordinates with the metal ion in a bidentate manner through the nitrogen atom of hydrazone group.

  9. Non-methylene interrupted and hydroxy fatty acids in polar lipids of the alga Grateloupia turuturu over the four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendel, Melha; Barnathan, Gilles; Fleurence, Joël; Rabesaotra, Vony; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2013-05-01

    Phospholipids (PL) and glycolipids (GL) FA in the edible Rhodophyta Grateloupia turuturu, from Brittany, France, were investigated over four seasons. The major lipid class was GL in all seasons (around 45 %). More than 80 FA occurred in polar lipids, with chains from C12 to C26, identified as methyl esters and N-acyl pyrrolidides by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PUFA occurred at up to 47.1 % (summer) in PL, and up to 43.6 % (summer) in GL. The major PUFA were 20:5n-3 (12.2 % in PL and 29.0 % in GL) and 20:4n-6 (25.6 % in PL and 10.4 % in GL). The unusual 18:3n-7 acid was identified in PL up to 2.2 %. Several minor unsaturated FA were identified in PL and are previously unreported in seaweeds, namely 14-tricosenoic, 15-tetracosenoic, 5,11-octadecadienoic and 5,9-nonadecadienoic. Also unprecedented in seaweeds, ten 2-hydroxy and three 3-hydroxy FA occurred mainly in PL, 13.9 % in spring with the 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid as the major one (8.1 % winter). Three n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA occurred in PL. The 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid was characterized as the dimethyl disulfide adduct of its methyl ester. The 2-hydroxy-16-pentacosenoic and 2-hydroxy-17-hexacosenoic acids were identified by comparison of mass spectra and GC mobilities with those of the 2-hydroxy-15-tetracosenoic acid, and of other homogeneous FA series. These rare n-9 monounsaturated 2-hydroxy FA are unprecedented in seaweeds.

  10. First total synthesis of 10α-hydroxy-4-muurolen-3-one and its C10-isomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Qiang Bi; Li Jing Fang; Chen Xi Zhang; Yu Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    An efficient synthetic route to muurolane type sesquiterpenes starting from (R)-carvone,employing allylic diazene rearrange-ment and the ring closing methesis (RCM) reaction as key steps,is described.The first asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-10α-hydroxy-4-muurolen-3-one B and (-)-10β-hydroxy-4-muurolen-3-one C was accomplished.Through the total synthesis,the absolute configurations of the natural products A,B and C were established.

  11. Preparation and properties of piperidine salts of 6-hydroxy-4,6-diaryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-3-cyanopiperidine-2-thiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin' sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1987-07-01

    Alkylation of piperidine salts of 6-hydroxy-4,6-diaryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-3-cyanopiperidine-2(1H)-thiones yielded 6-hydroxy-2-alkylthio-4,6-diaryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-1-3-cyano-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridines which were dehydrogenated with the formation of 2-methylthio-1,4- and 4,5-dihydropyridines. The oxidation of the compounds prepared has been studied.

  12. Paracrine Mechanisms of Intravenous Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Stem Cells in Chronic Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Ashu; Srivastava, M V Padma; Mohanty, Sujata; Vivekanandhan, Sivasubramaniam; Sharma, Sakshi; Kumaran, Senthil; Bhatia, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    The emerging role of stem cell technology and transplantation has helped scientists to study their potential role in neural repair and regeneration. The fate of stem cells is determined by their niche, consisting of surrounding cells and the secreted trophic growth factors. This interim report evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy (if any) of bone marrow-derived mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNC) in chronic ischemic stroke by studying the release of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF). Twenty stroke patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited with the following inclusion criteria: 3 months to 1.5 years from the index event, Medical Research Council (MRC) grade of hand muscles of at least 2, Brunnstrom stage 2-5, conscious, and comprehendible. They were randomized to one group receiving autologous BM-MNC (mean 60-70 million) and to another group receiving saline infusion (placebo). All patients were administered a neuromotor rehabilitation regime for 8 weeks. Clinical assessments [Fugl Meyer scale (FM), modified Barthel index (mBI), MRC grade, Ashworth tone scale] were carried out and serum VEGF and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. No serious adverse events were observed during the study. There was no statistically significant clinical improvement between the groups (FM: 95% CI 15.2-5.35, p = 0.25; mBI: 95% CI 14.3-4.5, p = 0.31). VEGF and BDNF expression was found to be greater in group 1 compared to group 2 (VEGF: 442.1 vs. 400.3 pg/ml, p = 0.67; BDNF: 21.3 vs. 19.5 ng/ml) without any statistically significant difference. Autologous mononuclear stem cell infusion is safe and tolerable by chronic ischemic stroke patients. The released growth factors (VEGF and BDNF) in the microenvironment could be due to the paracrine hypothesis of stem cell niche and neurorehabilitation regime. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Transplantation of mononuclear cells from bone marrow in a rat model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teresa Serrano,1 Paula Pierozan,2 Esteban Alberti,1 Lisette Blanco,1 Karelys de la Cuétara Bernal,1 María E González,1 Nancy Pavón,1 Lourdes Lorigados,1 María A Robinson-Agramonte,1 Jorge A Bergado1 1International Center for Neurological Restoration (CIREN, La Habana, Cuba; 2Department of Biochemistry, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: This article investigates the possible effects of transplantation of mononuclear bone marrow cells (mBMCs to ameliorate or prevent the behavioral impairments and the cellular damage observed in a quinolinic acid (QA model of Huntington’s disease. mBMCs were isolated using a standard procedure and implanted within the QA-lesioned striatum. Behavior was explored using motor (beam test and memory (object recognition and Morris water maze tests. Morphology was evaluated using conventional histology (cresyl violet, bisbenzimide (to evaluate cell vitality, and immunohystochemistry to identify neurons or glia. mBMC-transplanted animals showed improvements in motor coordination (beam test. Regarding memory, object recognition was significantly improved in transplanted animals, while spatial memory (Morris water maze test was not severely affected by QA and, therefore, the results after transplantation were significant only in the probe-trial retention test. In samples taken from the animals that participated in the behavioral tests, a preserved morphology of striatal neurons and a reduced glial reaction indicated a possible neuroprotective effect of the transplanted mBMCs. A parallel study confirmed that the transplanted mBMCs have a long survival period (1 year follow-up. The results presented confirm the possibility that mBMC transplantation may be a viable therapeutic option for Huntington’s disease. Keywords: mononuclear bone marrow cells, Huntington’s disease, quinolinic acid, transplant, Fluoro-Jade C

  14. Paracrine Mechanisms of Intravenous Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Stem Cells in Chronic Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Bhasin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emerging role of stem cell technology and transplantation has helped scientists to study their potential role in neural repair and regeneration. The fate of stem cells is determined by their niche, consisting of surrounding cells and the secreted trophic growth factors. This interim report evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy (if any of bone marrow-derived mononuclear stem cells (BM-MNC in chronic ischemic stroke by studying the release of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF. Methods: Twenty stroke patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls were recruited with the following inclusion criteria: 3 months to 1.5 years from the index event, Medical Research Council (MRC grade of hand muscles of at least 2, Brunnstrom stage 2-5, conscious, and comprehendible. They were randomized to one group receiving autologous BM-MNC (mean 60-70 million and to another group receiving saline infusion (placebo. All patients were administered a neuromotor rehabilitation regime for 8 weeks. Clinical assessments [Fugl Meyer scale (FM, modified Barthel index (mBI, MRC grade, Ashworth tone scale] were carried out and serum VEGF and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and at 8 weeks. Results: No serious adverse events were observed during the study. There was no statistically significant clinical improvement between the groups (FM: 95% CI 15.2-5.35, p = 0.25; mBI: 95% CI 14.3-4.5, p = 0.31. VEGF and BDNF expression was found to be greater in group 1 compared to group 2 (VEGF: 442.1 vs. 400.3 pg/ml, p = 0.67; BDNF: 21.3 vs. 19.5 ng/ml without any statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Autologous mononuclear stem cell infusion is safe and tolerable by chronic ischemic stroke patients. The released growth factors (VEGF and BDNF in the microenvironment could be due to the paracrine hypothesis of stem cell niche and neurorehabilitation regime.

  15. The Study of Chlamydia Pneumoniae DNA in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell of Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tao; Xu Xiang Guang; Zhang Guo Liang; Fang Weihua

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To detection of chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) DNA in the circulating mononuclear cell fractions of coronary heart disease and to investigate the association between infection with chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary heart disease (CHD) and prospectively whether blood -based nested polymerase chain reaction ( nPCR ) is useful in identifying Cpn infection. Methods The peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Cpn DNA was examined using nPCR technique and confirmed by electrophoresis in 150 patients with CHD. Select 55 patients with clinical suspected CHD but angiography result are normal as control group (CG). Then we conducted a prospective , randomized, double - blind, placebo -controlled study of 6 months of azithromycin and placebo treatment in CHD group. Patients with Cpn DNA positive were then randomized to receive azithromycin or placebo. After treatment blood sample were collected for repeated measurement . Results Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was detected in 49(32.7% ) of 150persons with CHD and in 1 ( 1.8% ) of 55 persons with control group,odds ratio 26.2, 95% confidence interva13.52 - 194.98. The positivity rates of nPCR in CHD groups were higher than those in control group. 16 cases (29. 1% ) in latent coronary heart diseases(LCHD) group , 19 cases (39.6%) in unstable angina(UAP) group ,and 14 cases (29.9%) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI)group were Cpn positive by nPCR. There were no significant difference among in AMIUAP and LCHD group. There were significiant difference in Cpn DNA negative rates after the azithromycin and the placebo treatment. Conclusions Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in PBMC of a significant proportion of persons with CHD. The potential role of chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary atherosclerosis may therefore be more related to acceleration of disease or systemic effects by persistent infection than to sudden initiation of progressive coronary artery disease by acute infection. The detection of Cpn DNA in PBMC with nPCR may be

  16. Repetitive cryotherapy attenuates the in vitro and in vivo mononuclear cell activation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Othman, Mohd Izani; Prebble, Hannah; Davies, Sian; Gieseg, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Acute and repetitive cryotherapy are routinely used to accelerate postexercise recovery, although the effect on resident immune cells and repetitive exposure has largely been unexplored and neglected. What is the main finding and its importance? Using blood-derived mononuclear cells and semi-professional mixed martial artists, we show that acute and repetitive cryotherapy reduces the in vitro and in vivo T-cell and monocyte activation response whilst remaining independent of the physical performance of elite athletes. We investigated the effect of repetitive cryotherapy on the in vitro (cold exposure) and in vivo (cold water immersion) activation of blood-derived mononuclear cells following high-intensity exercise. Single and repeated cold exposure (5°C) of a mixed cell culture (T cells and monocytes) was investigated using in vitro tissue culture experimentation for total neopterin production (neopterin plus 7,8-dihydroneopterin). Fourteen elite mixed martial art fighters were also randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (15 min at 10°C) or passive recovery protocol, which they completed three times per week during a 6 week training camp. Urine was collected and analysed for neopterin and total neopterin three times per week, and perceived soreness, fatigue, physical performance (broad jump, push-ups and pull-ups) and training performance were also assessed. Single and repetitive cold exposure significantly (P mixed cell culture, whereas cold water immersion significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated urinary neopterin and total neopterin during the training camp without having any effect on physical performance parameters. Soreness and fatigue showed little variation between the groups, whereas training session performance was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the cold water immersion group. The data suggest that acute and repetitive cryotherapy attenuates in vitro T-cell and monocyte activation. This

  17. Synthesis of 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone as a candidate anticancer against cervical (HeLa) cancer cell and colon (WiDr) cancer cell by in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsjeh, Sabirin; Anwar, Chairil; Solikhah, Eti Nurwening; Farah, Harra Ismi; Nurfitria, Kurnia

    2017-03-01

    The compound 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone have been synthesized through cyclization reaction of 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one). The 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone were synthesized through Claisen-Schmidt condensation from 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (anisaldehyde) in aqueous KOH as a catalyst in ethanol. The 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone has been synthesized through cyclization reaction of 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone by Oxa-Michael addition reaction with sulfuric acid as a catalyst in ethanol. The 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone has been synthesized through oxidative cyclization reaction of 2 ', 4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone using I2 in DMSO as a catalyst with a mole ratio (1: 1) mol. All these producets were characterized by FT-IR, GC-MS, and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrometer. Both of these compounds were tested citotoxycity activity as an anticancer against cervical and colon cancer cells (HeLa and WiDr cell lines) using MTT assay in vitro. Dose series given test solution concentration on HeLa and WiDr cells starting from 0,78; 1,56; 3,12; 6,25; 12,50; 25; 50 and 100 µg/mL with a long incubation treatment for 24 hours. The results study showed that the 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone as bright yellow crystals with a melting point 172-174 ° C and a yield of 56.67% and the 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone as bright yellow crystals with a yield of 88, 31%, and a melting point of 263-265 ° C. The test results cytotoxic 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyflavone showed active against HeLa cells with IC50 value of 25.73 µg/mL and was quite active in the WiDr cells with IC50 value of 83.75 µg/mL. The result of the activity of 7-hydroxy-4-methoxyflavanone show active cytotoxic activity against HeLa and WiDr cell growth with IC50 value of 40.13 µg/mL and 37.85 µg/mL. IC50 value indicated that 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone potential as inhibitors in HeLa and

  18. Bis(6-methyl-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinecarboxylate) Mono(oxo)monohydroxyvanadium(Ⅴ)%6-甲基-4-羟基-喹啉酸盐羟基钒(Ⅴ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高文; 谢永荣

    2005-01-01

    The central Ⅴ atom in bis[6-methyl-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinecarboxylate] mono(oxo)mono-hydroxy-vanadi-um(Ⅴ) (1), synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of ethyl 6-methyl-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinecarboxylate andV2O5, has a distorted octahedral coordination geometry formed by six oxygen atoms from two oxygen atom of two hydroxy groups and two oxygen atoms of two carboxylate groups as well as one oxo group and hydroxy group. CCDC: 285592.

  19. Metabolic activation of N-hydroxy arylamines, N-hydroxy heterocyclic amines and ring-hydroxymethyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by human sulfotransferases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    Arylamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are two major classes of chemical carcinogens. N-Hydroxylation of arylamines is regarded to be a necessary process for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, while alkyl-hydroxylation is the major metabolic pathway for alkyl-substituted PAHs. Evidence has been presented that sulfation of several N-hydroxy arylamines and hydroxymethyl PAHs is an important pathway leading to the formation of ultimate carcinogens in experiment animals. Sulfation of these chemicals forms putative sulfuric acid ester intermediates that can rearrange to electrophilic nitrenium or carbenium ions capable of forming covalent adducts with important cellular macromolecules. In order to study the metabolic activation by sulfotransferase(s) in various human tissue preparations an in vitro enzymatic assay was established. A metabolic phenotyping method was also developed for thermostable phenolsulfotransferase (TS-PST) in platelet homogenates (correlated with TS-PST activity in other tissues) based on a simple colorimetric assay using 2-naphthol as substrate. By using a PAPS-regenerating system to supply the activated sulfate and calf thymus DNA to trap the reactive metabolites, we found that N-hydroxy derivatives of the carcinogens, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), 4,4[prime]-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido [1,2-1:3[prime],2[prime]-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) were metabolically activated by human TS-PST. On the other hand, three methyl-hydroxylated derivatives (7-OH, 12-OH, and 7,12-diOH) of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) were metabolically activated by human steroid sulfotransferase. Human sulfotransferase(s)-mediated activation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was not observed.

  20. Formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in fish and fish oil during dynamic gastrointestinal in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Karin; Harrysson, Hanna; Havenaar, Robert; Alminger, Marie; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Marine lipids contain a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the characteristic long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. Upon peroxidation these lipids generate reactive products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), which can form covalent adducts with biomolecules and thus are regarded as genotoxic and cytotoxic. PUFA peroxidation can occur both before and after ingestion. The aim of this study was to determine what levels of MDA, HHE and HNE can evolve in the gastric and intestinal lumen after ingesting meals containing fish or fish oil using a dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) model (TIM). The impact of the fish muscle matrix, lipid content, fish species, and oven baking on GI oxidation was evaluated. MDA and HHE concentrations in gastric lumen increased for all meals during digestion, with the highest level found with herring mince; ∼ 25 μM MDA and ∼ 850 nM HHE. Aldehyde concentrations reached in intestinal lumen during digestion of fish containing meals were generally lower than in gastric lumen, while isolated herring oils (bulk and emulsified) generated higher MDA and HHE values in intestinal lumen compared to gastric lumen. Based on aldehyde levels in gastric lumen, meals containing herring lipids were ranked: raw herring (17% lipid) = baked herring (4% lipid) > raw herring (4% lipid) ≫ herring oil emulsion > herring oil. Herring developed higher concentrations of MDA and HHE during gastric digestion compared to salmon, which initially contained lower levels of oxidation products. Cooked salmon generated higher MDA concentrations during digestion than raw salmon. Low levels of HNE were observed during digestion of all test meals, in accordance with the low content of n-6 PUFA in fish lipids.

  1. Treatment of refractory cutaneous ulcers with mixed sheets consisting of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koji; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Samura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yuya; Nakamura, Tamami; Nishimoto, Arata; Murata, Tomoaki; Hosoyama, Tohru; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the therapeutic effects of mixed sheets consisting of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) and fibroblasts on cutaneous skin ulcers. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in mixed cell sheets was much higher than in PBMNCs and fibroblasts. Concerning the mechanism, transforming growth factor beta 1 and platelet-derived growth factor BB secreted from PBMNCs enhanced VEGF production in fibroblasts. In wounds created on the backs of diabetic mice, the therapeutic effect of mixed cell sheets was similar to that of daily treatment with trafermin, a recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor. Although abnormal granulation tissue and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in trafermin-treated wounds, the transplantation of mixed cell sheets resulted in the natural anatomy of subcutaneous tissues. The expression patterns of identical wound-healing factors in wounds were different between mixed sheet-transfected and trafermin-treated animals. Because mixed cell sheets transplanted into full-thickness skin defects were eliminated in hosts by day 21 in syngeneic transplantation models, allogeneic transplantation was performed using mice with different genetic backgrounds. The wound-healing rates were similar between the mixed cell sheet and trafermin groups. Our data indicated that mixed cell sheets represent a promising therapeutic material for cutaneous ulcers. PMID:27329845

  2. Prolactin stimulates integrin-mediated adhesion of circulating mononuclear cells to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Pável; Macotela, Yazmín; Nava, Gabriel; López-Barrera, Fernando; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez; Clapp, Carmen

    2005-05-01

    Attachment of leukocytes to endothelial cells is an essential step for the extravasation and recruitment of cells at sites of inflammation. The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is involved in the inflammatory process. Here, we show that treatment with PRL of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulates their adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) activated by interleukin-1beta. Stimulation of adhesion by PRL is mediated via integrins leukocyte functional antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), because immunoneutralization of both integrins prevents PRL action. Also, PRL promotes the adhesion of PBMC to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin, ligands for LFA-1 and VLA-4, respectively. Stimulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion by PRL may involve the activation of chemokine receptors, because PRL upregulates the expression of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR3 in PBMC, and pertussis toxin, a specific G-protein inhibitor, blocks PRL stimulation of PBMC adhesion to HUVEC. In addition, PRL stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation pathways leading to leukocyte adhesion. PRL triggered the tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase-2, of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and 5, and of the focal adhesion protein paxillin. Furthermore, genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked PRL-stimulated adhesion of PBMC and Jurkat T-cells to HUVEC. These results suggest that PRL promotes integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via chemokine receptors and tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways.

  3. Elevated peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived superoxide production in healthy young black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shekhar H; Holwerda, Seth W; Keller, David M; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that blacks exhibit elevations in systemic oxidative stress. However, the source(s) and mechanism(s) contributing to the elevation in oxidative stress remain unclear. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be a major source of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production, we tested the hypothesis that young black men demonstrate greater superoxide production and NADPH oxidase expression in PBMCs compared with whites. PBMCs were freshly isolated from whole blood in young normotensive black (n = 18) and white (n = 16) men. Intracellular superoxide production in PBMCs was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence, protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, gp91(phox) (membranous) and p47(phox) (cytosolic) in PBMCs were assessed using Western blot analysis, and plasma protein carbonyls were measured as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Black men showed elevated intracellular superoxide production (4.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 0.6 relative fluorescence units; black men vs. white men, P superoxide production or NADPH oxidase subunit protein expression. These findings indicate that black men exhibit greater resting PBMC-derived superoxide production and an upregulation of the NADPH oxidase pathway with a possible contribution to increases in systemic oxidative stress.

  4. Do androgen deprivation drugs affect the immune cross-talk between mononuclear and prostate cancer cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hertzel; Bergman, Michael; Blumberger, Naava; Djaldetti, Meir; Bessler, Hanna

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of androgen deprivation drugs, i.e. leuprolide and bicalutamide on the immune cross-talk between human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cells from PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer lines. PBMC, PC-3 and LNCaP were separately incubated without and with two androgen-deprivation drugs, i.e. leuprolide and bicalutamide, and the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1ra and IL-10 was examined. In addition, the effect of both drugs on the production of those cytokines was carried out after 24 hours incubation of PBMC with both types of cancer cells. Leuprolide or bicalutamide did not affect the production of the cytokines by PBMC or by the prostate cancer cells from the two lines. Incubation of PBMC with PC-3 or LNCaP cells caused increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 as compared with PBMC incubated without malignant cells. While 10(-7) M and 10(-8) M of leuprolide caused a decreased secretion of IL-1β by PBMC previously incubated with prostate cancer cells without the drug, bicalutamide did not affect this PBMC activity at any drug concentration. This observation suggests the existence of an additional mechanism explaining the effect of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer patients.

  5. Effects of Malnutrition on Neutrophil/Mononuclear Cell Apoptotic Functions in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Fatma Betul; Berrak, Su Gülsün; Aydogan, Gonul; Tulunay, Aysin; Timur, Cetin; Canpolat, Cengiz; Eksioglu Demiralp, Emel

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies claim that apoptosis may explain immune dysfunction observed in malnutrition. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of malnutrition on apoptotic functions of phagocytic cells in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Twenty-eight ALL patients (13 with malnutrition) and thirty controls were enrolled. Neutrophil and mononuclear cell apoptosis of ALL patients and the control group were studied on admission before chemotherapy and repeated at a minimum of three months after induction of chemotherapy or when the nutritional status of leukemic children improved. The apoptotic functions of both ALL groups on admission were significantly lower than those of the control group. The apoptotic functions were lower in ALL patients with malnutrition than those in ALL patients without malnutrition, but this was not statistically significant. The repeated apoptotic functions of both ALL groups were increased to similar values with the control group. This increase was found to be statistically significant. The apoptotic functions in ALL patients were not found to be affected by malnutrition. However, after dietary intervention, increased apoptotic functions in both ALL patient groups deserve mentioning. Dietary intervention should always be recommended as malnutrition or cachexia leads to multiple complications. Enhanced apoptosis might originate also from remission state of cancer.

  6. Productive infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by feline immunodeficiency virus: implications for vector development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J; Power, C

    1999-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 10(1.3) to 10(2.1) 50% tissue culture infective doses/10(6) cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy.

  7. Immunomodulatory activity of Semecarpus anacardium extract in mononuclear cells of normal individuals and rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Divya; Aggarwal, Amita; Mathias, Amrita; Naik, Sita

    2006-12-06

    Semecarpus anacardium (SA) Linn. (family Anacardiaceae), is a plant well-known for its medicinal value in Ayurveda. The nut extracts of this plant have been traditionally used as antihelminthic, anti-fungal, anti-carcinogenic and in the treatment of nervous debilities and arthritis. In this study we have evaluated crude ethanolic extract of SA nuts for its anti-inflammatory activities in vitro using peripheral blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells of healthy individuals and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. SA extract inhibited the spontaneous and LPS induced production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-12p40 but had no effect on TNF-alpha and IL-6 production, both at protein and mRNA level. The crude extract also suppressed LPS induced nuclear translocation of transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1; the inhibition of NF-kappaB was through the inhibition of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. The extract also suppressed LPS activated nitric oxide production in mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Our results for the first time show that SA extract can inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production and demonstrate its mechanism of action.

  8. Distinct types of fibrocyte can differentiate from mononuclear cells in the presence and absence of serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S John Curnow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibrocytes are bone-marrow derived cells, expressing both haematopoietic and stromal cell markers, which contribute to tissue repair as well as pathological fibrosis. The differentiation of fibrocytes remains poorly characterised and this has limited understanding of their biology and function. In particular two methods are used to generate fibrocytes in vitro that differ fundamentally by the presence or absence of serum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that fibrocytes grown in the absence of serum (SF differentiate more efficiently from peripheral blood mononuclear cells than CD14(+ monocytes, and respond to serum by losing their spindle-shaped fibrocyte morphology. Although fibrocytes generated in the presence of serum (SC express the same range of markers, they differentiate more efficiently from CD14(+ monocytes and do not change their morphology in response to serum. Transcriptional analysis revealed that both types of fibrocyte are distinct from each other, fibroblasts and additional monocyte-derived progeny. The gene pathways that differ significantly between SF and SC fibrocytes include those involved in cell migration, immune responses and response to wounding. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that SF and SC fibrocytes are distinct but related cell types, and suggest that they will play different roles during tissue repair and fibrosis where changes in serum proteins may occur.

  9. Changes in transcriptional output of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells following resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Lara A; Tighe, S W; Kenefick, R W; Dragon, J; Westcott, N W; Leclair, R J

    2011-12-01

    Various types of exercise alter the population of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and change their transcriptional output. This work examines changes in PBMC populations and transcription in response to resistance exercise training (RET), and identify key transcriptional changes in PBMCs that may play a role in altering peripheral tissues in response to RET. Ten resistance-trained men (20-24 years), performed an acute bout of RET for ~30 min following a 12 h fast. Venous blood was sampled at rest, immediately following exercise, and at 2 h post-exercise and analyzed for total and differential leukocytes and global gene expression using Affymetrix Genechips. Results showed elevated leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and lactate values immediately post-exercise (P transcriptional changes in pathways related to immune response, inflammation, and cellular communication. The change in PBMC population (2 h time point) correlated with a dramatic decrease in the expression of CD160, and XCL1, markers of lymphocyte populations. At the 2 h recovery time point upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9, orosomucoid 1, dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 2, and arginase 1 suggest an induction in muscle damage and repair during this time frame. These results demonstrate that an acute bout of RET disrupts cellular homeostasis, induces a transient redistribution of certain leukocytes, and results in transcriptional changes in PBMCs translating into systemic changes in response to RET.

  10. Syntheses and Structures of Two Novel Salicylate-containing Mononuclear Manganese Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-Sheng; MA Cheng-Bing; WANG Mei; CHEN Chang-Neng; LIU Qiu-Tian

    2007-01-01

    Two salicylate containing mononuclear manganese complexes formulated as [Mnand characterized by elemental analysis, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Crystal data for compound 1: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a=30.748(6), b=8.1933(13), c=21.137(4) (A), β=126.772(4)°, V=4265.5(13)(A)3, Z=8, Mr=471.34, Dc=1.468 g/cm3, μ=0.667 mm-1, F(000)=1952,the final R=0.0637, wR=0.1783 (I > 2σ(I)) and GOOF=1.073; and those for compound 2: monoclinic,space group C2/c, a=14.505(5), b=11.048(4), c=20.711 (7)(A), β=103.603(6)°, V=3225.6 (18)(A)3, Z=4, Mr=668.65, Dc=1.377 g/cm3, μ=0.466 mm-1, F(000)=1416, the final R=0.0373, wR=0.1125 (I >2σ(I)), and GOOF=1.000. The Mn atoms of both complexes are six-coordinated in an axially elongated octahedral geometry for 1 and an axially compressed octahedral geometry for 2, and their oxidation states have been determined to be trivalent by bond valence sum calculation.

  11. MHC-unrestricted lysis of MUC1-expressing cells by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen E; Rewers-Felkins, Kathleen A; Quinlin, Imelda S; Fogler, William E; Phillips, Catherine A; Townsend, Mary; Robinson, William; Philip, Ramila

    2008-01-01

    Many human adenocarcinomas can be killed in vitro by targeted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL); however, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restrictions are typically required. The MUC1 antigen is common in many human adenocarcinomas, and is associated with a variable number of tandem repeats. It has been proposed that antigens with such repeated epitopes may be vulnerable to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing without MHC-restriction. Therefore, it is possible that MUC1-expressing malignant cells may be killed by targeted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte in the absence of MHC-restriction. In this study, a human MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cell line was used to determine if cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of MUC1-expressing adenocarcinoma cells requires MHC-restriction. Specifically, MUC1-stimulated human mononuclear cells (M1SMC) were observed to kill human MUC1-transfected, MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cells, but not the mock-transfected, non-MUC1-expressing murine mammary carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the killing was blocked by antibody to MUC1, indicating MUC1-specific killing. In conclusion, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of MUC1-expressing adenocarcinoma cells can be MHC-unrestricted.

  12. Shared signatures of social stress and aging in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Somel, Mehmet; Tung, Jenny

    2014-10-01

    Chronic social stress is a predictor of both aging-related disease and mortality risk. Hence, chronic stress has been hypothesized to directly exacerbate the process of physiological aging. Here, we evaluated this hypothesis at the level of gene regulation. We compared two data sets of genome-wide gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): one that captured aging effects and another that focused on chronic social stress. Overall, we found that the direction, although not necessarily the magnitude, of significant gene expression changes tends to be shared between the two data sets. This overlap was observable at three levels: (i) individual genes; (ii) general functional categories of genes; and (iii) molecular pathways implicated in aging. However, we also found evidence that heterogeneity in PBMC composition limits the power to detect more extensive similarities, suggesting that our findings reflect an underestimate of the degree to which age and social stress influence gene regulation in parallel. Cell type-specific data on gene regulation will be important to overcome this limitation in the future studies.

  13. Increases of microRNA let-7e in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Hashimoto's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Tomoya; Watanabe, Mikio; Inoue, Naoya; Otsu, Hiroshi; Saeki, Minori; Katsumata, Yuka; Takuse, Yukina; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2016-04-25

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a family of non-coding RNAs that have important roles in various vital functions. It has been reported that let-7e, a miRNA, may be involved in the regulation of interleukin (IL)-10 production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of let-7e as a regulator of IL-10 production in the pathological processes of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). We evaluated the association between let-7e expression and intracellular expression of IL-10 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from 11 healthy volunteers. Then we investigated the expression levels of let-7e in the PBMCs of 50 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 42 patients with Hashimoto's disease (HD) and 28 healthy controls. We found negative correlations between the expression level of let-7e and IL-10 messengerRNA (mRNA) and between the expression level of let-7e and proportion of IL-10(+) cells in stimulated PBMCs from healthy volunteers (r = -0.44, p = 0.0267 and r = -0.49, p = 0.0166, respectively). The expression levels of let-7e were significantly increased in HD patients compared with those in GD patients and healthy volunteers (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0011, respectively). let-7e may be associated with the pathogenesis of HD through the regulation of intracellular IL-10 expression.

  14. General anesthesia-associatedDNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of surgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiyan; Zhou Qi; Fu Huo

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate retrospectively the effect of general anesthesia onDNA damage in the blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of surgical patients in order to provide evidence for a better nursing care during the procedure.Methods: Clinical charts of76 patients who underwent operation under general anesthesia and76 healthy control subjects with documented results of DNA damage extent inPBMCs from the single-cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE) or comet assay and serum contents of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and malondialdehyde(MDA)from biochemical analyses were reviewed. The percentage of comet PBMCs and tailDNAand serum contents of SOD and MAD were analyzed by student t-test.Results: Compared with healthy control subjects, generally anesthetized surgical patients had significantly higher % cometPBMCs and % tail DNA(P<0.05) and significantly lower serum concentrations ofSOD (P<0.05) and significantly higher serum concentrations ofMAD (P<0.05). Compared with levels before general anesthesia in surgical patients, % cometPBMCs, % tailDNA, and serum levels ofMADwere significantly higher (P<0.05 or0.01), and serum levels ofSOD were significantly lower (P<0.05), after general anesthesia.Conclusions: General anesthesia during surgery causes a certain degree of hypoxia and PBMC damage. Particular attention should be paid to monitoring and maintenance of blood oxygen saturation in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia.

  15. Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Study of Mononuclear Ruthenium Water Oxidation Catalysts: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    de Ruiter, J. M.

    2016-09-20

    One of the key challenges in designing light-driven artificial photosynthesis devices is the optimization of the catalytic water oxidation process. For this optimization it is crucial to establish the catalytic mechanism and the intermediates of the catalytic cycle, yet a full description is often difficult to obtain using only experimental data. Here we consider a series of mononuclear ruthenium water oxidation catalysts of the form [Ru(cy)(L)(H2O)](2+) (cy = p-cymene, L = 2,2\\'-bipyridine and its derivatives). The proposed catalytic cycle and intermediates are examined using density functional theory (DFT), radiation chemistry, spectroscopic techniques, and electrochemistry to establish the water oxidation mechanism. The stability of the catalyst is investigated using online electrochemical mass spectrometry (OLEMS). The comparison between the calculated absorption spectra of the proposed intermediates with experimental spectra, as well as free energy calculations with electrochemical data, provides strong evidence for the proposed pathway: a water oxidation catalytic cycle involving four proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) steps. The thermodynamic bottleneck is identified as the third PCET step, which involves O-O bond formation. The good agreement between the optical and thermodynamic data and DFT predictions further confirms the general applicability of this methodology as a powerful tool in the characterization of water oxidation catalysts and for the interpretation of experimental observables.

  16. Binding of toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindexter, N.J.; Schlievert, P.M.

    1987-07-01

    Toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), produced by Staphylococcus aureus and associated with toxic shock syndrome, functions in vitro as both a lymphoproliferative and immunosuppressive protein for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMs). We analyzed TSST-1-target cell interactions by receptor-ligand binding analyses. In competitive binding experiments, 2 X 10(5) human PBMs or purified cell populations were incubated in the presence of small amounts of (5-50 ng) of /sup 125/I-labeled TSST-1 and increasing amounts of unlabeled TSST-1 (25-10,000 ng). Data were analyzed by the method of Scatchard. Toxin-specific receptors were shown to exist on T lymphocytes within the PBM population. T4+ cells had 27.5 X 10(6) receptors per cell, and T8+ cells had 9 X 10(6) receptors per cell. T4+ and T8+ receptors had dissociation constants of 2.58 X 10(-8) M and 1.8 X 10(-8) M, respectively. These studies confirm earlier work showing that TSST-1 causes the functional activation of a population of T lymphocytes involved in suppression of immunoglobulin responses.

  17. Analysis of quantum dot fluorescence stability in primary blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Huw D; Holton, Mark D; Rees, Paul; Williams, Paul M; Thornton, Catherine A

    2010-10-01

    A quantitative assessment of fluorescence signal generation and persistence in blood cells, measured at multiple points over a time course, is presented. Quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic fluorophores that are photostable and nonmetabolized and so can provide quantitative measures of cell biology over multiple cell generations. However, if the potential of these nanoparticles for long-term reporting is to be realized, an understanding of the stability of their fluorescence in living cells is essential. CdTe/ZnS and CdSe/ZnS core/shell dots with peak emission wavelengths of 705 nm and 585 nm, respectively, were loaded, via endocytosis into mononuclear cells extracted from primary blood and flow cytometry used to measure the average fluorescence intensity per cell within populations >10⁴. Time-based study showed a saturation-limited uptake of QDs with a characteristic time of 20 min and a maximum fluorescence signal that is linearly proportional to dot solution concentration. The fluorescence signal decreases after attachment and internalization within cells and is accurately described by a biexponential decay with a rapid initial decay followed by a much slower signal loss with characteristic times of 435 and 7,000 min respectively. Comparison with control samples indicates that interaction with the culture media is a major contributory factor to the initial signal decay. These results provide phenomenological descriptions of the evolving QD fluorescence within live cells with associated analytical equations that allow quantitative assessment of QD-based assays.

  18. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in ischemic cerebrovascular accident paves way for neurorestoration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Nagrajan, Anjana; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Badhe, Prerna; Paranjape, Amruta; Biju, Hema

    2014-01-01

    In response to acute ischemic stroke, large numbers of bone marrow stem cells mobilize spontaneously in peripheral blood that home onto the site of ischemia activating the penumbra. But with chronicity, the numbers of mobilized cells decrease, reducing the degree and rate of recovery. Cellular therapy has been explored as a new avenue to restore the repair process in the chronic stage. A 67-year-old Indian male with a chronic right middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke had residual left hemiparesis despite standard management. Recovery was slow and partial resulting in dependence to carry out activities of daily living. Our aim was to enhance the speed of recovery process by providing an increased number of stem cells to the site of injury. We administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally alongwith rehabilitation and regular follow up. The striking fact was that the hand functions, which are the most challenging deficits, showed significant recovery. Functional Independence Measure scores and quality of life improved. This could be attributed to the neural tissue restoration. We hypothesize that cell therapy may be safe, novel and appealing treatment for chronic ischemic stroke. Further controlled trials are indicated to advance the concept of Neurorestoration.

  19. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident Paves Way for Neurorestoration: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to acute ischemic stroke, large numbers of bone marrow stem cells mobilize spontaneously in peripheral blood that home onto the site of ischemia activating the penumbra. But with chronicity, the numbers of mobilized cells decrease, reducing the degree and rate of recovery. Cellular therapy has been explored as a new avenue to restore the repair process in the chronic stage. A 67-year-old Indian male with a chronic right middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke had residual left hemiparesis despite standard management. Recovery was slow and partial resulting in dependence to carry out activities of daily living. Our aim was to enhance the speed of recovery process by providing an increased number of stem cells to the site of injury. We administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally alongwith rehabilitation and regular follow up. The striking fact was that the hand functions, which are the most challenging deficits, showed significant recovery. Functional Independence Measure scores and quality of life improved. This could be attributed to the neural tissue restoration. We hypothesize that cell therapy may be safe, novel and appealing treatment for chronic ischemic stroke. Further controlled trials are indicated to advance the concept of Neurorestoration.

  20. Mononuclear cell therapy reverts cuff-induced thrombosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Leandro C F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cell-based therapy has successfully been used as a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular diseases triggered by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mononuclear cell (MNC therapy in situ on carotid cuff-induced occlusive thrombus in the apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/- mouse. Methods Spleen-derived MNCs were isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP-transgenic mice for cell treatment. A cuff-induced thrombus model was produced by placing a nonconstrictive silastic collar around the left common carotid artery in 20-week-old female apoE-/- mice. After 10 days, the cuff was removed, and the animals received in situ MNCs (Cuff-MNC or vehicle (Cuff-Vehicle and were compared with sham-operated animals (Sham. Results The histological analysis showed that the MNC treatment reverted occlusive thrombus formation compared to the vehicle and the vessel lumen area to that observed in the Sham group (MNC, 50 ± 4; Vehicle, 20 ± 4; Sham, 55 ± 2 x103 μm2; p -/- mice. Conclusion In situ short-term MNC therapy was able to revert cuff-induced occlusive thrombi in the carotid arteries of apoE-/- mice, possibly through the homing of EPCs, reduction of oxidative stress and decreased apoptosis.

  1. Medroxyprogesterone acetate increases HIV-1 infection of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampah, Maame Efua S; Laird, Gregory M; Blankson, Joel N; Siliciano, Robert F; Coleman, Jenell S

    2015-06-19

    Several observational studies suggest that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) injectable contraceptives may increase a woman's risk of sexual HIV-1 acquisition. In-vitro studies are conflicting, mainly due to differences in the type of progestin studied or activation status of the primary cells. We sought to determine whether MPA increases infection of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Freshly isolated PBMCs from normal blood donors were treated with physiologic MPA concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 5 ng/ml and infected with GFP-tagged R5-tropic or X4-tropic HIV-1 pseudoviruses by spinoculation. The infection was limited to a single cycle. Cells were stained with CD3, CD8 and CD14. Infection was quantified as the percentage of GFP cells by flow cytometry. Absolute infection was greater among unstimulated MPA-treated CD3⁺CD8⁻ T cells vs. untreated cells across MPA concentrations of 0.003-3 ng/ml using R5 (P  0.5). The CD3⁺CD8⁻ T-cell population of MPA-treated unstimulated PBMCs were more susceptible to HIV-1 infection than untreated cells. The increased infection was partly due to monocytes and was lost when PBMC were exogenously stimulated. These data provide confirmation of a biological association between MPA exposure and increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, particularly among women who inject drugs.

  2. Reduced pCREB in Alzheimer's disease prefrontal cortex is reflected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, N; Bennett, D A; Lazarov, O

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has a critical role in the formation of memories. CREB signaling is dysfunctional in the brains of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and evidence suggests that CREB signaling may be disrupted in human AD brains as well. Here, we show that both CREB and its activated form pCREB-Ser133 (pCREB) are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients. Similarly, the transcription cofactors CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are reduced in the prefrontal cortex of AD patients, indicating additional dysfunction of CREB signaling in AD. Importantly, we show that pCREB expression is reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of AD subjects. In addition, pCREB levels in PBMC positively correlated with pCREB expression in the postmortem brain of persons with AD. These results suggest that pCREB expression in PBMC may be indicative of its expression in the brain, and thus offers the intriguing possibility of pCREB as a biomarker of cognitive function and disease progression in AD. PMID:27480489

  3. Gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SARS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Yan Yu; Yun-Wen Hu; Xiao-Ying Liu; Wei Xiong; Zhi-Tong Zhou; Zheng-Hong Yuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of inflammatory and anti-viral genes in the pathogenesis of SARS.METHODS: cDNA microarrays were used to screen the gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in two SARS patients (one in the acute severe phase and the other in the convalescent phase)and a healthy donor. In addition, real-time qualitative PCR was also performed to verify the reproducibility of the microarray results. The data were further analyzed.RESULTS: Many inflammatory and anti-viral genes were differentially expressed in SARS patients. Compared to the healthy control or the convalescent case, plenty of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α, IL-8, and MAPK signaling pathway were significantly upregulated in the acute severe case. However, anti-inflammatory agents such as IL-4 receptor, IL-13 receptor, IL-1Ra,and TNF-α-induced proteins 3 and 6 also increased dramatically in the acute severe case. On the contrary, a lot of IFN-stimulated genes like PKR, GBP-1 and 2, CXCL-10and 11, and JAK/STAT signal pathway were downregulated in the acute severe case compared to the convalescent case.CONCLUSION: Gene expression in SARS patients mirrors a host state of inflammation and anti-viral immunity at the transcription level, and understanding of gene expression profiles may make contribution to further studies of the SARS pathogenesis.

  4. Characterization of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Henrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Comparative data regarding the needs of BMC for the adhesion on biomaterials and biocompatibility to various biomaterials are lacking to a large extent. Therefore, we evaluated whether a surface coating would enhance BMC adhesion and analyze the biocompatibility of three different kinds of biomaterials. BMCs were purified from human bone marrow aspirate samples. Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, without coating or coated with fibronectin or human plasma, demineralized bone matrix (DBM, and bovine cancellous bone (BS were assessed. Seeding efficacy on β-TCP was 95% regardless of the surface coating. BMC demonstrated a significantly increased initial adhesion on DBM and β-TCP compared to BS. On day 14, metabolic activity was significantly increased in BMC seeded on DBM in comparison to BMC seeded on BS. Likewise increased VEGF-synthesis was observed on day 2 in BMC seeded on DBM when compared to BMC seeded on BS. The seeding efficacy of BMC on uncoated biomaterials is generally high although there are differences between these biomaterials. Beta-TCP and DBM were similar and both superior to BS, suggesting either as suitable materials for spatial restriction of BMC used for regenerative medicine purposes in vivo.

  5. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  6. Derivation of autism spectrum disorder-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Brooke A; Van Baaren, Jessica M; Dubey, Gaurav K; Lee, Joycelyn M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Dykxhoorn, Derek M

    2012-05-10

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous potential both as a biological tool to uncover the pathophysiology of disease by creating relevant cell models and as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapeutic applications. Typically, iPSCs have been derived by the transgenic overexpression of transcription factors associated with progenitor cell or stem cell function in fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies. However, the need for skin punch biopsies to derive fibroblasts for reprogramming can present a barrier to study participation among certain populations of individuals, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In addition, the acquisition of skin punch biopsies in non-clinic settings presents a challenge. One potential mechanism to avoid these limitations would be the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as the source of the cells for reprogramming. In this article we describe, for the first time, the derivation of iPSC lines from PBMCs isolated from the whole blood of autistic children, and their subsequent differentiation in GABAergic neurons.

  7. Structural elucidation and physicochemical properties of mononuclear Uranyl(VI) complexes incorporating dianionic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Velmurugan, Gunasekaran; Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Trzesowska-Kruszynska, Agata; Kruszynski, Rafal; Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Venuvanalingam, Ponnambalam

    2016-01-01

    Two derivatives of organouranyl mononuclear complexes [UO2(L)THF] (1) and [UO2(L)Alc] (2), where L = (2,2′-(1E,1′E)-(2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-dyl)bis(azanylylidene, THF = Tetrahydrofuran, Alc = Alcohol), have been prepared. These complexes have been determined by elemental analyses, single crystal X-ray crystallography and various spectroscopic studies. Moreover, the structure of these complexes have also been studied by DFT and time dependent DFT measurements showing that both the complexes have distorted pentagonal bipyramidal environment around uranyl ion. TD-DFT results indicate that the complex 1 displays an intense band at 458.7 nm which is mainly associated to the uranyl centered LMCT, where complex 2 shows a band at 461.8 nm that have significant LMCT character. The bonding has been further analyzed by EDA and NBO. The photocatalytic activity of complexes 1 and 2 for the degradation of rhodamine-B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) under the irradiation of 500W Xe lamp has been explored, and found more efficient in presence of complex 1 than complex 2 for both dyes. In addition, dye adsorption and photoluminescence properties have also been discussed for both complexes. PMID:27595801

  8. Separation of Escherichia coli bacteria from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using standing surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Ye; Sanders, Claire K; Marrone, Babetta L

    2013-10-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to separate heterogeneous particle or cell mixtures in a continuous flow using acoustophoresis. In this device, two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated by interdigital transducers (IDTs) propagated toward a microchannel, which accordingly built up a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field across the channel. A numerical model, coupling a piezoelectric effect in the solid substrate and acoustic pressure in the fluid, was developed to provide a better understanding of SSAW-based particle manipulation. It was found that the pressure nodes across the channel were individual planes perpendicular to the solid substrate. In the separation experiments, two side sheath flows hydrodynamically focused the injected particle or cell mixtures into a very narrow stream along the centerline. Particles flowing through the SSAW field experienced an acoustic radiation force that highly depends on the particle properties. As a result, dissimilar particles or cells were laterally attracted toward the pressure nodes at different magnitudes, and were eventually switched to different outlets. Two types of fluorescent microspheres with different sizes were successfully separated using the developed device. In addition, Escherichia coli bacteria premixed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also efficiently isolated using the SSAW-base separation technique. Flow cytometric analysis on the collected samples found that the purity of separated E. coli bacteria was 95.65%.

  9. Proteomic analysis of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells after infection by Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoyu; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Yang, Guilian; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Liu, Xiufan; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2014-12-01

    Characteristic clinical manifestations of Newcastle disease include leukopenia and immunosuppression. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the main targets of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. To survey changes in proteomic expression in chicken PBMCs following NDV infection, PBMC proteins from 30 chickens were separated using two- dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative intensity analysis showed that the expression of 78 proteins increased more than two-fold. Thirty-five proteins exhibited consistent changes in expression and 13 were identified as unique proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer including three that were down-regulated and 10 that were up-regulated. These proteins were sorted into five groups based on function: macromolecular biosynthesis, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, stress responses, and signal transduction. Furthermore, Western blot analysis confirmed the down-regulation of integrin-linked kinase expression and up-regulation of lamin A production. These data provide insight into the in vivo response of target cells to NDV infection at the molecular level. Additionally, results from this study have helped elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of NDV and may facilitate the development of new antiviral therapies as well as innovative diagnostic methods.

  10. Hemorrhage activates NF-kappa B in murine lung mononuclear cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Schwartz, M D; Terada, L S; Repine, J E; McCord, J; Abraham, E

    1996-05-01

    Hemorrhage rapidly increases the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines in the lungs. Binding elements for the nuclear transcriptional regulatory factors (NF)-kappa B and NF-IL6 (C/EBP beta) are present in the promoter regions of multiple cytokine genes, including those whose expression is increased after blood loss. In the present experiments, we found increased activation in vivo of NF-kappa B in lung mononuclear cells, but not in splenocytes, taken from mice 1 h after hemorrhage. In contrast, hemorrhage did not activate NF-IL6 in lung cells or splenocytes. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by prior feeding of a tungsten-enriched diet prevented hemorrhage-induced activation in lung cells of NF-kappa B. Incubating splenocytes in vitro with xanthine oxidase activated NF-kappa B but not NF-IL6. Xanthine oxidase-induced activation of NF-kappa B was inhibited by manganese superoxide dismutase, but not by catalase. These results suggest that xanthine oxidase-mediated superoxide anion-dependent activation of NF-kappa B occurs in vivo and in vitro. This mechanism may contribute to increased lung cytokine responses after hemorrhage.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines Can Induce Prostaglandin E2 Production from Human Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana P. Grekova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the pathogenesis of a wide range of malignancies. The protumorigenic properties of COX-2 are generally thought to be mediated by its product, PGE2, which is shown to promote tumor spread and growth by multiple mechanisms but most importantly through modulation of the local immune response in the tumor. Pancreatic tumor cells produce various amounts of PGE2, some of them being even deficient in COX enzymes or other PGE2 synthases. Here we describe that, beside pancreatic tumor cells or stromal fibroblasts, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can also produce PGE2 upon coculture with pancreatic cancer cells. Stimulating of cellular cPLA2 within PBMCs by secreted factors, presumably sPLA2, from tumor cells appeared crucial, while the direct contact between PBMCs and PDACs seemed to be dispensable for this effect. Our data is emphasizing the complex interactions participating in the formation of the tolerogenic immune milieu within pancreatic tumors.

  12. Transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng YANG; Yanxiang WU; Hongmei WANG; Yifeng XU; Bo XU; Xin LU; Yibin ZANG; Fa WANG; Yue ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) of the lower extremity. Methods A total of 152 patients with PAOD of the lower extremity were enrolled into this non-controlled observational study from November 2003 to March 2006. All patients received subcutaneous injections of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, 450600 μg/day) for 5 days in order to mobilize stem/progenitor cells; their PBMNCs were collected and transplanted by multiple intramuscular injections into ischemic limbs. Patients were followed up for at least 12 weeks. Results At 12 weeks, primarymanifestations,including lower limb pain and coldness, were significantly improved in 137 (90.1%) of the patients; limb ulcers improved or healed in 46 (86.8%) of the 53 patients, while 25 of the 48 (47.9%) patients with limb gangrene remained steady or improved. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) improved in 33 (22%) of the cases, and TcPO2 increased in 45 (30%) of the cases. Angiography before treatment, and at 12 weeks after treatment, was performed in 10 of the patients and showed formation of new collateral vessels. No severe adverse effects or complications specifically related to cell transplantation were observed. Conclusion Autologous transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized PBMNCs might be a safe and effective treatment for lower limb ischemic disorder.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2006; 3:178-80.)

  13. Response of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells to CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; Verthelyi, D.; Klinman, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to bacterial DNA generates a "danger signal" that stimulates cellular elements of the mammalian immune system to proliferate and/or secrete cytokines. Stimulation is critically dependent on hexameric motifs that contain an unmethylated CpG dinucleotide: these are commonly found in bacter......Exposure to bacterial DNA generates a "danger signal" that stimulates cellular elements of the mammalian immune system to proliferate and/or secrete cytokines. Stimulation is critically dependent on hexameric motifs that contain an unmethylated CpG dinucleotide: these are commonly found...... in bacterial but not vertebrate DNA. Different motifs are optimally stimulatory in different species. This work examines whether oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing CpG motifs stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pigs. Results show that pigs respond to CpG ODN by proliferating and secreting IL......-6, IL-12 and TNF-alpha. By screening a large panel (>100) of ODNs, the palindromic hexamer 'ATCGAT' was identified as being optimally active in all animals examined (N = 10). These findings are the first to establish the immunostimulatory activity of CpG ODN in pigs, and suggest that the therapeutic...

  14. A clinical study of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells for cerebral palsy patients: a new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Gandhi, Sushant; Sundaram, Jyothi; Paranjape, Amruta; Shetty, Akshata; Bhagwanani, Khushboo; Biju, Hema; Badhe, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive heterogeneous group of neurological disorders with a growing rate of prevalence. Recently, cellular therapy is emerging as a potential novel treatment strategy for cerebral palsy. The various mechanisms by which cellular therapy works include neuroprotection, immunomodulation, neurorestoration, and neurogenesis. We conducted an open label, nonrandomized study on 40 cases of cerebral palsy with an aim of evaluating the benefit of cellular therapy in combination with rehabilitation. These cases were administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally. The follow-up was carried out at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. Adverse events of the treatment were also monitored in this duration. Overall, at six months, 95% of patients showed improvements. The study population was further divided into diplegic, quadriplegic, and miscellaneous group of cerebral palsy. On statistical analysis, a significant association was established between the symptomatic improvements and cell therapy in diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PET-CT scan done in 6 patients showed metabolic improvements in areas of the brain correlating to clinical improvements. The results of this study demonstrate that cellular therapy may accelerate the development, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life of patients with cerebral palsy.

  15. A Clinical Study of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Cerebral Palsy Patients: A New Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive heterogeneous group of neurological disorders with a growing rate of prevalence. Recently, cellular therapy is emerging as a potential novel treatment strategy for cerebral palsy. The various mechanisms by which cellular therapy works include neuroprotection, immunomodulation, neurorestoration, and neurogenesis. We conducted an open label, nonrandomized study on 40 cases of cerebral palsy with an aim of evaluating the benefit of cellular therapy in combination with rehabilitation. These cases were administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells intrathecally. The follow-up was carried out at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. Adverse events of the treatment were also monitored in this duration. Overall, at six months, 95% of patients showed improvements. The study population was further divided into diplegic, quadriplegic, and miscellaneous group of cerebral palsy. On statistical analysis, a significant association was established between the symptomatic improvements and cell therapy in diplegic and quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PET-CT scan done in 6 patients showed metabolic improvements in areas of the brain correlating to clinical improvements. The results of this study demonstrate that cellular therapy may accelerate the development, reduce disability, and improve the quality of life of patients with cerebral palsy.

  16. Effect of Static Magnetic Fields on the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear-like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; García-Cantú, R.; Cañedo, L.; Rodríguez-Segura, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Alvarado-Alvarez, R.; Toledo-Ramos, F.

    2002-08-01

    In this article the role of static magnetic fields (SMF) in the generation of Ca2+ currents in peripheral blood mononuclear-like cells (PBMLC) is described. Using the sensitivity of Ca2+ channels and pumps to membrane potential and ion concentration we propose a method which uses the conductivity as a dynamical coefficient in the Onsager's reciprocity relations, and the dynamics of the calcium ions described by the electrodiffusion equation deduced by Pelce. The enhanced influx of calcium ion in PBMLC was studied parametrizing the static magnetic fields effects on the conductivity by the coefficients γ, ρ and κ. The parametrization was made according to the symmetry properties of Onsager's reciprocity relations using the most simple expressions. As an example we used available experimental data over chromaffin cell and employing physical considerations concerning to PBMLC, an order of magnitude for the value of ρ ≈ O(-10-5 mol/(Vm2s)), κ = 0, γ ≈ O(-10-3 mol/(VT2m2s) was obtained. The γ parameter was found graphically. With this parametrization, the time to induce calcium current in the cell was always less than the situation without magnetic field application.

  17. Paracrine Effects of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells in Survival and Cytokine Expression after 90% Partial Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Oscar Kieling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute liver failure is a complex and fatal disease. Cell-based therapies are a promising alternative therapeutic approach for liver failure due to relatively simple technique and lower cost. The use of semipermeable microcapsules has become an interesting tool for evaluating paracrine effects in vivo. In this study, we aimed to assess the paracrine effects of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC encapsulated in sodium alginate to treat acute liver failure in an animal model of 90% partial hepatectomy (90% PH. Encapsulated BMMC were able to increase 10-day survival without enhancing liver regeneration markers. Gene expression of Il-6 and Il-10 in the remnant liver was markedly reduced at 6 h after 90% PH in animals receiving encapsulated BMMC compared to controls. This difference, however, was neither reflected by changes in the number of CD68+ cells nor by serum levels of IL6. On the other hand, treated animals presented increased caspase activity and gene expression in the liver. Taken together, these results suggest that BMMC regulate immune response and promote apoptosis in the liver after 90% PH by paracrine factors. These changes ultimately may be related to the higher survival observed in treated animals, suggesting that BMMC may be a promising alternative to treat acute liver failure.

  18. In vitro transdifferentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to photoreceptor-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Komuta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming is a promising, simple and low-cost approach to generate target cells from somatic cells without using induced pluripotent stem cells. Recently, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs have attracted considerable attention as a somatic cell source for reprogramming. As a cell source, PBMCs have an advantage over dermal fibroblasts with respect to the ease of collecting tissues. Based on our studies involving generation of photosensitive photoreceptor cells from human iris cells and human dermal fibroblasts by transduction of photoreceptor-related transcription factors via retrovirus vectors, we transduced these transcription factors into PBMCs via Sendai virus vectors. We found that retinal disease-related genes were efficiently detected in CRX-transduced cells, most of which are crucial to photoreceptor functions. In functional studies, a light-induced inward current was detected in some CRX-transduced cells. Moreover, by modification of the culture conditions including additional transduction of RAX1 and NEUROD1, we found a greater variety of retinal disease-related genes than that observed in CRX-transduced PBMCs. These data suggest that CRX acts as a master control gene for reprogramming PBMCs into photoreceptor-like cells and that our induced photoreceptor-like cells might contribute to individualized drug screening and disease modeling of inherited retinal degeneration.

  19. Flow cytometric probing of mitochondrial function in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coignoul Freddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphopathological picture of a subset of equine myopathies is compatible with a primary mitochondrial disease, but functional confirmation in vivo is still pending. The cationic dye JC-1 exhibits potential-dependent accumulation in mitochondria that is detectable by a fluorescence shift from green to orange. As a consequence, mitochondrial membrane potential can be optically measured by the orange/green fluorescence intensity ratio. A flow cytometric standardized analytic procedure of the mitochondrial function of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells is proposed along with a critical appraisal of the crucial questions of technical aspects, reproducibility, effect of time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing and reference values. Results The JC-1-associated fluorescence orange and green values and their ratio were proved to be stable over time, independent of age and sex and hypersensitive to intoxication with a mitochondrial potential dissipator. Unless time elapsed between blood sampling and laboratory processing does not exceed 5 hours, the values retrieved remain stable. Reference values for clinically normal horses are given. Conclusion Whenever a quantitative measurement of mitochondrial function in a horse is desired, blood samples should be taken in sodium citrate tubes and kept at room temperature for a maximum of 5 hours before the laboratory procedure detailed here is started. The hope is that this new test may help in confirming, studying and preventing equine myopathies that are currently imputed to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  20. Endothelial progenitor cell differentiation using cryopreserved, umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ho JANG; Hugh C KIM; Sun-kyung KIM; Jeong-eun CHOI; Young-jin KIM; Hyun-woo LEE; Seok-yun KANG; Joon-seong PARK; Jin-hyuk CHOI; Ho-yeong LIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the endothelial differentiation potentiality of umbilical cord blood (UCB), we induced the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC). Methods: MNC from cryopreserved UCB and peripheral blood (PB) were cultured in M199 medium with endothelial cell growth supplements for 14 d. EPC were characterized by RT-PCR,flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analysis. The proliferation of differen-tiated EPC was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTI') assay, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentra-tion was measured using an ELISA kit. Characteristics of UCB-derived EPC were compared with those of PB-derived EPC. Results: A number of round-shaped cells were loosely attached to the bottom after 24 h culture, and numerous spindle-shaped cells began to appear from the round-shaped ones on d 7. Those cells expressed endothelial markers such as, Fit-1/VEGFR-1, ecNOS, VE-cadherin, yon Willebrand factor, and secreted VEGF. The patterns of endothelial markers of EPC from PB and UCB did not show striking differences. The results of the prolifera-tion and secretion of VEGF were also similar. Conclusion: We successfully cul-tured UCB cells stored at -196 ℃ into cells with the quality of endothelial cells.Those EPC could be used for angiogenic therapeutics by activating adjacent endothelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis.

  1. 10th NTES Conference: Nickel and Arsenic Compounds Alter the Epigenome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Jason; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie metal carcinogenesis are the subject of intense investigation; however, data from in vitro and in vivo studies are starting to piece together a story that implicates epigenetics as a key player. Data from our lab has shown that nickel compounds inhibit dioxygenase enzymes by displacing iron in the active site. Arsenic is hypothesized to inhibit these enzymes by diminishing ascorbate levels--an important co-factor for dioxygenases. Inhibition of histone demethylase dioxygenases can increase histone methylation levels, which also may affect gene expression. Recently, our lab conducted a series of investigations in human subjects exposed to high levels of nickel or arsenic compounds. Global levels of histone modifications in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from exposed subjects were compared to low environmentally exposed controls. Results showed that nickel increased H3K4me3 and decreased H3K9me2 globally. Arsenic increased H3K9me2 and decreased H3K9ac globally. Other histone modifications affected by arsenic were sex-dependent. Nickel affected the expression of 2756 genes in human PBMCs and many of the genes were involved in immune and carcinogenic pathways. This review will describe data from our lab that demonstrates for the first time that nickel and arsenic compounds affect global levels of histone modifications and gene expression in exposed human populations.

  2. Effect of arsenic, cadmium and lead on the induction of apoptosis of normal human mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LA FUENTE, H; PORTALES-PÉREZ, D; BARANDA, L; DÍAZ-BARRIGA, F; SAAVEDRA-ALANÍS, V; LAYSECA, E; GONZÁLEZ-AMARO, R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of cadmium, lead and arsenic on the apoptosis of human immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were incubated with increasing concentrations of these metals and then cellular apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and by DNA electrophoresis. We found that arsenic induced a significant level of apoptosis at 15 μm after 48h of incubation. Cadmium had a similar effect, but at higher concentrations (65 μm). In addition, cadmium exerted a cytotoxic effect on MNC that seemed to be independent of the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, concentrations of lead as high as 500 μm were nontoxic and did not induce a significant degree of apoptosis. Additional experiments showed that arsenic at concentrations as low as 1·0 μm had a significant pro-apoptotic effect when cells were cultured in the presence of this pollutant for more than 72. Non-T cells were more susceptible than T lymphocytes to the effect of arsenic and cadmium. Interestingly, MNC from children chronically exposed to arsenic showed a high basal rate of apoptosis and a diminished in vitro sensibility to this metalloid. Our results indicate that both arsenic and cadmium are able to induce apoptosis of lymphoid cells, and suggest that this phenomenon may contribute to their immunotoxic effect in vivo. PMID:12100024

  3. Structural elucidation and physicochemical properties of mononuclear Uranyl(VI) complexes incorporating dianionic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Velmurugan, Gunasekaran; Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Trzesowska-Kruszynska, Agata; Kruszynski, Rafal; Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Venuvanalingam, Ponnambalam

    2016-09-01

    Two derivatives of organouranyl mononuclear complexes [UO2(L)THF] (1) and [UO2(L)Alc] (2), where L = (2,2‧-(1E,1‧E)-(2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-dyl)bis(azanylylidene, THF = Tetrahydrofuran, Alc = Alcohol), have been prepared. These complexes have been determined by elemental analyses, single crystal X-ray crystallography and various spectroscopic studies. Moreover, the structure of these complexes have also been studied by DFT and time dependent DFT measurements showing that both the complexes have distorted pentagonal bipyramidal environment around uranyl ion. TD-DFT results indicate that the complex 1 displays an intense band at 458.7 nm which is mainly associated to the uranyl centered LMCT, where complex 2 shows a band at 461.8 nm that have significant LMCT character. The bonding has been further analyzed by EDA and NBO. The photocatalytic activity of complexes 1 and 2 for the degradation of rhodamine-B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) under the irradiation of 500W Xe lamp has been explored, and found more efficient in presence of complex 1 than complex 2 for both dyes. In addition, dye adsorption and photoluminescence properties have also been discussed for both complexes.

  4. Metabolic Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Influence of Vitamin D Status and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stepien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC could serve as a less invasive and more direct alternative to tissue biopsies or serum in metabolomic research. We conducted two exploratory independent studies in order to characterise PBMC’s metabolomic profile following short-term vitamin D3 supplementation and to determine gender effects. In the first study, eight healthy males and females aged 40–65 y were randomly selected for profiling of PBMCs after receiving either 15 µg of vitamin D3 or placebo for four weeks. In the second study, twenty younger healthy males and females were studied. Cell metabolites were extracted and deproteinised using methanol/chloroform/water method and analysed by GC-MS. Higher vitamin D status had no effect on the fatty acid profile of PBMCs, but inflammatory biomarkers and adipokines correlated positively with stearic acid levels. In the second study, no gender-specific metabolites were identified. Valine, leucine and aspartic acid were identified as potential BMI-sensitive amino acids. Larger studies are needed to confirm the influence of BMI on these parameters. This work clearly demonstrates the utility of metabolomics profiling of PBMCs and paves the way for future applications of metabolomics in identifying metabolic profiles of blood cells as a measure for dietary intakes or physiological status.

  5. Go it alone: four-electron oxidations by mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Spencer C; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2017-04-01

    This review discusses the current mechanistic understanding of a group of mononuclear non-heme iron-dependent enzymes that catalyze four-electron oxidation of their organic substrates without the use of any cofactors or cosubstrates. One set of enzymes acts on α-ketoacid-containing substrates, coupling decarboxylation to oxygen activation. This group includes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, 4-hydroxymandelate synthase, and CloR involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis. A second set of enzymes acts on substrates containing a thiol group that coordinates to the iron. This group is comprised of isopenicillin N synthase, thiol dioxygenases, and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of ergothioneine and ovothiol. The final group of enzymes includes HEPD and MPnS that both carry out the oxidative cleavage of the carbon-carbon bond of 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate but generate different products. Commonalities amongst many of these enzymes are discussed and include the initial substrate oxidation by a ferric-superoxo-intermediate and a second oxidation by a ferryl species.

  6. Dynamic acquisition of HTLV-1 tax protein by mononuclear phagocytes: Role in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Eiji; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Yao, Karen; Oh, Unsong; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Takashima, Hiroshi; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-03-15

    Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells. But the specific cellular events leading up to tissue injury are still unclear. Here, we developed the Microscopy Imaging of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay with Fluorescence emission (MI-CaFé), an optimized visualization analysis to explore the interactions between CTLs and virus infected or viral antigen presenting target cells. Various cell-to-cell formations can be observed and our results demonstrate elevated frequencies of CTL-target cell conjugates in HAM/TSP patient PBMCs compared to control PBMCs. Furthermore, HTLV-1 Tax protein expression can be localized at the cell-cell junctions and also tracked moving from an infected cell to a CD14 (+) mononuclear phagocyte (MP). Activation of CD14 (+) MPs in HAM/TSP patient PBMCs and antigenic presentation of HTLV-1 Tax by MPs can be inferred by their spontaneous cytotoxicity after 18h of in vitro culture. Given that CD4 (+) T lymphocytes are the primary reservoirs of HTLV-1 and MPs are scavenger cells responsible for pathogen clearance, spontaneous cytotoxicity against MPs in HAM/TSP PBMCs suggests a mechanism of chronic inflammation, secondary to low level of persistent virus infection within the central nervous system. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of spirulina on the secretion of cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, T K; VAN DE Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of Spirulina, a bluegreen alga used as a food supplement. The effects of Spirulina on the secretion of three cytokines from unstimulated and stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were examined. In resting PBMC, Spirulina stimulated secretion of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-gamma to nearly 2.0, 3.3, and 13.6 times basal levels, respectively. Spirulina induced levels of IFN-gamma (229 +/- 104 pg/ml) that were comparable to those seen after phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation (476 +/- 121 pg/ml). However, it was much less mitogenic than PHA (13.1 +/- 6.9 pg/ml) with respect to the induction of IL-4 secretion (0.34 +/- 0.1 pg/ml). In PHA-stimulated cells, Spirulina enhanced secretion of IL-1beta, IL-4, and IFN-beta by 2.9, 4.0., and 1.6 times, respectively. Although Spirulina stimulates several cytokines, it is clearly more effective in the generation of a Thl-type response. This in vitro study offers additional data for consideration of the potential therapeutic benefits of Spirulina.

  8. Impact of age on the efficacy of bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation in experimental stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Daniel-Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM MNC have been effectively used to treat experimental stroke. Most of the preclinical trials have been performed in young and healthy laboratory animals, even though age and hypertension are major risk factors for stroke. To determine the influence of age on the properties of BM MNCs after cerebral ischemia, we compared the efficacy of aged and young BM MNC in an in vitro model of cerebral hypoxia and in an adapted in vivo model of stroke. Human BM MNCs were obtained from healthy young or aged donors and either co-cultured with rat hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD, or transplanted intravenously 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged (18 months spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Efficacy was examined by quantification of hippocampal cell death, or respectively, by neurofunctional tests and MR investigations. Co-cultivation with young, but not with aged BM MNCs significantly reduced the hippocampal cell death after OGD. Transplantation of both young and old BM MNCs did not reduce functional deficits or ischemic lesion volume after stroke in aged SHR. These results suggest a significant impact of age on the therapeutic efficacy of BM MNCs after cerebral ischemia.

  9. Cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates as catalyst prototypes for self-induced hydrogenation of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Masayuki; Saito, Susumu

    2015-08-28

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in bio-renewable and petrochemical sources of carbon. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield alcohols produces water as the only byproduct, and thus represents a possible next generation, sustainable method for the production of these alternative energy carriers/platform chemicals on a large scale. Reported herein are molecular insights into cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates ([Ru(OCOR)](+)) as prototypical catalysts for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The substrate-derived coordinated carboxylate was found to function initially as a proton acceptor for the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen, and subsequently also as an acceptor for the hydride from [Ru-H](+), which was generated in the first step (self-induced catalysis). The hydrogenation proceeded selectively and at high levels of functional group tolerance, a feature that is challenging to achieve with existing heterogeneous/homogeneous catalyst systems. These fundamental insights are expected to significantly benefit the future development of metal carboxylate-catalysed hydrogenation processes of bio-renewable resources.

  10. Improved Quality of Life in A Case of Cerebral Palsy after Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a non progressive, demyelinating disorder that affects a child’s development and posture and may be associated with sensation, cognition, communication and perception abnormalities. In CP, cerebral white matter is injured resulting in the loss of oligodendrocytes. This causes damage to the myelin and disruption of nerve conduction. Cell therapy is being explored as an alternate therapeutic strategy as there is no treatment currently available for CP. To study the benefits of this treatment we have administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs to a 12-year-old CP case. He was clinically re-evaluated after six months and found to demonstrate positive clinical and functional outcomes. His trunk strength, upper limb control, hand functions, walking stability, balance, posture and coordination improved. His ability to perform activities of daily living improved. On repeating the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, the score increased from 90 to 113. A repeat positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT scan of the brain six months after intervention showed progression of the mean standard deviation values towards normalization which correlated to the functional changes. At one year, all clinical improvements have remained. This indicated that cell transplantation may improve quality of life and have a potential for treatment of CP.

  11. Reduction of cytokine release of blood and bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells by ambroxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, S; Zissel, G; Kienast, K; Müller-Quernheim, J

    1997-03-24

    Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent frequently used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. It has been reported, following clinical and in-vitro studies, that ambroxol exhibits an anti-inflammatory action. This capability was investigated by activating bronchoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in-vitro to elicit the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 and interferon gamma, whilst simultaneously exposing them to varying pharmacological concentrations of ambroxol (10, 1, and 0.1 microM). After 24 h it was observed that the isolated tissue-culture supernatants showed a dose-dependent reduction in the concentration of the tested cytokines; 10 microM (12 to 37% reduction) and 1 microM to (6 to 27% reduction). At 0.1 microM, a significant reduction could only be observed in the release of interleukin-2 by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These results demonstrate, that ambroxol exhibits anti-inflammatory actions in concentrations achievable in vivo.

  12. Changes in Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Chronic Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Kizhake V.; Zago, Maria P.; Koo, Sue-Jie; Spratt, Heidi; Stafford, Susan; Blell, Zinzi N.; Gupta, Shivali; Nuñez Burgos, Julio; Barrientos, Natalia; Brasier, Allan R.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection causes chagasic cardiomyopathy; however, why 30–40% of the patients develop clinical disease is not known. To discover the pathomechanisms in disease progression, we obtained the proteome signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal healthy controls (N/H, n = 30) and subjects that were seropositive for Tc-specific antibodies, but were clinically asymptomatic (C/A, n = 25) or clinically symptomatic (C/S, n = 28) with cardiac involvement and left ventricular dysfunction. Protein samples were labeled with BODIPY FL-maleimide (dynamic range: > 4 orders of magnitude, detection limit: 5 f-mol) and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). After normalizing the gel images, protein spots that exhibited differential abundance in any of the two groups were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and searched against UniProt human database for protein identification. We found 213 and 199 protein spots (fold change: |≥ 1.5|, p93% prediction success in classifying infected individuals with no disease and those with cardiac involvement and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, we have identified molecular pathways and a panel of proteins that could aid in detecting seropositive individuals at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. PMID:26919708

  13. Changes in Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Chronic Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Jain Garg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc infection causes chagasic cardiomyopathy; however, why 30-40% of the patients develop clinical disease is not known. To discover the pathomechanisms in disease progression, we obtained the proteome signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of normal healthy controls (N/H, n = 30 and subjects that were seropositive for Tc-specific antibodies, but were clinically asymptomatic (C/A, n = 25 or clinically symptomatic (C/S, n = 28 with cardiac involvement and left ventricular dysfunction. Protein samples were labeled with BODIPY FL-maleimide (dynamic range: > 4 orders of magnitude, detection limit: 5 f-mol and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE. After normalizing the gel images, protein spots that exhibited differential abundance in any of the two groups were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and searched against UniProt human database for protein identification. We found 213 and 199 protein spots (fold change: |≥ 1.5|, p93% prediction success in classifying infected individuals with no disease and those with cardiac involvement and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, we have identified molecular pathways and a panel of proteins that could aid in detecting seropositive individuals at risk of developing cardiomyopathy.

  14. Avidin inhibits PHA-induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicia Firakania

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell proliferation occurs not only in normal but also in cancer cells. Most of cell proliferation inhibition can be done by inhibiting the DNA synthesis, notably by intervening the formation of purine or pyrimidine. In purine de novo synthesis, it was assumed that biotin plays a role as a coenzyme in carboxylation reaction, one of the pivotal steps in the purine de novo pathways. The aim of this study was to see the avidin potency to bind biotin and inhibit mitosis.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA in the presence or absence of interleukin-2 (IL-2, with or without avidin. The effect of avidin addition was observed at 24, 48, and 72 hours for cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA.Results: Avidin inhibited cell proliferation and viability in culture under stimulation by PHA with and without IL-2. Cell cycle analysis showed that avidin arrested the progression of PBMC after 72 hours of culture. Most cells were found in G0/G1 phase.Conclusion: Inhibition of biotin utilization by avidin binding can halt cell proliferation.

  15. Molecular Imaging of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Survival and Homing in Murine Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bogt, Koen E.A.; Hellingman, Alwine A.; Lijkwan, Maarten A.; Bos, Ernst-Jan; de Vries, Margreet R.; Fischbein, Michael P.; Quax, Paul H.; Robbins, Robert C.; Hamming, Jaap F.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow mononuclear cell (MNC) therapy is a promising treatment for peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study aims to provide insight into cellular kinetics using molecular imaging following different transplantation methods. Methods and Results MNCs were isolated from F6 transgenic mice (FVB background) that express firefly luciferase (Fluc) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Male FVB and C57Bl6 mice (n=50) underwent femoral artery ligation and were randomized into 4 groups receiving: (1) single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 2×106 MNC; (2) four weekly i.m. injections of 5×105 MNC; (3) 2×106 MNCs intravenously (i.v.); and (4) PBS. Cellular kinetics, measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI), revealed near-complete donor cell death 4 weeks after i.m. transplantation. Following i.v. transplantation, BLI monitored cells homed in on the injured area in the limb, as well as to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Ex vivo BLI showed presence of MNCs in the scar tissue and adductor muscle. However, no significant effects on neovascularisation were observed as monitored by Laser-Doppler-Perfusion-Imaging and histology. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to assess kinetics of transplanted MNCs in PAD using in vivo molecular imaging. MNC survival is short lived and MNCs do not significantly stimulate perfusion in this model. PMID:22239892

  16. The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO on peripheral blood mononuclear and leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, M. [Hugo Kollatay Univ. of Agriculture, Krakow (Poland); Pituch-Noworolska, A.; Zembala, M. [Polish-American Children`s Hospital, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Clinical Immunology

    1997-05-01

    The photodynamic effect of Victoria blue BO (VB-BO) and photoirradiation on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied. The cells were preincubated with VB-BO followed by photoirradiation and overnight culture. The highest percentage of dead cells (propidium iodide assay in flow cyctometry) was seen in the monocyte population. The lymphocytes showed a lower sensitivity to VB-BO photodynamic action than the monocytes (12% vs 80% of PI-positive cells). The effect of VB-BO and phototreatment on lymphocyte function was studied using a mitogen-induced proliferation assay. A decrease of mitogen response was observed. The VB-BO and photoirradiation were also used on leukemic cells. The leukemic cells from acute myeloid leukemia and B precursors leukemia were sensitive to VB-BO photodynamic action. The high VB-BO sensitivity of monocytes and leukemic cells (myeloid and lymphoid B derived) suggests possible application of VB-BO for selective depletion of monocytes or sensitive leukemic cells. (author).

  17. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy for Autism: An Open Label Proof of Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy is an emerging therapeutic modality with a great potential for the treatment of autism. Recent findings show that the major underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of autism are hypoperfusion and immune alterations in the brain. So conceptually, cellular therapy which facilitates counteractive processes of improving perfusion by angiogenesis and balancing inflammation by immune regulation would exhibit beneficial clinical effects in patients with autism. This is an open label proof of concept study of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs intrathecal transplantation in 32 patients with autism followed by multidisciplinary therapies. All patients were followed up for 26 months (mean 12.7. Outcome measures used were ISAA, CGI, and FIM/Wee-FIM scales. Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT scan recorded objective changes. Out of 32 patients, a total of 29 (91% patients improved on total ISAA scores and 20 patients (62% showed decreased severity on CGI-I. The difference between pre- and postscores was statistically significant (P<0.001 on Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. On CGI-II 96% of patients showed global improvement. The efficacy was measured on CGI-III efficacy index. Few adverse events including seizures in three patients were controlled with medications. The encouraging results of this leading clinical study provide future directions for application of cellular therapy in autism.

  18. Capsaicin Modulates the Immune Cross Talk Between Human Mononuclears and Cells from Two Colon Carcinoma Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, Hanna; Djaldetti, Meir

    2017-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of the chili peppers, has gained a worldwide reputation. In addition to its culinary assets, capsaicin possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and even carcinopreventive properties. Considering the linkage between chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis, the aim of the study was to evaluate the role of capsaicin in the immune interplay between human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and HT-29 or RKO cells from human colon carcinoma lines. PBMCs were incubated for 24 hours with either HT-29 or RKO cells and concentrations of capsaicin ranging between 10 and 200 µM. Subsequently, the generation of the following cytokines was examined: tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-1ra, and IL-10. Capsaicin caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of colon cancer cells proliferation but had no effect on PBMC viability. 200 µM of capsaicin suppressed the production of all cytokines tested. At lower concentrations, the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-1ra was inhibited concentration-dependently, whereas that of IL-6 was stimulated. Capsaicin causes a concentration-dependent alteration of the immune balance between PBMC and colon carcinoma cells expressed as an inhibited generation of inflammatory cytokines. These findings indicate the existence of an additional immunomodulatory mechanism by which this alkaloid may prevent tumor development.

  19. Intermittent Hypoxia Alters Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intermittent hypoxia of obstructive sleep apnea is implicated in the development and progression of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, which have been attributed to systemic inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia leads to pro-inflammatory gene up-regulation in cell culture, but the effects of intermittent hypoxia on gene expression in humans have not been elucidated. A cross-over study was performed exposing eight healthy men to intermittent hypoxia or control conditions for five hours with peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation before and after exposures. Total RNA was isolated followed by gene microarrays and confirmatory real time reverse transcriptase PCR. Intermittent hypoxia led to greater than two fold up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory gene toll receptor 2 (TLR2), which was not increased in the control exposure. We hypothesize that up-regulation of TLR2 by intermittent hypoxia may lead to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  20. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 stimulates chemokine production and induces chemotaxis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Aihiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Mizushima, Katsura; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Seno, Takahiro; Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kohno, Masataka; Kawahito, Yutaka

    2014-06-06

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is expressed by macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in immune-inflammatory disorders such as systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and several vasculopathies. However, its molecular function is not fully understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles and induction of chemokines in monocytes treated with recombinant human AIF (rhAIF-1). Using the high-density oligonucleotide microarray technique, we compared mRNA expression profiles of rhAIF-1-stimulated CD14(+) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD14(+) PBMCs) derived from healthy volunteers. We demonstrated upregulation of genes for several CC chemokines such as CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL7, and CCL20. Next, using ELISAs, we confirmed that rhAIF-1 promoted the secretion of CCL3/MIP-1α and IL-6 by CD14(+) PBMCs, whereas only small amounts of CCL1, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL7/MCP-3 and CCL20/MIP-3α were secreted. Conditioned media from rhAIF-1stimulated CD14(+) PBMCs resulted in migration of PBMCs. These findings suggest that AIF-1, which induced chemokines and enhanced chemotaxis of monocytes, may represent a molecular target for the therapy of immune-inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved Quality of Life in A Case of Cerebral Palsy after Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Kulkarni, Pooja; D'sa, Myola; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Badhe, Prerna

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a non progressive, demyelinating disorder that affects a child's development and posture and may be associated with sensation, cognition, communication and perception abnormalities. In CP, cerebral white matter is injured resulting in the loss of oligodendrocytes. This causes damage to the myelin and disruption of nerve conduction. Cell therapy is being explored as an alternate therapeutic strategy as there is no treatment currently available for CP. To study the benefits of this treatment we have administered autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) to a 12-year-old CP case. He was clinically re-evaluated after six months and found to demonstrate positive clinical and functional outcomes. His trunk strength, upper limb control, hand functions, walking stability, balance, posture and coordination improved. His ability to perform activities of daily living improved. On repeating the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the score increased from 90 to 113. A repeat positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan of the brain six months after intervention showed progression of the mean standard deviation values towards normalization which correlated to the functional changes. At one year, all clinical improvements have remained. This indicated that cell transplantation may improve quality of life and have a potential for treatment of CP.

  2. Adhesion of subsets of human blood mononuclear cells to porcine endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cellular immune response is a major barrier to xenotransplantation, and cell adhesion is the first step in intercellular recognition. Flow-cytometric adhesion assay has been used to investigate the differential adhesions of monocyte (Mo), natural killer cell (NK) and T lymphocyte (T) present within human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC), and to demonstrate the effect of human interferon-γ(hIFN-γ) or/and tumor necrosis factor-α (hTNF-α) pretreatment of PAEC on their adhesiveness for different PBMC subsets. The preferential sequence for PBMC subset binding to resting PAEC is Mo, NK and T cells, among which T cells show the slightest adherence; hTNF-α can act across the species, and augment Mo, NK and T cell adhesion ratios by 40%, 110% and 3 times, respectively. These results confirm at the cell level that host Mo and NK cells are major participants in the cellular xenograft rejection, thereby, providing a prerequisite for further studying the human Mo/NK-PAEC interactive mechanisms.

  3. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, H M; Demian, S R; Heshmat, M G; Ismail, N S; El-Sayed, Laila H

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an important regulator of host responses during infection with a variety of intra- and extra-cellular pathogens. The present work aimed at assessment of in vitro spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced apoptosis in mononuclear cells isolated from patients with hepatosplenic form of S. mansoni infections. Cell death data were correlated to the degree of lymphoproliferative responses to PHA as well as to the serum anti-schistosomal antibody titers. A markedly significant increase in PHA-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes isolated from S. mansoni-infected patients was seen when compared to the corresponding healthy controls. However, a slight difference was recorded between the two studied groups regarding the spontaneous apoptosis. This was accompanied with a significant impairment of in vitro PHA-induced lymphoproliferation of T cells from S. mansoni patients. Data of the present study supports the hypothesis that activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a potentially contributing factor in T helper (Th) cell regulation during chronic stages of schistosomiasis, which represents a critically determinant factor in the host-parasite interaction and might influence the destiny of parasitic infections either towards establishment of chronic infection or towards host death.

  4. Modulation of cytokine release by differentiated CACO-2 cells in a compartmentalized coculture model with mononuclear leucocytes and nonpathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Haller, D.; Brinz, S.

    2004-01-01

    To further investigate the interaction between human mononuclear leucocytes [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] and enterocytes, the effect of a confluent layer of differentiated CACO-2 cells on cytokine kinetics during challenge with bacteria in a compartmentalized coculture model...... cells when leucocytes were stimulated directly with bacteria. This suppression was not paralleled by changes in the production of IL-10, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. When the bacteria were applied apically to the CACO-2 cell layer, the production of TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-1beta, IL-8...... analysis revealed that IL-8 gene expression was equally induced in both CACO-2 and PBMC after apical stimulation with bacteria. Of note, bacteria-stimulated CACO-2 cells produced little or no cytokines in the absence of leucocytes, supporting the concept of leucocyte-epithelial cell cross...

  5. Field-induced slow magnetic relaxation in a six-coordinate mononuclear cobalt(II) complex with a positive anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Julia; Castro, Isabel; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; De Munno, Giovanni; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Pardo, Emilio

    2012-09-26

    The novel mononuclear Co(II) complex cis-[Co(II)(dmphen)(2)(NCS)(2)]·0.25EtOH (1) (dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) features a highly rhombically distorted octahedral environment that is responsible for the strong positive axial and rhombic magnetic anisotropy of the high-spin Co(II) ion (D = +98 cm(-1) and E = +8.4 cm(-1)). Slow magnetic relaxation effects were observed for 1 in the presence of a dc magnetic field, constituting the first example of field-induced single-molecule magnet behavior in a mononuclear six-coordinate Co(II) complex with a transverse anisotropy energy barrier.

  6. Validation of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for HTLV-1 proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadas, Carolina; Cabral-Castro, Mauro Jorge; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Peralta, José Mauro; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for HTLV-1 proviral load detection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. TARL-2 cells were used to generate a standard curve. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gDNA from 27 seropositive and 23 seronegative samples was analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, dynamic range of the standard curve and qPCR efficiency were evaluated. All of the positive samples amplified the target gene. All of the negative samples amplified only the control gene (β-actin). The assay presented 100% specificity and sensibility. The intra- and inter-assay variability was 2.4% and 2.2%, respectively. The qPCR efficiency, slope and correlation coefficients (r2) were all acceptable. The limit of detection was 1 copy/rxn. This assay can reliably quantify HTLV-1 proviral load.

  7. Rac1 regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome which mediates IL-1beta production in Chlamydophila pneumoniae infected human mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eitel

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae causes acute respiratory tract infections and has been associated with development of asthma and atherosclerosis. The production of IL-1β, a key mediator of acute and chronic inflammation, is regulated on a transcriptional level and additionally on a posttranslational level by inflammasomes. In the present study we show that C. pneumoniae-infected human mononuclear cells produce IL-1β protein depending on an inflammasome consisting of NLRP3, the adapter protein ASC and caspase-1. We further found that the small GTPase Rac1 is activated in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. Importantly, studies with specific inhibitors as well as siRNA show that Rac1 regulates inflammasome activation in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In conclusion, C. pneumoniae infection of mononuclear cells stimulates IL-1β production dependent on a NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated processing of proIL-1β which is controlled by Rac1.

  8. Effect of dietary fat saturation and cholesterol on low density lipoprotein degradation by mononuclear cells of Cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P C; Rudd, M A; Nicolosi, R; Loscalzo, J

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which dietary unsaturated fatty acids lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unknown. Unsaturated fatty acids incorporated into the cell membrane can increase membrane fluidity and, as a result, dramatically alter membrane-dependent cell functions. Therefore, we examined the effect of long-term dietary consumption of corn oil and coconut oil with and without cholesterol in amounts equivalent to those of a typical Western diet on the degradation of human LDL by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Cebus albifrons monkeys. Cellular LDL degradation was dramatically enhanced in the mononuclear cells isolated from animals fed corn oil in comparison with those from animals fed coconut oil. The addition of cholesterol to the diets resulted in a slight attenuation of LDL degradation in the corn oil group while no effect was noted in the coconut oil group. Crossover LDL binding and degradation experiments with LDL isolated from animals fed corn oil diets and coconut oil diets demonstrated increased binding and degradation of LDL in mononuclear cells from animals fed corn oil diets. Enhanced mononuclear cell LDL degradation was accompanied by increased cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content, increased membrane fluidity, and decreased plasma cholesterol. Increased cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content with its concomitant increase in membrane fluidity mirrored the dietary lipid profile of the host animal. A linear relationship was observed between cellular LDL degradation and both cellular cis-unsaturated fatty acyl content and membrane fluidity. These observations parallel results noted in whole-animal LDL catabolic studies with these same animals described elsewhere. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which dietary unsaturated fatty acids exert their LDL-lowering effect.

  9. Production of tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta by human mononuclear leukocytes stimulated with mitogens, bacteria, and malarial parasites.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, A; Staugas, R E; Rowan-Kelly, B; Bresatz, S; Kumaratilake, L M; Rzepczyk, C M; Adolf, G R

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta (TNF-alpha and TNF-beta) are multifaceted polypeptide cytokines which may mediate some of the significant changes in cellular homeostasis which accompany the invasion of the mammalian host by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Although it is well established that bacterial lipopolysaccharide is a potent inducer of TNF-alpha, there is still very little known of the types of agents which can trigger the production of TNFs in mononuclear leukocytes. Using an ...

  10. The autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation by intracoronary route treat patients with severe heart failure after myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高连如

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chronic effects of intracoronary autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNCs) transplantation in patients with refractory heart failure (RIHF) after myocardial infarction. Methods Thirty patients with RIHF (LVEF<40%) were enrolled in this nonrandomized study, autologous BM-MNCs (5.0±0.7)×107 were transplanted with via infarct-related coronary artery in 16 patients and 14 patients received

  11. Observation on the safety:clinical trail on intracoronary autologus bone marrow mononuclear cells transplantation for acute myocardiol infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚康

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNCs) transplantation by intracoronary infusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods One hundred and eighty-four patients with AMI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized in a 1:1 way to either intracoronary transplantation of autologous BM-MNCs (n =92) right after PCI or to sodium chloride concluding heparin (controlled, n=92) via a micro

  12. Electrochemical evidence that pyranopterin redox chemistry controls the catalysis of YedY, a mononuclear Mo enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Hope; Simonov, Alexandr N.; Kierzek, Michelina; Rothery, Richard A.; Weiner, Joel H.; Bond, Alan M.; Parkin, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A long-standing contradiction in the field of mononuclear Mo enzyme research is that small-molecule chemistry on active-site mimic compounds predicts ligand participation in the electron transfer reactions, but biochemical measurements only suggest metal-centered catalytic electron transfer. With the simultaneous measurement of substrate turnover and reversible electron transfer that is provided by Fourier-transformed alternating-current voltammetry, we show that Escherichia coli YedY is a mo...

  13. Slow magnetic relaxation in a hydrogen-bonded 2D array of mononuclear dysprosium(III) oxamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R; Vallejo, Julia; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; De Munno, Giovanni; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)oxamic acid with dysprosium(III) ions in a controlled basic media afforded the first example of a mononuclear lanthanide oxamate complex exhibiting a field-induced slow magnetic relaxation behavior typical of single-ion magnets (SIMs). The hydrogen-bond-mediated self-assembly of this new bifunctional dysprosium(III) SIM in the solid state provides a unique example of 2D hydrogen-bonded polymer with a herringbone net topology.

  14. Functional and Pharmacological Analysis of Cardiomyocytes Differentiated from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Summary Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology have set the stage for routine derivation of patient- and disease-specific human iPSC-cardiomyocyte (CM) models for preclinical drug screening and personalized medicine approaches. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are an advantageous source of somatic cells because they are easily obtained and readily amenable to transduction. Here, we report that the electrophysiological properties and pharmacological responses of ...

  15. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity reduces imatinib uptake and efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jueqiong; Lu, Liu; Kok, Chung H; Saunders, Verity A; Goyne, Jarrad M; Dang, Phuong; Leclercq, Tamara M; Hughes, Timothy P; White, Deborah L

    2017-02-02

    Imatinib is actively transported by OCT-1 influx transporter, and low OCT-1 activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia blood mononuclear cells is significantly associated with poor molecular response to imatinib. Here we report that, in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells and BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (GW1929, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) significantly decrease OCT-1 activity; conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) increase OCT-1 activity. Importantly, these effects can lead to corresponding changes in sensitivity to Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. Results were confirmed in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-transduced K562 cells. Furthermore, we identified a strong negative correlation between OCT-1 activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcriptional activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia patients (n=84; preceptor gamma activation has a negative impact on the intracellular uptake of imatinib and consequent Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. The inter-patient variability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation likely accounts for the heterogeneity observed in patient OCT-1 activity at diagnosis. Recently, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone was reported to act synergistically with imatinib targeting the residual chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell pool. Our findings suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands have differential effects on circulating mononuclear cells compared to stem cells. Since the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation on imatinib uptake in mononuclear cells may counteract the clinical benefit of this activation in stem cells, caution should be applied when combining these therapies, especially in patients with high peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

  16. Phenotypes of lung mononuclear phagocytes in HIV seronegative tuberculosis patients: evidence for new recruitment and cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Lapa e Silva

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis preferentially resides in mononuclear phagocytes. The mechanisms by which mononuclear phagocytes keep M. tuberculosis in check or by which the microbe evades control to cause disease remain poorly understood. As an initial effort to delineate these mechanisms, we examined by immunostaining the phenotype of mononuclear phagocytes obtained from lungs of patients with active tuberculosis. From August 1994 to March 1995, consecutive patients who had an abnormal chest X-ray, no demostrable acid-fast bacilli in sputum specimens and required a diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL were enrolled. Of the 39 patients enrolled, 21 had microbiologically diagnosed tuberculosis. Thirteen of the 21 tuberculosis patients were either HIV seronegative (n = 12 or had no risk factor for HIV and constituted the tuberculosis group. For comparison, M. tuberculosis negative patients who had BAL samples taken during this time (n = 9 or normal healthy volunteers (n = 3 served as control group. Compared to the control group, the tuberculosis group had significantly higher proportion of cells expressing markers of young monocytes (UCHM1 and RFD7, a marker for phagocytic cells, and increased expression of HLA-DR, a marker of cell activation. In addition, tuberculosis group had significantly higher proportion of cells expressing dendritic cell marker (RFD1 and epithelioid cell marker (RFD9. These data suggest that despite recruitment of monocytes probably from the peripheral blood and local cell activation, host defense of the resident lung cells is insufficient to control M. tuberculosis.

  17. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in mononuclear inflammatory cells in breast cancer correlates with metastasis-relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L O; Pidal, I; Junquera, S; Corte, M D; Vázquez, J; Rodríguez, J C; Lamelas, M L; Merino, A M; García-Muñiz, J L; Vizoso, F J

    2007-10-08

    An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue microarrays and specific antibodies against matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -7, -9, -11, -13 and -14, tissular inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, -2 and -3. More than 2600 determinations on cancer specimens from 131 patients with primary ductal invasive tumours of the breast were performed. To identify specific groups of tumours with distinct expression profiles the data were analysed by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis by each cellular type. We did not find well-defined cluster of cases for tumour cells or fibroblastic cells. However, for mononuclear inflammatory cells the dendogram shows a first-order division of the tumours into two distinct MMP/TIMP molecular profiles, designated group 1 (n=89) and group 2 (n=42). Matrix metalloproteinase-7, -9, -11, -13 and -14, and TIMP-1 and -2, were identified as showing significant high expression in group 2 compared with group 1. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that clustering for mononuclear inflammatory cells was the most potent independent factor associated with distant relapse-free survival (group 2: 5.6 (3.5-9.6), P<0.001). We identify a phenotype of mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltrating tumours, which is associated with the development of distant metastasis. Therefore, this finding suggests that these host inflammatory cells could be a possible target for inhibition of metastasis.

  18. Uso de células mononucleares da medula óssea no tratamento de tendinites induzidas experimentalmente em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.G. Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram induzidas lesões no tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS de ambos os membros anteriores de seis equinos, seguidas de implante autólogo de células da fração mononuclear de medula óssea em apenas um membro de cada animal. Os animais foram avaliados por parâmetros clínicos, ultrassonográficos, histopatológico e imunoistoquímico. Paralelamente, realizou-se o cultivo de novas amostras para a caracterização das células utilizando-se marcadores CD34 e CD45 por meio da citometria de fluxo, confirmando a presença de células mesenquimais na fração mononuclear. A caracterização das fibras colágenas tipo I e tipo III no tecido neoformado mostrou melhora na qualidade da cicatrização tendínea dos membros tratados. A terapia com implante autólogo das células da fração mononuclear melhorou a organização tecidual e a sua qualidade, apresentando maior expressão significativa para colágeno tipo I.

  19. One-stage focal cartilage defect treatment with bone marrow mononuclear cells and chondrocytes leads to better macroscopic cartilage regeneration compared to microfracture in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; Creemers, L.B.; Tsuchida, A.I.; van Rijen, M.H.P.; Custers, R.J.H.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The combination of chondrocytes and mononuclear fraction (MNF) cells might solve the expansion induced dedifferentiation problem of reimplanted cells in autologous chondrocytes implantation as sufficient cells would be available for direct, one-stage, implantation. Earlier in vitro work

  20. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  1. Effect of Terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy at Environmental Concentrations on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Velisek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate effects of the triazine’s herbicide terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy on early life stage of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. through antioxidant indices, mortality, growth, development, and histopathology. Based on accumulated mortality in the experimental groups, lethal concentrations of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy were estimated at 35-day LC50 = 10.9 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. By day 15, fish were exposed to 3.5 mg/L and by day 26, fish were exposed to 0.0029 mg/L; real environmental concentration in Czech rivers, 0.07 mg/L, 1.4 mg/L, and 3.5 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy, showed significantly lower mass and total length compared with controls. Based on inhibition of growth in the experimental groups, lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC = 0.002 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy and no observed effect concentration (NOEC = 0.0001 mg/L terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy. No significant negative effects on hatching or embryo viability were demonstrated at the concentrations tested, but significant differences in early ontogeny among groups were noted. Fish from the two highest tested concentrations showed a dose-related delay in development compared with the controls. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was significant lower in all groups testedly for terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy compared with the control group. At concentrations of 1.4 and 3.5 mg/L damage to caudal kidney tubules when compared to control fish was found.

  2. Structure-based design of HIV protease inhibitors: 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones as effective, nonpeptidic inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaisrivongs, S; Romero, D L; Tommasi, R A; Janakiraman, M N; Strohbach, J W; Turner, S R; Biles, C; Morge, R R; Johnson, P D; Aristoff, P A; Tomich, P K; Lynn, J C; Horng, M M; Chong, K T; Hinshaw, R R; Howe, W J; Finzel, B C; Watenpaugh, K D

    1996-11-08

    From a broad screening program, the 4-hydroxycoumarin phenprocoumon (I) was previously identified as a lead template with HIV protease inhibitory activity. The crystal structure of phenprocoumon/HIV protease complex initiated a structure-based design effort that initially identified the 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone U-96988 (II) as a first-generation clinical candidate for the potential treatment of HIV infection. Based upon the crystal structure of the 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone III/HIV protease complex, a series of analogues incorporating a 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone template were studied. It was recognized that in addition to having the required pharmacophore (the 4-hydroxy group with hydrogen-bonding interaction with the two catalytic aspartic acid residues and the lactone moiety replacing the ubiquitous water molecule in the active site), these 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones incorporated side chains at the C-6 position that appropriately extended into the S1' and S2' subsites of the enzyme active site. The crystal structures of a number of representative 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones complexed with the HIV protease were also determined to provide better understanding of the interaction between the enzyme and these inhibitors to aid the structure-based drug design effort. The crystal structures of the ligands in the enzyme active site did not always agree with the conformations expected from experience with previous pyrone inhibitors. This is likely due to the increased flexibility of the dihydropyrone ring. From this study, compound XIX exhibited reasonably high enzyme inhibitory activity (Ki = 15 nM) and showed antiviral activity (IC50 = 5 microM) in the cell-culture assay. This result provided a research direction which led to the discovery of active 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones as potential agents for the treatment of HIV infection.

  3. Mononuclear Ru(III) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral, redox, catalytic and biological activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N. Padma; Arunachalam, S.; Manimaran, A.; Muthupriya, D.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.

    2009-04-01

    An octahedral ruthenium(III) Schiff base complexes of the type [RuX(EPh 3)(L)] (where, X = Cl/Br; E = As/P; L = dianion of the Schiff bases derived from acetoacetanilide with o-phenylenediamine and salicylaldehyde/ o-hydroxyacetophenone/ o-vanillin/2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar reactions of [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] and Schiff bases in benzene. The new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, EPR spectral studies, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical studies. The new complexes were found to be effective catalysts for aryl-aryl coupling and the oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds, respectively, using molecular oxygen atmosphere at ambient temperature. Further, the new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Salomonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureaus.

  4. Mixed-ligand mononuclear copper(II) complex: crystal structure and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Ya-Nan; Yu, Qian-Qian; Yang, Li-Cong; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Yan-Hui; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    A novel copper(II) complex with mixed ligands including β-[(3-formyl-5-methyl-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)amino]propionic acid anion and 1,10'-phenanthroline was synthesized, and its crystal structure was thoroughly characterized. It exerted excellent inducing apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis and antiproliferative properties in vitro. The complex can bind human serum albumin (HSA) at physiological pH conditions. Remarkably, it can induce formation of the mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex structures in the G-rich sequence of the proximal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter, and stabilize these G-quadruplex structures, which provide an opportunity for anti-angiogenesis chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, the complex showed a strong uptake, and exhibited multiple anticancer functions by inhibiting the expression of p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 proteins and by upregulating the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because of the reported results, this new copper(II) complex qualifies itself as a potential anticancer drug candidate.

  5. A robust synthesis of 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Matthias; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Summary The biosynthetic precursor of redox cofactor F420, 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin, was prepared in four steps from 6-chlorouracil, 2-chloro-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and bis-isopropylidene protected D-ribose. The latter aldehyde was transformed to the corresponding protected ribitylamine via the oxime, which was submitted to reduction with LiAlH4. Key advantage compared to previous syntheses is the utilization of a polyol-protective group which allowed the chromatographic purification of a key-intermediate product providing the target compound with high purity. PMID:27340481

  6. Crystal structure of 3-(2,2-dibromoacetyl-4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameni Brahmia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H6Br2O4, is a new coumarin derivative obtained from the reaction of 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one with bromine in acetic acid. The hydroxyl group in involved in an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, π–π interactions between the rings of the bicycle [intercentroid distances = 3.498 (2 and 3.539 (2 Å] pack molecules into stacks along the b axis, and weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds further link these stacks into layers parallel to the ab plane.

  7. A New Diterpene Glycoside: 15α-Hydroxy-Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Ma, Gil; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Snyder, Tara M; Priedemann, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    In a continued search for novel diterpenoid glycosides, we recently isolated and characterized a Rebaudioside M derivative with a hydroxyl group at position 15 in the central diterpene core from an extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Here we report the complete structure elucidation of 15α-hydroxy-Rebaudioside M (2) on the basis of NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY, NOESY) and mass spectral data. Steviol glycoside with a hydroxyl group at C-15 in the central diterpene core has not been previously reported.

  8. Amino-hydroxy Compounds from 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel

    1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose (AF) 1 can now be obtained by an enzymatic degradation of starch, and its chemistry and biochemistry has recently been reviewed.1 Since AF now is available from sustainable resources, we are currently working on converting AF into potential biologically active compounds.2...... Acetylation of AF yields the pyrenone 2, which can be used as a chiral starting material in different ways. In order to prepare different amino-hydroxy compounds 6-7, we have converted 2 into the oximes 3-5. The stereoselective reductions are investigated and will be discussed....

  9. 1,5-Bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidenecarbonohydrazide methanol 0.47-solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Moustapha Sow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H18N4O5·0.47CH3OH, the virtually planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.128 Å carbonohydrazide molecule is located on a twofold axis and conformation of its C=N bonds is E. There are short intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds between the hydroxy groups and hydrazide N atoms. In the crystal, bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds assemble the carbonohydrazide molecules into a three-dimensional network. There are C2 symmetric voids in this network, 47% of which are occupied by disordered methanol molecules.

  10. Electrocarboxylation of Acetophenone to 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylpropionic Acid in the Presence of CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Li; XIAO,Li-Ping; NIU,Dong-Fang; LUO,Yi-Wen; LU,Jia-Xing

    2008-01-01

    Electrocarboxylation of acetophenone with CO2 to obtain 2-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionic acid was carried out in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 mol·L- 1 tetraethylammonium bromide. Influences of the nature of the electrodes,the working potential, the passed charge and the concentration of acetophenone on the electrocarboxylation were studied. After optimizing the synthetic parameters, the maximal isolated yield reached 73.0% on Mg-stainless steel couple electrodes under potentiostatic electrolysis until 2.2 F·mol-1 of charge was passed at 25 ℃. The reduction of acetophenone was studied by cyclic voltammetry and the mechanism has been proposed on the basis of the results.

  11. Amide-transforming activity of Streptomyces: possible application to the formation of hydroxy amides and aminoalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Miyagawa, Taka-Aki; Yamada, Ren; Shiratori-Takano, Hatsumi; Sayo, Noboru; Saito, Takao; Takano, Hideaki; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    To develop an efficient bioconversion process for amides, we screened our collection of Streptomyces strains, mostly obtained from soil, for effective transformers. Five strains, including the SY007 (NBRC 109343) and SY435 (NBRC 109344) of Streptomyces sp., exhibited marked conversion activities from the approximately 700 strains analyzed. These strains transformed diverse amide compounds such as N-acetyltetrahydroquinoline, N-benzoylpyrrolidine, and N-benzoylpiperidine into alcohols or N,O-acetals with high activity and regioselectivity. N,O-acetal was transformed into alcohol by serial tautomerization and reduction reactions. As such, Streptomyces spp. can potentially be used for the efficient preparation of hydroxy amides and aminoalcohols.

  12. Concise and Straightforward Asymmetric Synthesis of a Cyclic Natural Hydroxy-Amino Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. Simirgiotis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An enantioselective total synthesis of the natural amino acid (2S,4R,5R-4,5-di-hydroxy-pipecolic acid starting from D-glucoheptono-1, 4-lactone is presented. The best sequence employed as a key step the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement by an amino function of a 6-O-p-toluene-sulphonyl derivative of a methyl D-arabino-hexonate and involved only 12 steps with an overall yield of 19%. The structures of the compounds synthesized were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic (NMR and MS and computational analysis.

  13. Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safrany, A.; Biro, A.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1993-10-01

    Ethyl- and hydroxy ethyl acrylate show high reactivities with hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical intermediates of water radiolysis. The electron adduct reversibly protonate with pK values of 5.7 and 7.3. The adducts may take part in irreversible protonation at the β carbon atom forming α-carboxyl alkyl radicals. Same type of radical forms in reaction of acrylates with OH: at low concentration the adduct mainly disappear in self termination reactions. Above 5 mmol dm -1 the signals showed the startup of oligomerization.

  14. 5-Hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one from Dysoxylum macrocarpum (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Najmuldeen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Both independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C11H10O4, are almost planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.011 and 0.033 Å. In both molecules, the hydroxy group is intramolecularly hydrogen bonded to the ketonic O atom. The independent molecules are stacked alternately along the a axis, with the centroids of their chromene ring separated by distances of 4.490 (1 and 3.621 (1 Å.

  15. 3-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title coumarin derivative, C13H12O4, the 2H-chromene ring system is essentially planar [maximum deviation = 0.047 (1 Å]. An intramolecular hydrogen bond is observed between the hydroxy and the ketonic O atoms. In the crystal, pairs of intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds link inversion-related molecules into dimers. Additional intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds further interconnect these dimers into two-dimensional arrays incorporating R22(9 ring motifs.

  16. Origin of Kinetic Resolution of Hydroxy Esters through Catalytic Enantioselective Lactonization by Chiral Phosphoric Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changotra, Avtar; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2016-08-05

    Kinetic resolution is a widely used strategy for separation and enrichment of enantiomers. Using density functional theory computations, the origin of how a chiral BINOL-phosphoric acid catalyzes the selective lactonization of one of the enantiomers of α-methyl γ-hydroxy ester is identified. In a stepwise mechanism, the stereocontrolling transition state for the addition of the hydroxyl group to the si face of the ester carbonyl in the case of the S isomer exhibits a network of more effective noncovalent interactions between the substrate and the chiral catalyst.

  17. 2-Amino-3-[(E-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzylideneamino]but-2-enedinitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Aazam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10N4O, is a Schiff base obtained from the condensation of diaminomaleonitrile and 2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzaldehyde. The molecule is roughly planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0354 Å, and adopts the phenol–imine tautomeric form. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond involving the O—H group and the azomethine N atom generates an S(6 ring. In the crystal, there are two N—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  18. Anti-allergic Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Typhonium blumei Explored through ChemGPS-NP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Korinek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing prevalence of allergic diseases with an inadequate variety of treatment drives forward search for new alternative drugs. Fatty acids, abundant in nature, are regarded as important bioactive compounds and powerful nutrients playing an important role in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Phytochemical study on Typhonium blumei Nicolson and Sivadasan (Araceae, a folk anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory medicine, yielded four oxygenated fatty acids, 12R-hydroxyoctadec-9Z,13E-dienoic acid methyl ester (1 and 10R-hydroxyoctadec-8E,12Z-dienoic acid methyl ester (2, 9R-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (3, and 12R*-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (4. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods along with GC-MS analysis. Isolated fatty acids together with a series of saturated, unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acids were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities in vitro. Unsaturated (including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids as well as hydroxylated unsaturated fatty acids exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity in superoxide anion generation (IC50 2.14–3.73 μM and elastase release (IC50 1.26–4.57 μM assays. On the other hand, in the anti-allergic assays, the unsaturated fatty acids were inactive, while hydroxylated fatty acids showed promising inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assays (e.g., 9S-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, IC50 92.4 and 49.7 μM, respectively. According to our results, the presence of a hydroxy group in the long chain did not influence the potent anti-inflammatory activity of free unsaturated acids. Nevertheless, hydroxylation of fatty acids (or their methyl esters seems to be a key factor for the anti-allergic activity observed in the current study. Moreover, ChemGPS-NP was explored to predict the structure-activity relationship of fatty acids. The anti-allergic fatty acids formed different cluster distant

  19. Synthesis of silicon carbide fiber using blend of polycarbosilane and hydroxy-terminated-polybutadiene as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yiming; Yang, Shujin; Lu, Yi; Liu, Xinwei; Tan, Zilie (National Univ. of Defence Technology (China))

    1989-01-01

    SiC fiber was synthesized using a blend of polycarbosilane (PC) and the proper amount of hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) precursor. When the blend is used as a precursor to synthesize the SiC fiber, PC and HTPB will react to form a cross-linked polymer at about 260 C. So, less oxygen is needed in curing the precursor fiber, and less silicon dioxide is in the SiC fiber. The strength of SiC fiber is higher. Using the blend of PC and 3 wt pct HTPB as precursor, the strength of SiC fiber increases by about 26 percent.

  20. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product.

  1. 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-8-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Svinyarov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel protocol for the synthesis of 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-8-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one via demethylation/delactonization/elimination/lactonization/ decarboxylation domino reaction sequence of diastereomeric mixture of cis- and trans-3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1-oxoisochroman-4-carboxylic acids in boiling HBr/AcOH. The structure of the target compound was established for the first time by means of spectral methods such as 1H-, 13C-, DEPT-135-NMR, IR and HRMS.

  2. Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Ali Can; Uludamar, Erinc; Aydin, Kadir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, hydroxy gas (HHO) was produced by the electrolysis process of different electrolytes (KOH{sub (aq)}, NaOH{sub (aq)}, NaCl{sub (aq)}) with various electrode designs in a leak proof plexiglass reactor (hydrogen generator). Hydroxy gas was used as a supplementary fuel in a four cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition (CI) engine without any modification and without need for storage tanks. Its effects on exhaust emissions and engine performance characteristics were investigated. Experiments showed that constant HHO flow rate at low engine speeds (under the critical speed of 1750 rpm for this experimental study), turned advantages of HHO system into disadvantages for engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and specific fuel consumption (SFC). Investigations demonstrated that HHO flow rate had to be diminished in relation to engine speed below 1750 rpm due to the long opening time of intake manifolds at low speeds. This caused excessive volume occupation of hydroxy in cylinders which prevented correct air to be taken into the combustion chambers and consequently, decreased volumetric efficiency was inevitable. Decreased volumetric efficiency influenced combustion efficiency which had negative effects on engine torque and exhaust emissions. Therefore, a hydroxy electronic control unit (HECU) was designed and manufactured to decrease HHO flow rate by decreasing voltage and current automatically by programming the data logger to compensate disadvantages of HHO gas on SFC, engine torque and exhaust emissions under engine speed of 1750 rpm. The flow rate of HHO gas was measured by using various amounts of KOH, NaOH, NaCl (catalysts). These catalysts were added into the water to diminish hydrogen and oxygen bonds and NaOH was specified as the most appropriate catalyst. It was observed that if the molality of NaOH in solution exceeded 1% by mass, electrical current supplied from the battery increased dramatically due to the too much

  3. A New Technique of Synthesizing 10-Hydroxy-5-methyl- 5,10- dihydrophenophosphazine 10-Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    10-Hydroxy-5-methyl-5, 10- dihydrophenophosphazine 10-oxide (1) was prepared by a new technique of treating 10-methoxy-5,10-dihydrophenophosphazine 10-oxide (2) with an equivalent of NaH in anhydrous DMF, and then at 120℃ for 3~4 h, which not only avoided poisonous and expensive methyl iodide used in literature, but made the consumption of NaH greatly decrease as well. The possible reaction mechanism was also described. The chemical structure of 1 was confirmed by IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy.

  4. Anti-allergic Hydroxy Fatty Acids from Typhonium blumei Explored through ChemGPS-NP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinek, Michal; Tsai, Yi-Hong; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Lai, Kuei-Hung; Backlund, Anders; Wu, Shou-Fang; Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chen, Shu-Li; Wu, Yang-Chang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing prevalence of allergic diseases with an inadequate variety of treatment drives forward search for new alternative drugs. Fatty acids, abundant in nature, are regarded as important bioactive compounds and powerful nutrients playing an important role in lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Phytochemical study on Typhonium blumei Nicolson and Sivadasan (Araceae), a folk anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory medicine, yielded four oxygenated fatty acids, 12R-hydroxyoctadec-9Z,13E-dienoic acid methyl ester (1) and 10R-hydroxyoctadec-8E,12Z-dienoic acid methyl ester (2), 9R-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (3), and 12R(*)-hydroxy-10E-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (4). Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods along with GC-MS analysis. Isolated fatty acids together with a series of saturated, unsaturated and oxygenated fatty acids were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities in vitro. Unsaturated (including docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) as well as hydroxylated unsaturated fatty acids exerted strong anti-inflammatory activity in superoxide anion generation (IC50 2.14-3.73 μM) and elastase release (IC50 1.26-4.57 μM) assays. On the other hand, in the anti-allergic assays, the unsaturated fatty acids were inactive, while hydroxylated fatty acids showed promising inhibitory activity in A23187- and antigen-induced degranulation assays (e.g., 9S-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid, IC50 92.4 and 49.7 μM, respectively). According to our results, the presence of a hydroxy group in the long chain did not influence the potent anti-inflammatory activity of free unsaturated acids. Nevertheless, hydroxylation of fatty acids (or their methyl esters) seems to be a key factor for the anti-allergic activity observed in the current study. Moreover, ChemGPS-NP was explored to predict the structure-activity relationship of fatty acids. The anti-allergic fatty acids formed different cluster distant from

  5. Case report: hypoparathyroidism and iron storage disease. Treatment with 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautalen, C A; Kvicala, R; Perriard, D; Bugnard, E; Rossi, E; Duhart, J

    1978-01-01

    A patient in whom hypoparathyroidism developed as a complication of posttransfusional iron storage disease is described. The hypoparathyroidism occurred after more than 15 years of receiving blood transfusions at frequent intervals. In this patient with thalassemia major the serum PTH levels were undetectable. 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 corrected the hypocalcemia that was resistant to vitamin D2, probably due to the associated liver dysfunction. Other cases reported in the literature are reviewed. It is suggested that hypoparathyroidism occurs more frequently than usually suspected in patients with iron storage disease.

  6. 3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazole–2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenylbenzoic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and two independent 2-hydroxy-5-(phenyldiazenylbenzoic acid molecules [in which intramolecular O—H...O bonds form S(6 graph-set motifs] in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C5H8N2·C13H10N2O3. In the crystal, the components are linked by intermolecular O—H...O, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming four-component clusters. Further stabilization is provided by weak C—H...π interactions.

  7. Synthesis and transformations of 4-chromene 4-hydroxy-2-pyran-2-one and 4-chromene 4-hydroxycoumarin conjugates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; Venkata Swamy Tangeti

    2013-07-01

    The reaction of -methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4-chromen-2-amine and its derivatives with 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyran-2-one in EtOH reflux for 5 min furnish 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-(2-(methylamino)-3-nitro-4-chromen-4-yl)-2-pyran-2-ones in quantitative yield. By extending EtOH reflux for 2 h, the 4-chromene 4-hydroxy-2-pyranone conjugates get converted into acetoacetyl coumarins. Similar reaction of -methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4-chromen-2-amine and its derivatives with 4-hydroxycoumarin in EtOH reflux furnish 4-hydroxy-2'-(methylamino)-3'-nitro-2,4'-3,4'-bichromen-2-ones. In contrast to earlier system, prolonging reflux in EtOH or in -PrOH reflux the product gets transformed into trans-ethyl 3-(2-hydroxyaryl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2-furo[3,2-c]chromene-2-carboxylates. Thus, facile synthesis and characterization of 4-chromene 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone, 4-chromene 4-hydroxycoumarin conjugates, acetoacetyl coumarins and trans2,3-disubstituted dihydrofuro[3,2-c]coumarins is described.

  8. Analysis of Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. by UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Yun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS was used to determine 7 hydroxy fatty acids in the pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. All the investigated hydroxy fatty acids showed strong deprotonated molecular ions [M–H]−, which underwent two major fragment pathways of the allyl scission and the β-fission of the alcoholic hydroxyl group. By comparison of their molecular ions and abundant fragment ions with those of reference compounds, they were tentatively assigned as 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (1, 10,11,12-trihydroxy-(7Z,14Z-heptadecadienoic acid (2, 7,15,16-trihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (3, 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (4, 15-hydroxy-6Z,9Z,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid (5, 15-hydroxy-9Z,12Z- octadecadienoic acid (6, and 15-hydroxy-12Z-octadecaenoic acid (7, respectively. Compounds 3, 5, and 7 are reported for the first time.

  9. microRNA expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Weiguo; Ou, Minglin; Chen, Jiejing; Li, Huan; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wuxian; Xue, Wen; Tang, Donge; Gong, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruohan; Li, Fengyan; Dai, Yong

    2012-11-01

    microRNAs are a type of small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, and the characterization of microRNA expression profiling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with Klinefelter syndrome requires further investigation. In this study, PBMCs were obtained from patients with Klinefelter syndrome and normal controls. After preparation of small RNA libraries, the two groups of samples were sequenced simultaneously using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, and novel and known microRNAs were analyzed. A total of 9,772,392 and 9,717,633 small RNA reads were obtained; 8,014,466 (82.01%) and 8,104,423 (83.40%) genome-matched reads, 64 and 49 novel microRNAs were identified in the library of Klinefelter syndrome and the library of healthy controls, respectively. There were 71 known microRNAs with differential expression levels between the two libraries. Clustering of over-represented gene ontology (GO) classes in predicted targets of novel microRNAs in the Klinefelter syndrome library showed that the most significant GO terms were genes involved in the endomembrane system, nucleotide binding and kinase activity. Our data revealed that there are a large number of microRNAs deregulated in PBMCs taken from patients with Klinefelter syndrome, of which certain novel and known microRNAs may be involved in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome. Further studies are necessary to determine the roles of microRNAs in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome in the future.

  10. Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Stachowiak

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV, a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166 highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.

  11. Halide impact on emission of mononuclear copper(I) complexes with pyrazolylpyrimidine and triphenylphosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Katerina A; Plyusnin, Victor F; Kupryakov, Arkady S; Rakhmanova, Marianna I; Pervukhina, Natalia V; Naumov, Dmitrii Yu; Sheludyakova, Lilia A; Nikolaenkova, Elena B; Krivopalov, Viktor P; Bushuev, Mark B

    2014-02-21

    A series of mononuclear heteroleptic copper(I) halide complexes, [CuL(PPh3)X] (X = Cl, Br, I), based on 4-(3,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(piperidin-1-yl)pyrimidine (L) and triphenylphosphine, have been synthesized by reaction between CuX (X = Cl, Br, I), L and PPh3 in a molar ratio of 1/1/1 in MeCN solutions. The copper atom, showing the distorted tetrahedral environment, is bound by the N,N-chelating ligand L, triphenylphosphine and a halide ion. The complexes [CuL(PPh3)Cl] and [CuL(PPh3)Br] are isostructural. In CH2Cl2 solutions, L and the complexes [CuL(PPh3)X] (X = Cl, Br, I) display a luminescence band with λ(max) = 377 nm and a lifetime of 1.9 ns (ligand-based luminescence (LL*)). However, the complex [CuL(PPh3)I] has an additional weak luminescence band with λ(max) = 681 nm and a lifetime of 96 ns of (3)MLCT origin. In the solid state, L shows the splitting of the luminescence band to λ(max) = 365 and 384 nm and a slight increase of the lifetime to 2.66 ns. Solid samples of the complexes [CuL(PPh3)X] demonstrate (3)MLCT luminescence bands at 620 nm (X = Cl), 605 nm (X = Br) and 559 nm (X = I) with lifetimes in the range 3.6-11.2 μs, whereas the LL* band (377 nm) is absent. Quantum yields and rate constants of radiative and nonradiative processes were determined in CH2Cl2 solutions and in the solid state for all complexes. The luminescence quantum yield and lifetimes for the solid samples increase in the order [CuL(PPh3)Cl] lifetime of 11.2 μs.

  12. The Gene Expression Patterns of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shouxin; JIANG Wei; HUANG Rui; WANG Xiaohui; LIU Wen; SHEN Shouyin

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the gene expression patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology. Following the construction of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) library of PBMCs collected from 3 cases of familial SLE patients, a large scale of tag sequencing was performed. The data extracted from sequencing files was analyzed with SAGE 2000 V 4.5 software.The top 30 expressed genes of SLE patients were uploaded to http://david.niaid.nih. gov/david/ease.htm and the functional classification of genes was obtained. The differences among those expressed gene were analyzed by Chi-square tests. The results showed that a total of 1286 unique SAGE tags were identified from 1814 individual SAGE tags. Among the 1286 unique tags, 86.8% had single copy, and only 0.2% tags had more than 20 copies. And 68.4% of the tags matched known expressed sequences, 41.1% of which matched more than one known expressed sequence. About 31.6% of the tags had no match and could represent potentially novel genes. Approximately one third of the top 30 genes were ribosomal protein, and the rest were genes related to metabolism or with unknown functions. Eight tags were found to express differentially in SAGE library of SLE patients. This study draws a profile of gene expression patterns of PBMCs in patients with SLE. Comparison of SAGE database from PBMCs between normal individuals and SLE patients will help us to better understand the pathogenesis of SLE.

  13. Periurethral muscle-derived mononuclear cell injection improves urethral sphincter restoration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marcelo Pitelli; de Souza, Alex Balduino; de Campos Sousa, Isida; Fratini, Paula; Veras, Mariana Matera; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; de Bessa, José; Brolio, Marina Pandolphi; Leite, Katia Ramos Moreira; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes

    2017-03-27

    Investigate the effect of a novel cell-based therapy with skeletal muscle-derived mononuclear cells (SMDMCs) in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats' hind limb muscles were enzymatically dissociated, and SMDMCs were isolated without needing expansion. The cell population was characterized. Twenty female rats underwent urethrolysis. One week later, 10 rats received periurethral injection of 10(6) cells (SMDMC group), and 10 rats received saline injections (Saline group). Ten rats underwent sham surgery (Sham group). Four weeks after injection, animals were euthanized and the urethra was removed. The incorporation of SMDMCs in the female urethra was evaluated with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of Y-chromosomes. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome staining, and immunohistochemistry for actin and myosin were performed. The muscle/connective tissue, actin and myosin ratios were calculated. Morphological evaluation of the urethral diameters and fractional areas of the lumen, mucosa, and muscular layer was performed. SMDMCs population was consistent with the presence of muscle cells, muscle satellite cells, perivascular cells, muscle progenitor cells, and endothelial cells. SMDMCs were incorporated into the urethra. A significant decrease in the muscle/connective tissue ratio was observed in the Saline group compared with the SMDMC and Sham groups. The proportions of actin and myosin were significantly decreased in the Saline group. No differences were observed in the morphometric parameters. SDMSC were incorporated into the rat urethra and promoted histological recovery of the damaged urethral sphincter, resulting in decreased connective tissue deposition and increased muscle content. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Autologous transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells improved heart function after myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-sheng LIN; Jing-jun L(U); Xue-jun JIANG; Xiao-yan LI; Geng-shan LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether autologous transplantation of adult stem cells could improve post-infarcted heart function. METHODS: Bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from adult rabbits' tibias after coronary ligation. These cells were exposed to 5-azacytidine 10 μmol/L for 24 h on the third day of culture. After being labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), the cells were auto-transplanted into bordering zone of the infarcted area at 2 weeks after injury. The animals were killed at 3 days, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months after transplantation,respectively. The left ventricular functions, capillary density, and cardiac nerve density were measured and the differentiation of the engrafted cells was determined by immunostaining. RESULTS: BrdU-labeled MNCs were well aligned with the host cardiomyocytes. Parts of them were incorporated into capillary and arteriolar vessel walls. In addition to inducing angiogenic ligands (basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) and imflammation cytokines (interleukin 1-β) during the early period of MNCs implantation, MNCs induced 2.0-fold increase in capillary density as well. Moreover, GAP43-positive and TH-positive nerve density were markedly higher in the MNCs-treated groups than that in the non-treated hearts. Left ventricular ejection fraction,LV+dp/dt and LV-dp/dtmax were 47 %, 67 %, and 55 % in MNCs-treated heart respectively, which was higher than that of the control heart, whereas left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter,and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were 45 %, 22 %, and 50 % respectively in MNCs-treated heart, which was lower than that of the control heart at 2 months after cell transplantation. CONCLUSION: Autologous transplantation of MNCs induced angiogenesis and nerve sprouting and improved left ventricular diastolic function.

  15. Development of a method for isolating bovine colostrum mononuclear leukocytes for phenotyping and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Vanessa; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Stuyven, Edith; Piepers, Sofie; Cox, Eric; Opsomer, Geert

    2014-05-01

    The present study reports a method for isolating bovine colostrum mononuclear cells (CMC) for phenotyping and functional studies. As well as being an important source of immunoglobulins, colostrum also contains leukocytes that may be of greater importance for passive immunity than has previously been thought. Different protocols have been reported for isolating leukocytes from bovine colostrum, although none of these have been validated, and phenotypic analysis of cell populations has not always been performed. In this study, bovine CMC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Cell populations were identified by flow cytometry using antibodies against selected bovine cell surface markers and the proliferative capacity of these cells was determined using a (3)H-thymidine proliferation assay. The mean cell count of isolated CMC was 3 × 10(4) and 1 × 10(5) per mL colostrum for the samples used in the flow cytometric assay and the proliferation assay, respectively. A mean of 25.4 ± 17.1% CMC were identified as T lymphocytes, 2.9 ± 3.0% as B lymphocytes and 32.7 ± 13.7% as macrophages. In terms of proliferation, the mean counts per minute were 4.3 × 10(3) and 1.8 × 10(4) for cells cultured in medium only or in the presence of concanavalin A, respectively, showing that CMC are viable and capable of responding to mitogen stimulation. Isolation of CMC and the subsequent phenotypic analysis of the different subpopulations were repeatable, with agreement indices varying between 0.5 and 1.0. Agreement indices for the proliferation assay were estimated at 0.8.

  16. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1β and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder.

  17. Mononuclear, Dinuclear, and Trinuclear Iron Complexes Featuring a New Monoanionic SNS Thiolate Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Uttam K; Daifuku, Stephanie L; Gorelsky, Serge I; Korobkov, Ilia; Neidig, Michael L; Le Roy, Jennifer J; Murugesu, Muralee; Baker, R Tom

    2016-01-19

    The new tridentate ligand, S(Me)N(H)S = 2-(2-methylthiophenyl)benzothiazolidine, prepared in a single step from commercial precursors in excellent yield, undergoes ring-opening on treatment with Fe(OTf)2 in the presence of base affording a trinuclear iron complex, [Fe3(μ2-S(Me)NS(-))4](OTf)2 (1) which is fully characterized by structural and spectroscopic methods. X-ray structural data reveal that 1 contains four S(Me)NS(-) ligands meridionally bound to two pseudooctahedral iron centers each bridged by two thiolates to a distorted tetrahedral central iron. The combined spectroscopic (UV-vis, Mössbauer, NMR), magnetic (solution and solid state), and computational (DFT) studies indicate that 1 includes a central, high-spin Fe(II) (S = 2) with two low-spin (S = 0) peripheral Fe(II) centers. Complex 1 reacts with excess PMePh2, CNxylyl (2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide), and P(OMe)3 in CH3CN to form diamagnetic, thiolate-bridged, dinuclear Fe(II) complexes {[Fe(μ-S(Me)NS(-))L2]2}(OTf)2 (2-4). These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis; (1)H NMR, IR, UV-vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy; and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Interestingly, addition of excess P(OMe)3 to complex 1 in CH2Cl2 produces primarily the diamagnetic, mononuclear Fe(II) complex, {Fe(S(Me)NS(-))[P(OMe)3]3}(OTf) (5).

  18. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a potential source of homeostatic imbalance markers associated with obesity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paula; Reynés, Bàrbara; Caimari, Antoni; Palou, Andreu

    2013-04-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have a great potential for nutrition and obesity studies. PBMC reflect the nutritional response of key organs involved in energy homeostasis maintenance, which is altered in the obese state. Here, we aimed to determine the usefulness of PBMC as a source of early markers of obesity. To that purpose, we analysed whether PBMC could reflect the insensitivity to changes in feeding conditions associated with obesity during the development of this pathology. Expression of key genes central to energy metabolism was measured by Q-PCR in PBMC samples of normoweight (control) and cafeteria-fed (obese) rats in feeding, fasting and refeeding conditions. Samples were obtained monthly from 2 (beginning of cafeteria diet-feeding) to 6 months of age. In general terms, expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis (Fasn, Srebp1) and adipogenesis (Pparg) decreased with fasting and increased with refeeding. Conversely, the expression of a key gene regulating beta-oxidation (Cpt1a) and the gene for an orexigenic neuropeptide (Npy)-in accordance with their metabolic role-increased with fasting and decreased with refeeding. This expression pattern disappeared in obese rats, in which insensitivity to feeding conditions was observed after only 1 month of cafeteria diet-feeding. Thus, during development, PBMC accurately reflect nutritional regulation of energy homeostasic genes and the insensitivity to feeding associated with obesity, even in the earlier stages with a low degree of overweight. For this reason, this set of blood cells could constitute a potential source of biomarkers of early homeostatic imbalance which would be useful in nutrition studies that could help prevent the occurrence of obesity.

  19. Viability and Functionality of Cryopreserved Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Pediatric Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo-Celis, Federico; Salgado, Doris M; Castañeda, Diana M; Narváez, Carlos F

    2016-05-01

    Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are widely used in studies of dengue. In this disease, elevated frequency of apoptotic PBMCs has been described, and molecules such as soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligands (sTRAIL) are involved. This effect of dengue may affect the efficiency of PBMC cryopreservation. Here, we evaluate the viability (trypan blue dye exclusion and amine-reactive dye staining) and functionality (frequency of gamma interferon [IFN-γ]-producing T cells after polyclonal stimulation) of fresh and cryopreserved PBMCs from children with dengue (in acute and convalescence phases), children with other febrile illnesses, and healthy children as controls. Plasma sTRAIL levels were also evaluated. The frequencies of nonviable PBMCs detected by the two viability assays were positively correlated (r = 0.74; P dengue, who had a higher frequency of nonviable cells than healthy children and children with other febrile illnesses (P ≤ 0.02), and PBMC viability levels were restored in the convalescent phase. In the acute phase, an increased frequency of CD3(+) CD8(+) amine-positive cells was found before cryopreservation (P = 0.01). Except for B cells in the acute phase, cryopreservation usually did not affect the relative frequencies of viable PBMC subpopulations. Dengue infection reduced the frequency of IFN-γ-producing CD3(+) cells after stimulation compared with healthy controls and convalescent-phase patients (P ≤ 0.003), and plasma sTRAIL correlated with this decreased frequency in dengue (rho = -0.56; P = 0.01). Natural dengue infection in children can affect the viability and functionality of cryopreserved PBMCs.

  20. Imbalance of Th17 and Treg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of active tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Maintaining a right balance between Th17 and Treg might be critical to the immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis (TB. This study aimed to assess whether the Th17/Treg balance is altered in active TB patients. Methods: 250 study subjects (90 active TB patients, 80 latent TB subjects, and 80 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The expression of Th17 and Treg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in the 250 subjects was investigated by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of cytokines IL-17 and IL-10, which are related to Th17 and Treg, respectively, were determined by ELISA. Results: The percentages of Th17 and Treg in PBMCs from active TB patients were significantly higher than those from latent TB or control groups (Th17: 4.31 ± 1.35% vs. 1.58 ± 0.71% or 1.15 ± 0.49%, p < 0.05; Treg: 11.44 ± 2.69% vs. 7.54 ± 1.56% or 4.10 ± 0.99%, p < 0.05. The expression of IL-17 and IL-10 was significantly increased in active TB patients in comparison to that in latent TB or control groups (IL-17: 16.85 ± 9.68 vs. 7.23 ± 5.19 or 8.21 ± 5.51 pg/mL, p < 0.05; IL-10: 28.70 ± 11.27 vs. 20.25 ± 8.57 or 13.94 ± 9.00 pg/mL, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an altered balance of Treg/Th17 in active TB patients, with higher percentages of Th17 and Treg in PBMCs. Further research on this imbalance may offer a new direction for TB treatment.

  1. Intravenous autologous bone marrow mononuclear stem cell therapy for ischemic stroke: a multicentric, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kameshwar; Sharma, Alka; Garg, Ajay; Mohanty, Sujata; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Johri, Sharat; Singh, Kunwar Karni; Nair, Velu; Sarkar, Ravi Shankar; Gorthi, Sankar Prasad; Hassan, Kaukab Maqbool; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Marwaha, Neelam; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Nityanand, Soniya

    2014-12-01

    Pilot studies have suggested benefit from intravenous administration of bone marrow mononuclear stem cells (BMSCs) in stroke. We explored the efficacy and safety of autologous BMSCs in subacute ischemic stroke. This was a phase II, multicenter, parallel group, randomized trial with blinded outcome assessment that included 120 patients. Patients with subacute ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to the arm that received intravenous infusion of autologous BMSCs or to control arm. Coprimary clinical efficacy outcomes were Barthel Index score and modified Rankin scale at day 180. Secondary outcomes were change in infarct volume, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at day 90 and 180. Main safety outcomes were adverse events, any new area of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography uptake in any body part over 365 days. Fifty-eight patients received a mean of 280.75 million BMSCs at median of 18.5 days after stroke onset. There was no significant difference between BMSCs arm and control arm in the Barthel Index score (63.1 versus 63.6; P=0.92), modified Rankin scale shift analysis (P=0.53) or score >3 (47.5% versus 49.2%; P=0.85), NIHSS score (6.3 versus 7.0; P=0.53), change in infarct volume (-11.1 versus -7.36; P=0.63) at day 180. Adverse events were also similar in the 2 arms, and no patient showed any new area of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. With the methods used, results of this hitherto first randomized controlled trial indicate that intravenous infusion of BMSCs is safe, but there is no beneficial effect of treatment on stroke outcome. URLs: http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: CTRI-ROVCTRI/2008/091/0004 and NCT0150177. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Mononuclear phagocytes contribute to intestinal invasion and dissemination of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Alamir, Hanin; Hahn, Julia; Günter, Manina; Wagner, Samuel; Schütz, Monika; Bohn, Erwin; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) enters the host via contaminated food. After colonisation of the small intestine Ye invades the Peyer's patches (PPs) via M cells and disseminates to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen and liver. Whether Ye uses other invasion routes and which pathogenicity factors are required remains elusive. Oral infection of lymphotoxin-β-receptor deficient mice lacking PPs and MLNs with Ye revealed similar bacterial load in the spleen 1h post infection as wild-type mice, demonstrating a PP-independent dissemination route for Ye. Immunohistological analysis of the small intestine revealed Ye in close contact with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), specifically CX3CR1(+) monocyte-derived cells (MCs) as well as CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). This finding was confirmed by flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry analysis of lamina propria (LP) leukocytes showing CD103(+) DCs and MCs with intracellular Ye. Uptake of Ye by LP CD103(+) DCs and MCs was dependent on the pathogenicity factor invasin, whereas the adhesin YadA was dispensable as demonstrated by Ye deletion mutants. Furthermore, Ye were found exclusively associated with CD103(+) DCs in the MLNs from wild-type mice, but not from CCR7(-/-) mice, demonstrating a CCR7 dependent transport of Ye by CD103(+) DCs from LP to the MLNs. In contrast, dissemination of Ye to the spleen was dependent on MCs as significantly less Ye could be recovered from the spleen of CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, MCs and CD103(+) DCs contribute to immediate invasion and dissemination of Ye. This together with data from other bacteria suggests MPs as general pathogenic entry site in the intestine.

  3. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Fumiyoshi; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Richardson, Kris; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2015-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Subjects were sampled at baseline and six weeks after receiving either: olive oil 6.0 g/day (n = 16), EPA 1.8 g/day (n = 16), or DHA 1.8 g/day (n = 18). PBMC were subjected to gene expression analysis by microarray with key findings confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Plasma phospholipid EPA increased 3 fold in the EPA group, and DHA increased 63% in the DHA group (both p expression in the following pathways: 1) interferon signaling, 2) receptor recognition of bacteria and viruses, 3) G protein signaling, glycolysis and glycolytic shunting, 4) S-adenosyl-l-methionine biosynthesis, and 5) cAMP-mediated signaling including cAMP responsive element protein 1 (CREB1), as well as many other individual genes including hypoxia inducible factor 1, α subunit (HIF1A). The findings for CREB1 and HIF1A were confirmed by Q-PCR analysis. Our data indicate that EPA supplementation was associated with significant effects on gene expression involving the interferon pathway as well as down-regulation of CREB1 and HIF1A, which may relate to its beneficial effect on CVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Stuckey, Joyce E; Cox, Heather; Smith, Brett; Funke, Christina; Stott, Jeff; Colle, Clarence; Gaspard, Joseph; Manire, Charles A

    2007-08-15

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide (NO), by manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. PBMC from healthy captive manatees were stimulated with LPS, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha, either alone or in various combinations, with NO production assessed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture. NO production in response to LPS stimulation was significantly greater after 48, 72, or 96 h of culture compared to NO production after 24h of culture. A specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-NIL (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine), significantly decreased NO production by LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC. Manatee specific oligonucleotide primers for iNOS were designed to measure expression of relative amounts of mRNA in LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC from captive manatees. NO production by PBMC from manatees exposed to red tide toxins was analyzed, with significantly greater NO production by both unstimulated and LPS stimulated PBMC from red tide exposed compared with healthy captive or cold-stress manatees. Free-ranging manatees produced significantly lower amounts of nitric oxide compared to either captive or red tide rescued manatees. Results presented in this paper contribute to the current understanding of manatee immune function and represent the first report of nitric oxide production in the immune system of a marine mammal.

  5. On the active site of mononuclear B1 metallo β-lactamases: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Magistrato, Alessandra; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Vila, Alejandro J.; Carloni, Paolo; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2012-04-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) are Zn(II)-based bacterial enzymes that hydrolyze β-lactam antibiotics, hampering their beneficial effects. In the most relevant subclass (B1), X-ray crystallography studies on the enzyme from Bacillus Cereus point to either two zinc ions in two metal sites (the so-called `3H' and `DCH' sites) or a single Zn(II) ion in the 3H site, where the ion is coordinated by Asp120, Cys221 and His263 residues. However, spectroscopic studies on the B1 enzyme from B. Cereus in the mono-zinc form suggested the presence of the Zn(II) ion also in the DCH site, where it is bound to an aspartate, a cysteine, a histidine and a water molecule. A structural model of this enzyme in its DCH mononuclear form, so far lacking, is therefore required for inhibitor design and mechanistic studies. By using force field based and mixed quantum-classical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the protein in aqueous solution we constructed such structural model. The geometry and the H-bond network at the catalytic site of this model, in the free form and in complex with two common β-lactam drugs, is compared with experimental and theoretical findings of CphA and the recently solved crystal structure of new B2 MβL from Serratia fonticola (Sfh-I). These are MβLs from the B2 subclass, which features an experimentally well established mono-zinc form, in which the Zn(II) is located in the DCH site. From our simulations the ɛɛδ and δɛδ protomers emerge as possible DCH mono-zinc reactive species, giving a novel contribution to the discussion on the MβL reactivity and to the drug design process.

  6. Contribution of mononuclear bone marrow cells to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Qiang Cao; Ji-Zong Lin; Yue-Si Zhong; Shao-Bin Huang; Nan Lin; Zhao-Feng Tang; Rui Chen; Peng Xiang; Rui-Yun Xu

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the inhibitory effect of mononuclear bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation on carbon tetrachloride (CCIt) -induced liver fibrosis in rats.METHODS:Rat liver fibrosis models were induced by CCN and alcohol administration. After 8 wk,twenty rats were randomly allocated into treatment group (n = 10) and control group (n = 10). BMC were infused into the rats in treatment group via the portal vein,while heparinized saline was infused in control group. CCU was hypodermically injected into the rats twice a week for 4 wk. At the end of wk 12,all rats were humanely sacrificed. Liver samples were taken and stained with HE or Masson trichrome. The general conditions,liver fibrSsis (hydroxyproline and collagen fibre) and liver pathological grades in rats were evaluated.± 128.8μg/g in treatment group,and 596.0 ± 341. 8μg/g in control group.The percentage of collagen fibre was 3.75% ± 0.98% in treatment group and 5.02% ± 0.44% in control group.There was a significant difference berween the two groups (P<0.05).Liver pathological grade decreased from grade Ⅳ to grade Ⅲ partially in treatment group (P<0.05) with no obvious improvement in control group (P<0.05).There was a significant difference between treatment group and control group(P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Transplantation of BMC can improve liver fibrosis due to chronic liver injury in rats.

  7. Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation Restores Inflammatory Balance of Cytokines after ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Alestalo

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction (AMI launches an inflammatory response and a repair process to compensate cardiac function. During this process, the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is important for optimal cardiac repair. Stem cell transplantation after AMI improves tissue repair and increases the ventricular ejection fraction. Here, we studied in detail the acute effect of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC transplantation on proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI.Patients with STEMI treated with thrombolysis followed by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI were randomly assigned to receive either BMMNC or saline as an intracoronary injection. Cardiac function was evaluated by left ventricle angiogram during the PCI and again after 6 months. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured from plasma samples up to 4 days after the PCI and the intracoronary injection.Twenty-six patients (control group, n = 12; BMMNC group, n = 14 from the previously reported FINCELL study (n = 80 were included to this study. At day 2, the change in the proinflammatory cytokines correlated with the change in the anti-inflammatory cytokines in both groups (Kendall's tau, control 0.6; BMMNC 0.7. At day 4, the correlation had completely disappeared in the control group but was preserved in the BMMNC group (Kendall's tau, control 0.3; BMMNC 0.7.BMMNC transplantation is associated with preserved balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after STEMI in PCI-treated patients. This may partly explain the favorable effect of stem cell transplantation after AMI.

  8. Selected scorpion toxin exposures induce cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, Gerardo; Espino-Solis, Gerardo Pavel

    2017-03-01

    A cytokine screening on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with selected scorpion toxins (ScTx's) was performed in order to evaluate their effect on human immune cells. The ScTx's chosen for this report were three typical buthid scorpion venom peptides, one with lethal effects on mammals Centruroides suffussus suffusus toxin II (CssII), another, with lethal effects on insects and crustaceans Centruroides noxius toxin 5 (Cn5), and one more without lethal effects Tityus discrepans toxin (Discrepin). A Luminex multiplex analysis was performed in order to determine the amounts chemokines and cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12-p40, IL-13, interferon alpha (IFN-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α, and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) secreted from human PBMCs exposed to these toxins. Although, the ScTx Cn5 is not lethal for mammals, it was able to induce the secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, IL-10 and IP-10 in comparison to the lethal CssII, which was able to induce only IP-10 secretion. Discrepin also was able to induce only IP-10. Interestingly, only low amounts of interferons α and β were induced in the presence of the ScTx's assayed. In a synergic experiment, the combination of Discrepin and Cn5 displayed considerable reverse effects on induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, but they had a slight synergic effect on IP-10 cytokine production in comparison with the single effect obtained with the Cn5 alone. Thus, the results obtained suggest that the profile of secreted cytokines promoted by ScTx Cn5 is highly related with a cytokine storm event, and also it suggests that the mammalian lethal neurotoxins are not solely responsible of the scorpion envenomation symptomatology.

  9. Proteomic methodological recommendations for studies involving human plasma, platelets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Duthie, Susan J; Polley, Abigael C J; Mulholland, Francis; Bouwman, Freek G; Heim, Carolin; Rucklidge, Garry J; Johnson, Ian T; Mariman, Edwin C; Daniel, Hannelore; Elliott, Ruan M

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to develop, optimize and validate protocols for blood processing prior to proteomic analysis of plasma, platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and to determine analytical variation of a single sample of depleted plasma, platelet and PBMC proteins within and between four laboratories each using their own standard operating protocols for 2D gel electrophoresis. Plasma depleted either using the Beckman Coulter IgY-12 proteome partitioning kit or the Amersham albumin and IgG depletion columns gave good quality gels, but reproducibility appeared better with the single-use immuno-affinity column. The use of the Millipore Filter Device for protein concentration gave a 16% ( p appears as a single abundant spot. The average within-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the matched spots after automatic matching using either PDQuest or ProteomWeaver software ranged between 18 and 69% for depleted plasma proteins, between 21 and 55% for platelet proteins, and between 22 and 38% for PBMC proteins. Subsequent manual matching improved the CV with on average between 1 and 16%. The average between laboratory CV for each of the matched spots after automatic matching ranged between 4 and 54% for depleted plasma proteins, between 5 and 60% for platelet proteins, and between 18 and 70% for PBMC proteins. This variation must be considered when designing sufficiently powered studies that use proteomics tools for biomarker discovery. The use of tricine in the running buffer for the second dimension appears to enhance the resolution of proteins especially in the high molecular weight range.

  10. Use of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells to prevent perinatal brain injury: a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalous, Jérémie; Pansiot, Julien; Pham, Hoa; Chatel, Paul; Nadaradja, Céline; D'Agostino, Irene; Vottier, Gaëlle; Schwendimann, Leslie; Vanneaux, Valérie; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Titomanlio, Luigi; Gressens, Pierre; Larghero, Jérôme; Baud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most frequent neurological disorder associated with perinatal injury of the developing brain. Major brain lesions associated with CP are white matter damage (WMD) in preterm infants and cortico-subcortical lesions in term newborns. Cell therapy is considered promising for the repair of brain damage. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs) are a rich source of various stem cells that could be of interest in repairing perinatal brain damage. Our goal was to investigate the potential of hUCB-MNCs to prevent or repair brain lesions in an animal model of excitotoxic brain injury. We induced neonatal brain lesions using intracranial injections of ibotenate, a glutamate agonist, in 5-day-old rat pups. hUCB-MNCs were injected either intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.) soon or 24 h after ibotenate injection, and their neurological effects were assessed using histology and immunohistochemistry. hUCB-MNCs injected i.p. did not reach the systemic circulation but high amounts induced a significant systemic inflammatory response and increased the WMD induced by the excitotoxic insult. This effect was associated with a significant 40% increase in microglial activation around the white matter lesion. hUCB-MNCs injected i.v. soon or 24 h after the excitotoxic insult did not affect lesion size, microglial activation, astroglial cell density, or cell proliferation within the developing white matter or cortical plate at any concentration used. We demonstrated that hUCB-MNCs could not integrate into the developing brain or promote subsequent repair in most conditions tested. We found that the intraperitoneal injection of high amounts of hUCB-MNCs aggravated WMD and was associated with systemic inflammation.

  11. HCG-Activated Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Promote Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Yan, Wenjie; Yin, Tailang; Wang, Yaqin; Guo, Yue; Zhou, Danni; Xu, Mei; Ding, Jinli; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Successful embryo implantation and placentation depend on appropriate trophoblast invasion into the maternal endometrial stroma. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is one of the earliest embryo-derived secreted signals in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that abundantly expresses hCG receptors. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of human embryo-secreted hCG on PBMC function and investigate the role and underlying mechanisms of activated PBMC in trophoblast invasion. Blood samples were collected from women undergoing benign gynecological surgery during the mid-secretory phase. PBMC were isolated and stimulated with or without hCG for 0 or 24 h. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions in PBMC were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The JAR cell line served as a model for trophoblast cells and was divided into four groups: control, hCG only, PBMC only, and PBMC with hCG. JAR cell invasive and proliferative abilities were detected by trans-well and CCK8 assays and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells were detected by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. We found that hCG can remarkably promote IL-1β and LIF promotion in PBMC after 24-h culture. PBMC activated by hCG significantly increased the number of invasive JAR cells in an invasion assay without affecting proliferation, and hCG-activated PBMC significantly increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF and decreased TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expressions in JAR cells in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that hCG stimulates cytokine secretion in human PBMC and could stimulate trophoblast invasion.

  12. Telomerase Activity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Senile Patients with Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; ZHOU Zhen; LIU Xiaoqing

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the changes of the activity of telomerase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from senile patients with pneumonia, the telomerase activity was examined before and after the stimulation of phytohemagglutinin-M (PHA-M) in PBMCs from 10 control subjects (group A), 12 non-senile patients with pneumonia (group B) and 9 senile patients with pneumonia (group C). Also observed was the proliferative response of these PBMCs to PHA-M. The results showed that, both with or without the stimulation of PHA-M, the values of telomerase activity in PBMCs from group C patients (A values: pre-stimulation, 0.43±0.04; post-stimulation, 0.63±0.03) were significantly lower than those in PBMCs from both group A patients (A values: prestimulation, 0.65±0.05;post-stimulation, 1.26±0.13;P<0.001, respectively) and group B patients (A values: pre-stimulation, 0.63±0.03; post-stimulation, 0.93±0.03;P<0.05, respectively). The results of MTT test showed that the proliferative activity of PBMCs in group C patients (A value: 0.35±0.03) was also significantly lower than that in group A patients (A value:0. 55±0.04; P<0.05) and group B patients (A value: 0.46±0.03;P<0.05). These results indicate that the telomerase activity decreases in senile patients with pneumonia, which may be one of the mechanisms for the weakened immune function in those patients.

  13. Highly anisotropic rhenium(IV) complexes: new examples of mononuclear single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lillo, José; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Lhotel, Elsa; Paulsen, Carley; Cano, Joan; De Munno, Giovanni; Faus, Juan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Nellutla, Saritha; Krzystek, J

    2013-09-18

    The rhenium(IV) complex (NBu4)2[ReBr4(ox)] (1) (ox = oxalate and NBu4(+) = tetra-n-butylammonium cation) has been prepared and its crystal structure determined by X-ray diffraction. The structure is made up of discrete [ReBr4(ox)](2-) anions and bulky NBu4(+) cations. Each [ReBr4(ox)](2-) anion is surrounded by six NBu4(+) cations, which preclude any significant intermolecular contact between the anionic entities, the shortest rhenium···rhenium distance being 9.373(1) Å. Variable temperature dc and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements and field-dependent magnetization experiments on polycrystalline samples of 1 reveal the occurrence of highly anisotropic magnetically isolated Re(IV) centers (S(Re) = 3/2), which exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization at very low temperatures in a dc field. Ac measurements conducted on a polycrystalline sample of the complex (NBu4)2[ReCl4(ox)] (2) [compound isostructural to 1 whose structure and dc magnetic susceptibility study were previously reported in Tomkiewicz, A.; Bartczak, T. J.; Kruszyński, R.; Mroziński, J. J. Mol. Struct. 2001, 595, 225] show a similar behavior, both complexes thus constituting new examples of mononuclear single-molecule magnets. High-frequency and -field electron paramagnetic resonance on polycrystalline samples of 1 and 2 and on single crystals of 2 allowed for the determination for the first time of the negative sign and confirmed a significant magnitude and rhombicity (E/D) of the zero-field splitting tensor of the [ReCl4(ox)](2-) and [ReBr4(ox)](2-) centers, originating from a combination of spin-orbit coupling and low molecular symmetry. D and E values of 1 and 2 were estimated through magnetization measurements and theoretically calculated through complete active space and density functional theory methodologies.

  14. Cytokine production by bone marrow mononuclear cells in inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ken; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P; Pinto, Ligia A

    2013-10-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are characterized by the progressive development of bone marrow failure. Overproduction of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from activated bone marrow T-cells has been proposed as a mechanism of FA-related aplasia. Whether such overproduction occurs in the other syndromes is unknown. We conducted a comparative study on bone marrow mononuclear cells to examine the cellular subset composition and cytokine production. We found lower proportions of haematopoietic stem cells in FA, DC, and SDS, and a lower proportion of monocytes in FA, DC, and DBA compared with controls. The T- and B-lymphocyte proportions were similar to controls, except for low B-cells in DC. We did not observe overproduction of TNF-α or IFN-γ by T-cells in any patients. Induction levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in monocytes stimulated with high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were similar at 4 h but lower at 24 h when compared to controls. Unexpectedly, patient samples showed a trend toward higher cytokine level in response to low-dose (0·001 μg/ml) LPS. Increased sensitivity to LPS may have clinical implications and could contribute to the development of pancytopenia by creating a chronic subclinical inflammatory micro-environment in the bone marrow. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  15. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. METHODS In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. RESULTS Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1- fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity CONCLUSIONS Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  16. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  17. [Assessment of the response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes on Helicobacter pylori infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czkwianianc, Elzbieta; Jarosińska, Agnieszka; Chmiela, Magdalena; Bajer, Anna; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Płaneta-Małecka, Izabela; Rudnicka, Wiesława

    2003-01-01

    In the study the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) from children with chronic dyspepsia (chr. d) to H.p. antigens was investigated. From 38 children aged 7-18, with chr. d., blood was collected just before upper GI endoscopy. Twenty one patients were found to be H.p. (+). PBML were used for the cultures and were stimulated with heat-killed H.p. G27 bacteria, heated and unheated glycine extract (GE) of H.p. G27 or with H.p. LPS containing Lewis X and Lewis Y determinants, in the presence or absence IL-2. The cell proliferation was estimated on the basis of [3H] - thymidine incorporation. In the cultures, the phenotype of responding cells was determined by an EIA with monoclonal antibody to human CD3, CD4 and CD8. PBML from patients H.p. (-), responded to killed H.p. bacteria and to heated GE more frequently and more intensively than PBML from the H.p.(+). IL-2 enhanced PBML response to these antigens. Unheated GE did not induce PBML proliferation even in the cultures with IL-2. LPS alone induced proliferation of PBML from 3 patients (2 H.p. - and 1 H.p.+). However, in the presence of IL-2, LPS induced proliferation of PBML from 15 patients. In the cultures of PBML stimulated with whole bacteria or heated EG, T cells dominated. In the cultures of PBML from H.p. (+) we found a higher percentage of CD8 cells in comparison with the cultures of PBML from H.p. (-). Data demonstrate a significant variation in the response of PBML from dyspeptic children to H.p. antigens.

  18. Cell type-specific responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, C; Diendorf, J; Gessmann, J; Simon, T; Habijan, T; Eggeler, G; Schildhauer, T A; Epple, M; Köller, M

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their remarkable antimicrobial activity. In biomedicine, Ag-NP are coated onto or embedded in wound dressings, surgical instruments and bone substitute biomaterials, such as silver-containing calcium phosphate cements. Free Ag-NP and silver ions are released from these coatings or after the degradation of a biomaterial, and may come into close contact with blood cells. Despite the widespread use of Ag-NP as an antimicrobial agent, there is a serious lack of information on the biological effects of Ag-NP on human blood cells. In this study, the uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes (T-cells) was analyzed, and the influence of nanosilver on cell biological functions (proliferation, the expression of adhesion molecules, cytokine release and the generation of reactive oxygen species) was studied. After cell culture in the presence of monodispersed Ag-NP (5-30μgml(-1) silver concentration), agglomerates of nanoparticles were detected within monocytes (CD14+) but not in T-cells (CD3+) by light microscopy, flow cytometry and combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. The uptake rate of nanoparticles was concentration dependent, and the silver agglomerates were typically found in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, a concentration-dependent activation (e.g. an increased expression of adhesion molecule CD54) of monocytes at Ag-NP concentrations of 10-15μgml(-1) was observed, and cytotoxicity of Ag-NP-treated monocytes was observed at Ag-NP levels of 25μgml(-1) and higher. However, no modulation of T-cell proliferation was observed in the presence of Ag-NP. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for a cell-type-specific uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the resultant cellular responses after exposure.

  19. Chemokine regulation in response to beryllium exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Geller, Elizabeth; Pardington, Paige E; Cary, Robert B; Sauer, Nancy N; Gupta, Goutam

    2006-02-01

    Exposure to beryllium (Be) induces a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction in the lungs of susceptible individuals, which leads to the onset of Be sensitivity and Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). Although some mechanistic aspects of CBD have begun to be characterized, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Be activates the host immune response. To gain insight into the cellular response to Be exposure, we have performed global microarray analysis using a mixture of peripheral blood mononuclear and dendritic cells (PBMC/DCs) from a non-CBD source to identify genes that are specifically upregulated in response to BeSO(4) stimulation, compared to a control metal salt, Al(2)(SO(4))(3). We identified a number of upregulated immunomodulatory genes, including several chemokines in the MIP-1 and GRO families. Using PBMC/DCs from three different donors, we demonstrate that BeSO(4) stimulation generally exhibits an increased rate of both chemokine mRNA transcription and release compared to Al(2)(SO(4))(3) exposure, although variations among the individual donors do exist. We show that MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta neutralizing antibodies can partially inhibit the ability of BeSO(4) to stimulate cell migration of PBMC/DCs in vitro. Finally, incubation of PBMC/DCs with BeSO(4) altered the binding of the transcription factor RUNX to the MIP-1 alpha promoter consensus sequence, indicating that Be can regulate chemokine gene activation. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which Be stimulation of PBMC/DCs can modulate the expression and release of different chemokines, leading to the migration of lymphocytes to the lung and the formation of a localized environment for development of Be disease in susceptible individuals.

  20. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells HIV DNA levels impact intermittently on neurocognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucette A Cysique

    Full Text Available To determine the contribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cells' (PBMCs HIV DNA levels to HIV-associated dementia (HAD and non-demented HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND in chronically HIV-infected adults with long-term viral suppression on combined antiretroviral treatment (cART.Eighty adults with chronic HIV infection on cART (>97% with plasma and CSF HIV RNA <50 copies/mL were enrolled into a prospective observational cohort and underwent assessments of neurocognition and pre-morbid cognitive ability at two visits 18 months apart. HIV DNA in PBMCs was measured by real-time PCR at the same time-points.At baseline, 46% had non-demented HAND; 7.5% had HAD. Neurocognitive decline occurred in 14% and was more likely in those with HAD (p<.03. Low pre-morbid cognitive ability was uniquely associated with HAD (p<.05. Log10 HIV DNA copies were stable between study visits (2.26 vs. 2.22 per 106 PBMC. Baseline HIV DNA levels were higher in those with lower pre-morbid cognitive ability (p<.04, and higher in those with no ART treatment during HIV infection 1st year (p = .03. Baseline HIV DNA was not associated with overall neurocognition. However, % ln HIV DNA change was associated with decline in semantic fluency in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (p = .01-.03, and motor-coordination (p = .02-.12 to a lesser extent.PBMC HIV DNA plays a role in HAD pathogenesis, and this is moderated by pre-morbid cognitive ability in the context of long-term viral suppression. While the HIV DNA levels in PBMC are not associated with current non-demented HAND, increasing HIV DNA levels were associated with a decline in neurocognitive functions associated with HAND progression.