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Sample records for monolinguals performed equivalently

  1. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    significantly inversely related to the amount of exposure to English. Typically developing 2;6-year-olds who are bilingual in English and an additional language and who hear English 60% of the time or more, perform equivalently to their typically developing monolingual peers. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  3. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  4. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  5. Proficiency and Control in Verbal Fluency Performance across the Lifespan for Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The verbal fluency task is a widely used neuropsychological test of word retrieval efficiency. Both category fluency (e.g., list animals) and letter fluency (e.g., list words that begin with F) place demands on semantic memory and executive control functions. However letter fluency places greater demands on executive control than category fluency, making this task well-suited to investigating potential bilingual advantages in word retrieval. Here we report analyses on category and letter fluency for bilinguals and monolinguals at four ages, namely, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, young adults, and older adults. Three main findings emerged: 1) verbal fluency performance improved from childhood to young adulthood and remained relatively stable in late adulthood; 2) beginning at 10-years-old, the executive control requirements for letter fluency were less effortful for bilinguals than monolinguals, with a robust bilingual advantage on this task emerging in adulthood; 3) an interaction among factors showed that category fluency performance was influenced by both age and vocabulary knowledge but letter fluency performance was influenced by bilingual status. PMID:25642427

  6. Bilingual and Monolingual EFL learners’ Use of Writing Metacognitive Strategies and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that writing skill of Iranian learners is not at a satisfactory level. One  of  the  ways  to  develop  writing  ability  is  to  improve  strategic  behavior  of  learners.  The current  study  set  out  to  compare  writing  performances  and  patterns  of  using  metacognitive strategies  in  bilinguals  and  monolinguals  as  well  as  seniors  and  freshmen  students.  A  total  of 176  English  major  university  students  took  part  in  the  study  (88  bilinguals  and  88 monolinguals.  Data  were  collected  through  three  instruments:  a  background  questionnaire,  a writing  metacognitive  strategy  questionnaire,  and  participants’  compositions.  A  two-way factorial  ANOVA  was  used  to  analyze  the  data  obtained  through  the  strategy  questionnaire. Since the composition data were not parametric, two Kruskall-Wallis tests were employed for data  analysis. The  results  revealed  that  bilinguals  used  more  metacognitive  strategies  and  had higher  writing  scores  than  monolinguals.  In  addition,  seniors  had  better  writing  performance than freshmen while the difference between them in using strategies was not significant. Based on the results, it can be concluded that teaching writing metacognitive strategies may result in a better writing performance.   استفاده از راهبردهای فراشناختی نوشتار و مهارت نوشتاری زبان آموزان یک زبانه و دو زبانه   تحقیقات اخیر حاکی از عملکرد ضعیف زبان آموزان ایرانی در مهارت نوشتار زبان انگلیسی است. یکی از روشهای بهبود مهارت نوشتار تقویت رفتار استراتژیک زبان آموزان است. در تحقیق پیش رو به مقایسه مهارت نوشتار و الگوهای

  7. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  8. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants.

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    Robinson, Jasper; Owens, Emma

    2013-01-01

    We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences ["like" (+) or "dislike" (-)] for sports [e.g., tennis (t) and hockey (h)] of four fictitious people [e.g., Alice (A), Beth (B), Charlotte (C), and Dorothy (D)]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt-, Ct+, Dt-, Ah-, Bh+, Ch-, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are "equivalent" in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of "whole" versus "partial" reversal learning). Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C) signal the same outcome (e.g., +) when accompanied by the same input (t). One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence.

  9. Equivalent Antisymmetry Performance of Three-Dimensional Heterogeneous Anisotropic Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 宋健; 张志民

    2003-01-01

    Starting from the physical features of materials, heterogeneous anisotropic composites (HACs) are analysed on the basis of the understanding and applications of its equivalent antisymmetry performance. Moreover, the design parameter is optimized to attain the goal of maximizing the use of materials, which is quite meaningful. The HAC structure is defined as a kind of equivalent structures according to the structure and properties of materials.We apply the mature plate theory and the composite materials laminate theory in analysis of the HAC structure,and in this way a new concept and a new idea are expected.

  10. The Public Market Equivalent and Private Equity Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Jagannathan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    betas due to changes in financial leverage, operating leverage, or the nature of the business are automatically taken into account; (2) the public market index used in evaluations should be the one that best approximates the wealth portfolio of the investor considering the PE investment opportunity.......The authors show that the public market equivalent approach is equivalent to assessing the performance of private equity (PE) investments using Rubinstein’s dynamic version of the CAPM. They developed two insights: (1) one need not compute betas of PE investments, and any changes in PE cash flow...

  11. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper eRobinson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences (‘like’ [+] or ‘dislike’ [-] for sports (e.g., tennis [t] and hockey [h] of four fictitious people (e.g., Alice [A], Beth [B], Charlotte [C] & Dorothy [D]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt-, Ct+, Dt-, Ah-, Bh+, Ch-, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are ‘equivalent’ in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of ‘whole’ versus ‘partial’ reversal learning. Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C signal the same outcome (e.g., + when accompanied by the same input (t. One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence.

  12. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  13. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  14. Performance Evaluation of Full Search Equivalent Pattern Matching Algorithms.

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    Wanli Ouyang; Tombari, F; Mattoccia, S; Di Stefano, L; Wai-Kuen Cham

    2012-01-01

    Pattern matching is widely used in signal processing, computer vision, and image and video processing. Full search equivalent algorithms accelerate the pattern matching process and, in the meantime, yield exactly the same result as the full search. This paper proposes an analysis and comparison of state-of-the-art algorithms for full search equivalent pattern matching. Our intention is that the data sets and tests used in our evaluation will be a benchmark for testing future pattern matching algorithms, and that the analysis concerning state-of-the-art algorithms could inspire new fast algorithms. We also propose extensions of the evaluated algorithms and show that they outperform the original formulations.

  15. Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite,Aline Gisele Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those...

  16. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

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    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  17. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

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    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  18. Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent…

  19. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  20. Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WISEHEART, MELODY; VISWANATHAN, MYTHILI; BIALYSTOK, ELLEN

    2015-01-01

    Many bilinguals routinely switch between their languages, yet mixed evidence exists about the transfer of language switching skills to broader domains that require attentional control such as task switching. Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a nonverbal task-switching paradigm in which they viewed colored pictures of animals and indicated either the animal or its color in response to a cue. Monolinguals and bilinguals performed similarly when switching between tasks (local switch cost) in a mixed-task block, but bilinguals demonstrated a smaller mixing effect (global switch cost) than monolinguals, indicating better ability to reconfigure stimulus–response associations. These results suggest that regular practice using multiple languages confers a broader executive function advantage shown as improved flexibility in task switching. PMID:26877705

  1. Consciência fonológica: o desempenho de meninos e meninas bilíngues e monolíngues Phonological awareness: bilingual and monolingual boys and girls performance

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    Sabrina Schützenhofer Lasch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar o desempenho de meninas e meninos, monolíngues e bilíngues, em habilidades de consciência fonológica. MÉTODOS: questionário e triagem auditiva para selecionar a amostra, composta por 89 estudantes, faixa etária entre 4:1 a 8:11 anos de idade, 47 meninas e 42 meninos, dos quais 47 sujeitos eram bilíngues (português e alemão e 42 monolíngues (português. A amostra selecionada foi submetida à avaliação das habilidades em consciência fonológica, com aplicação do Protocolo de Consciência Fonológica (Cielo, 2001 que propõe tarefas de segmentação de frases em palavras; realismo nominal; detecção de rimas; síntese silábica; segmentação silábica; detecção de sílabas; reversão silábica; exclusão fonêmica; detecção de fonemas; síntese fonêmica; segmentação fonêmica e reversão fonêmica. Para uma análise quantitativa dos dados, realizou-se o teste estatístico de Kruskal-Wallis com p=0,05 quando se comparou o desempenho de meninos e meninas monolíngues, bem como o desempenho de meninos e meninas bilíngues por tarefa de CF. RESULTADOS: quando analisados os sujeitos bilíngues, houve significância estatística na detecção de rima com trissílabos (p=0,0087 e na síntese de quatro fonemas (p=0,0219, com vantagem das meninas; já na análise que comparou meninos e meninas monolíngues, os resultados foram mais equilibrados. CONCLUSÕES: apesar de praticamente não existirem resultados estatisticamente significantes na comparação entre meninos e meninas bilíngues e monolíngues, observou-se superioridade feminina na maioria das tarefas de consciência fonológica.PURPOSE: to investigate monolingual and bilingual girls and boys performance, in the skills of phonological awareness. METHODS: questionnaire and hearing screening to select the sample, consisting of 89 students, aged 4:1 to 8:11-years old, 47 girls and 42 boys, of which 47 subjects were bilingual (Portuguese and German and 42

  2. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  3. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

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    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  4. The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers

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    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

  5. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

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    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  6. Designing sustainable concrete on the basis of equivalence performance: assessment criteria for safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In order not to hampers innovations, the Dutch National Building Regulations (NBR), allow an alternative approval route for new building materials. It is based on the principles of equivalent performance which states that if the solution proposed can be proven to have the same level of safety, prote

  7. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  8. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  9. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

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    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.

  10. RFID Equivalent Model for Prediction of Functional and EMC Performances in Complex Aeronautic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Alexandre; Perraud, Richard; Peres, Gilles; Nguyen, Francois; Herlem, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Wireless networks are widely used in urban or office environments and are increasingly considered as an attractive solution for various aeronautic applications. Current investigations focus in particular on RFID technologies because of their widespread use, low cost and ease of installation. The objective of this publication is to propose a concept of RFID equivalent model to predict functional and EMC performances in complex aeronautic areas.

  11. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    OpenAIRE

    Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...

  12. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  13. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Singh

    2017-01-01

    The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that ta...

  14. Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual

  15. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

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    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  16. Sequential congruency effects reveal differences in disengagement of attention for monolingual and bilingual young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Friesen, Deanna C; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differences between language groups on mean reaction time using standard analyses for congruent or incongruent trials or the size of the flanker effect. Sequential congruency effects (SCEs) however, which account for previous trial congruency, were smaller for bilinguals than for monolinguals. This finding was strongest at the shortest response-to-stimulus interval (RSI). Study 2 replicated this effect using a slightly different flanker task and a shorter RSI than study 1. Study 3 showed that at long RSIs, where behavioral SCE differences between groups disappear because of sufficient time to recover from the previous trial, event-related potentials demonstrated a continued influence of previous trial congruency for monolinguals but not bilinguals at both the N2 and the P3, replicating the reaction time effects in Studies 1 and 2. Together, these studies demonstrate that bilinguals experience less influence from previous trial congruency and have greater ability to disengage attention from the previous trial in order to focus attention on the current trial than is found for monolinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  18. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class...

  19. Effects of semantic richness on lexical processing in monolinguals and bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Taler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of number of senses (NoS, a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n=17 and bilingual speakers of English and French (n=18. Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages.

  20. Effects of Semantic Richness on Lexical Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; López Zunini, Rocío; Kousaie, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of number of senses (NoS), a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n = 17) and bilingual speakers of English and French (n = 18). Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP) NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages. PMID:27524963

  1. Measurement of cardiopulmonary performance during acute exposure to a 2440-m equivalent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, B. M.; Bungo, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    Each of 20 subjects (ranging in age from 18 to 38 years, 15 being male, five female) was given two Bruce Protocol symptom-limited maximum treadmill stress tests, breathing sea-level compressed air (20.9% O2) for one test and a 2440-m equivalent (15.5% O2) for the other. A significant difference was found to exist between measured VO2 max (p less than 0.0002) and exercise time (p less than 0.0004) for the two conditions. No significant differences were observed in heart rate or the recovery time to a respiratory quotient of less than 1. Hemoglobin saturation, as measured by an ear oximeter, averaged 95% for sea-level and 91% for the 2440-m equivalent gases. These results support a 2440-m equivalent contingency atmosphere in the Space Shuttle prior to donning a low-pressure suit for the purpose reducing nitrogen washout times.

  2. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  3. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  4. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  5. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  6. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  7. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  8. Feature binding and the processing of global-local shapes in bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Milvia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Devescovi, Antonella; Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of bilingualism and age on a color-shape binding task (assessing visual working memory) and a global-local task (assessing inhibitory processes) in a sample of 55 bilingual and 49 monolingual children 8 and 10 years old. In the color-shape binding task, corrected recognition scores increased in older children; bilingual children performed better than monolinguals in the shape-only condition, but the two groups were equally accurate in the color-only and combination conditions. In the global-local task, accuracy was higher in bilingual than in monolingual children, particularly on incongruent trials; monolingual children showed a strong global precedence effect (higher accuracy in the global than in the local conditions and greater global-to-local interference), whereas bilingual children exhibited a small, but significant, local precedence effect (higher accuracy in the local than in the global conditions and greater local-to-global interference). These findings confirm and extend previous evidence indicating that the bilingualism advantage is more pronounced in working memory tasks involving inhibitory processes.

  9. Visual performance in cataract patients with low levels of postoperative astigmatism: full correction versus spherical equivalent correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Lehmann1, Diane M Houtman21Lehmann Eye Center, Nacogdoches, TX, 2Alcon Research Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: To evaluate whether visual performance could be improved in pseudophakic subjects by correcting low levels of postoperative astigmatism.Methods: An exploratory, noninterventional study was conducted using subjects who had been implanted with an aspheric intraocular lens and had 0.5–0.75 diopter postoperative astigmatism. Monocular visual performance using full correction was compared with visual performance using spherical equivalent correction. Testing consisted of high- and low-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and reading acuity and speed using the Radner Reading Charts.Results: Thirty-eight of 40 subjects completed testing. Visual acuities at three contrast levels (100%, 25%, and 9% were significantly better using full correction than when using spherical equivalent correction (all P < 0.001. For contrast sensitivity testing under photopic, mesopic, and mesopic with glare conditions, only one out of twelve outcomes demonstrated a significant improvement with full correction compared with spherical equivalent correction (at six cycles per degree under mesopic without glare conditions, P = 0.046. Mean reading speed was numerically faster with full correction across all print sizes, reaching statistical significance at logarithm of the reading acuity determination (logRAD 0.2, 0.7, and 1.1 (P , 0.05. Statistically significant differences also favored full correction in logRAD score (P = 0.0376, corrected maximum reading speed (P < 0.001, and logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution/logRAD ratio (P < 0.001.Conclusions: In this study of pseudophakic subjects with low levels of postoperative astigmatism, full correction yielded significantly better reading performance and high- and low-contrast visual acuity than spherical equivalent correction, suggesting that cataractous patients may benefit from surgical

  10. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  11. Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others

    This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…

  12. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals.

  13. Overall performance evaluation using an equivalent circuit model for radio-frequency single-electron transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxon Liou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge sensitivities of a radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET by using amplitude (AD and phase-shift detection (PSD of the reflected RF signals were experimentally studied. It was found that AD is most sensitive at the resonant frequency while PSD is most sensitive at a frequency slightly off the resonance. The best PSD sensitivity is better than the best AD one when the quality factor of a tank circuit is higher than 10; the higher Q-value is, the superior PSD. The maximal change in reflection amplitude and phase-shift were found proportional to the SET conductance change. The above experimental findings were confirmed by the calculation based on an equivalent circuit model.

  14. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  15. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency. Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128), aged 5-8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills. Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD) and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group. Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (pre)school years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be explained by

  16. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel Boerma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be

  17. BNCT dosimetry performed with a mini twin tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, D; Colautti, P; Lollo, M; Esposito, J; Conte, V; De Nardo, L; Ferretti, A; Ceballos, C

    2009-07-01

    The BNCT radiation field is complex because different beam components are mixed, each one having different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Microdosimetry with tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) has proven to be an ideal dosimetric technique for mixed radiation fields, because it is able both to measure the absorbed dose and to assess the radiation field relative biological effectiveness with good accuracy. An ideal detector for BNCT should contain two TEPCs, one detector loaded with, while the other one without (10)B in order to record all beam components with a unique measurement. Moreover, such a detector should be of tiny size in order to be able to measure in the intense BNCT radiation fields without significant pile-up effects. TEPCs have been shown to be pretty good dosimeters for mixed radiation fields. In this paper the first mini twin TEPC counter for BNCT is presented, as well as first measurement at the new HYTHOR thermal irradiation facility at TAPIRO nuclear reactor and comparison with related Monte Carlo calculations.

  18. Imaging performance in differential phase contrast CT compared with the conventional CT-noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2012-03-01

    The grating-based x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) CT is emerging as a new technology with the potential for extensive preclinical and clinical applications. In general, the performance of an imaging system is jointly determined by its signal property (modulation transfer function-MTF(k)) and noise property (noise power spectrum-NPS(k)), which is characterized by its spectrum of noise equivalent quanta. As reported by us previously, owing to an adoption of the Hilbert filtering for image reconstruction in the fashion of filtered backprojection (FBP), the noise property of DPC-CT characterized by its NPS(k) differs drastically from that of the conventional attenuation-based CT (1/|k| trait vs. |k| trait). In this work, via system analysis, modeling and simulated phantom study, we initially investigate the signal property of DPC-CT characterized by its MTF(k) and compare it with that of the conventional CT. In addition, we investigate the DPC-CT's spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k) - the most important figure of merit (FOM) in the assessment of an imaging system's performance - by taking the MTF(k) and NPS(k) jointly into account. Through such a thorough investigation into both the signal and noise properties, the imaging performance of DPC-CT and its potential over the conventional attenuation-based CT can be fully understood and appreciated.

  19. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  20. Functional Equivalence of Imagined vs. Real Performance of an Inhibitory Task: An EEG/ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Bonilla, Fidel M.; González-Villar, Alberto J.; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T.

    2016-01-01

    Early neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggested that motor imagery recruited a different network than motor execution. However, several studies have provided evidence for the involvement of the same circuits in motor imagery tasks, in the absence of overt responses. The present study aimed to test whether imagined performance of a stop-signal task produces a similar pattern of motor-related EEG activity than that observed during real performance. To this end, mu and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and the Lateralized Readiness Potential (LRP) were analyzed. The study also aimed to clarify the functional significance of the Stop-N2 and Stop-P3 event-related potential (ERPs) components, which were also obtained during both real and imagined performance. The results showed a common pattern of brain electrical activity, and with a similar time course, during covert performance and overt execution of the stop-signal task: presence of LRP and Stop-P3 in the imagined condition and identical LRP onset, and similar mu and beta ERD temporal windows for both conditions. These findings suggest that a similar inhibitory network may be activated during both overt and covert execution of the task. Therefore, motor imagery may be useful to improve inhibitory skills and to develop new communicating systems for Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) devices based on inhibitory signals. PMID:27695410

  1. Functional equivalence of imagined vs. real performance of an inhibitory task: an EEG/ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Galdo-Alvarez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggested motor imagery recruited a different network than motor execution. However, several studies have provided evidence for the involvement of the same circuits in motor imagery tasks, in the absence of overt responses. The present study aimed to test whether imagined performance of a stop-signal task produces a similar pattern of motor-related EEG activity than that observed during real performance. To this end, mu and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD and the Lateralized Readiness Potential (LRP were analyzed. The study also aimed to clarify the functional significance of the Stop-N2 and Stop-P3 ERP components, which were also obtained during both real and imagined performance. The results showed a common pattern of brain electrical activity, and with a similar time course, during covert performance and overt execution of the stop-signal task: presence of LRP and Stop-P3 in the imagined condition and identical LRP onset, and similar mu and beta ERD temporal windows for both conditions. These findings suggest that a similar inhibitory network may be activated during both overt and covert execution of the task. Therefore, motor imagery may be useful to improve inhibitory skills and to develop new communicating systems for Brain Computer Interface (BCI devices based on inhibitory signals.

  2. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontweka, Lameck N.; Deng, Lul O.; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K.; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A.; Wamala, Joseph F.; Bior, Bior K.; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A.; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4–6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5–95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4–100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2–93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8–85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7–100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5–100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited. PMID:27992488

  3. Cholera Rapid Test with Enrichment Step Has Diagnostic Performance Equivalent to Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontweka, Lameck N; Deng, Lul O; Rauzier, Jean; Debes, Amanda K; Tadesse, Fisseha; Parker, Lucy A; Wamala, Joseph F; Bior, Bior K; Lasuba, Michael; But, Abiem Bona; Grandesso, Francesco; Jamet, Christine; Cohuet, Sandra; Ciglenecki, Iza; Serafini, Micaela; Sack, David A; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Azman, Andrew S; Luquero, Francisco J; Page, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Cholera rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) could play a central role in outbreak detection and surveillance in low-resource settings, but their modest performance has hindered their broad adoption. The addition of an enrichment step may improve test specificity. We describe the results of a prospective diagnostic evaluation of the Crystal VC RDT (Span Diagnostics, India) with enrichment step and of culture, each compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), during a cholera outbreak in South Sudan. RDTs were performed on alkaline peptone water inoculated with stool and incubated for 4-6 hours at ambient temperature. Cholera culture was performed from wet filter paper inoculated with stool. Molecular detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 by PCR was done from dry Whatman 903 filter papers inoculated with stool, and from wet filter paper supernatant. In August and September 2015, 101 consecutive suspected cholera cases were enrolled, of which 36 were confirmed by PCR. The enriched RDT had 86.1% (95% CI: 70.5-95.3) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 94.4-100) specificity compared to PCR as the reference standard. The sensitivity of culture versus PCR was 83.3% (95% CI: 67.2-93.6) for culture performed on site and 72.2% (95% CI: 54.8-85.8) at the international reference laboratory, where samples were tested after an average delay of two months after sample collection, and specificity was 98.5% (95% CI: 91.7-100) and 100% (95% CI: 94.5-100), respectively. The RDT with enrichment showed performance comparable to that of culture and could be a sustainable alternative to culture confirmation where laboratory capacity is limited.

  4. Evaluation of some Information Retrieval models for Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    J., Joshi Hardik; Jyoti, Pareek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the work towards Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Retrieval task for widely used Information Retrieval (IR) models. We present an indexing baseline for the Gujarati Language represented by Mean Average Precision (MAP) values. Our objective is to obtain a relative picture of a better IR model for Gujarati Language. Results show that Classical IR models like Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TF_IDF) performs better when compared to few recent probabilistic IR models. Th...

  5. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria. Keywords : annual equivalent value, benefit cost ratio, composite performance index, valuation appraisal

  6. Neural differences between monolinguals and early bilinguals in their native language during comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, P; González, J; Ventura-Campos, N; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Sanjuán, A; Ávila, C

    2015-11-01

    Research has shown that semantic processing of sentences engages more activity in the bilingual compared to the monolingual brain and, more specifically, in the inferior frontal gyrus. The present study aims to extend those results and examines whether semantic and also grammatical sentence processing involve different cerebral structures when testing in the native language. In this regard, highly proficient Spanish/Catalan bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals made grammatical and semantic judgments in Spanish while being scanned. Results showed that both types of judgments recruited more cerebral activity for bilinguals in language-related areas including the superior and middle temporal gyri. Such neural differences co-occurred with similar performance at the behavioral level. Taken together, these data suggest that early bilingualism shapes the brain and cognitive processes in sentence comprehension even in their native language; on the other hand, they indicate that brain over activation in bilinguals is not constrained to a specific area.

  7. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  9. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  10. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  11. A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.

  12. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this research article a study is made of the approach followed to compile the first-ever monolingual dictionary for Lusoga. Lusoga is a Bantu language spoken in Uganda by slightly over two mil-lion people. Being an under-resourced language, the Lusoga orthography had to be designed, a grammar written, and a corpus built, before embarking on the compilation of the dictionary. This compilation was aimed at attaining an academic degree, hence requiring a rigorous research methodology. Firstly, the prevail-ing methods for compiling dictionaries were mainly practical and insufficient in explaining the theoretical linguistic basis for dictionary compilation. Since dictionaries are based on meaning, the theory of meaning was used to account for all linguistic data considered in dictionaries. However, meaning is considered at a very abstract level, far removed from the process of compiling dictionaries. Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different parts of the dictionary article or dictionary information in general. Secondly, the research also had to contend with the different approaches for analysing Bantu languages for Bantu and European audiences. A descrip-tion of the Bantu- and European-centred approaches to Bantu studies was undertaken in respect of (a the classification of Lusoga words, and (b the specification of their citations. As a result, Lusoga lexicography deviates from the prevailing Bantu classification and citation of nouns, adjectives and verbs in particular. The dictionary was tested on two separate occasions and all the feedback was considered in the compilation pro-cess. This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

  13. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English monolingu

  14. Word Magic Revisited: Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Understanding of the Word-Object Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)

  15. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them. Keywords: monolingual dictionary, learning strategies, language acquisition, lexicography

  16. Annual Equivalent Value, Benefit Cost Ratio, and Composite Performance Index as Valuation Appraisal Support of Teakwood Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Soeleman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis L.f is a premium high-value hardwood species being viewed as the most preferred species for investment opportunity. Recently, there has been a gradual move away from state control of teakwood plantation toward the participation of private enterprises. Several enterprises offer investment opportunity of teakwood plantation in which one of the main selling points being offered is a quick harvesting schedule. A quick harvesting time, however, might not provide the best outcome to the investors. This research exercise and compare the valuation appraisal of different harvesting schedules. The research focused on project planning, enterprise budget, financial projection, and valuation measurements to arrive at overall appraisal. To avoid any possible bias of individual investor's preference on common valuation criteria such as total investment, net cash flow (NCF, net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, profit on investment (P/I, and payback period (PBP, 3 otherS criteria namely benefit cost ratio (BCR, annual equivalent value (AEV, and composite performance index (CPI have been applied to arrive at a more fair valuation. It is concluded that the longer the harvesting schedule, the better valuation outcome could be achieved, and therefore, investors should critically review any investment proposal in accordance to their preference on valuation criteria.

  17. Development of an offline bidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of stereospecific triacylglycerols in cocoa butter equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Le, Thien Trung; Dewettinck, Koen

    2013-08-21

    Acyl migration is a serious problem in enzymatic modification of fats and oils, particularly in production of cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymatic acidolysis reaction, which leads to the formation of non-symmetrical triacylglycerols (TAGs) from symmetrical TAGs. Non-symmetrical TAGs may affect the physical properties of final products and are therefore often undesired. Consequently, an accurate method is needed to determine positional isomer TAGs during the production of CBE. A bidimentional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with combination of non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC and silver ion HPLC joining with an evaporative light scattering detector was successfully developed for the analysis of stereospecific TAGs. The best separation of positional isomer standards was obtained with a heptane/acetone mobile-phase gradient at 25 °C and 1 mL/min. The developed method was then used in multidimensional determination of the TAG positional isomers in fat and oil blends and successfully identified the TAGs and possible isomers in enzymatically acidolyzed CBE.

  18. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  19. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  20. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…

  2. School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…

  3. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  4. Stakeholder Perspectives on CLIL in a Monolingual Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Nina K.

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a study concerning the perspectives on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the monolingual context of Jaén. The research has involved the design, validation and administration of two sets of questionnaires to 745 informants (692 students and 53 teachers) within eight secondary schools with a…

  5. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    ... (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a : b :: c : d). Therefore, some researchers have argued that equivalence-equivalence can serve as a behavior analytic model for analogical reasoning...

  6. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: fparra@mit.edu, E-mail: catto@psfc.mit.edu

    2009-06-15

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  7. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.

    2009-06-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  8. Variation, synonymie et equivalence terminologique dans les dictionnaires de médecine monolingues et bilingues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Almeida Barros

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    L'existence de variantes et de quasi-synonymes terminologiques dans un même domaine est une réalité constatée par plusieurs études en terminologie descriptive. Les termes techniques/scientifiques coexistent avec les variantes populaires, régionales, orthographiques, syntaxiques et autres. En analysant certains dictionnaires terminologiques spécialisés en médecine, nous avons remarqué que les variantes et les quasi-synonymes ne font pas l'objet d'un traitement terminographique et ne participent donc pas de la nomenclature. Il est ainsi difficile à quelqu'un qui ne connaît que l'une de ces unités terminologiques d'entrer dans ces ouvrages et d'avoir accès à l'information désirée. Dans cet article nous faisons une analyse du traitement terminographique donné aux variantes et aux quasi-synonymes terminologiques dans certains dictionnaires de médecine, plus spécifiquement dans certains ouvrages de dermatologie, et présentons une proposition d'organisation du système de renvois qui prend en considération l'existence de plusieurs termes pour désigner un même concept.

  9. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  10. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  11. Durability and Performance of Polystyrene-b-Poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) Diblock Copolymer and Equivalent Blend Anion Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Anion exchange membranes (AEM) are solid polymer electrolytes that facilitate ion transport in fuel cells. In this study... Anion Exchange Membranes The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official...Copolymer and Equivalent Blend Anion Exchange Membranes Report Title Anion exchange membranes (AEM) are solid polymer electrolytes that facilitate ion

  12. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6 years, but conflicting findings suggest that even 6 years in school is not enough. Most studies on long-term L2 development have focused on just one linguistic sub-domain, vocabulary, and have not included multiple individual difference factors. For the present study, Chinese first language-English L2 children were given standardized measures of vocabulary, grammar and global comprehension every year from 4 ½ to 6 ½ years of English in school (ages 8½ to 10½); language environment factors were obtained through an extensive parent questionnaire. Children converged on monolingual norms differentially according to the test, with the majority of children reaching monolingual levels of performance on the majority of tests by 5 ½ years of English exposure. Individual differences in outcomes were predicted by length of English exposure, mother's education, mother's English fluency, child's use of English in the home, richness/quality of the English input outside school and age of arrival in Canada. In sum, the timeframe for bilinguals to catch up to monolinguals depends on linguistic sub-domain, task difficulty and on individual children's language environment, making 4-6 years an approximate estimate only. This study also shows that language environment factors shape not only early-stage but also late-stage bilingual development.

  13. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  14. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...

  15. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...

  16. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(®) - fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment.

  17. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  18. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Lexical Selection Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415

  20. The effect of different formulations of equivalent active ingredients on the performance of two topical wound treatment products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Jones, David P

    2004-03-01

    Product selection for the management of pressure ulcers or perineal dermatitis is typically based on consideration of active ingredients, but a growing body of evidence suggests that delivery vehicles also may influence product safety and efficacy. A 10-day, randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of two prescription products used for the treatment of pressure ulcers and perineal dermatitis. Both products contain equivalent active ingredients (balsam of Peru, castor oil, and trypsin), but one product delivers these ingredients in an ointment base while the other uses an aerosol spray. Sixty healthy volunteers (> 65 years of age) underwent intentional creation of two equivalent skin wounds (approximately 6 mm in diameter) using an Erbium-YAG laser. Volunteers served as their own control. Wounds were randomized to treatment with one of the balsam of Peru products or saline. Wounds were evaluated every other day. Significant differences between treatments were observed for most outcome variables (edema, scabbing, erythema, epithelialization). Wounds managed with the ointment-based product had lower edema, scabbing, and erythema scores and higher epithelialization scores than the spray or saline managed wounds. The results of this study confirm that formulation of the vehicle base can have a significant effect on product safety and effectiveness.

  1. Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Composition and performance of Biogas and Gasoline Exhaust from Spark Ignition Engine by Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntarakod Paramust

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical computationnal of pressure, temperature and exhaust characteristics of spark ignition engine with biogas as fuel. The solution of non-linear combustion equation systems have been computed, that based on a quasi-one-dimensional engine model, high order iteration method with the equilibrium constants method. Computer program was used to calculate the mole fractions of 10 combustion products when biogas and gasoline fuel are burnt along with variable equivalence ratios. In cylinder chamber model is based on the classical two-zone approach, wherein parameters like heat transfer from the cylinder, blow by energy loss and heat release rate are also considered and calculated. Biogas is defined as fuel produced from using anaerobic digestion of biodegradable or waste materials and the constituents are C5H7O2N, CH4, CO2 N2 H2O of biogas and C7H17 of gosoline. Which general fuel model is specified by way of its CaHbOcNd values. The curve-fitted coefficients of energy were then employed to simulate air and fuels data along with frozen composition and practical chemical equilibrium routines from Gill data. The calculated data were used to plot the various pressure and temperature with the crank angle of each step of four stroke engine cycle and combustion products versus equivalence ratio. All results were compared with gasoline as reference fuel in the spark ignition engine according to the same numerical method.

  2. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  3. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INDIVIDUAL THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSEMETERS PERFORMANCES FOR MEASURING THE DOSE EQUIVALENTS IN SKIN AND EYE LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Sheleenkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a comparative analysis of existing and newly developed thermoluminescent detectors DTG-4, TTLD-580, TLD-1011(TM and DTVS-01 and dosemeters MKD-A and MKD-B for the purposes of individual dosimetric control of skin and eye lens exposure to radiation. The dependence of sensitivity of different thermoluminescent dosemeters, designed for dose equivalents measurements in skin and eye lens on the type (photons and ȕ-particles and energy of radiation was determined experimentally. There are conclusions about the limits of applicability of existing detectors and dosemeters under different radiation exposure conditions. The article evaluates the possibility of different dosimeter use for specific radiation exposure conditions.

  5. Further Studies on Equivalence of Structure and Its Relevance to Performance of Measurement-Based Admission Control Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUIZhibo; ZHOULichao

    2005-01-01

    The advantage of Measurement-based admission control algorithms (MBACs) is that they are able to improve network utilization for the controlled-load service. Most researchers have focused primarily on designs of the Admission control equations (ACEs) of MBACs using a variety of principled and ad hoc motivations. In this paper, six typical MBACs, namely MS, HB, TP, TO, TE and MC algorithms, are discussed. First, we have proven analytically that the ACEs of TE and MC have the same structural form as the ACEs of the other four MBACs above. Second, through formal analysis we have theoretically proven that the ACEs of TE and MC, even though they are derived and motivated in quite different ways, are equivalent to the other four MBACs by tuning the adjustable parameters of MBACs. Finally, we have used also simulations to confirm our work.

  6. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes.

  7. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2015-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580

  8. Monolingual Probabilistic Programming Using Generalized Coroutines

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselyov, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic programming languages and modeling toolkits are two modular ways to build and reuse stochastic models and inference procedures. Combining strengths of both, we express models and inference as generalized coroutines in the same general-purpose language. We use existing facilities of the language, such as rich libraries, optimizing compilers, and types, to develop concise, declarative, and realistic models with competitive performance on exact and approximate inference. In particular, a wide range of models can be expressed using memoization. Because deterministic parts of models run at full speed, custom inference procedures are trivial to incorporate, and inference procedures can reason about themselves without interpretive overhead. Within this framework, we introduce a new, general algorithm for importance sampling with look-ahead.

  9. Perception of a native vowel contrast by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants : A bilingual perceptual lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Facing previous mixed findings between monolingual and bilingual infants’ phonetic development during perceptual reorganization, the current study aims at examining the perceptual development of a native vowel contrast (/I/-/i/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants. Design: We tested

  10. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  11. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  12. Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More than Monolingual Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bilingual adults use more gestures than English monolinguals. Because no study has compared the gestures of bilinguals and monolinguals in both languages, the high gesture rate could be due to transfer from a high gesture language or could result from the use of gesture to aid in linguistic access. In this study we…

  13. Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…

  14. An Iterative Method to Derive the Equivalent Centrifugal Compressor Performance at Various Operating Conditions: Part I: Modelling of Suction Parameters Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Albusaidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new iterative method to predict the equivalent centrifugal compressor performance at various operating conditions. The presented theoretical analysis and empirical correlations provide a novel approach to derive the entire compressor map corresponding to various suction conditions without a prior knowledge of the detailed geometry. The efficiency model was derived to reflect the impact of physical gas properties, Mach number, and flow and work coefficients. One of the main features of the developed technique is the fact that it considers the variation in the gas properties and stage efficiency which makes it appropriate with hydrocarbons. This method has been tested to predict the performance of two multistage centrifugal compressors and the estimated characteristics are compared with the measured data. The carried comparison revealed a good matching with the actual values, including the stable operation region limits. Furthermore, an optimization study was conducted to investigate the influences of suction conditions on the stage efficiency and surge margin. Moreover, a new sort of presentation has been generated to obtain the equivalent performance characteristics for a constant discharge pressure operation at variable suction pressure and temperature working conditions. A further validation is included in part two of this study in order to evaluate the prediction capability of the derived model at various gas compositions.

  15. Comparison of different detector performance for the assessment of neutron personal equivalent dose in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X.; Duch, M.A.; Tares, M. [Catalunya Univ. Politecnica, Instituto de Tecnicas Energeticas (Spain); Fernandez, F. [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma, Grupo de Fisica de las Radiaciones (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and to compare the performance of the most widely used neutron survey instruments in Spain with two available TLD systems and some of the new electronic neutron personal dosemeters at some selected sites of three nuclear power plants. In this paper preliminary main results of the first two measuring surveys, in the Asco 1 and Asco 2 power plants, are presented. (N.C.)

  16. Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.

  17. On Equivalence And Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贝

    2013-01-01

      Equivalence, a central and controversial issue in translation, has been studied, discussed and disputed by many scholars. For this reason, they employed various approaches and have yielded fruitful and remarkable theories. Three representative equivalence theories are selected in the thesis to elaborate equivalence:Nida’s reader-response based dynamic equivalence, Catford’s textual equivalence, Qiu Maoru’s empirical formula on equivalence. Equivalence is an applicable tool to analyze and evaluate translation.

  18. Preparation of Cauliflower-like ZnO Films by Chemical Bath Deposition:Photovoltaic Performance and Equivalent Circuit of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiao Wang; Xia Cui; Yuan Zhang; Xiaorui Gao; Yueming Sun

    2013-01-01

    The uniform cauliflower-like ZnO films were deposited on the conducting substrate by a chemical bath deposition in urea/water solution.The film structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction,thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis,energy dispersive spectroscopy,selected area electron diffraction,field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.The average diameter of ZnO nanoparticles and the petal thickness were 25 nm and 8 μm,respectively.Dyesensitized solar cells based on the cauliflower-like ZnO film electrode showed the short-circuit current density of 6.08 mA/cm2,the open-circuit photovoltage of 0.66 V,the fill factor of 0.55 and the overall conversion efficiency of 2.18%.The equivalent circuit of cells based on the ZnO film electrodes was measured by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.Furthermore,the analysis of equivalent circuit provided the relationship between the cell performance and the interfacial resistance,such as the shunt resistance and the series resistance.

  19. An Iterative Method to Derive the Equivalent Centrifugal Compressor Performance at Various Operating Conditions: Part II: Modeling of Gas Properties Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Albusaidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a study conducted to model the aerothermodynamic impact of suction parameters and gas properties on a multi-stage centrifugal compressor’s performance. A new iterative method has been developed in the first part to derive the equivalent performance at various operating conditions. This approach has been validated to predict the compressor map at different suction pressures and temperatures using the design characteristics as reference values. A further case is included in this paper in order to emphasize the validity of the developed approach to obtain the performance characteristics at various gas compositions. The provided example shows that the performance parameters at different gas mixtures can be predicted to within ±1.34%. Furthermore, the conducted optimization in this paper reveals that the proposed method can be applied for the compressor design evaluation corresponding to the expected variation in suction conditions. Moreover, the examined case study demonstrates the effect of gas properties’ variation on the operating point and aerodynamic stability of the entire compression system. In order to achieve that, a simple approach has been established to assess the contribution of gas properties’ variation to the inefficient and unstable compressor performance based on the available operational data.

  20. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  1. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  2. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  3. Derived equivalence of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1997-01-01

    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  4. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-02-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy autobiographies and measured through UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The result of this pioneering work indicated no significant difference between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals in expressing happy memories while differences were observed on sad memories. Bilinguals expressed more negative emotions in their L2 than L1. This outcome support the dominant claim that second language is the preferred language for the expression of sad emotions since it is the language of emotional detachment and distance. Further analysis on the number of words bilinguals and monolinguals used to express both sad and happy autobiographies indicated that bilinguals used more words in expressing both sad and happy autobiographies.

  5. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  6. Dublin City University at CLEF 2004: experiments in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more effective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...

  7. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  8. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.

  9. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  10. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M.; Minami, F.; Toyoda, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T.; Arimochi, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A. [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew Jg

    2014-04-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape.

  12. Motion Event Similarity Judgments in One or Two Languages: An Exploration of Monolingual Speakers of English and Chinese vs. L2 Learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinglin

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages.

  13. Motion Event Similarity Judgments in One or Two Languages: An Exploration of Monolingual Speakers of English and Chinese vs. L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinglin

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages. PMID:28638355

  14. Characterization of imaging performance in differential phase contrast CT compared with the conventional CT: Spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Xiangyang; Yang Yi; Tang Shaojie [Imaging and Medical Physics, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 1701 Uppergate Drive, C-5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT) is emerging as a new technology to improve the contrast sensitivity of conventional attenuation-based CT. The noise equivalent quanta as a function over spatial frequency, i.e., the spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), is a decisive indicator of the signal and noise transfer properties of an imaging system. In this work, we derive the functional form of NEQ(k) in DPC-CT. Via system modeling, analysis, and computer simulation, we evaluate and verify the derived NEQ(k) and compare it with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Methods: The DPC-CT is implemented with x-ray tube and gratings. The x-ray propagation and data acquisition are modeled and simulated through Fresnel and Fourier analysis. A monochromatic x-ray source (30 keV) is assumed to exclude any system imperfection and interference caused by scatter and beam hardening, while a 360 Degree-Sign full scan is carried out in data acquisition to avoid any weighting scheme that may disrupt noise randomness. Adequate upsampling is implemented to simulate the x-ray beam's propagation through the gratings G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} with periods 8 and 4 {mu}m, respectively, while the intergrating distance is 193.6 mm (1/16 of the Talbot distance). The dimensions of the detector cell for data acquisition are 32 Multiplication-Sign 32, 64 Multiplication-Sign 64, 96 Multiplication-Sign 96, and 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 {mu}m{sup 2}, respectively, corresponding to a 40.96 Multiplication-Sign 40.96 mm{sup 2} field of view in data acquisition. An air phantom is employed to obtain the noise power spectrum NPS(k), spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), and detective quantum efficiency DQE(k). A cylindrical water phantom at 5.1 mm diameter and complex refraction coefficient n= 1 -{delta}+i{beta}= 1 -2.5604 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}+i1.2353 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} is placed in air to measure the edge transfer function, line spread function

  15. Characterization of imaging performance in differential phase contrast CT compared with the conventional CT: Spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT) is emerging as a new technology to improve the contrast sensitivity of conventional attenuation-based CT. The noise equivalent quanta as a function over spatial frequency, i.e., the spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), is a decisive indicator of the signal and noise transfer properties of an imaging system. In this work, we derive the functional form of NEQ(k) in DPC-CT. Via system modeling, analysis, and computer simulation, we evaluate and verify the derived NEQ(k) and compare it with that of the conventional attenuation-based CT. Methods: The DPC-CT is implemented with x-ray tube and gratings. The x-ray propagation and data acquisition are modeled and simulated through Fresnel and Fourier analysis. A monochromatic x-ray source (30 keV) is assumed to exclude any system imperfection and interference caused by scatter and beam hardening, while a 360° full scan is carried out in data acquisition to avoid any weighting scheme that may disrupt noise randomness. Adequate upsampling is implemented to simulate the x-ray beam's propagation through the gratings G1 and G2 with periods 8 and 4 μm, respectively, while the intergrating distance is 193.6 mm (1/16 of the Talbot distance). The dimensions of the detector cell for data acquisition are 32 × 32, 64 × 64, 96 × 96, and 128 × 128 μm2, respectively, corresponding to a 40.96 × 40.96 mm2 field of view in data acquisition. An air phantom is employed to obtain the noise power spectrum NPS(k), spectrum of noise equivalent quanta NEQ(k), and detective quantum efficiency DQE(k). A cylindrical water phantom at 5.1 mm diameter and complex refraction coefficient n = 1 − δ + iβ = 1 −2.5604 × 10−7 + i1.2353 × 10−10 is placed in air to measure the edge transfer function, line spread function and then modulation transfer function MTF(k), of both DPC-CT and the conventional attenuation-based CT. The x-ray flux is set at 5 × 106 photon/cm2 per projection and

  16. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  17. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  18. Assessing linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version sexual health instruments among Chinese immigrant youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Han, Chong-Suk

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the linguistic and cultural equivalency of two Chinese-version instruments measuring sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among 10 bilingual and 2 monolingual Chinese immigrant youth aged 13-19 years. We used a rigorous design to translate, back-translate, and pilot test the instruments. Kappa coefficient, percentage agreement, and qualitative feedback from participants were used to examine reliability and validity of the instruments. Telephone interviews revealed that answer discrepancies in different language versions were due to external factors rather than lack of linguistic and cultural equivalency. This study offers preliminary evidence supporting the cultural and linguistic equivalence of two Chinese-version sexual scales.

  19. An Equivalent Gauge and the Equivalence Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    I describe a novel covariant formulation of massive gauge theories in which the longitudinal polarization vectors do not grow with the energy. Therefore in the present formalism, differently from the ordinary one, the energy and coupling power-counting is completely transparent at the level of individual Feynman diagrams, with obvious advantages both at the conceptual and practical level. Since power-counting is transparent, the high-energy limit of the amplitudes involving longitudinal particles is immediately taken, and the Equivalence Theorem is easily demonstrated at all orders in perturbation theory. Since the formalism makes the Equivalence Theorem self-evident, and because it is based on a suitable choice of the gauge, we can call it an "Equivalent Gauge".

  20. Biomechanical Performance of Medial Row Suture Placement Relative to the Musculotendinous Junction in Transosseous Equivalent Suture Bridge Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S; Bruce, Benjamin; Hussey, Kristen E; Thomas, Jacqueline M; Luthringer, Tyler A; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Wang, Vincent M; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J

    2017-02-01

    To compare the biomechanical performance of medial row suture placement relative to the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) in a cadaveric transosseous equivalent suture bridge (TOE-SB) double-row (DR) rotator cuff repair (RCR) model. A TOE-SB DR technique was used to reattach experimentally created supraspinatus tendon tears in 9 pairs of human cadaveric shoulders. The medial row sutures were passed either near the MTJ (MTJ group) or 10 mm lateral to the MTJ (rotator cuff tendon [RCT] group). After the supraspinatus repair, the specimens underwent cyclic loading and load to failure tests. The localized displacement of the markers affixed to the tendon surface was measured with an optical tracking system. The MTJ group showed a significantly higher (P = .03) medial row failure (5/9; 3 during cyclic testing and 2 during load to failure testing) compared with the RCT group (0/9). The mean number of cycles completed during cyclic testing was lower in the MTJ group (77) compared with the RCT group (100; P = .07) because 3 specimens failed in the MTJ group during cyclic loading. There were no significant differences between the 2 study groups with respect to biomechanical properties during the load to failure testing. In a cadaveric TOE-SB DR RCR model, medial row sutures through the MTJ results in a significantly higher rate of medial row failure. In rotator cuff tears with tendon tissue loss, passage of medial row sutures through the MTJ should be avoided in a TOE-SB RCR technique because of the risk of medial row failure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  3. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.

  4. Spatial role-taking ability among bilingual and monolingual kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, J

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-seven children enrolled in a bilingual Spanish kindergarten program, assigned to appropriate language and age-related groups, were shown a graduated sequence of increasingly complex arrangements of multicolored blocks and were asked to judge how the original arrangement would look from the opposite and the side perspectives. A series of 2(younger vs. older) X 3(Spanish Monolingual vs. English Monolingual vs. Spanish-English Bilingual) ANOVAs for each of the types of responses (correct, incorrect, egocentric) showed a significant main effect for age on the incorrect answers. No differences associated with egocentrism were obtained. There was no relationship between age and success with simple and complex spatial tasks. As opposed to other studies that suggest certain cognitive advantages for young bilingual children, this study indicates no perceptible differences associated with being monolingual or bilingual at the ages of 5 and 6 for spatial tasks.

  5. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  6. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  7. Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

  8. Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning in Monolinguals and Language Minority English-Speaking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…

  9. Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals/Males and Females in English Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharrad, Mohammad; Sadeghi Benis, Aram Reza

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims at finding the differences between bilingual and monolingual learners across gender in the use of cognitive, metacognitive, and total reading strategies, as well as reading comprehension ability. To this end, 50 Persian-Turkish bilinguals and 36 Persian monolinguals participated in the study. A standard test of reading…

  10. Estimation of standardised ileal threonine equivalency values of a multi-enzyme and its effects on broiler chick’s performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khalaji

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to estimate standardised ileal threonine (SID Thr equivalency of a commercial multi-enzyme and its effects on broiler chick’s performance. The 10 treatments included a basal diet containing 0.56% and 0.46% SID Thr in starter and grower periods; treatments 2 to 5 were supplemented with graded levels (0.07%, 0.14%, 0.21% and 0.28% of L-threonine and treatments 6 to 10 were basal diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g/kg of multi-enzyme. Supple menting diets with multi-enzyme significantly (P<0.01 improved the feed conversion ratio at 28 and 42 d of age. Multi-enzyme addition linearly increased body weight gain (P<0.05 at 28 d of age and the immune response (P<0.05 at 36 d of age. Breast, thigh and abdominal fat relative weights were not affected by supplementing the multi-enzyme. Nonlinear and linear equations were generated for the multi-enzyme and graded levels of threonine. Based on an assessment for the r2 and P values of the equation, body weight gain, immune response and feed conversion ratio were sensitive measurements of responses to multi-enzyme addition. The nonlinear or linear response equation with the higher r2 values for added L-threonine and the equation for added multi-enzyme were set to be equal and were solved. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio responses from 0.5 g multi-enzyme per kg of diet at 28 and 42 d of age was therefore equal to 0.08%, 0.05%, 0.16% and 0.07% SID Thr, respectively, and the immune response from 0.5 g multi-enzyme per kg of diet was equal to 0.14% SID Thr.

  11. THE COMPARISON OF THE MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL JAPANESE STUDENTS IN THE ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are betterin the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data weretaken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding theirlanguage background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in SeniorHigh School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score.The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals arebetter learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.

  12. Bilingual Children's Long-Term Outcomes in English as a Second Language: Language Environment Factors Shape Individual Differences in Catching up with Monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6…

  13. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  14. Equivalence principles exotica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S. UNNIKRISHNAN; George T. GILLIES

    2008-01-01

    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  15. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Changchun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are performed for the test of the equivalent model of micro-grid. The simulation results show that the equivalent model of micro-grid is effective, and the dynamic of equivalent model is similar with the detailed model of micro-grid. The equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid network and distributed components is suitable for the study of micro-grid.  

  16. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  17. Priming a Perspective in Spanish Monolingual Children: The Use of Syntactic Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    We used a syntactic priming paradigm to show priming effects for active and passive forms in monolingual Spanish-speaking four- and five-year-olds. In a baseline experiment, we examined children's use of the "fue"-passive form and found it was virtually non-existent in their speech, although they produced important elements of the form. Children…

  18. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  19. Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ghada

    2001-05-01

    VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

  20. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  1. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  2. Defying Monolingual Education: Alternative Bilingual Discourse Practices in Selected Coloured Schools in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how bilingual learners and teachers challenge the monolingual discourses prescribed in language education policy and models in pursuit of voice and agency in classroom interaction. Through an examination of observation, interview and classroom interaction data in selected coloured primary and secondary schools in Cape Town, the…

  3. A Comparative Study of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Monolingual and Bilingual Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Keshavarz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers argue that linguistic knowledge of one’s native language facilitates the acquisition of additional languages (see, for example, Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Grenfell & Harris, 2006; Hakuta, 1990; Keshavarz & Astaneh, 2004. To contribute to this line of research, the present study investigated the probability of significant differences among monolingual and bilingual EFL learners in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive reading strategies and in the subscales of these strategies (i.e., global, supportive, and problem-solving strategies. To achieve this goal, 100 Persian monolingual and 100 Azeri Turkish-Persian bilingual male and female second-year university students, majoring in English Literature, ELT, and Translation with the age range of 20-28 participated in the study.  Both groups took the Nelson Test of English language proficiency and completed the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI questionnaire. Participants’ reading strategy use was determined by asking them to rate their self-perceived reading ability in English on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of data analyses revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilingual learners in the use of overall and global metacognitive reading strategies with bilingual learners having greater awareness of these two strategies. However, no significant difference was found between monolingual and bilingual participants in the use of problem-solving and supportive metacognitive strategies.

  4. Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    These guidelines are applicable in the sector of information and documentation for the preparation and development of monolingual thesauri for information storage and retrieval, irrespective of the technical field being dealt with. No provision has been made for mathematical and structural chemical formulae. The guidelines are drafted for general…

  5. Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…

  6. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  7. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  8. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  9. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and

  10. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  11. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-03-02

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese.

  12. T-complex measures in bilingual Spanish-English and Turkish-German children and monolingual peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Tanja; Shafer, Valerie L.; Kiefer, Markus; Vidal, Nancy; Yu, Yan H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lateral temporal neural measures (Na and T-complex Ta and Tb) of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index maturation of auditory/speech processing. These measures are also sensitive to language experience in adults. This paper examined neural responses to a vowel sound at temporal electrodes in four- to five-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and in five- to six-year-old Turkish-German bilinguals and German monolinguals. The goal was to determine whether obligatory AEPs at temporal electrode sites were modulated by language experience. Language experience was defined in terms of monolingual versus bilingual status as well as the amount and quality of the bilingual language experience. Method AEPs were recorded at left and right temporal electrode sites to a 250-ms vowel [Ɛ] from 20 monolingual (American)-English and 18 Spanish-English children from New York City, and from 11 Turkish-German and 13 monolingual German children from Ulm, Germany. Language background information and standardized verbal and non-verbal test scores were obtained for the children. Results The results revealed differences in temporal AEPs (Na and Ta of the T-complex) between monolingual and bilingual children. Specifically, bilingual children showed smaller and/or later peak amplitudes than the monolingual groups. Ta-amplitude distinguished monolingual and bilingual children best at right electrode sites for both the German and American groups. Amount of experience and type of experience with the target language (English and German) influenced processing. Conclusions The finding of reduced amplitudes at the Ta latency for bilingual compared to monolingual children indicates that language specific experience, and not simply maturational factors, influences development of the neural processes underlying the Ta AEP, and suggests that lateral temporal cortex has an important role in language-specific speech perception development. PMID:28267801

  13. Assessment of ambient dose equivalent rate performance of an automatic survey meter as an instrument to quantify the presence of radiation in soils

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, E M; Okuno, E

    2002-01-01

    Those who work in radiation protection are faced with various quantities that were created to account for the effects of ionizing radiation in the human body. As far as the experimental point of view is concerned, each available equipment is planned to measure a distinct quantity, for a specific radiation protection application, and it is not always clear which one it is. This paper shows a series of tests, planned and applied to a portable gamma ray spectrometer, in order to assure that the monitoring low dose levels of radiation with it is reliable. The equipment is fully automated and does not allow modifications of the conversion factors from counts to ambient dose equivalent. It is therefore necessary to assure that the values provided by the equipment are correct and refer to the actual situation one expects to find in practice. The system is based on an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, mounted with its electronics in a portable case, suitable for field measurements. It measures ambient dose equivalent r...

  14. A time sharing cross-sectional study of monolinguals and bilinguals at different levels of second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1986-10-01

    Several methodological factors associated with the concurrent activities (finger-tapping) paradigm were considered in a cross-sectional study investigating cerebral patterns of asymmetry in three groups of English-speaking non-Hispanic dextral males at three levels of second language (Spanish) acquisition and one control group of monolinguals. Results revealed the fluent bilinguals to be bilateral and significantly different from other groups for native language tasks in English. Moreover, a priori contrasts indicate that greater right- than left-hand disruption in concurrent tapping may be typical of monolinguals, but can be influenced by other factors. Monolingual reliability test-retest correlations were .77 and .47.

  15. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  16. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  17. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  18. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  19. Mass Equivalent Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Bai, Shaoping; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 2-DoF dyad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of balanced mechanisms, for instance to increase or reduce the number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its balance. Also it can be used as

  20. Mass equivalent triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 3-DoF triad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of shaking force balanced and statically balanced mechanisms, for instance to add or remove a number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its

  1. Equivalence of Differential System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Using refiecting function of Mironenko we construct some differential systems which are equivalent to the given differential system.This gives us an opportunity to find out the monodromic matrix of these periodi csystems which are not integrable in finite terms.

  2. Psychotherapy across languages: beliefs, attitudes and\\ud practices of monolingual and multilingual therapists\\ud with their multilingual patients

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, B; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates beliefs, attitudes and practices of 101 monolingual and multilingual therapists in their interactions with multilingual patients. We adopted a\\ud mixed-method approach, using an on-line questionnaire with 27 closed questions which were analysed quantitatively and informed questions in interviews with one monolingual\\ud and two multilingual therapists. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 41% of the variance. The first dime...

  3. Durability and performance of polystyrene- b -poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) diblock copolymer and equivalent blend anion exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandiver, Melissa A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Caire, Benjamin R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Poskin, Zach [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Li, Yifan [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Seifert, Sönke [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Knauss, Daniel M. [Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Herring, Andrew M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401; Liberatore, Matthew W. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401

    2014-11-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) are solid polymer electrolytes that facilitate ion transport in fuel cells. In this study, a polystyrene-b-poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) diblock copolymer was evaluated as potential AEM and compared with the equivalent homopolymer blend. The diblock had a 92% conversion of reactive sites with an IEC of 1.72 ± 0.05 mmol g-1, while the blend had a 43% conversion for an IEC of 0.80 ± 0.03 mmol g-1. At 50°C and 95% relative humidity, the chloride conductivity of the diblock was higher, 24–33 mS cm-1, compared with the blend, 1–6 mS cm-1. The diblock displayed phase separation on the length scale of 100 nm, while the blend displayed microphase separation (~10 μm). Mechanical characterization of films from 40 to 90 microns thick found that elasticity and elongation decreased with the addition of cations to the films. At humidified conditions, water acted as a plasticizer to increase film elasticity and elongation. While the polystyrene-based diblock displayed sufficient ionic conductivity, the films' mechanical properties require improvement, i.e., greater elasticity and strength, before use in fuel cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015, 132, 41596.

  4. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension.

  5. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension. PMID:27110579

  6. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times...

  7. Assimilation of Airborne Snow Observatory Snow Water Equivalent to Improve Runoff Forecasting Model Performance and Reservoir Management During Warm and Dry Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, B. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) NASA-JPL demonstration mission has collected detailed snow information for portions of the Tuolumne Basin in California for three years, 2013 - 2015. Both 2014 and 2015 were low snow years, and 2015 was exceptionally warm and analogous to future years after climate change. The ASO uses an imaging spectrometer and LiDAR sensors mounted in an aircraft to collect snow depth and extent data, and snow albedo. By combining ground and modeled density fields, the ~weekly flights over the Tuolumne produced both basin-wide and detailed sub-basin snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates that were provided to Hetch Hetchy Reservoir operators. The data were also assimilated into an hydrologic simulation model in an attempt to improve the accuracy and timing of a runoff forecasting tool that can be used to improve the management of Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, the source of 85% of the water supply for 2.6 million people on the San Francisco Peninsula. The USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System was calibrated to the 1181 square kilometer basin and simulation results compared to observed runoff with and without assimilation of ASO data. Simulated and observed were also compared with observed with both single updates associated with each flight, and with sequential updates from each flight. Sequential updating was found to improve correlation between observed and simulated reservoir inflows, and there by improve the ability of reservoir operators to more efficiently allocate the last half of the recession limb of snowmelt inflow and be assured of filling the reservoir and minimizing ecologically-damaging late season spills.

  8. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training.

  9. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  10. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development.

  11. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  12. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  13. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  14. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  15. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.

  16. DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-30

    The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.

  17. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  18. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  19. A Cultural Perspective on Sexual Health: HIV Positive and Negative Monolingual Hispanic Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Vamos, Szonja; Jones, Deborah L; Lopez, Eliot; Weiss, Stephen M

    2011-06-01

    This study explored feelings and attitudes with regard to HIV and sexual health among 82 monolingual Spanish-speaking, HIV-positive (n = 30) and at-risk women (n = 52), participating in the NOW en Español Project-a cognitive behavioral sexual risk-reduction intervention in Miami, Florida. Hispanic cultural values and beliefs, such as machismo, marianismo, and sexual silence, emerged throughout the intervention as important determinants of sexual behavior. Recommendations for integrating these culture-specific issues in sexual health interventions for Hispanic women are provided.

  20. Designing for Diversity: The Role of Reading Strategies and Interactive Vocabulary in a Digital Reading Environment for Fifth-Grade Monolingual English and Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…

  1. Exploring Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about the Monolingual Approach: Differences between Pre-Service and In-Service Korean Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The non-native English-speaking teachers' (NNESTs) beliefs about the monolingual approach have not been sufficiently studied in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). In examining the NNESTs' beliefs about that issue, the present study adapts Guy Cook's recent framework, according to which the monolingual approach is based upon four…

  2. The Persistence and Functional Impact of English Language Difficulties Experienced by Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Monolingual Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-07-12

    This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers, who either met monolingual criteria for language impairment or typical development on the language battery in Year 1, were compared on language growth between Year 1 and Year 3 and on attainment in national curriculum assessments in Year 2 (ages 6-7 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers who met monolingual criteria for language impairment in Year 1 continued to display comparably impaired overall language ability 2 years later in Year 3. Moreover, these groups displayed comparably low levels of academic attainment in Year 2, demonstrating comparable functional impact of their language difficulties. Monolingual-normed language batteries in the majority language may have some practical value for identifying bilingual children who need support with language learning, regardless of the origin of their language difficulties.

  3. Do Young Bilinguals Acquire Past Tense Morphology like Monolinguals, Only Later? Evidence from French-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Song, Jianhui; Marentette, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preschool bilingual children lag behind same-aged monolinguals in their production of correct past tense forms. This lag has been attributed to bilinguals' less frequent exposure to either language. If so, bilingual children acquire the past tense like monolinguals, only later. In this study, we compared the…

  4. To what extent does bilingualism affect children's performance on the NEPSY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, L C; Kelly, T P

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven monolingual and 27 bilingual children aged between 6 and 7 years were assessed using the core subtests of the NEPSY, a children's neuropsychological assessment. Bilingual children scored lower than monolingual children in the Language domain and their performance was comparable with the monolingual children in the domains of Attention/Executive Functioning, Sensorimotor, Visuospatial, and Memory. The NEPSY correlates well with measures of academic achievement. It is concluded that the NEPSY is relatively insensitive to cultural factors and appears to be insensitive to bilingualism in the neuropsychological assessment of bilingual children in the United Kingdom.

  5. Barriers and successful strategies to antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected monolingual Spanish-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D A; Roberts, K Johnston; Hoffman, D; Molina, A; Lu, M C

    2003-04-01

    Focus groups were conducted with HIV-infected, monolingual Spanish-speaking patients (N = 81) taking antiretrovirals in order to: (1) determine what barriers impede medication adherence; (2) determine what strategies facilitate adherence; and (3) investigate the health care provider-patient relationship and whether it impacts adherence. Both quantitative and qualitative information was gathered. Participants were prescribed an average of 11 pills per day (M = 11.4, SD = 7.0, range = 1-30). Only 32% of participants were consistently adherent when self-report of medication taking (yesterday, the day before yesterday, and last Saturday) was compared to prescribed regimen. The most frequently reported strategies were: learning more about the medications (77%), accepting the need to take them (75%) and refilling prescriptions early or on time (70%). Barriers most often reported were: feeling depressed or overwhelmed (21%), simply forgetting (19%) and sleeping through a dose (17%). From the qualitative data, four main issues emerged: patient characteristics, the health care professional-patient relationship, language and cultural barriers within the health care system, and the medication regimen. Among this Latino sample, having someone to live for was extremely important in terms of patient adherence. Language barriers were reported, and the use of translators was not always seen as a sufficient remedy. Differences between monolingual Spanish-speaking patients' and English-speaking patients' strategies and barriers are discussed.

  6. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  7. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  8. Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?

    CERN Document Server

    Sk., Nayem

    2016-01-01

    Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.

  9. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  10. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  11. Linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge as components of reading comprehension in adolescent low achievers: differences between monolinguals and bilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.J.W.; Van Gelderen, Amos; Van Steensel, Roel; Van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehen

  12. Subject-Verb Agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Monolingual and Bilingual German-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothweiler, Monika; Chilla, Solveig; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates phenomena that have been claimed to be indicative of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on subject-verb agreement marking. Longitudinal data from fourteen German-speaking children with SLI, seven monolingual and seven Turkish-German successive bilingual children, were examined. We found similar patterns…

  13. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  14. The Acquisition of Speech Rhythm by Three-Year-Old Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Cantonese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of speech rhythm by Cantonese-English bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers. Languages can be classified in terms of rhythmic characteristics that define English as stress-timed and Cantonese as syllable-timed. Few studies have examined the concurrent acquisition of rhythmically…

  15. Syntactic, Semantic and Pragmatic Correlates of the Acquisition of Exhaustivity in "Wh"-Questions: A Study of Polish Monolingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forys-Nogala, Malgorzata; Haman, Ewa; Katsos, Napoleon; Krajewski, Grzegorz; Schulz, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between acquisition of exhaustivity in single and multiple "wh"-questions, mastery of semantic and pragmatic aspects of quantifier comprehension, and general skills in receptive grammar. The participants of the study were 25 Polish monolingual typically developing children aged 4;02-6;02, who were…

  16. The Production of Referring Expressions in Oral Narratives of Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers and Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which the production of referring expressions such as noun phrases and pronouns to fulfill various discourse functions in narratives of Chinese-English bilingual children matches that of their monolingual peers in each of the two languages. Spoken narratives in English and Chinese were elicited from 30 9-year-old…

  17. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb ag

  18. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M.; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostic, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-01-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low…

  19. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  20. Creating the DISEQuA corpus: a multilingual test set for the monolingual question Answering tasks at CLEF 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnini, B.; Romagnoli, S.; Vallin, A.; Herrera, J.; Peñas, A.; Peinado, V.; Verdejo, F.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure adopted by the three co-ordinators of the CLEF 2003 question answering track (ITC-irst, UNED and ILLC) to create the question set for the monolingual tasks. Despite thelittle resources available, the three groups collaborated and managed to formulate and verify a l

  1. Metacognitions about Language Skill and Working Memory among Monolingual and Bilingual College Students: When Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Sarah; Barbier, Marie-Laure; Niit, Toomas

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in working memory (WM) are highly predictive of a wide range of cognitive behaviours. Until recently, research has focused on monolingual, or undifferentiated, populations. The present research compares metacognitive awareness, as measured by self-ratings of reading, writing, speaking and…

  2. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  3. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-08-10

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  5. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  6. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  7. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  8. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  9. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual‐Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    ...‐task performance, musicians also outperformed non‐musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest...

  10. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  11. Heat Pump Performance Analysis Software Based on the Equivalent Thermodynamic Transformation Analysis Method%基于等价热力变换分析法的热泵性能分析软件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈则韶; 谢文海; 胡芃; 贾磊

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种等价热力变换分析法的原理及基于该方法研发的热泵性能分析软件。等价热力变换分析法,是通过定义系统能量交换过程和循环的等效热力温度,把实际热泵内不可逆循环等价变换为逆卡诺循环进行分析的方法;其使用的3个关键参数:等价逆卡诺循环的等效热源温度、等效冷凝温度和热泵理论循环的输出热流量,根据物性数据库拟合获得。而后,根据等价热力变换分析法,编制了热泵性能分析与优化软件。软件包括4个主功能模块:热泵性能单值分析、热泵性能区间分析、热泵有效能单值分析以及热泵有效能区间分析。通过选择相应的工质,并输入相应的设计参数,用户能够方便地获得相应工况下热泵的性能参数以及各环节有效能消耗数据。本软件适合变工况性能的模拟和预测,对热泵设计单位和用户有参考价值。%An equivalent thermodynamic transformation analysis method ( ETTAM ) and based on it a heat pump performance analysis software was been proposed .ETTAM is a transformation of the actual heat pump irreversible cycles into the equivalent re -verse Carnot cycles by defining the effective thermodynamic temperature ( ETT) of the system energy exchange process and cycle . The functions of three key parameters in ETTAM:the effective heat source temperature of the reverse Carnot cycle , the effective condensing temperature and the output heat flow of theoretical cycle have been obtained by fitting thermo -physical properties data . According to ETTAM, the heat pump performance analysis software is compiled .The software includes four main functional mod-ules, the heat pump performance single-value analysis, the heat pump performance interval analysis , heat pump exergy single-valued analysis and heat pump exergy interval analysis .The performance parameters with corresponding conditions and exergy consumption of various

  12. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Sandeep K., E-mail: sandeep.goyal@ucalgary.ca [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Diósi, Lajos [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.

  13. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  14. Bilingualism and linguistic politics in Brazil: From monolingual unreality to plurilingual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ortiz Preuss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current article discusses the linguistic policies inBrazil and problematizes explicit or underlying notions of bilingualism in official documents. Different concepts of bilingualism over time are analyzed from a bibliographic and documental study. Further, the types of bilingualism contemplated by linguistic policies are investigated. The status of Portuguese, indigenous, foreign, sign and immigrant languages in these documents is discussed, as well as the legal attitudes related to bilingualism in communities of immigrants, indigenous, deaf and descendants of Negro slaves. An initial legal ambiguity may be noted when essentially monolingual linguistic policies are prioritized. A mild progress has occurred during the last few years, mainly, those related to the acknowledgement of indigenous communities as bi/multilingual. In fact, Brazil’s plurilingual condition and its pluricultural characteristics have not been yet acknowledged.

  15. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.

  16. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  17. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  18. General Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of Microgrid Based on Physical Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Cai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid is a new power system concept consisting of small-scale distributed energy resources; storage devices and loads. It is necessary to employ a simplified model of microgrid in the simulation of a distribution network integrating large-scale microgrids. Based on the detailed model of the components, an equivalent model of microgrid is proposed in this paper. The equivalent model comprises two parts: namely, equivalent machine component and equivalent static component. Equivalent machine component describes the dynamics of synchronous generator, asynchronous wind turbine and induction motor, equivalent static component describes the dynamics of photovoltaic, storage and static load. The trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent model parameters with respect to the output variables are analyzed. The key parameters that play important roles in the dynamics of the output variables of the equivalent model are identified and included in further parameter estimation. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is improved for the parameter estimation of the equivalent model. Simulations are performed in different microgrid operation conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the equivalent model of microgrid.

  19. Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zesheng LU; Binghui MA

    2008-01-01

    In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.

  20. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  1. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods. PMID:28220075

  2. IMPROVED RANDOMIZED ALGORITHM FOR THE EQUIVALENT 2-CATALOG SEGMENTATION PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An improved randomized algorithm of the equivalent 2-catalog segmentation problem is presented. The result obtained in this paper makes some progress to answer the open problem by analyze this algorithm with performance guarantee. A 0.6378-approximation for the equivalent 2-catalog segmentation problem is obtained.

  3. On the equivalence theorem for integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melikyan, A; Rivelles, V O

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the equivalence theorem for integrable systems using two formulations of the Alday-Arutyunov-Frolov model. We show that the S-matrix is invariant under the field transformation which reduces the non-linear Dirac brackets of one formulation into the standard commutation relations in the second formulation. We also explain how to perform the direct diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian by constructing the states corresponding to self-adjoint extensions.

  4. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  5. Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.

  6. Morita Equivalence for Factorisable Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qun CHEN; K. P. SHUM

    2001-01-01

    Recall that the semigroups S and R are said to be strongly Morita equivalent if there exists a unitary Morita context (S,R,S PR,RQs, <, []) with < and [] surjective. For a factorisable semigroup S, we denote s = {(s1, s2) ∈ S× S | ss1 =ss2,s ∈ S}, S' = S/s and US-FAct= {sM ∈S- Act|SM = M and SHoms(S, M) ≌ M}. We show that, for factorisable semigroups S and R, the categories US-FAct and UR-FAct are equivalent if and only if the semigroups S' and R' are strongly Morita equivalent. Some conditions for a factorisable semigroup to be strongly Morita equivalent to a sandwich semigroup, local units semigroup, monoid and group separately are also given. Moreover, we show that a semigroup S is completely simple if and only if S is strongly Morita equivalent to a group and for any index set I, S SHoms(S,Ⅱi∈ S)→Ⅱi∈S, s t·f→(st)f is an S-isomorphism.

  7. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and values. Language is also an expression of social struc-tures and attitudes. No culture can exist which does not have a natural language at its centre. A language thus reflects a particular culture. Culture in this article will be taken to mean whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardhaugh 1998: 215. The article will look at two aspects: (1 the interrelationship between language and culture and its bearing on lexicography; and (2 the treatment of cultural aspects in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (2001. Examples used in this article are drawn from the advanced Shona monolingual dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona, and other Shona dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual.

    Keywords: CULTURAL COMPETENCE, CULTURAL ASPECTS, CULTURAL MEANING, CULTURE, DICTIONARY, EUPHEMISM, EXTENDED MEANING, IDIOM, LEXICOGRAPHY, PROVERBS, SHONA, SHONA SOCIETY, TABOO

    Opsomming: Kulturele aspekte in die Sjona- eentalige woordeboek. By die samestelling van woordeboeke neem leksikograwe ook kennis van die kultuur wat inherent aan 'n taal is. Hierdie artikel sal kyk na die manier waarop die kulturele aspek verweef is met die praktyk van woordeboekmaak. Taal lê aan die kern van kultuur en dit is die hoofmedium vir die oordrag van 'n volk se opvattings en waardes. Taal is ook 'n uitdrukking van sosiale strukture en houdings. Geen kultuur kan bestaan wat nie 'n natuurlike taal as middelpunt het nie. 'n Taal weerspieël gevolglik 'n bepaalde kultuur. Kultuur in hierdie artikel sal verstaan word om alles te beteken wat 'n persoon moet weet om in 'n betrokke maatskappy te funksioneer

  8. Disregarding the Corpus: Head-word and Sense Treatment in Shona Monolingual Lexicography*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster M. Mavhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: With specific reference to Shona monolingual lexicography, this article discusses how corpus-based lexicographers might, in some instances, decide not strictly to adhere to the corpus when it comes to headword and sense treatment. The writer is a member of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI, formerly known as the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is a nonfaculty interdisciplinary unit dedicated to research on and the development of African languages in Zimbabwe. The writer is part of the six-member team that compiled the now published Shona monolingual, synchronic, medium-sized and general-purpose dictionary Du-ramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001. The article originates from the writer's experience of working on this dictionary. The article highlights the fact that being corpus-based does not necessarily imply being corpus-bound.

    Keywords: CORPUS, CORPUS-BASED, FREQUENCY, HEADWORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SENSE, SHONA, SLANG, SYNONYMS

    Opsomming: Verontagsaming van die korpus: Trefwoord- en betekenisbe-handeling in die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie. Met spesifieke verwysing na die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie bespreek hierdie artikel hoe korpusgebaseerde leksikograwe in som-mige gevalle kan besluit om nie streng by die korpus te bly wanneer dit kom by trefwoord- en betekenisbehandeling nie. Die skrywer is 'n lid van die African Language Research Institute (AL-RI, vroeër bekend as die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is 'n niefakulteits- interdissiplinêre eenheid wat hom beywer vir navorsing oor en die ontwikkeling van die Afrikatale in Zimbabwe. Die skrywer is deel van 'n span van ses lede wat die reeds gepubliseerde Sjona- een-talige, sinchroniese, middelgroot en meerdoelige woordeboek Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001 saamgestel het. Die artikel het uit die skrywer se ervaring van werk aan hierdie woordeboek ont-staan. Die artikel belig die feit dat korpusgebaseerdheid nie noodwendig

  9. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  10. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin eArslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI or indirect (-mIş evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  11. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  12. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure......In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  13. Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion due to these theories prove to exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work, inspired by the teleparallel formulation of General Relativity we present its extension to Lovelock Gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional spacetimes. First, we review Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity and Teleparallel Equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet Gravity, and then we construct Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity. In order to achieve this goal we use the vielbein and the connection, without imposing the Weitzenb\\"ock connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to be null.

  14. Mathematically Equivalent, Computationally Non-equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    and Software Comprehensibility Marvin J. Goldstein Surface Ship Sonar Department Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Report...equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Marvin Goldstein...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT In the development of mathematical software , often the formula that defines the mathematical purpose

  15. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  16. Specificity data for the b Test, Dot Counting Test, Rey-15 Item Plus Recognition, and Rey Word Recognition Test in monolingual Spanish-speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Luz; López, Enrique; Salazar, Xavier; Boone, Kyle B; Glaser, Debra F

    2015-01-01

    The current study provides specificity data on a large sample (n = 115) of young to middle-aged, male, monolingual Spanish speakers of lower educational level and low acculturation to mainstream US culture for four neurocognitive performance validity tests (PVTs): the Dot Counting, the b Test, Rey Word Recognition, and Rey 15-Item Plus Recognition. Individuals with 0 to 6 years of education performed more poorly than did participants with 7 to 10 years of education on several Rey 15-Item scores (combination equation, recall intrusion errors, and recognition false positives), Rey Word Recognition total correct, and E-score and omission errors on the b Test, but no effect of educational level was observed for Dot Counting Test scores. Cutoff scores are provided that maintain approximately 90% specificity for the education subgroups separately. Some of these cutoffs match, or are even more stringent than, those recommended for use in US test takers who are primarily Caucasian, are tested in English, and have a higher educational level (i.e., Rey Word Recognition correct false-positive errors; Rey 15-Item recall intrusions and recognition false-positive errors; b Test total time; and Dot Counting E-score and grouped dot counting time). Thus, performance on these PVT variables in particular appears relatively robust to cultural/language/educational factors.

  17. The learner as lexicographer: using monolingual and bilingual corpora to deepen vocabulary knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is one of the most challenging tasks faced by learners with a non-kanji background when learning Japanese as a foreign language. However, learners are often not aware of the range of different aspects of word knowledge they need in order to successfully use Japanese. This includes not only the spoken and written form of a word and its meaning, but also morphological, grammatical, collocational, connotative and pragmatic knowledge as well as knowledge of social constraints to be observed. In this article, we present some background data on the use of dictionaries among students of Japanese at the University of Ljubljana, a selection of resources and a series of exercises developed with the following aims: a to foster greater awareness of the different aspects of Japanese vocabulary, both from a monolingual and a contrastive perspective, b to learn about tools and methods that can be applied in different contexts of language learning and language use, and c to develop strategies for learning new vocabulary, reinforcing knowledge about known vocabulary, and effectively using this knowledge in receptive and productive language tasks.

  18. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Quenched Meson Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A numerical study of Orientifold Planar Equivalence is performed in SU(N) Yang-Mills theories for N=2,3,4,6. Quenched meson masses are extracted in the antisymmetric, symmetric and adjoint representations for the pseudoscalar and vector channels. An extrapolation of the vector mass as a function of the pseudoscalar mass to the large-N limit shows that the numerical results agree within errors for the three theories, as predicted by Orientifold Planar Equivalence. As a byproduct of the extrapolation, the size of the corrections up to O(1/N^3) are evaluated. A crucial prerequisite for the extrapolation is the determination of an analytical relationship between the corrections in the symmetric and in the antisymmetric representations, order by order in a 1/N expansion.

  19. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  20. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  1. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  2. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  3. On Functional Equivalence in the English version of Leiyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞娟; 许焕荣

    2014-01-01

    In drama translation, both performability and the individual characteristics of the work should be given adequate con-sideration. This paper applies the Functional Equivalence Theory to analyzing Thunderstorm, the English version of Leiyu, a fa-mous Chinese play, converting some unique features of the Chinese original into their English equivalents on linguistic, cultural and stylistic levels without affecting the performability of the drama.

  4. Assessment Battery for Communication: development of two equivalent forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca M; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury. Equivalent forms of the same test are useful in clinical practice and intervention research, when performance needs to be tested on two separate occasions, for example before and after a rehabilitation program. The present results provide additional evidence on the psychometric functioning of the equivalent forms of the ABaCo and their usability in a clinical context. The reader will be able to discuss the evidence of the psychometric propriety of the equivalent forms of the ABaCo and describe its potential usefulness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  6. Equivalence problem for Bishop surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper has two parts. We first briefly survey recent studies on the equivalence problem for real submanifolds in a complex space under the action of biholomorphic transformations. We will mainly focus on some of the recent studies of Bishop surfaces, which, in particular, includes the work of the authors. In the second part of the paper, we apply the general theory developed by the authors to explicitly classify an algebraic family of Bishop surfaces with a vanishing Bishop invariant. More precisely, we let M be a real submanifold of C 2 defined by an equation of the form w = zz + 2Re(z s + az s+1 ) with s≥ 3 and a a complex parameter. We will prove in the second part of the paper that for s≥ 4 two such surfaces are holomorphically equivalent if and only if the parameter differs by a certain rotation. When s = 3, we show that surfaces of this type with two different real parameters are not holomorphically equivalent.

  7. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2016-10-14

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  8. Equivalent circuit model and static performance of three phase switch reluctance motor with full bridge converter%三相全桥式SRM的等效电路模型及其静态特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庆庆; 葛宝明; 毕大强

    2013-01-01

    针对三相全桥式功率变换器驱动的短磁路互感耦合开关磁阻电机(short-flux path mutually coupled switch reluctance motors,S-MCSRM),在任意时刻必须两相同时导通的特点,提出等效磁链的概念并给出等效电路模型,推导等效磁链方程.通过有限元计算得到S-MCSRM的自感,相电感,相间互感及等效电感,并和传统开关磁阻电机(switch reluctance motors,SRM)作对比分析.此外,根据S-MCSRM转矩方程,对比分析了两种电机自感和互感随相电流变化的规律,分别得出两种电机自感和互感对输出力矩的影响,在此基础上,研究了两种电机不同开通角对转矩脉动系数的影响.研究结果表明,通过合适的控制策略,新型S-MCSRM具有较大输出力矩和较小转矩脉动系数.%A concept of equivalent flux linkage and an equivalent circuit model were presented according to the characteristic of short-flux path mutually coupled switch reluctance motor( S-MCSRM) of two phase simultaneous conduction at any time. The equivalent flux linkage equation was deduced based on proposed equivalent circuit model. Then, self-inductance, phase inductance, mutual inductance and the e-quivalent inductance of the S-MCSRM were obtained by using the finite element method (FEM) and were compared with the conventional switch reluctance motor(SRM). In addition, the characteristic of self-inductance and mutual inductance versus phase current were compared and analyzed according to the torque equation of S-MCSRM and obtains the influence of self-inductance and mutual inductance of two motors on the output torque. Based on this, the effect of different turn-on angles to torque ripple coefficient for two motors were studied. The results show that the new S-MCSRM is characterized by large output torque and low torque ripple coefficient with a proper control strategy.

  9. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  10. Improvement Comparison of Different Lattice-based Discriminative Training Methods in Chinese-monolingual and Chinese-English-bilingual Speech Recognition%各种不同的基于词格的鉴别性训练方法在中文单语以及中英双语语音识别系统中的性能改善调研及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yan-Min; SHAN Yu-Xiang; WANG Lin-Fang; LIU Jia

    2012-01-01

    Discriminative training approaches such as minimum phone error (MPE),feature minimum phone error (fMPE) and boosted maximum mutual information (BMMI) have brought remarkable improvement to the speech community in recent years,however,much work still remains to be done.This paper investigates the performances of three lattice-based discriminative training methods in detail,and does a comparison of different I-smoothing methods to obtain more robust models in the Chinese-monolingual situation.The complementary properties of the different discriminative training methods are explored to perform a system combination by recognizer output voting error reduction (ROVER).Although discriminative training is normally used in monolingual systems,this paper systematically investigates its use for bilingual speech recognition,including MPE,fMPE,and BMMI.A new method is proposed to generate significantly better lattices for training the bilingual model,and complementary discriminative training models are also explored to get the best ROVER performance in the bilingual situation.Experimental results show that all forms of discriminative training can reduce the word error rate in both monolingual and bilingual systems,and that combining complementary discriminative training methods can improve the performance significantly.

  11. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  12. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle, people have different opinions. The principle of equivalent translation may be is one of the most reason-able ones in today's translation world in my eyes. This paper focuses on the possibility and thec ondition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic, pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle. Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  13. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  14. On an equivalence of fuzzy subgroups III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Murali

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third in a series of papers studying equivalence classes of fuzzy subgroups of a given group under a suitable equivalence relation. We introduce the notion of a pinned flag in order to study the operations sum, intersection and union, and their behavior with respect to the equivalence. Further, we investigate the extent to which a homomorphism preserves the equivalence. Whenever the equivalences are not preserved, we have provided suitable counterexamples.

  15. The Lexicographic Treatment of Sublexical and Multilexical Items in a Northern Sotho Monolingual Dictionary: A Challenge for Lexicographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlokwe Clifford Mphahlele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries have in the past used a word-based approach in which sublexical and multilexical items were not regarded as lemmata. Metalexicography as the theoretical component of lexicography requires that sublexical and multilexical items be lemmatized and treated as independent lemmata in the macrostructure of dictionaries. One of the greater challenges for compiling a better and user-oriented Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary is to treat sublexical and multi-lexical items as macrostructural elements. Treating these items, the lexicographer faces quite a number of challenges. This article proposes possible ways in which sublexical and multilexical elements could be successfully treated in a Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary. Taking stock of these challenges, the writer comes with suggestions that would assist lexicographers in the compi-lation of a user-friendly, lexicon-based monolingual dictionary that would lead users to successful information retrieval.

    Keywords: SUBLEXICAL ITEMS, MULTILEXICAL ITEMS, AFFIXES, PREFIXAL MOR-PHEMES, SUFFIXAL MORPHEMES, INTEGRATED MICROSTRUCTURE, WORD-BASED APPROACH, LEMMATIZATION, COLLOCATIONS, COMPOUNDS, COMPLEXES, GROUP PREPOSITIONS, FIXED EXPRESSIONS, MORPHEMES, METALEXICOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS, WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES, WORD-INTERNAL FUNCTION, USER-ORIENTED MONO-LINGUAL DICTIONARY, GRAMMAR, HOMONYMOUS LEMMA, POLYSEMOUS LEMMA, DECODING, ENCODING, SEMANTIC COMMENT, SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese behandeling van subleksikale en multi-leksikale items in 'n Noord-Sotho- eentalige woordeboek: 'n Uitdaging vir leksikograwe. Woordeboeke het in die verlede 'n woordgebaseerde benadering gevolg waar-by subleksikale en multileksikale items nie as lemmas beskou is nie. Die metaleksikografie as die teoretiese komponent van die leksikografie vereis dat subleksikale en multileksikale items gelem-matiseer word en as onafhanklike lemmas in die makrostuktuur van woordeboeke

  16. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  17. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, N. K.

    2011-02-01

    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  18. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  19. Thermodynamic equivalence of spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, J.M. (Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium properties of systems composed of classical spin /sup 1///sub 2/ particles (Ising spins) are studied. Given an interaction pattern between the Ising spins the main problem is to calculate the equilibrium state(s) of the system. The point put forward here is the existence of many thermodynamical equivalent spin coordinate systems. As a consequence of this phenomenon the interaction pattern of a system may be very intricate when described with respect to one spin coordinate system whereas it may become simple with respect to another one and vice versa. A systematic investigation of this phenomenon is made. (FR)

  20. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...

  1. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  2. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  3. [The false equivalent Galeazzi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, A; Elibrahimi, A; Elmrini, A; Boutayeb, F

    2009-02-01

    We report the case of a false Galeazzi equivalent in children. This injury is characterised by an epiphyseal detachment of the distal extremity of the ulna rather than a distal radio-ulnar dislocation. A 16-year-old patient was injured in a fall from a bike. Radiographs showed a fracture of the radial shaft with anterior angulation, together with a type II Salter-Harris epiphyseal injury at the level of the distal ulna. We were unable to perform a closed reduction under general anesthesia due to interposition of periosteum at the fracture site. Thus surgical management was the only option, which consisted of removing the offending periosteum and performing osteosynthesis of the radial shaft fracture with a plate, and the epiphyseal detachment with pins. After 10 months, we noted no bone growth disturbance, or any reduced mobility of the wrist. We will continue the follow-up to monitor bone growth disturbance of the distal extremity of the ulna.

  4. Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei M

    2013-01-01

    We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. The most convenient way to s...

  5. ROMANIC EQUIVALENTS FOR LATIN IDIOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stefan DUMITRU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we set forth to present several of the most important aspects regarding the contrastive analysis of a well-defined number of Latin idioms in parallel with their Romanic counterparts (in French, Italian, Spanish and Romanian. Our intent was not to discover, in the Romanic space, all the equivalents of the phrases that form the corpus we work with, for reasons pertaining to material restrictions, but to discuss, based on a certain number of units, the different types of issues they may point to. The most important is to establish the relation between the idiomatic expressions in Latin and their correspondents in the above mentioned languages, regarding their inner form, their meaning and their structure.

  6. Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola

    Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.

  7. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  8. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  9. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Lin, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...

  10. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  11. Dosimetric verification of the anisotropic analytical algorithm in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Kaoru; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Physics, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan); Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 730-8527 (Japan); Center of Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, 17 Minami 1 Jo, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of dose calculations performed by the convolution/superposition based anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities. Methods: Calculations of PDDs using the AAA and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP4C) were compared to ionization chamber measurements with a heterogeneous phantom consisting of lung equivalent and bone equivalent materials. Both 6 and 10 MV photon beams of 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were used for the simulations. Furthermore, changes of energy spectrum with depth for the heterogeneous phantom using MCNP were calculated. Results: The ionization chamber measurements and MCNP calculations in a lung equivalent phantom were in good agreement, having an average deviation of only 0.64{+-}0.45%. For both 6 and 10 MV beams, the average deviation was less than 2% for the 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} fields in the water-lung equivalent phantom and the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field in the water-lung-bone equivalent phantom. Maximum deviations for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field in the lung equivalent phantom before and after the bone slab were 5.0% and 4.1%, respectively. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated an increase of the low-energy photon component in these regions, more for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field compared to the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field. Conclusions: The low-energy photon by Monte Carlo simulation component increases sharply in larger fields when there is a significant presence of bone equivalent heterogeneities. This leads to great changes in the build-up and build-down at the interfaces of different density materials. The AAA calculation modeling of the effect is not deemed to be sufficiently accurate.

  12. Adult Monolingual Policy Becomes Children's Bilingual Practice: Code-Alternation among Children and Staff in an English-Medium Preschool in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Ottesjö, Cajsa

    2016-01-01

    Parents, teachers and institutions often attempt to implement monolingual policies in bilingual settings, believing that they thereby facilitate children's bilingual development. Children, however, often have their own communicative agendas. In this study, we investigate how the twofold language policy of an English-medium preschool in Sweden is…

  13. The Role of Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Reading Comprehension among English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of vocabulary depth in reading comprehension among a diverse sample of monolingual and bilingual children in grades 2-4. Vocabulary depth was defined as including morphological awareness, awareness of semantic relations, and syntactic awareness. Two hundred ninety-four children from 3 schools in a…

  14. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  15. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  16. The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English-speaking peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K; Whiteley, H E; Hutchinson, J M

    2011-06-01

    A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. This study explores the developmental progression of reading and listening comprehension skills and a range of reading-related skills in EAL learners, whose first language is of South Asian origin, and their monolingual peers. Participants were 39 children learning EAL and 39 monolingual, English-speaking children who were all in school Year 3 at the start of the study. Children completed standardized measures of comprehension, vocabulary, reading accuracy, and reading fluency in school Year 3 and again in Year 4. The results suggest that, although children learning EAL often demonstrate fast and accurate reading accuracy skills, lower levels of vocabulary knowledge place significant constraints on EAL learners' comprehension of spoken and written texts. Reciprocal relationships between vocabulary and comprehension may lead to increasing gaps in reading comprehension between monolingual and EAL pupils over time. It is proposed that support for the development of vocabulary skills in children learning EAL is needed in early years' classrooms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  18. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  19. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  20. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  1. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  2. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  3. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  4. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  5. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues : étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such

  6. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  7. The Intercultural Turn Brought about by the Implementation of CLIL Programmes in Spanish Monolingual Areas: A Case Study of Andalusian Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez García, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In monolingual areas such as the southern Spanish Autonomous Community of Andalusia, the progressive introduction of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes in a wide range of primary and secondary schools has probably produced the biggest turning point in Spain's modern educational history. CLIL is initially focused on…

  8. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  9. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  10. The Intercultural Turn Brought about by the Implementation of CLIL Programmes in Spanish Monolingual Areas: A Case Study of Andalusian Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez García, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In monolingual areas such as the southern Spanish Autonomous Community of Andalusia, the progressive introduction of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes in a wide range of primary and secondary schools has probably produced the biggest turning point in Spain's modern educational history. CLIL is initially focused on…

  11. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...

  12. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  13. Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.

  14. Equivalent damage validation by variable cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Carlo; Ferlito, Rachele; Zucconi, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to perform a clustering analysis on the damage relieved in the old center of L'Aquila after the earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009 and to validate an Indicator of Equivalent Damage ED that summarizes the information reported on the AeDES card regarding the level of damage and their extension on the surface of the buildings. In particular we used a sample of 13442 masonry buildings located in an area characterized by a Macroseismic Intensity equal to 8 [1]. The aim is to ensure the coherence between the clusters and its hierarchy identified in the data of damage detected and in the data of the ED elaborated.

  15. Dynamic equivalent method of interconnected power systems with consideration of motor loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The existing equivalent methods usually only deal with static load models and neglect the dynamic characteristics of loads such as induction motors.This paper presents a dynamic equivalent method which considers motor dynamics.At first,the clustering criterion of motor loads is given.The motors with similar dynamic characteristics are classified into one group.Then,reduction of motors in the same group is carried out.Finally,parameters of the equivalent motor are calculated and the equivalent system is thus obtained.This aggregation method is applied to the New England system of 39-buses and 10-generators.Simulation results show that the equivalent system retains the dynamic performance of the original system with good accuracy.Compared with the 1-motor equivalent scheme,the 2-motor equivalent scheme can improve equivalent precision effectively.

  16. Investigation of the performance of digital mammographic X-ray equipment: determination of noise equivalent quanta (NEQQC) and detective quantum efficiency (DQEQC) compared with the automated analysis of CDMAM test images with CDCOM and CDIC programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, C; Buhr, H; Blendl, C

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the values for noise equivalent quanta, detective quantum efficiency, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and the values for the parameters for automated CDMAM test phantom analyses required to achieve satisfactory quality of digital mammograms. During the course of tests according to PAS 1054 (8 CR and 12 DR systems), test images were made with a test phantom insertion plate containing two lead edges in nearly horizontal and vertical directions. Only original data were processed with a program that was developed at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences (FH-Köln). All equipment systems complied with the requirements regarding visual recognition of gold-plated mammo detail test objects. CDMAM test images were also evaluated using the CDIC (CUAS) and CDCOM (EUREF) programs. CDMAM test images show comparable values for the parameters, precision, sensitivity and specificity. DR systems require about half the dose used for CR systems for similar results. The NEQ values achieved with the dose used for the CDMAM test images show larger scatter ranges. The MTF of the different equipment system types differ significantly from each other. Visual evaluation of CDMAM test images can be replaced by automated evaluation. Limiting values were determined for each parameter. Automated evaluation of CDMAM test phantom images should be used to determine the physical parameter NEQQC. This method is much more sensitive to noise and sharpness influences and has a higher validity than diagnostic methods. Automated evaluation objectivizes testing. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Metabolic equivalents during scooter exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Akira; Arimoto, Morio; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic equivalents (METs) for scooter exercise (riding a scooter, scootering) and to examine the energy expenditure and the heart rate response, so that the results can be used in health promotion activities. Eighteen young adults (10 males and 8 females) participated in scootering on a treadmill at three different speeds for six minutes each. Before, during, and after the exercise, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide product, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were measured. These measurements kept steady states from the 3rd to 6th minute of each different speed session. The MET values acquired during scootering at 80 m.min(-1), 110 m.min(-1), and 140 m.min(-1) were 3.9, 4.3, and 5.0, respectively. Calculated using VO(2) (ml.kg(-1).min(-1))x[4.0+R], the energy consumption for scootering at each speed was 67.0+/-10.6, 73.3+/-10.2, and 84.8+/-7.9 cal.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively. The regression equation between scootering speed (X, m.min(-1)) and VO(2) (Y, ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) is Y=0.062X+8.655, and the regression equation between HR (X, beats.min(-1)) and VO(2)reserve (Y, %) is Y=0.458X-11.264. These equations can be applied to both females and males. Thus, scootering at 80 to 140 m.min(-1) might not be sufficient to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of young male adults similar to the participants, but it may contribute many healthy benefits to most female adults and even male adults, and improve their health and fitness at the faster speeds.

  18. CFD Analysis-based Torque Converter Performance Prediction Model with Equivalent Parameters%基于CFD的液力变矩器等效参数性能预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光强; 王立军

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between parameters of one dimensional flow model and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results is derived from guaranteeing precision of estimation of incidence loss. Energy loss within each impeller passages are extracted from CFD results, and the exact energy loss coefficients are achieved by the least mean square method which minimizes the deviation of the calculated energy loss from CFD results. Then, the component of energy loss is analyzed, which provides reference for further modification of design. The one dimensional flow model is modified by taking account of the equivalent parameters and energy loss coefficients, and the deviation of predictive pump torque capacity from CFD results is reduced within 3. 2%. Furthermore, this deviation still keeps less than 7. 3% after modifying the shape parameters of blades which leads to 6. 9 % increment of torque capacity at rotating stall and 2. 5% decrement of peak efficiency.%从保证冲击损失计算精度的角度出发,推导了一维束流理论性能预测模型中各参数基于计算流体力学(CFD)分析的等效表达式.从CFD分析结果中提取各叶轮的损失功率,运用最小二乘法确定各损失项的损失系数,进而得到液力损失的构成情况,为进一步改进设计提供依据.运用得到的等效参数与各项损失系数修正一维束流理论性能预测模型,修正后的等效参数性能预测模型的泵轮转矩系数与CFD分析最大偏差减小至3.2%以内.改变液力变矩器的叶形参数,使失速时泵轮转矩系数提高6.9%,最高效率降低2.5%.分别使用等效参数性能预测模型与CFD分析重新计算,等效参数性能预测模型的泵轮转矩系数与CFD计算结果偏差在7.3%以内,仍然保持较好的一致性.

  19. INVARIANTS UNDER STABLE EQUIVALENCES OF MORITA TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Sun Longgang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study some invariants of associative algebras under stable equivalences of Morita type.First of all,we show that,if two finite-dimensional selfinjective k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,then their orbit algebras are isomorphic.Secondly,it is verified that the quasitilted property of an algebra is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type.As an application of this result,it is obtained that if an algebra is of finite representation type,then its tilted property is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type; the other application to partial tilting modules is given in Section 4. Finally,we prove that when two finite-dimensional k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,their repetitive algebras are also stably equivalent of Morita type under certain conditions.

  20. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance.

  1. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  2. Homogeneous Dielectric Equivalents of Composite Material Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology of replacing complicated parts of an airplane skin by simple homogeneous equivalents, which can exhibit similar shielding efficiency. On one hand, the airplane built from the virtual homogeneous equivalents can be analyzed with significantly reduced CPU-time demands and memory requirements. On the other hand, the equivalent model can estimate the internal fields satisfactory enough to evaluate the electromagnetic immunity of the airplane.

  3. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  4. equivalency/majorly/market share,etc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福基

    1998-01-01

    equivalency n. a level of achievement equivalent to completion of an educational or trainingprogram。同等学历(相当于完成某一教育或训练计划的学业成绩水平):a highschool equivalency certificate中学同等学历证书。注意不能用equivalence。majorly[’meid??li]adv.[1956

  5. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  6. Approximate equivalence in von Neumann algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Huiru; Don; Hadwin

    2005-01-01

    One formulation of D. Voiculescu's theorem on approximate unitary equivalence is that two unital representations π and ρ of a separable C*-algebra are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if rank o π = rank o ρ. We study the analog when the ranges of π and ρ are contained in a von Neumann algebra R, the unitaries inducing the approximate equivalence must come from R, and "rank" is replaced with "R-rank" (defined as the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of the range projection).

  7. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...

  8. Maintaining Equivalent Cut Scores for Small Sample Test Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three approaches for maintaining equivalent performance standards across test forms with small samples: (1) common-item equating, (2) resetting the standard, and (3) rescaling the standard. Rescaling the standard (i.e., applying common-item equating methodology to standard setting ratings to account for…

  9. Equivalence of Translations in International Reading Literacy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arffman, Inga

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a significant increase in the interest in international assessments of student performance. In such assessments it is mandatory that all the different-language texts be equivalent to each other, that is, equally difficult to understand. The article summarizes a study made on the topic, examining the problems of…

  10. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C Karlsson

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52 of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48 were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  11. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  12. The Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary Faced with Demands from a New User Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: In this article, a case is presented of an existing dictionary that is aimed at users with a minimum of primary 7 education, now faced with demands from users in primary 1–3. The reason for this demand is the result of the fact that Lusoga is currently being implemented as a medium of instruction in Uganda, in an environment where there is hardly any literature to serve the intended purpose. A review of the existing literature in and on Lusoga shows that the monolingual Lusoga dictionary — Eiwanika ly'Olusoga (WSG — is the only reference work with essential information, in Lusoga, that can initiate the teaching of Lusoga at the elementary level. Although the information in the WSG may fit the purpose at hand, that information is mainly presented as a summary, with statements of conclusions only. Explanations to ease its access to the new user are thus missing. Findings from a pilot study conducted by the National Curriculum Development Centre on the implementation of the teaching of Lusoga reveal that the new user is not only the primary 1–3 pupil, but also the teacher who will need to instruct that pupil. Since children's literature requires additional consideration beyond what can be presently availed, and since the WSG was actually compiled for an advanced user, the focus is shifted from the primary 1–3 pupil to the primary teacher. For that teacher, it is suggested to compile an additional Guide, expanding on the various extra-matter texts and especially the Language Portrait found in the WSG. This is done on the assumption that once the information is expanded and re-represented, a teacher will be able to combine the information in the Guide with that in the WSG, in order to make a Lusoga syllabus from which to draft Lusoga lessons. Although the ideal would of course be to be able to produce fully-fledged customised primers from scratch, this article's main argument is that in the absence of both human and financial

  13. ASCERTAINMENT OF THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Safaryan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers experimental and analytical determination of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters with application of the reference data. Transient processes investigation of the asynchronous machines necessitates the equivalent circuit parameters (resistance impedance, inductances and coefficient of the stator-rotor contours mutual inductance that help form the transitory-process mathematical simulation model. The reference books do not provide those parameters; they instead give the rated ones (active power, voltage, slide, coefficient of performance and capacity coefficient as well as the ratio of starting and nominal currents and torques. The noted studies on the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuits parametrization fail to solve the problems ad finem or solve them with admissions. The paper presents experimental and analytical determinations of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters: the experimental one based on the results of two measurements and the analytical one where the problem boils down to solving a system of nonlineal algebraic equations. The authors investigate the equivalent asynchronous machine input-resistance properties and adduce the dependence curvatures of the input-resistances on the slide. They present a symbolic model for analytical parameterization of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit that represents a system of nonlineal equations and requires one of the rotor-parameters arbitrary assignment. The article demonstrates that for the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit experimental parameterization the measures are to be conducted of the stator-circuit voltage, current and active power with two different slides and arbitrary assignment of one of the rotor parameters. The paper substantiates the fact that additional measurement does not discard the rotor-parameter choice arbitrariness. The authors establish that in motoring mode there is a critical slide by which the

  14. Criteria equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisło, J.; Wolf, M.

    2008-11-01

    We give a brief overview of a few criteria equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Next we concentrate on the Riesz and Báez-Duarte criteria. We prove that they are equivalent and we provide some computer data to support them.

  15. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank def

  16. Galeazzi-equivalent lesions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamano, Masayuki; Honda, Yoshinobu

    2002-07-01

    Two cases of a Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in adolescence are described. Accurate diagnosis of the epiphyseal injury of the distal ulna, rigid fixation of the distal radius, and stabilization of the distal radioulnar joint are keys in obtaining a good result in the treatment of Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in adolescence.

  17. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  18. Flow equivalence and isotopy for subshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Mike; Carlsen, Toke Meier; Eilers, Søren

    2017-01-01

    We study basic properties of flow equivalence on one-dimensional compact metric spaces with a particular emphasis on isotopy in the group of (self-) flow equivalences on such a space. In particular, we show that such an orbit-preserving map is not always an isotopy, but that this always is the ca...

  19. The therapeutic equivalence of complex drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, H.; Klinger, E.; Muehlebach, S.; Brin, J-F.; Storm, G.; Crommelin, D.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    When the patent of a small molecule drug expires generics may be introduced. They are considered therapeutically equivalent once pharmaceutical equivalence (i.e. identical active substances) and bioequivalence (i.e. comparable pharmacokinetics) have been established in a cross-over volunteer study.

  20. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  1. Dynamic equivalences in the hard-sphere dynamic universality class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Flores, Leticia; Ruíz-Estrada, Honorina; Chávez-Páez, Martín; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno

    2013-10-01

    We perform systematic simulation experiments on model systems with soft-sphere repulsive interactions to test the predicted dynamic equivalence between soft-sphere liquids with similar static structure. For this we compare the simulated dynamics (mean squared displacement, intermediate scattering function, α-relaxation time, etc.) of different soft-sphere systems, between them and with the hard-sphere liquid. We then show that the referred dynamic equivalence does not depend on the (Newtonian or Brownian) nature of the microscopic laws of motion of the constituent particles, and hence, applies independently to colloidal and to atomic simple liquids. Finally, we verify another more recently proposed dynamic equivalence, this time between the long-time dynamics of an atomic liquid and its corresponding Brownian fluid (i.e., the Brownian system with the same interaction potential).

  2. A Discrete Equivalent of the Logistic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulou EugeniaN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete equivalent and not analogue of the well-known logistic differential equation is proposed. This discrete equivalent logistic equation is of the Volterra convolution type, is obtained by use of a functional-analytic method, and is explicitly solved using the -transform method. The connection of the solution of the discrete equivalent logistic equation with the solution of the logistic differential equation is discussed. Also, some differences of the discrete equivalent logistic equation and the well-known discrete analogue of the logistic equation are mentioned. It is hoped that this discrete equivalent of the logistic equation could be a better choice for the modelling of various problems, where different versions of known discrete logistic equations are used until nowadays.

  3. Calabi-Yau completions and orbifold equivalences

    CERN Document Server

    Carqueville, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Calabi-Yau algebras are particularly symmetric differential graded algebras. There is a construction due to Keller called `Calabi-Yau completion' which produces a canonical Calabi-Yau algebra from any homologically smooth dg algebra. Homologically smooth dg algebras also form a 2-category to which the construction of `equivariant completion' can be applied. In this theory two objects are called `orbifold equivalent' if there is a 1-morphism with invertible quantum dimensions between them. Any such relation entails a whole family of equivalences between categories. We show that Calabi-Yau completion and equivariant completion are compatible. More precisely, we prove that any orbifold equivalence between two homologically smooth and proper dg algebras lifts to an orbifold equivalence between their Calabi-Yau completions. As a corollary we obtain orbifold equivalences between Ginzburg algebras of Dynkin quivers.

  4. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  5. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent... methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental... in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human Exposure...

  6. Development and applications of the Expanded Equivalent Fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Bharath Kumar

    Ocean acoustics is the study of sound in the oceans. Electromagnetic waves attenuate rapidly in the water medium. Sound is the best means to transmit information underwater. Computational numerical simulations play an important role in ocean acoustics. Simulations of acoustic propagation in the oceans are challenging due to the complexities involved in the ocean environment. Different methods have been developed to simulate underwater sound propagation. The Parabolic-Equation (PE) method is the best choice in several ocean acoustic problems. In shallow water acoustic experiments, sound loses some of its energy when it interacts with the bottom. An equivalent fluid technique was developed by Zhang and Tindle (ZT) to model sound propagation which is affected by shear in the sea bottom. The reflection coefficient of a soft solid seabed with a low shear speed can be well approximated by replacing the seafloor with a Complex-Density (CD) equivalent fluid of suitably chosen parameters. This is called an equivalent fluid approximation. The ZT method works well in cases where low grazing angles are relevant. This technique was expanded to also perform well in cases where higher grazing angle intervals are relevant. This method is called the Expanded Equivalent Fluid (EEF) method. The EEF method gives an effective CD, rho' = rho'r + irho'i, and an effective sound speed in the bottom, c'p, when a set of bottom parameters (density rho, sound speed in the bottom cp, and shear speed cs) are given as input. The performance of the EEF method has been investigated in several different ocean acoustic environments. Far-field simulations for an array of airgun sources were performed using the CD equivalent fluid parameters. Another application of the EEF method in the geoacoustic inversion process to find an estimate of the elastic bottom parameters of the seafloor was explored. PE broadband simulations were performed to model shear-affected, bottom-interacting sound.

  7. An Examination of the Performance Gains of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students on a Mathematics Performance Assessment within the QUASAR Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Suzanne; And Others

    The performance of students from different racial or ethnic subgroups and of students receiving bilingual (Spanish and English) or monolingual (English only) instruction in mathematics was studied using students from schools in the QUASAR (Qualitative Understanding Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning) project, a mathematics education…

  8. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice... measuring concentrations of PM 10-2.5 , two for measuring PM 2.5, and one for measuring NO 2 in the...

  9. On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新霞

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.

  10. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  11. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues: étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    OpenAIRE

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such as the issue of the presence or absence of evidence of early specialization in children at the babbling stage, the continuity between babbling and first words, and the emergence and development of...

  12. Les expressions idiomatiques: description théorique et traitement dictionnairique: (l'exemple des dictionnaires monolingues français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Perko

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Le present article se propose d'examiner le traitement des expressions idiomatiques dans un corpus de plusieurs dictionnaires monolingues du francais en un volume et de suggerer quelques ameliorations de ce traitement. L 'accent est mis tout particulierement sur les besoins specifiques d 'un utilisateur etranger. Avant d 'entamer une analyse lexicographique proprement dite, il nous semble indispensable de faire le point sur le statut linguistique des expressions idiomatiques et d 'en proposer une typologie.

  13. Analysis of affinely equivalent Boolean functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingShu; ZHANG HuanGuo; YANG Min; WANG ZhangYi

    2007-01-01

    By some basic transforms and invariant theory, we give two results: 1) an algorithm,which can be used to judge if two Boolean functions are affinely equivalent and to obtain the equivalence relationship if they are equivalent. This is useful in studying Boolean functions and in engineering. For example, we classify all 8-variable homogeneous bent functions of degree 3 into two classes; 2) Reed-Muller codes R(4,6)/R(1,6), R(3,7)/R(1,7) are classified efficiently.

  14. Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberg, Uwe B

    2006-03-01

    Some novel concepts of designing antireflection (AR) coatings with equivalent layers are presented. As an introduction, essential papers concerning thin-film optics and AR designs are cited, and the AR problem and a previously introduced AR-hard design type are discussed. Based on the known matrix formalism, a potential AR region, an equivalent stack index, and an equivalent substrate index are defined to use the theory of stop-band suppression as a starting point for the design of broadband AR coatings. The known multicycle AR design type is identified as a typical solution to the AR problem if the presented approach is used.

  15. Temporal features of word-initial /s/+stop clusters in bilingual Mandarin-English children and monolingual English children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing

    2017-05-18

    This study investigated the durational features of English word-initial /s/+stop clusters produced by bilingual Mandarin (L1)-English (L2) children and monolingual English children and adults. The participants included two groups of five- to six-year-old bilingual children: low proficiency in the L2 (Bi-low) and high proficiency in the L2 (Bi-high), one group of age-matched English children, and one group of English adults. Each participant produced a list of English words containing /sp, st, sk/ at the word-initial position followed by /a, i, u/, respectively. The absolute durations of the clusters and cluster elements and the durational proportions of elements to the overall cluster were measured. The results revealed that Bi-high children behaved similarly to the English monolinguals whereas Bi-low children used a different strategy of temporal organization to coordinate the cluster components in comparison to the English monolinguals and Bi-high children. The influence of language experience and continuing development of temporal features in children were discussed.

  16. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yu; Wen Yu-Mei; Li Ping

    2006-01-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established.In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  17. TNT Equivalency of Unconfined Aerosols of Propylene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Apparao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The unconfined aerosols of propylene oxide (PO are formed by dispersing the fuel in air. These aerosols undergo detonation by suitable initiation and produce high impulse blast. Tri-nitro Toluene (TNT equivalence is an important parameter used to represent the power of explosive materials and compare their relative damage effects wrt TNT. The parameters commonly used for estimation of TNT equivalency are total energy of explosive source and properties of resulting blast wave, viz., blast peak overpressure and positive impulse. In the present study, the unconfined aerosols of 4.2 kg PO were formed by breaking open the cylindrical canister with the help of axially positioned central burster charge and then detonated using a secondary explosive charge after a preset time delay. The resulting blast profiles were recorded and the blast parameters were analysed. Being a non-ideal explosive source, the TNT equivalency depends on fraction of total energy utilised for blast formation, the rate of energy release, cloud dimensions, and concentration of fuel. Hence, various approaches based on energy release, experimental blast profiles, triangulated blast parameters, and ground reflected blast parameters were considered to determine the TNT equivalency of unconfined PO aerosols. It was observed that the TNT equivalency is not a single value but vary with distance. The paper provides various options for weapon designer to choose a suitable approach for considering TNT equivalency. The scaling laws established from the experimental data of unconfined aerosols of PO for blast peak over pressure and scaled impulse help in predicting the performance for different values of fuel weight and distance.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.431-437, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.6851

  18. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is of primary importance in business English translation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions of the original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This article focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice are put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,conciseness and gracefulness.If the three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  19. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is ofprimary importance in business English Iranslation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions ofthe original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This atticle focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice arc put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,concise-ness and gracefulness.1fthe three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  20. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  1. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  2. The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    The study of Borel equivalence relations under Borel reducibility has developed into an important area of descriptive set theory. The dichotomies of Silver [20] and Harrington, Kechris and Louveau [6] show that with respect to Borel reducibility, any Borel equivalence relation strictly above...... under effectively Borel reducibility. The resulting structure is complex, even for equivalence relations with finitely many equivalence classes. However use of Kleene's O as a parameter is sufficient to restore the picture from the noneffective setting. A key lemma is that of the existence of two...... effectively Borel sets of reals, neither of which contains the range of the other under any effectively Borel function; the proof of this result applies Barwise compactness to a deep theorem of Harrington (see [5,16]) establishing for any recursive ordinal α the existence of Π singletons whose α...

  3. Equivalent boundary integral equations for plane elasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海昌; 丁皓江; 何文军

    1997-01-01

    Indirect and direct boundary integral equations equivalent to the original boundary value problem of differential equation of plane elasticity are established rigorously. The unnecessity or deficiency of some customary boundary integral equations is indicated by examples and numerical comparison.

  4. On the Notion of Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to translations, varies cultures are allowed to exchange with one another. One the one hand, this has been promoting the studies of translation. On the other hand, this poses huge challenges on translators, because it is hard to define what is a good target translation when a source text is translated. There is a variety of standards to evaluate the quality of a translation, among which equivalence seems to be the most controversial one. On the analysis of studies on equivalence, this essay discusses the role of equivalence in the practice of translating with illustrations of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation. Indeed, to translate a source text into a target one is based on the equivalence among languages. However, in the process of translating, it can be adjusted to some extent for the sake of the acceptability in the target culture.

  5. interpratation: of equivalences and cultural untranslatability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jgmweri

    Interpretation: signs and meaning, diversity in language use, equivalences and ... movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express ... people who belong to the same culture given the similar experiences they have gone.

  6. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  7. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  8. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, M

    2000-01-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that...

  9. The English Monolingual Dictionary: Its Use among Second Year Students of University Technology of Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerrudin Abd. Manan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to seek information on English Monolingual Dictionary (EMD use among 2nd year students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur (UTMKL. Specifically, the researchers wish to discover, firstly the students’ habit and attitude in EMD use; secondly, to discover their knowledge with regard to the language learning resources available in EMD; thirdly, to discover their skill in using EMD, and finally, to discover whether there were formal instructions in EMD use when they were studying in their former schools and tertiary education. One hundred and ninety-six students took part in the survey by answering a questionnaire. The results of the study reveal that the respondents were poor users of EMD. They rarely consulted the EMD; their knowledge of the language learning resources in the EMD was limited; most perceived their EMD skill as average, and there was no instruction in EMD when they were at tertiary education and previously when they were at school.

  10. Is grammatical gender considered arbitrary or semantically motivated? Evidence from young adult monolinguals, second language learners, and early bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Benedetta A L

    2014-05-01

    It is generally assumed that speakers of grammatical gender languages consider grammatical gender arbitrary, but this assumption has never been tested. Research shows that the grammatical gender of nouns can affect perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of the noun's referent in speakers of languages with masculine and feminine noun classes. However, bilingualism facilitates the development of lexical arbitrariness awareness, and could therefore affect awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. This study then compared three groups of young adult speakers of a grammatical gender language: monolinguals, early bilinguals, and instructed second language learners. Participants evaluated the gender assignments of 25 nouns of entities (animals, abstract concepts, natural kinds, and artefacts), and answered open and closed questions about grammatical gender. Participants considered grammatical gender as semantically motivated and mostly related gender assignments to perceived masculine or feminine connotations of referents. Knowledge of an additional grammatical gender language was linked to increased awareness of the arbitrariness of first language gender assignments in both early bilinguals and later instructed learners. It is argued that grammatical gender awareness deserves further investigation. Knowing more than one grammatical gender language can increase awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. Implications are discussed for language teaching and language reform.

  11. Perceptual assimilation of French and German vowels by American English monolinguals: Acoustic similarity does not predict perceptual similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika; Lehnholf, Robert

    2001-05-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that the perceived similarity of vowels across languages is not always predictable from the closeness of their target formant values in F1/F2/F3 space. In this study, perceptual similarity was established using a task in which 11 American English (AE) monolinguals were presented multiple tokens of 9 French vowels and 14 North German vowels (in separate blocks) produced in citation-form /hVb(a)/ (bi)syllables by native speakers. They selected 1 of 11 AE vowel responses to which each non-native vowel token was most similar, and rated its goodness on a 9-point Likert scale. Of special interest was the perceptual assimilation of front rounded French [y, oe] and German [y, Y, o/, oe] vowels. Acoustically, all six French and German vowels are more similar to front unrounded AE vowels. However, all six vowels were perceived to be more similar to back rounded AE vowels (range across vowels = 55% to 100%), although relatively poor exemplars. There were differences across languages in how the same vowel was assimilated (e.g., French /y/ assimilated to front AE vowels 13%, German /y/, 0% French [oe] 3%, German [oe] 45%). There were also large individual differences in listeners assimilation patterns. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  12. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostić, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-07-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low (guided-GUIDE) or high (pushed-PUSH) in resonance, a measure of semantic richness. Overall, semantic richness of irregular verbs (nested and irregular change) and of regular verbs (high and low resonance) was matched. Native speakers of English revealed comparable facilitation across regularity and greater facilitation for nested than change stem irregulars. Like native speakers, Serbian, but not Chinese bilinguals matched for proficiency, showed facilitation due to form overlap between irregular past and present tense forms with a nested stem. Unlike native speakers, neither group showed reliable facilitation to stem change irregulars. Results demonstrate the influence of first language on inflectional processing in a second language.

  13. Acoustic determination of performance and equivalence of plasminogen activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Mirnader; Hayward, Gordon L

    2008-11-01

    A reliable method for the measurement of different plasminogen activators is of great interest for both manufacturing and clinical medicine. A one-step assay based on a thickness shear mode acoustic sensor has been developed for this purpose. Two separate mixtures of substrates (fibrinogen and plasminogen) and enzymes (thrombin and the plasminogen activator) were mixed, and placed on the acoustic sensor surface. During the assay, the resonant frequency of a quartz crystal oscillating in the thickness shear mode was measured and used to find a characteristic clot dissolution time, from the sample addition to the time at the maximum dissolution rate. Calibrations of the acoustic assay were done for tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as for the other plasminogen activators: urokinase (u-PA); streptokinase (SK) and staphylokinase (SAK). All gave relative standard deviations of about 12%. Since the same method was used for all of the activators, their activities were compared, resolving the differences between their unit definitions. Linear relationships were found between urokinase and streptokinase which activate plasminogen directly and between t-PA and staphylokinase which require fibrin as a cofactor. The relationship between the groups was found to curve, indicating the difference between the two mechanisms. The acoustic method, therefore, may be used as a rapid and cost-effective reference method for the standardization and comparison of different plasminogen activators.

  14. Multigroup Equivalence Analysis for High-Dimensional Expression Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Celeste; Bartolucci, Alfred A.; Cui, Xiangqin

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis tests of equivalence are typically known for their application in bioequivalence studies and acceptance sampling. Their application to gene expression data, in particular high-dimensional gene expression data, has only recently been studied. In this paper, we examine how two multigroup equivalence tests, the F-test and the range test, perform when applied to microarray expression data. We adapted these tests to a well-known equivalence criterion, the difference ratio. Our simulation results showed that both tests can achieve moderate power while controlling the type I error at nominal level for typical expression microarray studies with the benefit of easy-to-interpret equivalence limits. For the range of parameters simulated in this paper, the F-test is more powerful than the range test. However, for comparing three groups, their powers are similar. Finally, the two multigroup tests were applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset to identify genes whose expression follows a prespecified trajectory across five prostate cancer stages. PMID:26628859

  15. Multigroup Equivalence Analysis for High-Dimensional Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Celeste; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Cui, Xiangqin

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis tests of equivalence are typically known for their application in bioequivalence studies and acceptance sampling. Their application to gene expression data, in particular high-dimensional gene expression data, has only recently been studied. In this paper, we examine how two multigroup equivalence tests, the F-test and the range test, perform when applied to microarray expression data. We adapted these tests to a well-known equivalence criterion, the difference ratio. Our simulation results showed that both tests can achieve moderate power while controlling the type I error at nominal level for typical expression microarray studies with the benefit of easy-to-interpret equivalence limits. For the range of parameters simulated in this paper, the F-test is more powerful than the range test. However, for comparing three groups, their powers are similar. Finally, the two multigroup tests were applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset to identify genes whose expression follows a prespecified trajectory across five prostate cancer stages.

  16. Regional Differences in Equivalence Scales in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Betti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Equivalence scales have a crucial role in poverty measurement. For Turkey, there are no available up-todate equivalence scales, representing Turkish data. There were no efforts for calculation of equivalence scales at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to calculate and propose an equivalence scale for Turkey and estimate regional differences. Besides the models with Engel method, different equivalence scales were estimated by Almost Ideal Demand System. The results of the first model of AIDS approach composed of 5 age groups, is proposed for Turkey, but for simplicity the results of the second AIDS model could be used as well. In this model, the equivalence scale for Turkey is calculated as 0.65 for each additional adult after the first one and 0.35 for each child. For regional equivalence scales, we use two methods and comare the results. In the first one, regressions were run for each region separately and in the second one, dummy variables introduced. The highest difference in the results of the two methods was observed in Istanbul region. The findings for the regional scales are less reliable as the household size is bigger. This limitation is due to the relatively small size of the data sets. Having surveys with higher sample sizes would enable better results. After getting the results some conclusions could be drawn especially with regard to child cost differences among regions. It was expected to have higher costs for children in poorer regions and the regional results have confirmed this hypothesis.

  17. Kinetic simulation of hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas; Le, Ari; Schmitt, Mark; Herrmann, Hans

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out simulations of direct-drive hydrodynamic equivalent capsule implosion experiments conducted on Omega laser facility at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester. The capsules had a glass shell (SiO2) 4.87 μm with an inner diameter of 1086 μm. One was filled with deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at 6.635 and 2.475 atmospheric pressure respectively. The other capsule with D, T, and He-3 at 2.475, 2.475, and 5.55 atmospheric pressure respectively. The capsules were imploded with 60 laser beams with a square pulse length of 0.6ns of total energy of 15.6 kJ. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic calculations with HYDRA and kinetic particle/hybrid simulations with LSP are carried out for the post-shot analysis. HYDRA outputs at 0.6ns are linked to LSP, in which the electrons are treated as a fluid while all the ion dynamics is simulated by the standard particle-in-cell technique. Additionally, simulations with the new photon package in LSP are initiated at the beginning of the implosion to include the implosion phase of the capsule. The simulation results of density, temperature, and velocity profiles of the electrons, D, T, He-3, and SiO2species are compared with HYDRA. Detail comparisons among the kinetic simulations, rad-hydro simulations, and experimental results of neutron yield, yield ratio, fusion burn histories, and shell convergence will be presented to assess plasma kinetic effects. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. W7405-ENG-36.

  18. Locating Proper Fractions on Number Lines: Effect of Length and Equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Carol Novillis

    1980-01-01

    Compares student performance on fraction/number line tasks which varied length and equivalence. Associating proper fractions was easier on number lines of length one rather than length two; and where number of equivalent line segments in each unit segment was the same as the denominator, rather than twice that number. (CS)

  19. A Directional Dose Equivalent Monitor for Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, F.; Alberts, W.G.; Curzio, G.; Matzke, M.; Nath, R.; Siebert, B.R.L

    2001-07-01

    A directional dose equivalent monitor is introduced which consists of a 30 cm diameter spherical phantom hosting a superheated drop detector embedded at a depth of 10 mm. The device relies on the similarity between the fluence response of neutron superheated drop detectors based on halocarbon-12 and the quality-factor-weighted kerma factor. This implies that these detectors can be used for in-phantom dosimetry and provide a direct reading of dose equivalent at depth. The directional dose equivalent monitor was characterised experimentally with fast neutron calibrations and numerically with Monte Carlo simulations. The fluence response was determined at angles of 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 degrees for thermal to 20 MeV neutrons. The response of the device is closely proportional to the fluence-to-directional dose equivalent conversion coefficient, H'{sub F}(10;a,E). Therefore, our monitor is suitable for a direct measurement of neutron directional dose equivalent, H'(10), regardless of angle and energy distribution of the neutron fluence. (author)

  20. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  1. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  2. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. DE BONIS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.

  3. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  4. Algebraic cobordism theory attached to algebraic equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna, Amalendu

    2012-01-01

    After the algebraic cobordism theory of Levine-Morel, we develop a theory of algebraic cobordism modulo algebraic equivalence. We prove that this theory can reproduce Chow groups modulo algebraic equivalence and the zero-th semi-topological K-groups. We also show that with finite coefficients, this theory agrees with the algebraic cobordism theory. We compute our cobordism theory for some low dimensional or special types of varieties. The results on infinite generation of some Griffiths groups by Clemens and on smash-nilpotence by Voevodsky and Voisin are also lifted and reinterpreted in terms of this cobordism theory.

  5. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  6. A model for equivalent axle load factors

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Sara I.R.; Pais, Jorge; Vale, Aline C.; Minhoto, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Most design methods for road pavements require the design traffic, based on the transformation of the traffic spectrum, to be calculated into a number of equivalent passages of a standard axle using the equivalent axle load factors. Generally, these factors only consider the type of axle (single, tandem or tridem), but they do not consider the type of wheel on the axles, i.e., single or dual wheel. The type of wheel has an important influence on the calculation of the design traffic. The exis...

  7. Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Yong PAN

    2016-01-01

    Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.

  8. AN EQUIVALENT CONTINUUM METHOD OF LATTICE STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hualin; Yang Wei

    2006-01-01

    An equivalent continuum method is developed to analyze the effective stiffness of three-dimensional stretching dominated lattice materials. The strength and three-dimensional plastic yield surfaces are calculated for the equivalent continuum. A yielding model is formulated and compared with the results of other models. The bedding-in effect is considered to include the compliance of the lattice joints. The predicted stiffness and strength are in good agreement with the experimental data, validating the present model in the prediction of the mechanical properties of stretching dominated lattice structures.

  9. 77 FR 55832 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of a New Equivalent Method... monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... concentrations of PM 2.5 in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human...

  10. A numerical investigation of orientifold planar equivalence for quenched mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We measure on the lattice the quenched pseudoscalar and vector meson masses at a fixed value of the lattice spacing for SU(N) gauge theory with fermions in the adjoint, in the symmetric and in the antisymmetric representations of the gauge group. Simulations are performed for N=3,4,6 in all those representations, with the addition of N=2 for the adjoint representation. We illustrate a strategy for separating the even from the odd-power contributions in 1/N in the masses. Using this technique, we extrapolate the vector mass to the large-N limit in the chiral region and show that at N = infty this mass is the same within errors in all the three representations, as predicted by orientifold planar equivalence. Possible implications of our investigation for studying orientifold planar equivalence in the dynamical case are discussed.

  11. Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... similarities between the two circuits that are compared. These properties make BEDs suitable for verifying the equivalence of combinational circuits. BEDs can be seen as an intermediate representation between circuits (which are compact) and OBDDs (which are canonical).Based on a large number of combinational...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...

  12. Sound Barriers: Influences of Social Prestige, Peer Pressure, and Teacher (Dis)approval on FL Oral Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Natalie; Hedgcock, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines how adult, monolingual foreign language learners' oral performance is affected by the degree to which they associate prestige with classmates and teacher disapproval. Explores relationships among learners' views of their own and their peers' pronunciation skills; values associated with native-like speech; beliefs about social conditions…

  13. Experimental Uncertainties of TEPC Dose Equivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Wei-hua; XIAO; Xue-fu; WANG; Zhi-qiang; LIU; Yi-na; LI; Chun-juan; LUO; Hai-long

    2013-01-01

    The tissue-equivalent proportional counters(TEPC)are widely used for radiation protection in mixed radiation fields.The operational quantity H*(10)can be directly obtained by means of microdosimetric spectra measurements with TEPC.An empirical evaluation of uncertainties is reported in this paper.The sources of uncertainties involved in measuring microdosimetric spectra mainly are the sensitive

  14. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  15. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  16. Equivalence of Conformal Superalgebras to Hamiltonian Superoperators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Xu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a formal variational calculus of super functions in one real variable and find the conditions for a "matrix differential operator'' to be a Hamiltonian superoperator. Moreover, we prove that conformal superalgebras are equivalent to certain Hamiltonian superoperators.

  17. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  18. On the Leitmann equivalent problem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.O.O. Wagener

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how Leitmann’s equivalent problem approach ties in with the classical notions of the calculus of variations and how it can be exploited to give a rapid and elegant approach to the Weierstrass theory of sufficient conditions. Fixed, free and constrained endpoint c

  19. On Functional Equivalence of Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管琴

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the feasibility of functional equivalence in idiom translations in Chinese-English cultures,trying to find efficient ways to avoid both under-translation and over-translation.The more functions are reproduced,the better the version will be at achieving correspondence between meaning and function.

  20. Chameleonic equivalence postulate and wave function collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Zanzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A chameleonic solution to the cosmological constant problem and the non-equivalence of different conformal frames at the quantum level have been recently suggested [Phys. Rev. D82 (2010) 044006]. In this article we further discuss the theoretical grounds of that model and we are led to a chameleonic equivalence postulate (CEP). Whenever a theory satisfies our CEP (and some other additional conditions), a density-dependence of the mass of matter fields is naturally present. Let us summarize the main results of this paper. 1) The CEP can be considered the microscopic counterpart of the Einstein's Equivalence Principle and, hence, a chameleonic description of quantum gravity is obtained: in our model, (quantum) gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. 2) To illustrate one of the possible applications of the CEP, we point out a connection between chameleon fields and quantum-mechanical wave function collapse. The collapse is induced by the chameleonic nature of the theory. We discuss the collapse for a S...

  1. On the Equivalence of Regularization Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-Feng

    2002-01-01

    We illustrate via the sunset diagram that dimensional regularization ‘deforms' the nonlocal contentsof multi-loop diagrams with its equivalence to cutoff regularization scheme recovered only after sub-divergence wassubtracted. Then we employed a differential equation approach for calculating loop diagrams to verify that dimensionalare argued especially in nonperturbativc perspective.

  2. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...

  3. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The work of Abadi and Fournet introduces the notion of a frame to describe the knowledge of the environment of a cryptographic protocol. Frames are lists of terms; two frames are indistinguishable under the notion of static equivalence if they satisfy the same equations on terms. We present a first...

  4. THE EQUIVALENCE THEORY OF NATIVE SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Tian Luh

    2001-01-01

    In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.

  5. The Nature of Dynamic Equivalence in Translating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of three types of translation: formal correspondence, cognitive content and emotive response-oriented. The latter two are dynamic-equivalent translations. Their purpose is to enable the receptors to understand the implications of the cognitive content or to make a corresponding emotive response without recourse to the original text.…

  6. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1976-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  7. Canonical equivalence between massive spin 1 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, P J; Arias, Pio J.; Perez-Mosquera, Jean C.

    2004-01-01

    The model of Cremmer-Scherck and Proca are considered in dimensions greater than 3+1. It is obtained that the Proca model correspond to a gauged fixed version of the Cremmer-Scherck one, and we show their canonical equivalence.

  8. Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)

  9. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters c...

  10. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2015-01-01

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When t...... (EFT)....

  11. A quality index for equivalent uniform dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Francisco Cutanda; Castrillón, Silvia Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent uniform dose (EUD) is the absorbed dose that, when homogeneously given to a tumor, yields the same mean surviving clonogen number as the given non-homogeneous irradiation. EUD is used as an evaluation tool under the assumption that two plans with the same value of EUD are equivalent, and their biological effect on the tumor (clonogen survival) would be the same as the one of a homogeneous irradiation of absorbed dose EUD. In this work, this assumption has been studied, and a figure of merit of its applicability has been obtained. Distributions of surviving clonogen number for homogeneous and non-homogeneous irradiations are found to be different even if their mean values are the same, the figure of merit being greater when there is a wider difference, and the equivalence assumption being less valid. Therefore, EUD can be closer to a uniform dose for some cases than for other ones (high α values, extreme heterogeneity), and the accuracy of the radiobiological indices obtained for evaluation, could be affected. Results show that the equivalence is very sensitive to the choice of radiobiological parameters, and this conclusion has been derived from mathematical properties of EUD. PMID:21897557

  12. Representing Identity and Equivalence for Scientific Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, K. M.; Sacchi, S.; Dubin, D.; Renear, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    Matters of equivalence and identity are central to the stewardship of scientific data. In order to properly prepare for and manage the curation, preservation and sharing of digitally-encoded data, data stewards must be able to characterize and assess the relationships holding between data-carrying digital resources. However, identity-related questions about resources and their information content may not be straightforward to answer: for example, what exactly does it mean to say that two files contain the same data, but in different formats? Information content is frequently distinguished from particular representations, but there is no adequately developed shared understanding of what this really means and how the relationship between content and its representations hold. The Data Concepts group at the Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS), University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, is developing a logic-based framework of fundamental concepts related to scientific data to support curation and integration. One project goal is to develop precise accounts of information resources carrying the same data. We present two complementary conceptual models for information representation: the Basic Representation Model (BRM) and the Systematic Assertion Model (SAM). We show how these models provide an analytical account of digitally-encoded scientific data and a precise understanding of identity and equivalence. The Basic Representation Model identifies the core entities and relationships involved in representing information carried by digital objects. In BRM, digital objects are symbol structures that express propositional content, and stand in layered encoding relationships. For example, an RDF description may be serialized as either XML or N3, and those expressions in turn may be encoded as either UTF-8 or UTF-16 sequences. Defining this encoding stack reveals distinctions necessary for a precise account of identity and equivalence

  13. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  14. Equivalent tree representation of electrocardiogram using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravel, N; Rajesh, J; Nithiyanandam, N

    1997-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) gives the electrical activity of the heart. The number of data points required to represent the ECG signal is reduced by using a complete-tree representation. This reduced data structure (ECG Tree) is obtained by fitting the ECG signal in a grid structure consisting of both horizontal and vertical lines. The leaf nodes are the points where the vertical grid lines intersect with the ECG signal. These leaf nodes now form the features of the ECG signal. Some of these leaf nodes may be redundant and hence the reduction in the number of leaf nodes and thus optimization of the tree (equivalent tree) is done using a novel technique based on the Genetic Algorithm (GA). In this work, the equivalent tree is formed using GA consisting of four stages. First, from the group of generated leaf nodes various combinations of strings are constructed to form the population. Second, the fitness function is taken as the measure of the vertical distances between two neighbouring leaf nodes in order to evaluate the population with respect to their fitness values. Third, the selection procedure is used to give offsprings based on an assigned threshold value. Finally, crossover and mutation operations are performed repeatedly till an optimized population is obtained. The optimal nodes represent the equivalent tree. The Backpropagation Neural Network as a classifier is used to test the efficacy of the GA in this optimization problem.

  15. Examination of the UPDRS bradykinesia subscale: equivalence, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Philip O; Wilson, Ronald E; Seeberger, Lauren C; Conner, Jill B; Castelli-Haley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Administering items or subscales separately from the measure for which they were designed to be a part may have unintended consequences for research and practice in Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study tested the equivalence of the bradykinesia subscale when administered alone versus as a component of the full 14-item Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor examination, as well as examined the reliability and validity of the bradykinesia subscale. The study sample consisted of 112 patients with PD. Patients were randomly assigned to either the bradykinesia subscale alone group (n = 56), who were administered the bradykinesia subscale separately from the rest of the UPDRS motor examination, or the full scale group (n = 56), who were administered the UPDRS motor examination in its standard format. The two one-sided t-test (TOST) procedure was used to test for mean equivalency between the two administration groups. Additionally, reliability and validity analyses were performed. The bradykinesia subscale mean scores from the full scale group and the subscale alone group were not statistically equivalent. However, in both groups, the bradykinesia subscale had exceptional reliability and was strongly and similarly related to age, activities of daily living, disability, and other assessments of motor symptom severity. The bradykinesia subscale is a valid and reliable assessment when administered separately from the rest of the UPDRS motor examination; however, caution should be taken when comparing mean scores across studies or occasions when different administrations are used.

  16. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward-feedback compound control.

  17. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  18. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill

    2016-10-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. Below we review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs

  19. Testing the Equivalence of Regular Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Almeida

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The minimal deterministic finite automaton is generally used to determine regular languages equality. Antimirov and Mosses proposed a rewrite system for deciding regular expressions equivalence of which Almeida et al. presented an improved variant. Hopcroft and Karp proposed an almost linear algorithm for testing the equivalence of two deterministic finite automata that avoids minimisation. In this paper we improve the best-case running time, present an extension of this algorithm to non-deterministic finite automata, and establish a relationship between this algorithm and the one proposed in Almeida et al. We also present some experimental comparative results. All these algorithms are closely related with the recent coalgebraic approach to automata proposed by Rutten.

  20. Galilean Equivalence for Galactic Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kesden, M; Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way experience a tidal disruption as they orbit in the Milky Way's dark halo. While the bound core of the satellite remains dominated by dark matter, the tidally disrupted stars behave like purely baryonic tracers of the Milky Way's potential well. If dark matter experiences a stronger self attraction than visible matter, stars will preferentially gain rather than lose energy during tidal disruption. This leads to a relative enhancement in the trailing as compared to the leading tidal stream. We show that the absence of a strong asymmetry in the surface brightness of the leading and trailing tidal streams already constrains the equivalence of acceleration of dark matter and baryons in a gravitational field to less than ten percent--thus ruling out a recently proposed mechanism to clear dwarf galaxies from voids. Future observations should be sensitive at the percent level to departures from the equivalence of dark matter and baryons.

  1. Underlining some aspects of the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, E.; Feoli, A.

    2017-09-01

    We want to shed light on some discussed aspects of the principle of equivalence. We consider two different phases in the evolution of the principle. We pay attention to the fact that some textbooks do not dwell on the mathematical meaning of ‘locally flat spacetime’, which can confuse students and, occasionally, can also lead to misinterpretations. For example, the non-eliminability of tidal forces, not even locally, may suggest that the equivalence principle is wrong. By contrast, we want to show that this is in perfect agreement with the Einstein geometrical interpretation of spacetime. Finally, in order to check the approximations used in the Gedankenexperiment of an elevator, we estimate explicitly the magnitude of the deflection of light and the effects of tidal forces in a ‘real lift’.

  2. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. We review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the $t$-channel ${\\rm SO}(3)$ partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs.

  3. Probing Quantum Violations of the Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Adunas, G Z; Ahluwalia, D V

    2001-01-01

    The joint realm of quantum mechanics and the general-relativistic description of gravitation is becoming increasingly accessible to terrestrial experiments and observations. In this essay we study the emerging indications of the violation of equivalence principle (VEP). While the solar neutrino anomaly may find its natural explanation in a VEP, the statistically significant discrepancy observed in the gravitationally induced phases of neutron interferometry seems to be the first indication of a VEP. However, such a view would seem immediately challenged by the atomic interferometry results. The latter experiments see no indications of VEP, in apparent contradiction to the neutron interferometry results. Here we present arguments that support the view that these, and related torsion pendulum experiments, probe different aspects of gravity; and that current experimental techniques, when coupled to the solar-neutrino data, may be able to explore quantum mechanically induced violations of the equivalence principl...

  4. The techniques and applications of power system dynamic equivalents at CEGB, EDF and ENEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprio, U.; Barbier, C.; Humphreys, P.

    1982-12-01

    A presentation is given of the state of the art in the field of ''Dynamic Equivalents Application'' at CEGB, EDF, ENEL. While in the past years the stress was mainly put on theoretical matters related to the development of general methods for simplifying the dynamic model of multimachine systems, various results of practical application are now available. These results confirm that dynamic equivalents are a powerful tool to simplify the analysis of the dynamic performance of large power systems. Since the use of dynamic equivalents can already be considered a current practice, based on standard procedures, it is possible to gather and compare different experience. The interest in this comparison stems from the consideration that, while the technique for deriving passive equivalents is an exact process giving results as accurate as the input data, the dynamic (or active) equivalents inevitably involve some loss of accuracy which has to be justified in some way.

  5. Electromagnetic Boundaries with PEC/PMC Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2016-01-01

    The most general electromagnetic boundary, defined by linear and local boundary conditions, is defined in terms of conditions which can be called generalized impedance boundary conditions. Requiring that the boundary be equivalent to PEC and PMC boundaries for its two eigen-plane waves, which property is known to exist for many of its special cases, it is shown that the recently introduced Generalized Soft-and-Hard/DB (GSHDB) boundary is the most general boundary satisfying this property.

  6. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  7. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy)

    1997-05-15

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S{sub 0} satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension.

  8. Translation Theory and the Problem of Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    García-Landa, Mariano

    2000-01-01

    El presente artículo se ocupa de estudiar el problema de la equivalencia desde la perspectiva de la teoría de la traducción, y las posibles soluciones que puede dársele a esta cuestión This article is devoted to the study of the problem of equivalence in translation theory, and to the different possibilities available to find a solution

  9. Residential Building Envelope Alternatives with Equivalent Cost

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the optimum envelope alternative in buildings is one of the most important factors in ensuring thermal comfort. This study calculated the heating costs, construction and lifecycle costs for a residential building in Istanbul with different envelope alternatives created by changing the type and thickness of the body and insulation materials used in the walls and roof, which are the structural components forming the building envelope. Envelope alternatives with equivalent costs were d...

  10. Equivalent Lagrangians: Generalization, Transformation Maps, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Equivalent Lagrangians are used to find, via transformations, solutions and conservation laws of a given differential equation by exploiting the possible existence of an isomorphic algebra of Lie point symmetries and, more particularly, an isomorphic Noether point symmetry algebra. Applications include ordinary differential equations such as the Kummer equation and the combined gravity-inertial-Rossbywave equation and certain classes of partial differential equations related to multidimensional wave equations.

  11. Adaptive passive equivalence of uncertain Lü system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Dong-Lian

    2006-01-01

    An adaptive passive strategy for controlling uncertain Lü system is proposed. Since the uncertain Lü system is minimum phase and the uncertain parameters are from a bounded compact set, the essential conditions are studied by which uncertain Lü system could be equivalent to a passive system, and the adaptive control law is given. Using passive theory, the uncertain Lü system could be globally asymptotically stabilized at different equilibria by the smooth state feedback.

  12. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    CERN Document Server

    Voicu, Razvan

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive calculi.

  13. Cyclic and Inductive Calculi are equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan VOICU; Li, Mengran

    2011-01-01

    Brotherston and Simpson [citation] have formalized and investigated cyclic reasoning, reaching the important conclusion that it is at least as powerful as inductive reasoning (specifically, they showed that each inductive proof can be translated into a cyclic proof). We add to their investigation by proving the converse of this result, namely that each inductive proof can be translated into an inductive one. This, in effect, establishes the equivalence between first order cyclic and inductive...

  14. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  15. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop J. Hox

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects.The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales.

  16. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, A; Patella, A; Pica, C

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lesson...

  17. Homeomorphisms, homotopy equivalences and chain complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Adams-Florou, Spiros

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns the relationship between bounded and controlled topology and how these can be used to recognise which homotopy equivalences of reasonable topological spaces are homotopic to homeomorphisms. Let $f:X\\to Y$ be a simplicial map of finite-dimensional locally finite simplicial complexes. We prove that $f$ has contractible point inverses if and only if it is an $\\epsilon$-controlled homotopy equivalences for all $\\epsilon>0$, if and only if $f\\times\\mathrm{id}:X\\times\\mathbb{R} \\to Y\\times\\mathbb{R}$ is a homotopy equivalence bounded over the open cone $O(Y^+)$ of Pedersen and Weibel. This approach can be generalised to algebra using geometric categories: the $X$-controlled categories $\\mathbb{A}^*(X)$, $\\mathbb{A}_*(X)$ of Ranicki and Weiss together with the bounded categories $\\mathcal{C}_M(\\mathbb{A})$ of Pedersen and Weibel. Analogous to the barycentric subdivision of a simplicial complex, we define the algebraic subdivision of a chain complex over that simplicial complex. The main theorem ...

  18. Bilingualism and the increased attentional blink effect: evidence that the difference between bilinguals and monolinguals generalizes to different levels of second language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Vatsala; Verma, Ark; Kar, Bhoomika; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The attentional blink task involves rapid serial presentation of visual stimuli, two of which the participants have to report. The usual finding is that participants are impaired at reporting the second target if it appears in close temporal proximity to the first target. Previous research has shown that the effect is stronger in bilinguals than monolinguals. We investigated whether the difference between monolinguals and proficient bilinguals can be extended to bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Therefore, we replicated the paradigm in a large sample of Hindi-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels of English, as measured with a validated vocabulary test. We additionally measured the participants' intelligence with the raven progressive matrices. We found that the size of the attentional blink effect correlates with the degree of second language proficiency and not with the degree of intelligence. This indicates that research on executive control functions can be done with bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Our results are also in line with recent findings showing that the attentional blink effect is not primarily due to limited processing resources.

  19. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  20. Approximate trace and singleton failures equivalences for transition systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Jinzhao Wu; Hongyan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Established system equivalences for transition systems, such as trace equivalence and failures equivalence, require the ob-servations to be exactly identical. However, an accurate measure-ment is impossible when interacting with the physical world, hence exact equivalence is restrictive and not robust. Using Baire met-ric, a generalized framework of transition system approximation is proposed by developing the notions of approximate language equivalence and approximate singleton failures (SF) equivalence. The framework takes the traditional exact equivalence as a special case. The approximate language equivalence is coarser than the approximate SF equivalence, just like the hierarchy of the exact ones. The main conclusion is that the two approximate equiva-lences satisfy the transitive property, consequently, they can be successively used in transition system approximation.

  1. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merced Montesinos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  2. Power curve report - with rotor equivalent wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  3. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...... the physical behavior of the real system. This paper highlights the importance of the electromechanical coupling factor, which is responsible for the electrical to mechanical energy conversion. The emphasis is put on the difference between the effective coupling factor and the modal coupling factor. The effect...

  4. Testing the principle of equivalence with Planck surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Popa, L A; Mandolesi, N

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effect of the violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) by the massive neutrino component on the Cosmic Microwave Background angular power specrum. We show that in the presence of adiabatic and isocurvature primordial density perturbations the Planck surveyor can place limits on the maximal VEP by the massive neutrino component at the level of 10^ -5, valid in the general relativity, for the case in which the gravity is the single source of VEP. This work has been performed within the framework of the {\\sc Planck}/LFI activities.

  5. Equivalent and Alternative Forms for BF Gravity with Immirzi Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Montesinos, Merced; 10.3842/SIGMA.2011.103

    2011-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the BF formulation for general relativity given by Capovilla, Montesinos, Prieto, and Rojas is performed. The action principle of this formulation is written in an equivalent form by doing a transformation of the fields of which the action depends functionally on. The transformed action principle involves two BF terms and the two Lorentz invariants that appear in the original action principle generically. As an application of this formalism, the action principle used by Engle, Pereira, and Rovelli in their spin foam model for gravity is recovered and the coupling of the cosmological constant in such a formulation is obtained.

  6. The Influence of Academic Self-efficacy and Learning Strategy to Academic Performance of High School Students: The Selection of Equivalent Model and the Analysis of Mediation%学业自我效能感与学习策略对高二学生学业成绩的影响:SEM的建立和等值模型的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张田; 傅安球

    2011-01-01

    为探索学业自我效能感和学习策略对中学生学业成绩的影响,通过问卷法调查了555名高中学生.并通过等值模型的探讨和结构方程模型的建立来考察在学业自我效能感对学业成绩的影响中,学习策略所起的作用。结果显示:(1)不同性别和学科学生在使用学习策略上存在显著差异;(2)在学业行为效能感对学业成绩的影响中,浅表策略和元认知策略起到中介作用;(3)在学业能力效能感对学业成绩的影响中.元认知策略起到完全中介作用。研究得出结论:在学业自我效能感的各个维度对学业成绩的影响中,不同的学习策略起到不同程度的中介作用。%To investigate the relationship between academic self-efficacy, learning strategy and academic performance, 555 high school students were investigated by questionnaires, and equivalent model and structural equation model analysis were used to analyse the data. The results of the study were as follows: (1)The using of learning strategy had significant differences between gender and between social science and nature science; (2)Superficial strategy and metacognitive strategy mediated the relationship between academic activity self-efficacy and academic performance; (3)Metacognitive strategy could fully mediate the relationship between academic ability self-efficacy and academic performance. Based on the results, we concluded that in the relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic performance, different dimensions of learning strategy mediated the relationship in different ways.

  7. Principles of Equivalence Their Role in Gravitation Physics and Experiments that Test Them

    CERN Document Server

    Haugan, Mark P; Haugan, Mark P.

    2001-01-01

    Modern formulations of equivalence principles provide the foundation for an efficient approach to understanding and organizing the structural features of gravitation field theories. Since theories' predictions reflect differences in their structures, principles of equivalence also support an efficient experimental strategy for testing gravitation theories and for exploring the range of conceivable gravitation physics. These principles focus attention squarely on empirical consequences of the fundamental structural differences that distinguish one gravitation theory from another. Interestingly, the variety of such consequences makes it possible to design and perform experiments that test equivalence principles stringently but do so in markedly different ways than the most familiar experimental tests.

  8. An equivalent system of Einstein Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospino, J.; Hernández-Pastora, J. L.; Núñez, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    We provide the full set of equations governing the evolution of self-gravitating systems by using a tetrad formalism in General Relativity and the orthogonal splitting of the Riemann tensor. We apply this formalism to spherical case and found that: the only static solution with homogeneous energy density, under the physical reasonable considerations, is the Schwarzchild solution; the conditions under which a non-dissipative fluid is static and finally that shear-free and isotropic pressure conditions are equivalent, for non-dissipative fluids with homogeneous energy density.

  9. Development and Testing of Living Skin Equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Model a) The use of Isografts in an inbred strain of rats. In a preliminary series of experiments the potential use of Fischer strain rats has been...tested by preparing a series of isografts made by grafting skin equivalents with cells from female donors to male hosts. On the average, wound...Autograft--rat 4 1 4 3 5 17 Autograft--rabbit 6 3 1 1 11 Isograft --rat 37 13 13 1 64 Allo fib., iso ker--rat 15 12 3 30 Allo fib, iso ker--rab 8 6 14 Iso

  10. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal;

    2015-01-01

    the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...

  11. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... which cross national borders and for the needs of multilingual populations. The European Convention of Human Rights (article 6, paragrph 3) is one of the main planks of relevant legislation. This international, two year project has been funded by the EU Grotius programme to set out what is required...

  12. The Search for a New Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Ionescu, Lucian M

    2007-01-01

    The new emerging quantum physics - quantum computing conceptual bridge, mandates a ``grand unification'' of space-time-matter and quantum information (all quantized), with deep implications for science in general. The major physics revolutions in our understanding of the universe are briefly reviewed and a ``missing'' equivalence principle is identified and its nature explained. An implementation as an external super-symmetry $\\C{E}=ic\\C{P}$ is suggested, generalizing the Wick rotation ``trick''. Taking advantage of the interpretation of entropy as a measure of symmetry, it is naturally asimilated within the present Feynman Path Integral algebraic formalism.

  13. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-12

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  14. Hysteretic damping in rotordynamics: An equivalent formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, Giancarlo; Amati, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    The hysteretic damping model cannot be applied to time domain dynamic simulations: this is a well-known feature that has been discussed in the literature since the time when analog computers were widespread. The constant equivalent damping often introduced to overcome this problem is also discussed, and its limitations are stated, in particular those linked with its application in rotordynamics to simulate rotating damping. An alternative model based on the nonviscous damping (NVD) model, but with a limited number of additional degrees of freedom, is proposed, and the relevant equations are derived. Some examples show applications to the rotordynamics field.

  15. Thermal analysis of laser diode module by an equivalent electrical network method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming-wei; XU Wen-hai; TANG Wen-yan

    2006-01-01

    An equivalent electrical network method is presented in this paper to analyze the cooling characteristics of a laser diode module (LDM).And a modified equivalent model of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) with an adjunctive thermal resistance and a contact resistance is proposed.The performance of a commercial TEC has been simulated.The thermal analysis of a LDM incorporated with a TEC has been performed by using an equivalent circuit model of the LDM.In the analysis the change of LD current,TEC current,and the ambient temperature are all considered.It shows that the equivalent circuit approach is an effective tool for the qualitative analysis of TEC and LDM.

  16. Effect of automobile operating condition on the subjective equivalence of steering wheel vibration and sound

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the manufacturers of automobiles, automobile components and fuels, subjective equivalence relationships between vibration and sound can be used as a reference against which to plot the results from simulations or tests of specific operational conditions. The research described here was performed to define curves of subjective equivalence between steering wheel rotational vibration and sound using stimuli from different automobile operating conditions. The steering wheel acceleration stimu...

  17. Is Identical Really Identical? An Investigation of Equivalency Theory and Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Moody

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the validity of equivalency theory among 63 students by comparing two introductory upper-division human resource management courses: one taught online, the other in a traditional classroom. Commonalities included same term, same professor, and identical assignments/tests in the same order, thus allowing a direct comparison of course outcomes. MANCOVA results supported equivalency theory, and further suggest that the online learning pedagogy may be superior in its overall effect on student performance.

  18. The Influence of Radon (Gas and Progeny) and Weather Conditions on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, J L; Benito, G; Saez, J C; Navarro, N; Alvarez, A; Quiñones, J

    2016-08-13

    The purpose of this study is to identify the influence of radon (gas and progeny) on the ambient dose equivalent rate measured at the reference station ESMERALDA, where continuous measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate (every 10 min) combined with activity concentration measurements of radon gas and radon progeny as well as meteorological parameters have been collected. This study has been performed using a correlation study based on a principal components analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

  19. Investigating Starburst Galaxy Emission Line Equivalent Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, Helen; Richardson, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling star forming galaxies with spectral synthesis codes allows us to study the gas conditions and excitation mechanisms that are necessary to reproduce high ionization emission lines in both local and high-z galaxies. Our study uses the locally optimally-emitting clouds model to develop an atlas of starburst galaxy emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, we address the following question: What physical conditions are necessary to produce strong high ionization emission lines assuming photoionization via starlight? Here we present the results of our photoionization simulations: an atlas spanning 15 orders of magnitude in ionizing flux and 10 orders of magnitude in hydrogen density that tracks over 150 emission lines ranging from the UV to the near IR. Each simulation grid contains ~1.5x104 photoionization models calculated by supplying a spectral energy distribution, grain content, and chemical abundances. Specifically, we will be discussing the effects on the emission line equivalent widths of varying the metallicity of the cloud, Z = 0.2 Z⊙ to Z = 5.0 Z⊙, and varying the star-formation history, using the instantaneous and continuous evolution tracks and the newly released Starburst99 Geneva rotation tracks.

  20. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqian Zhang; Quan Li; Wei Cao; Weisheng Yue; Jianqiang Gu; Zhen Tian; Jiaguang Han; Weili Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials have been demonstrated over a significant portion of the electromagnetic spectra from radio,microwave,and terahertz (THz) to the optical regimes.The unique properties of metamaterials are not attainable with naturally occurring materials[1].Thus,enormous applications in devices and techniques,such as superlens,cloaking antenna,and sub-wavelength photolithography are enabled[2-5].The capability of metamaterials has been broadly expanded because they allow precise control of the electromagnetic responses.The appreciation of electromagnetic response control through metamaterial structures provides unique benefits in the design of versatile devices,including filters,modulators,and switchable components.%An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered.

  1. Equivalence of open/closed strings

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the open and closed strings are $O(D,D)$ equivalent. The equivalence requires an AdS geometry near the boundaries. The $O(D,D)$ invariance is introduced into the Polyakov action by the Tseytlin's action. Traditionally, there exist disconnected open-open or closed-closed configurations in the solution space of the Tseytlin's action. The open-closed configuration is ruled out by the mixed terms of the dual fields. We show that, under some very general guidances, the dual fields are consistently decoupled if and only if the near horizon geometry is $AdS_5$. We then have open-closed and closed-open configurations in different limits of the distances of the $D3$-brane pairs. Inherited from the definition of the theory, these four configurations are of course related to each other by $O(D,D)$ transformations. We therefore conclude that both the open/closed relation and open/closed duality can be derived from $O(D,D)$ symmetries. By analyzing the couplings of the configurations, the low ...

  2. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  3. An equivalent relative utility metric for evaluating screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K; Eckstein, Miguel P; Boone, John M

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies of performance in screening mammography are often ambiguous. A new method will frequently show a higher sensitivity or detection rate than an existing standard with a concomitant increase in false positives or recalls. The authors propose an equivalent relative utility (ERU) metric based on signal detection theory to quantify screening performance in such comparisons. The metric is defined as the relative utility, as defined in classical signal detection theory, needed to make 2 systems equivalent. ERU avoids the problem of requiring a predefined putative relative utility, which has limited application of utility theory in receiver operating characteristic analysis. The metric can be readily estimated from recall and detection rates commonly reported in comparative clinical studies. An important practical advantage of ERU is that in prevalence matched populations, the measure can be estimated without an independent estimate of disease prevalence. Thus estimating ERU does not require a study with long-term follow-up to find cases of missed disease. The approach is applicable to any comparative screening study that reports results in terms of recall and detection rates, although the authors focus exclusively on screening mammography in this work. They derive the ERU from the definition of utility given in classical treatments of signal detection theory. They also investigate reasonable values of relative utility in screening mammography for use in interpreting ERU using data from a large clinical study. As examples of application of ERU, they reanalyze 2 recently published reports using recall and detection rates in screening mammography.

  4. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzal Billy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set.

  5. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  6. Equivalent magnetization over the World's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Erwan, T.; Lesur, V.

    2014-12-01

    As a by-product of our recent work to build a candidate model over the oceans for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM) version 2, we derived global distributions of the equivalent magnetization in oceanic domains. In a first step, we use classic point source forward modeling on a spherical Earth to build a forward model of the marine magnetic anomalies at sea-surface. We estimate magnetization vectors using the age map of the ocean floor, the relative plate motions, the apparent polar wander path for Africa, and a geomagnetic reversal time scale. As magnetized source geometry, we assume 1 km-thick layer bearing a 10 A/m magnetization following the topography of the oceanic basement as defined by the bathymetry and sedimentary thickness. Adding a present-day geomagnetic field model allows the computation of our initial magnetic anomaly model. In a second step, we adjust this model to the existing marine magnetic anomaly data, in order to make it consistent with these data. To do so, we extract synthetic magnetic along the ship tracks for which real data are available and we compare quantitatively the measured and computed anomalies on 100, 200 or 400 km-long sliding windows (depending the spreading rate). Among the possible comparison criteria, we discard the maximal range - too dependent on local values - and the correlation and coherency - the geographical adjustment between model and data being not accurate enough - to favor the standard deviation around the mean value. The ratio between the standard deviations of data and model on each sliding window represent an estimate of the magnetization ratio causing the anomalies, which we interpolate to adjust the initial magnetic anomaly model to the data and therefore compute a final model to be included in our WDMAM candidate over the oceanic regions lacking data. The above ratio, after division by the magnetization of 10 A/m used in the model, represents an estimate of the equivalent magnetization under the

  7. MAGNETIC CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT OF THE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH INCORPORATED MAGNETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyong Le Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic circuitry computation is one of the central stages of designing a synchronous motor with incorporated magnets, which can be performed by means of a simplified method of the magnetic-circuits equivalent modeling. The article studies the magnetic circuit of the motor with the rotor-incorporated magnets, which includes four sectors: constant magnets with the field pole extension made of magnetically soft steel, magniflux dispersion sections containing air barriers and steel bridges; the air gap; the stator grooves, cogs and the frame yoke. The authors introduce an equivalent model of the magnetic circuit. High-energy magnets with a linear demagnetization curve are employed in the capacity of constant magnets. Two magnets create the magnetic flux for one pole. The decline of magnetic potential in the steel of the pole is negligible consequent on the admission that the poles magnetic inductivity µ = ∞. The rotor design provides for the air barriers and the steel bridges that close leakage flux. The induction-permeability curve linearization serves for the bridges magnetic saturation accountability and presents a polygonal line consisting of two linear sections. The estimation of the magnet circuit section including the cogs and the frame yoke is executed with account of the steel saturation, their magnetic conductivities thereat being dependent on the saturation rate. Relying on the equivalent model of the magnetic circuit, the authors deduce a system of two equations written from the first and the second Kirchhoff laws of the magnetic circuits. These equations allow solving two problems: specifying dimensions of the magnets by the preset value of the magnetic flow in the clearance and determining the clearance magnetic flow at the preset motor rotor-and-stator design.

  8. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria such as performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and technical and schedule risk are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost would account for much of the cost of a future planetary mission, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select advanced life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated mass of the hardware and of the spacecraft pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass of a system is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in the Advanced Life Support project. ESM adds a mass-equivalent of crew time and possibly other cost factors to equivalent mass. Traditional equivalent mass is strictly based on flown mass and reflects only the launch cost. ESM includes other important cost factors, but it complicates the simple flown mass definition of equivalent mass by adding a non-physical mass penalty for crew time that may exceed the actual flown mass. Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. For Earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is less than the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDTBE). LCC is a more inclusive cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission destination and duration. Since DDTBE or operations may cost more than launch, LCC gives a more accurate relative cost ranking than equivalent mass. To select the lowest cost

  9. Equivalent Resistance in Pulse Electric Current Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sintering resistance for conductive TiB2 and non-conductive Al2O3 as well as empty die during pulse current sintering were investigated in this paper.Equivalent resistances were measured by current and valtage during sintering the conductive and non-conductive materials in the same conditions.It is found that the current paths for conductive are different from those for non-conductive materials.For non-conductive materials,sintering resistances are influenced by powder sizes and heating rates,which indicates that pulse current has some interaction with non-conductive powders.For conductive TiB2,sintering resistances are influenced by heating rates and ball-milling time,which indicates the effect of powders activated by spark.

  10. FUZZY ORDER EQUIVALENT CLASS WITH UNCERTAINTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHOU; Mingzhe WANG

    2005-01-01

    It is a new research topic to create a rational judgment matrix using the cognition theory because of the construction of judgment matrix in AHP involving the decision-maker's cognitive activities.Owing to the presence of uncertain information in the decision procedure, the improper use of the uncertain information will doubtless cause weight changes. In this paper, we add a feedforward process prior to constructing the judgment matrix so that the decision maker can use both the certain and uncertain information to get the initial uncertain rough judgment matrix, and then convert it into a fuzzy matrix. Consequently, it will be better for decision maker to obtain the rough set of order equivalent classes through the decision graph. According to the qualitative analysis, the decision maker can easily construct the final judgment matrix instructed by the rough set created earlier.

  11. Expressivism, Relativism and the analytic equivalence test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Frapolli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field 2009, 252, MacFarlane’s assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis’ epistemic contextualism and Frege’s content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions.

  12. Expressivism, Relativism, and the Analytic Equivalence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frápolli, Maria J; Villanueva, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, pace (Field, 2009), MacFarlane's assessment relativism and expressivism should be sharply distinguished. We do so by arguing that relativism and expressivism exemplify two very different approaches to context-dependence. Relativism, on the one hand, shares with other contemporary approaches a bottom-up, building block, model, while expressivism is part of a different tradition, one that might include Lewis' epistemic contextualism and Frege's content individuation, with which it shares an organic model to deal with context-dependence. The building-block model and the organic model, and thus relativism and expressivism, are set apart with the aid of a particular test: only the building-block model is compatible with the idea that there might be analytically equivalent, and yet different, propositions.

  13. Equivalence Bimodule between Spherical Noncommutative Tori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Gil PARK

    2003-01-01

    Let ni,mj > 1. In [5], the spherical noncommutative torus Sppd was defined by twisting Tr+2 × Zl in Tpd C*(Zl) by a totally skew multiplier p on Tr+2 × Zl for Tpd a pd-homogeneous C*-algebra over Пs4i=1 S2n+I ×Пs2 S2 ×Пs3j=1 S2mj-1 ×Пs1 S1 × Tr+2. It is shown that Sppd is strongly Morita equivalent to C(Пs4i=1 S2ni ×Пs2S2×Пs3j=1 S2mj-1 ×Пs1 S1) C*(Tr+3× Zl, p).

  14. Premetric equivalent of general relativity: Teleparallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, Yakov; Hehl, Friedrich W.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2017-04-01

    In general relativity (GR), the metric tensor of spacetime is essential since it represents the gravitational potential. In other gauge theories (such as electromagnetism), the so-called premetric approach succeeds in separating the purely topological field equation from the metric-dependent constitutive law. We show here that GR allows for a premetric formulation, too. For this purpose, we apply the teleparallel approach of gravity, which represents GR as a gauge theory based on the translation group. We formulate the metric-free topological field equation and a general linear constitutive law between the basic field variables. The requirement of local Lorentz invariance turns the model into a full equivalent of GR. Our approach opens a way for a natural extension of GR to diverse geometrical structures of spacetime.

  15. Equivalency and unbiasedness of grey prediction models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zeng; Chuan Li; Guo Chen; Xianjun Long

    2015-01-01

    In order to deeply research the structure discrepancy and modeling mechanism among different grey prediction mo-dels, the equivalence and unbiasedness of grey prediction mo-dels are analyzed and verified. The results show that al the grey prediction models that are strictly derived from x(0)(k) +az(1)(k) = b have the identical model structure and simulation precision. Moreover, the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence can be accomplished. However, the models derived from dx(1)/dt+ax(1) =b are only close to those derived from x(0)(k)+az(1)(k)=b provided that|a|has to satisfy|a| < 0.1; neither could the unbiased simulation for the homoge-neous exponential sequence be achieved. The above conclusions are proved and verified through some theorems and examples.

  16. Isomorphism and Morita equivalence of graph algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene

    2008-01-01

    For any countable graph $E$, we investigate the relationship between the Leavitt path algebra $L_{\\C}(E)$ and the graph C*-algebra $C^*(E)$. For graphs $E$ and $F$, we examine ring homomorphisms, ring *-homomorphisms, algebra homomorphisms, and algebra *-homomorphisms between $L_{\\C}(E)$ and $L_{\\C}(F)$. We prove that in certain situations isomorphisms between $L_{\\C}(E)$ and $L_{\\C}(F)$ yield *-isomorphisms between the corresponding C*-algebras $C^*(E)$ and $C^*(F)$. Conversely, we show that *-isomorphisms between $C^*(E)$ and $C^*(F)$ produce isomorphisms between $L_{\\C}(E)$ and $L_{\\C}(F)$ in specific cases. The relationship between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras is also explored in the context of Morita equivalence.

  17. Correlation Measure Equivalence in Dynamic Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    We prove an equivalence transformation between the correlation measure functions of the causally-unbiased quantum gravity space and the causally-biased standard space. The theory of quantum gravity fuses the dynamic (nonfixed) causal structure of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity space, the events are causally nonseparable and all time bias vanishes, which makes it no possible to use the standard causally-biased entropy and the correlation measure functions. Since a corrected causally-unbiased entropy function leads to an undefined, obscure mathematical structure, in our approach the correction is made in the data representation of the causally-unbiased space. We prove that the standard causally-biased entropy function with a data correction can be used to identify correlations in dynamic causal structures. As a corollary, all mathematical properties of the causally-biased correlation measure functions are preserved in the causally-unbiased space. The eq...

  18. The premetric equivalent of general relativity: teleparallelism

    CERN Document Server

    Itin, Yakov; Obukhov, Yuri N

    2016-01-01

    In general relativity (GR), the metric tensor of spacetime is essential since it represents the gravitational potential. In other gauge theories (such as electromagnetism), the so-called premetric approach succeeds in separating the purely topological field equation from the metric-dependent constitutive law. We show here that GR allows for a premetric formulation, too. For this purpose, we apply the teleparallel approach of gravity, which represents GR as a gauge theory based on the translation group. We formulate the metric-free topological field equation and a general linear constitutive law between the basic field variables. The requirement of local Lorentz invariance turns the model into a full equivalent of GR. Our approach opens a way for a natural extension of GR to diverse geometrical structures of spacetime.

  19. Manual Annotation of Translational Equivalence The Blinker Project

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1998-01-01

    Bilingual annotators were paid to link roughly sixteen thousand corresponding words between on-line versions of the Bible in modern French and modern English. These annotations are freely available to the research community from http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~melamed . The annotations can be used for several purposes. First, they can be used as a standard data set for developing and testing translation lexicons and statistical translation models. Second, researchers in lexical semantics will be able to mine the annotations for insights about cross-linguistic lexicalization patterns. Third, the annotations can be used in research into certain recently proposed methods for monolingual word-sense disambiguation. This paper describes the annotated texts, the specially-designed annotation tool, and the strategies employed to increase the consistency of the annotations. The annotation process was repeated five times by different annotators. Inter-annotator agreement rates indicate that the annotations are reasonably rel...

  20. Snow water equivalent mapping in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, O. E.; Udnæs, H.-C.; Engeset, R.; Førland, E. J.; Isaksen, K.; Mengistu, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In high latitude area snow covers the ground large parts of the year. Information about the water volume as snow is of major importance in many respects. Flood forecasters at NVE need it in order to assess possible flood risks. Hydropower producers need it to plan the most efficient production of the water in their reservoirs, traders to estimate the potential energy available for the market. Meteorologists on their side use the information as boundary conditions in weather forecasting models. The Norwegian meteorological institute has provided snow accumulation maps for Norway for more than 50 years. These maps are now produced twice a month in the winter season. They show the accumulated precipitation in the winter season from the day the permanent snow cover is established. They do however not take melting into account, and do therefore not give a good description of the actual snow amounts during and after periods with snowmelt. Due to an increased need for a direct measure of water volumes as snow cover, met.no and NVE initialized a joint project in order to establish maps of the actual snow cover expressed in water equivalents. The project utilizes recent developments in the use of GIS in spatial modeling. Daily precipitation and temperature are distributed in space by using objective spatial interpolation methods. The interpolation considers topographical and other geographical parameters as well as weather type information. A degree-day model is used at each modeling point to calculate snow-accumulation and snowmelt. The maps represent a spatial scale of 1x1 km2. The modeled snow reservoir is validated by snow pillow values as well traditional snow depth observations. Preliminary results show that the new snow modeling approach reproduces the snow water equivalent well. The spatial approach also opens for a wide use in the terms of areal analysis.

  1. A Solid State Tissue Equivalent Detector for Microdosimetry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QEL proposes to construct a tissue equivalent microdosimeter using a solid state tissue equivalent detector (SSTED). The Phase I study will produce the working...

  2. Proposed New Test of Equivalence Principle from Rotating Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-Zhong; LUO Jun; NIE Yu-Xin

    2000-01-01

    We study a new kind of equivalence principle for rotating bodies and propose a test of the equivalence principle by comparing free-fall gravitational accelerations of two gyroscopes or a rotating and a non-rotating extended bodies.

  3. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  4. On Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence%On Eugene A.Nida's Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲

    2016-01-01

    Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence is a very useful theory in translation. This theory considers that translation is transference of the source language into the meaning of the target language in the way the author intended the text. It has a deep influence on translation.

  5. On the $c$ equivalence principle and its relation to the weak equivalence principle of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, T C

    2011-01-01

    We clarify the status of the $c$ equivalence principle ($c_u=c$) recently proposed by Heras et al \\cite{JoseAJP2010,JoseEJP2010} and show that its proposal leads to an extension of the current framework of classical relativistic electrodynamics (CRE). This is because in the MLT (mass, length and time) system of units, CRE theory can contain only one fundamental constant of nature and special relativity dictates that this must be $c$, the standard speed of light in vacuum, a point not sufficiently emphasized in most textbooks with the exception of a few such as Panofsky and Phillips \\cite{PanofskyPhillips}. The $c$ equivalence principle Heras \\cite{JoseAJP2010,JoseEJP2010} can be shown to be linked to the second postulate of special relativity which extends the constancy of the unique velocity of light to all of physics (especially to mechanics) other than electromagnetism. An interesting corollary is that both the weak equivalence principle of general relativity and the $c$ equivalence principle are in fact o...

  6. Equivalence above Word Level in English——Chinese Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕君

    2008-01-01

    Translation is not accomplished by merely substituting words in a word-for-word equivalence.A word-for-word replacement is of little use,because it is only a form of words equivalent,and does not convey the force of meaning(the dynamic equivalence).The aim of this paper is to study equivalence above word level(collocation、idiom and fixed expression)in relation to English--Chinese translation process,using different approaches.

  7. Equivalent layers: another way to look at them

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, C. J.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-02-01

    We describe the behavior of the equivalent refractive index (or Herpin index) and equivalent phase thickness in relation to the phase thicknesses of the layers in a dielectric stack. This relation is visualized by a diagram that provides insight into the existing solutions for given combinations of the Herpin index and the equivalent phase thickness. Furthermore, it can be used for the explanation of the occurrence of stop bands and of the dispersion of equivalent layer stacks.

  8. A Simple Test of the Equivalence Principle(s) for Quantum Superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Patrick J; Modi, Kavan; Pollock, Felix A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple experimental test of the quantum equivalence principle introduced by Zych and Brukner [arXiv:1502.00971], which generalises the Einstein equivalence principle to superpositions of internal energy states. We consider a harmonically-trapped spin-$\\frac12$ atom in the presence of both gravity and an external magnetic field and show that when the external magnetic field is suddenly switched off, various violations of the equivalence principle would manifest as otherwise forbidden transitions. Performing such an experiment would put bounds on the various phenomenological violating parameters. We further demonstrate that the classical weak equivalence principle can be tested by suddenly putting the apparatus into free fall, effectively 'switching off' gravity.

  9. A test of the equivalence principle(s) for quantum superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick J.; Mann, Robert B.; Modi, Kavan; Pollock, Felix A.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an experimental test of the quantum equivalence principle introduced by Zych and Brukner (arXiv:1502.00971), which generalises the Einstein equivalence principle to superpositions of internal energy states. We consider a harmonically trapped {spin} - \\tfrac{1}{2} atom in the presence of both gravity and an external magnetic field and show that when the external magnetic field is suddenly switched off, various violations of the equivalence principle would manifest as otherwise forbidden transitions. Performing such an experiment would put bounds on the various phenomenological violating parameters. We further demonstrate that the classical weak equivalence principle can be tested by suddenly putting the apparatus into free fall, effectively ‘switching off’ gravity.

  10. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  11. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Pt. 154, App. A Appendix A to Part 154—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula...

  12. On the equivalence classes of linear non-autonomous systems *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalence classification of the linear non-autonomous dynamic systems near singularities is given. Under some conditions their equivalence classes are the same as the autonomous ones. Using a series of linear and nonlinear transforms, the equivalence classification is proved.

  13. Equivalent fields and scatter integration for photon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Bjärngard, B E; Reiff, J

    1999-04-01

    Equivalent fields are often used in radiation oncology for calculation of dose. This avoids the need to make a scatter integration but has limited applicability and some inaccuracy. We have evaluated the alternative of explicit integration of phantom-scatter dose using a functional representation, sigma, of the ratio between the scatter dose and the primary dose. The independent parameters are depth and the side of the square field. The function chosen has the advantage that the integral for a right triangle is available in closed form, which simplifies the determination of the dose from phantom-scattered photons for irregular fields by summation over such triangles. This approach accounts for the influence of depth and beam quality, which the commonly used equivalent-field tables and the area-over-perimeter relation ignore. The accuracy of this procedure is determined by the accuracy of the function sigma. This has about a 1% error of total dose for high-energy x-rays. We conclude that the tables and rules can be replaced by a computer-implemented integration of the phantom-scatter dose represented by this function sigma and using sectors or right triangles. Summing the closed-form contributions from component right triangles reduces the calculation time, which is particularly desirable when many fields are employed, as for intensity-modulated techniques and inverse planning. Measurements performed on irregular MLC-shaped fields compared well with the result from calculations.

  14. Experimental determination of a LMFBR seismic equivalent core model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, P.; Fegeant, O.; Fontaine, B.; Gantenbein, F.

    1995-12-31

    Seismic analysis of pool type LMFBR requires to perform a finite element calculation of the reactor. Because of fluid structure interaction and non-linearities due to the presence of gaps between subassemblies, it is impossible to include in the reactor vessel finite elements model the real behaviour of the core. It is therefore required to find a linear equivalent core model (LECM) which will give for the reactor vessel the same results. The design of the LECM is based on an experimental test program conducted with the core mock-up RAPSODIE on Vesuve shaking table located at CEA/Saclay center. The tests permitted to validate a linear equivalent model, which characteristics correspond to the modal parameters of the mock-up (masses, elevations, frequencies...). These characteristics were estimated in air and in water, for different level of excitation. They permitted to quantify the added mass ratio (about 15%) which is in a rather good agreement with the computation when the free surface effect is correctly taken into account. (authors). 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 photo.

  15. Neural Net Gains Estimation Based on an Equivalent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Alicia Aguilar Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of an Equivalent Artificial Neural Net (EANN describes the gains set, viewed as parameters in a layer, and this consideration is a reproducible process, applicable to a neuron in a neural net (NN. The EANN helps to estimate the NN gains or parameters, so we propose two methods to determine them. The first considers a fuzzy inference combined with the traditional Kalman filter, obtaining the equivalent model and estimating in a fuzzy sense the gains matrix A and the proper gain K into the traditional filter identification. The second develops a direct estimation in state space, describing an EANN using the expected value and the recursive description of the gains estimation. Finally, a comparison of both descriptions is performed; highlighting the analytical method describes the neural net coefficients in a direct form, whereas the other technique requires selecting into the Knowledge Base (KB the factors based on the functional error and the reference signal built with the past information of the system.

  16. Neural Net Gains Estimation Based on an Equivalent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cruz, Karen Alicia; Medel Juárez, José de Jesús; Fernández Muñoz, José Luis; Esmeralda Vigueras Velázquez, Midory

    2016-01-01

    A model of an Equivalent Artificial Neural Net (EANN) describes the gains set, viewed as parameters in a layer, and this consideration is a reproducible process, applicable to a neuron in a neural net (NN). The EANN helps to estimate the NN gains or parameters, so we propose two methods to determine them. The first considers a fuzzy inference combined with the traditional Kalman filter, obtaining the equivalent model and estimating in a fuzzy sense the gains matrix A and the proper gain K into the traditional filter identification. The second develops a direct estimation in state space, describing an EANN using the expected value and the recursive description of the gains estimation. Finally, a comparison of both descriptions is performed; highlighting the analytical method describes the neural net coefficients in a direct form, whereas the other technique requires selecting into the Knowledge Base (KB) the factors based on the functional error and the reference signal built with the past information of the system. PMID:27366146

  17. RTL2RTL Formal Equivalence: Boosting the Design Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Achutha Kiran Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing design complexity driven by feature and performance requirements and the Time to Market (TTM constraints force a faster design and validation closure. This in turn enforces novel ways of identifying and debugging behavioral inconsistencies early in the design cycle. Addition of incremental features and timing fixes may alter the legacy design behavior and would inadvertently result in undesirable bugs. The most common method of verifying the correctness of the changed design is to run a dynamic regression test suite before and after the intended changes and compare the results, a method which is not exhaustive. Modern Formal Verification (FV techniques involving new methods of proving Sequential Hardware Equivalence enabled a new set of solutions for the given problem, with complete coverage guarantee. Formal Equivalence can be applied for proving functional integrity after design changes resulting from a wide variety of reasons, ranging from simple pipeline optimizations to complex logic redistributions. We present here our experience of successfully applying the RTL to RTL (RTL2RTL Formal Verification across a wide spectrum of problems on a Graphics design. The RTL2RTL FV enabled checking the design sanity in a very short time, thus enabling faster and safer design churn. The techniques presented in this paper are applicable to any complex hardware design.

  18. Tribological behaviour of skin equivalents and ex-vivo human skin against the material components of artificial turf in sliding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Hurtado, Marina; Peppelman, P.; Zeng, Xiangqiong; van Erp, P.E.J.; van der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyse the interaction of three artificial skin equivalents and human skin against the main material components of artificial turf. The tribological performance of Lorica, Silicone Skin L7350 and a recently developed Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE) were studied and compared to

  19. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  20. Researching measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Kankaraš

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In cross-cultural comparative studies it is essential to establish equivalent measurement of relevant constructs across cultures. If this equivalence is not confirmed it is difficult if not impossible to make meaningful comparison of results across countries. This work presents concept of measurement equivalence, its relationship with other related concepts, different equivalence levels and causes of inequivalence in cross-cultural research. It also reviews three main approaches to the analysis of measurement equivalence – multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, differential item functioning, and multigroup latent class analysis – with special emphasis on their similarities and differences, as well as comparative advantages.