WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolingual native speakers

  1. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

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    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  2. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  3. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...

  4. The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers

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    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

  5. Multicompetence and Native Speaker Variation in Clausal Packaging in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Native speakers show systematic variation in a range of linguistic domains as a function of a variety of sociolinguistic variables. This article addresses native language variation in the context of multicompetence, i.e. knowledge of two languages in one mind (Cook, 1991). Descriptions of motion were elicited from functionally monolingual and…

  6. Multicompetence and Native Speaker Variation in Clausal Packaging in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Native speakers show systematic variation in a range of linguistic domains as a function of a variety of sociolinguistic variables. This article addresses native language variation in the context of multicompetence, i.e. knowledge of two languages in one mind (Cook, 1991). Descriptions of motion were elicited from functionally monolingual and…

  7. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...... the linguicism of British pedagogical expertise are generally involved in native speaker export businesses. They underpin a hierarchy with under-qualified native speakers projected as superior to local teachers who are seen as in need of foreign ‘aid’. In view of the British bodies involved openly declaring...

  8. Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

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    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…

  9. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  10. The Native Speaker: Membership Has Its Privileges.

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    Siskin, H. Jay

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. In her essay, Kramsch forcefully argues against the native speaker construct and exhorts teachers and learners not to abandon their unique…

  11. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

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    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  12. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

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    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  13. Overview of Native-speaker English Teacher Versus Non-native-speaker English Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xu

    2015-01-01

    As much more non-native-speaker English teachers teach alongside native-speaker English teachers, either in China or any other non-English-speaking country, research on the differences between native-speaker English teacher and non-na⁃tive-speaker English teacher is necessary. This paper offers an overview of such difference between the two groups of English teachers in terms of their strengths and weaknesses, teaching styles and approaches. The conclusion suggests that cooperation and communication be emphsised and that the two groups of teachers communicate more and exchange their ideas on how to teach the same group of students more effectively.

  14. An investigation of Turkish speakers' of English and native English speakers' recognition of the writing of Turkish speakers of English and native English speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Pamela

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : Faculty of Humanities and Letters and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 31-33 This study investigated whether or not Turkish non-native English speakers and native English speakers would recognize the writing of advanced Turkish speakers of English and the writing of native English speakers. It was hypothesized that there were featu...

  15. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  16. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

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    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  17. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  18. Native-Speakerism in ELT: Plus ca Change...?

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    Waters, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In ELT, the over-representation of the "native-speaker" (NS) point of view at the expense of the "non-native-speaker" (NNS) one--"native-speakerism"--has long been a significant problem. However, this paper argues that the current main applied linguistics attempt to remedy the situation--the use of a "critical theory" (CT) approach--rather than…

  19. Perception of a native vowel contrast by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants : A bilingual perceptual lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Facing previous mixed findings between monolingual and bilingual infants’ phonetic development during perceptual reorganization, the current study aims at examining the perceptual development of a native vowel contrast (/I/-/i/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants. Design: We tested

  20. The acquisition of Taiwan Mandarin vowels by native American English speakers

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    Lin, Cyun-Jhan

    2005-04-01

    Previous work on the production of English and French phones by native American English speakers indicated that equivalence classification prevent L2 learners from approximating L2 phonetic norms of similar phones and that learning French would not affect English speakers' production of L1 similar phone /u/ (Flege, 1987). In this study, there were five subjects, including 2 advanced native American English learners of Taiwan Mandarin, 2 basic native American English learners of Taiwan Mandarin, and 1 monolingual Taiwan Mandarin speaker. The corpus were 12 English words ``heed, who'd, hod; leak, Luke, lock; beat, suit, bot; peat, suit, pot,'' and 12 Mandarin words [i,u, a; li, lu, la; pi, pu, pa; phi, phu, pha]. Both advanced and basic learners' production of English and Mandarin words and monolingual Taiwan Mandarin speaker's production of Mandarin words were directly recorded onto a PC. Vowel formants were taken from spectrograms generated by Praat. Preliminary results showed the vowel space of advanced learners between Taiwan Mandarin [i] and [u] was larger than that of basic learners, and closer to the Taiwan Mandarin norms. Besides, the vowel space between English [i] and [u] by basic learners was dramatically smaller than that of American English norms.

  1. Illusory vowels and illusory tones in the perception of consonant clusters by monolingual Chinese Mandarin speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qianwen

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception...

  2. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  3. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

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    Seçkin eArslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI or indirect (-mIş evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  4. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  5. (En)countering native-speakerism global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, Anne; Holliday, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.

  6. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

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    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  7. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  8. (En)countering native-speakerism global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Holliday, Adrian; Swan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.

  9. Some thoughts on the Native Speaker of English

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    No, Keum Sook; Park, Kyung-Ja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the concept of the native speaker of English in light of the heightened status of English as a global language. The broadening and acceptance of criteria regarding who is a native speaker is historically discussed and placed in a modern context. In particular, perceptions towards the English native…

  10. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

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    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  11. Revisiting the Issue of Native Speakerism: "I Don't Want to Speak Like a Native Speaker of English"

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    Choi, Lee Jin

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of English Korean bilinguals explores the ways in which they legitimize themselves as "good" bilinguals in relation to the discourse of native-speakerism. I first survey the essentialist discourse of native speakerism still prevalent in the field of English language teaching and learning despite the growing…

  12. Turkish Students' Perspectives on Speaking Anxiety in Native and Non-Native English Speaker Classes

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    Bozavli, Ebubekir; Gulmez, Recep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of FLA (foreign language anxiety) in native/non-native speaker of English classrooms. In this study, two groups of students (90 in total) of whom 38 were in NS (native speaker) class and 52 in NNS (non-native speaker) class taking English as a second language course for 22 hours a week at Erzincan…

  13. Native speakers' assessment of (impoliteness of non-native speakers' requests

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    Mohammad Mohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-language pragmatics (ILP and politeness have long been of considerable significance in language learning research. The present study investigated the notion of polite and impolite requests among Iranian EFL learners. The participants, 30 MA students of English, responded to a discourse completion task (DCT realizing the speech act of request and the utterances were analyzed in three phases. First, the request strategies and politeness strategies were identified based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper's (1989b taxonomy of request strategies and Brown and Levinson's (1987 politeness theory, respectively. Next, a sample of 149 request utterances were evaluated by two native English speakers in terms of politeness on a three-point politeness Likert scale as such: 1Polite, 2Partially polite and 3Impolite. Finally, the request utterances were qualitatively analyzed. The results of the first phase indicated that the most frequent request strategies were mood-derivable, query-preparatory and strong hints and the most frequent politeness strategies negative and positive politeness. The native speakers' evaluation showed that only 21.5% (32 utterances of the requests were rated as polite with partially polite and impolite request constituting 58% and 20.5%, respectively. The findings also demonstrated that there are both conformities to and deviations from the native speaker norms in the realization of the speech act of request by Iranian EFL learners. The study highlighted the need for instructional intervention in pragmatics in classroom settings. Furthermore, the results showed that there are serious potential of breakdowns in Iranian EFL learners' intercultural communication, hence the need for explicit teaching of pragmatics.

  14. When the Teacher Is a Non-native Speaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pèter Medgyes

    2005-01-01

    @@ In "When the Teacher is a Non-native Speaker," Medgyes examines the differences in teaching behavior between native and non-native teachers of English, and then specifies the causes of those differences. The aim of the discussion is to raise the awareness of both groups of teachers to their respective strengths and weaknesses, and thus help them become better teachers.

  15. The vowel inherent spectral change of English vowels spoken by native and non-native speakers.

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    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2013-05-01

    The current study examined Vowel Inherent Spectral Change (VISC) of English vowels spoken by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers. Two metrics, spectral distance (amount of spectral shift) and spectral angle (direction of spectral shift) of formant movement from the onset to the offset, were measured for 12 English monophthongs produced in a /hvd/ context. While Chinese speakers showed significantly greater spectral distances of vowels than English and Korean speakers, there was no significant speakers' native language effect on spectral angles. Comparisons to their native vowels for Chinese and Korean speakers suggest that VISC might be affected by language-specific phonological structure.

  16. The Status of Native Speaker Intuitions in a Polylectal Grammar.

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    Debose, Charles E.

    A study of one speaker's intuitions about and performance in Black English is presented with relation to Saussure's "langue-parole" dichotomy. Native speakers of a language have intuitions about the static synchronic entities although the data of their speaking is variable and panchronic. These entities are in a diglossic relationship to each…

  17. Native Speaker and Nonnative Speaker Identities in Repair Practices of English Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun Young; Oh, Sun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical and methodological framework of Conversation Analysis, the present study explores the nature of the native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) identities in repair practices of English conversation. It has identified and analyzed in detail repair sequences in the data and has also conducted quantitative analyses in…

  18. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers.

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    Olmstead, Anne J; Viswanathan, Navin; Aivar, M Pilar; Manuel, Sarath

    2013-01-01

    Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba]-[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b]) to +60 ms (long lag, English [p]) such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English). Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  19. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers

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    Annie J Olmstead

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba] -[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b] to +60 ms (long lag, English [p] such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English. Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  20. An event-related potential study of visual rhyming effects in native and non-native English speakers.

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    Botezatu, Mona R; Miller, Carol A; Misra, Maya

    2015-02-11

    English monolinguals and highly proficient, but first language (L1)-dominant, Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals made rhyme judgments of visually presented English word pairs while behavioral and EEG measures were being recorded. Two types of conditions were considered: rhyming and nonrhyming pairs that were orthographically dissimilar (e.g. white-fight, child-cough) and those that were orthographically similar (e.g. right-fight, dough-cough). Both native and non-native English speakers were faster and more accurate in responding to nonrhyming than rhyming targets under orthographically dissimilar conditions, although the response times of Chinese-English bilinguals differed from those of the other groups. All groups were slower and less accurate in responding to nonrhyming targets under orthographically similar conditions, with the response times and accuracy rates of Spanish-English bilinguals differing from those of the other groups. All participant groups showed more negative N450 mean amplitudes to nonrhyming compared with rhyming targets, regardless of orthographic similarity, and this rhyming effect did not differ across groups under the orthographically similar conditions. However, under orthographically dissimilar conditions, the rhyming effect was less robust in non-native speakers, being modulated by English proficiency.

  1. Delayed Next Turn Repair Initiation in Native/Non-native Speaker English Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Examines a form of other-initiated conversational repair that is delayed within next turn position, a form that is produced by non-native speakers of English whose native language is Mandarin. Using the framework of conversational analysis, shows that in native/non-native conversation, other-initiated repair is not always done as early as possible…

  2. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  3. Neural differences between monolinguals and early bilinguals in their native language during comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, P; González, J; Ventura-Campos, N; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Sanjuán, A; Ávila, C

    2015-11-01

    Research has shown that semantic processing of sentences engages more activity in the bilingual compared to the monolingual brain and, more specifically, in the inferior frontal gyrus. The present study aims to extend those results and examines whether semantic and also grammatical sentence processing involve different cerebral structures when testing in the native language. In this regard, highly proficient Spanish/Catalan bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals made grammatical and semantic judgments in Spanish while being scanned. Results showed that both types of judgments recruited more cerebral activity for bilinguals in language-related areas including the superior and middle temporal gyri. Such neural differences co-occurred with similar performance at the behavioral level. Taken together, these data suggest that early bilingualism shapes the brain and cognitive processes in sentence comprehension even in their native language; on the other hand, they indicate that brain over activation in bilinguals is not constrained to a specific area.

  4. Native-Speakerism and the Complexity of Personal Experience: A Duoethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert J.; Kiczkowiak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a duoethnographic study into the effects of native-speakerism on the professional lives of two English language teachers, one "native", and one "non-native speaker" of English. The goal of the study was to build on and extend existing research on the topic of native-speakerism by investigating, through…

  5. Teaching the Native English Speaker How to Teach English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhuu, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks to teachers who have been paired with native speakers (NSs) who have never taught before, and the feelings of frustration, discouragement, and nervousness on the teacher's behalf that can occur as a result. In order to effectively tackle this situation, teachers need to work together with the NSs. Teachers in this scenario…

  6. Selected Bibliography of Spanish for Native Speaker Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Pino, Cecilia, Comp.

    This bibliography was prepared for middle school and high school teachers participating in a conference at New Mexico State University (July 14-18, 1993), to assist in research and pedagogical endeavors in the teaching of Spanish to native speakers. It is presented in two parts. The first is a bibliography edited by Francisco J. Ronquillo, which…

  7. Descriptions of Difficult Conversations between Native and Non-Native English Speakers: In-Group Membership and Helping Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ray; Faux, William V., II

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrated the perceptions of native English speakers about difficult conversations with non-native English speakers. A total of 114 native English speakers enrolled in undergraduate communication courses at a regional state university answered a questionnaire about a recent difficult conversation the respondent had with a non-native…

  8. Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ghada

    2001-05-01

    VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

  9. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  10. Nonnative Speakers Do Not Take Competing Alternative Expressions into Account the Way Native Speakers Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robenalt, Clarice; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2016-01-01

    When native speakers judge the acceptability of novel sentences, they appear to implicitly take competing formulations into account, judging novel sentences with a readily available alternative formulation to be less acceptable than novel sentences with no competing alternative. Moreover, novel sentences with a competing alternative are more…

  11. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects.

  12. Application of Native Speaker Models for Identifying Deviations in Rhetorical Moves in Non-Native Speaker Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Explicit teaching of generic conventions of a text genre, usually extracted from native-speaker (NS manuscripts, has long been emphasized in the teaching of Academic Writing inEnglish for Specific Purposes (henceforthESP classes, both in theory and practice. While consciousness-raising about rhetorical structure can be instrumental to non-native speakers(NNS, it has to be admitted that most works done in the field of ESP have tended to focus almost exclusively on native-speaker (NS productions, giving scant attention to non-native speaker (NNS manuscripts. That is, having outlined established norms for good writing on the basis of NS productions, few have been inclined to provide a descriptive account of NNS attempts at trying to produce a research article (RA in English. That is what we have tried to do in the present research. Methods: We randomly selected 20 RAs in dentistry and used two well-established models for results and discussion sections to try to describe the move structure of these articles and show the points of divergence from the established norms. Results: The results pointed to significant divergences that could seriously compromise the quality of an RA. Conclusion: It is believed that the insights gained on the deviations in NNS manuscripts could prove very useful in designing syllabi for ESP classes.

  13. The Effect of Foreign Accent and Speaking Rate on Native Speaker Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hsieh, Janet; Koehler, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of foreign accent and speaking rate on native English speaker comprehension. Three native Chinese speakers and one native speaker of American English read passages at different speaking rates. Comprehension scores showed that an increase in speaking rate and heavily accented English decreased listener comprehension.…

  14. Proficient beyond borders: assessing non-native speakers in a native speakers’ framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fleckenstein

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background English language proficiency is considered a basic skill that students from different language backgrounds are expected to master, independent of whether they are native or non-native speakers. Tests that measure language proficiency in non-native speakers are typically linked to the common European framework of reference for languages. Such tests, however, often lack the criteria to define a practically relevant degree of proficiency in English. We approach this deficit by assessing non-native speakers’ performance within a native speakers’ framework. Method Items from two English reading assessments—the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA and the National Assessment (NA for English as a foreign language in Germany—were administered to N = 427 German high school students. Student abilities were estimated by drawing plausible values in a two-dimensional Rasch model. Results Results show that non-native speakers of English generally underperformed compared to native speakers. However, academic track students in the German school system achieved satisfactory levels of proficiency on the PISA scale. Linking the two scales showed systematic differences in the proficiency level classifications. Conclusion The findings contribute to the validation and international localization of NA standards for English as a foreign language. Practical implications are discussed with respect to policy-defined benchmarks for the successful participation in a global English-speaking society.

  15. A COMPARISON OF ORAL EVALUATION RATINGS BY NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKER TEACHERS AND NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKER TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Baitman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explore the differences and similarities between native English speaker (NES teachers and non-native English speaker (NNES teachers in their oral evaluation ratings of the same university level English language learners. To this effect, the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test Independent Speaking Rubric and a questionnaire were employed. The results reveal that NES teachers are more lenient in their oral evaluation ratings than NNES teachers. In regards to the questionnaire employed, it was found that NES teachers take into consideration the aspects of fluency and pronunciation more so than NNES teachers when orally assessing students, while NNES teachers take more into consideration the aspects of grammatical accuracy and vocabulary. Further research is required in the area of oral assessment specifically pertaining to nationality, age, work experience, and knowledge of a second language.

  16. The Halo surrounding native English speaker teachers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Kramadibrata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Native Speaker Fallacy, a commonly held belief that Native English Speaker Teachers (NESTs are inherently better than Non-NESTs, has long been questioned by ELT researchers. However, this belief still stands strong in the general public. This research looks to understand how much a teacher’s nativeness affects a student’s attitude towards them, as well as the underlying reasons for their attitudes. Sixty seven respondents in two groups were asked to watch an animated teaching video, after which they completed a questionnaire that used Likert-scales to assess comprehensibility, clarity of explanation, engagement, and preference. The videos for both groups were identical apart from the narrator; one spoke in British English, while the other, Indian English. In addition, they were also visually identified as Caucasian and Asian, respectively. The video was controlled for speed of delivery. The quantitative data were then triangulated using qualitative data collected through open questions in the questionnaire as well as from a semi-structured interview conducted with 10 respondents. The data show that there is a significant implicit preference for NEST teachers in the video, as well as in respondent’s actual classes. However, when asked explicitly, respondents didn’t rank nativeness as a very important quality in English teachers. This discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes might be due to a subconscious cognitive bias, namely the Halo Effect, in which humans tend to make unjustified presumptions about a person based on known but irrelevant information.

  17. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  18. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker's native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich…

  19. Durations of American English vowels by native and non-native speakers: acoustic analyses and perceptual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun; Chen, Chia-Tsen

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine durations of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers and the effects of vowel duration on vowel intelligibility. Twelve American English vowels were recorded in the /hVd/ phonetic context by native speakers and non-native speakers. The English vowel duration patterns as a function of vowel produced by non-native speakers were generally similar to those produced by native speakers. These results imply that using duration differences across vowels may be an important strategy for non-native speakers' production before they are able to employ spectral cues to produce and perceive English speech sounds. In the intelligibility experiment, vowels were selected from 10 native and non-native speakers and vowel durations were equalized at 170 ms. Intelligibility of vowels with original and equalized durations was evaluated by American English native listeners. Results suggested that vowel intelligibility of native and non-native speakers degraded slightly by 3-8% when durations were equalized, indicating that vowel duration plays a minor role in vowel intelligibility.

  20. Morphological or Syntactic Deficits in Near-Native Speakers? An Assessment of Some Current Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschina, Florencia

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes claims made in three studies that adopt a morphological approach to nonnative speaker-native speaker divergence. Examines these claims in terms of the morphological and syntactic theories presupposed and points to a number of problems. (Author/VWL)

  1. Brain Plasticity in Speech Training in Native English Speakers Learning Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Christina Carolyn

    The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns

  2. Motion Event Similarity Judgments in One or Two Languages: An Exploration of Monolingual Speakers of English and Chinese vs. L2 Learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinglin

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages.

  3. Motion Event Similarity Judgments in One or Two Languages: An Exploration of Monolingual Speakers of English and Chinese vs. L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinglin

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages. PMID:28638355

  4. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries.

  5. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries. PMID:27309889

  6. Evaluation of Speakers with Foreign-Accented Speech in Japan: The Effect of Accent Produced by English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-accented speakers are generally regarded as less educated, less reliable and less interesting than native speakers and tend to be associated with cultural stereotypes of their country of origin. This discrimination against foreign accents has, however, been discussed mainly using accented English in English-speaking countries. This study…

  7. Evaluation of Speakers with Foreign-Accented Speech in Japan: The Effect of Accent Produced by English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-accented speakers are generally regarded as less educated, less reliable and less interesting than native speakers and tend to be associated with cultural stereotypes of their country of origin. This discrimination against foreign accents has, however, been discussed mainly using accented English in English-speaking countries. This study…

  8. Infants' preferences for native speakers are associated with an expectation of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    such as race or native language, yet the function of this selectivity remains unclear. We examine one of these social biases, the preference for native speakers, and propose that this preference may result from infants' motivation to obtain information and the expectation that interactions with native speakers...... was observed when infants could expect to receive information from the native speaker, indicating that infants were preparing to learn information from the native speaker to a greater extent than from the foreign speaker. While previous research has demonstrated that infants prefer to interact...... with knowledgeable others, the current experiments provide evidence that such an information-seeking motive may also underpin infants' demonstrated preference for native speakers....

  9. Speech-on-speech masking with variable access to the linguistic content of the masker speech for native and nonnative english speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Bradlow, Ann R; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2014-04-01

    Masking release for an English sentence-recognition task in the presence of foreign-accented English speech compared with native-accented English speech was reported in Calandruccio et al (2010a). The masking release appeared to increase as the masker intelligibility decreased. However, it could not be ruled out that spectral differences between the speech maskers were influencing the significant differences observed. The purpose of the current experiment was to minimize spectral differences between speech maskers to determine how various amounts of linguistic information within competing speech Affiliationect masking release. A mixed-model design with within-subject (four two-talker speech maskers) and between-subject (listener group) factors was conducted. Speech maskers included native-accented English speech and high-intelligibility, moderate-intelligibility, and low-intelligibility Mandarin-accented English. Normalizing the long-term average speech spectra of the maskers to each other minimized spectral differences between the masker conditions. Three listener groups were tested, including monolingual English speakers with normal hearing, nonnative English speakers with normal hearing, and monolingual English speakers with hearing loss. The nonnative English speakers were from various native language backgrounds, not including Mandarin (or any other Chinese dialect). Listeners with hearing loss had symmetric mild sloping to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Listeners were asked to repeat back sentences that were presented in the presence of four different two-talker speech maskers. Responses were scored based on the key words within the sentences (100 key words per masker condition). A mixed-model regression analysis was used to analyze the difference in performance scores between the masker conditions and listener groups. Monolingual English speakers with normal hearing benefited when the competing speech signal was foreign accented compared with native

  10. Exploring Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about the Monolingual Approach: Differences between Pre-Service and In-Service Korean Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The non-native English-speaking teachers' (NNESTs) beliefs about the monolingual approach have not been sufficiently studied in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). In examining the NNESTs' beliefs about that issue, the present study adapts Guy Cook's recent framework, according to which the monolingual approach is based upon four…

  11. Research and Trends in the Studies of Native & Non-Native Speaker Teachers of Languages: A Review on Selected Researches and Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    SuriatiJusoh, Fathen; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah; De Witt, Dorothy; Hussin, Zaharah; Darusalam, Ghazali

    2013-01-01

    Recruiting and employing native speaker teachers of English Language (NST) in non-native speakers' context are widely practised in countries which learn and use the target language taught by the native speaker teachers (NST) as either as a second or a foreign language. This paper reviews selected journals and thesis on the issues of Native and…

  12. Student perceptions of native and non-native speaker language instructors: A comparison of ESL and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Callahan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the native vs. non-native speaker status of second and foreign language instructors has been investigated chiefly from the perspective of the teacher. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have strong opinions on the relative qualities of instruction by native and non-native speakers. Most research focuses on students of English as a foreign or second language. This paper reports on data gathered through a questionnaire administered to 55 university students: 31 students of Spanish as FL and 24 students of English as SL. Qualitative results show what strengths students believe each type of instructor has, and quantitative results confirm that any gap students may perceive between the abilities of native and non-native instructors is not so wide as one might expect based on popular notions of the issue. ESL students showed a stronger preference for native-speaker instructors overall, and were at variance with the SFL students' ratings of native-speaker instructors' performance on a number of aspects. There was a significant correlation in both groups between having a family member who is a native speaker of the target language and student preference for and self-identification with a native speaker as instructor. (English text

  13. Native Thai speakers' acquisition of English word stress patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Ratree; Landfair, David; Li, Bin; Guion, Susan G

    2006-05-01

    The influence of syllabic structure, lexical class and stress patterns of known words on the acquisition of the English stress system was investigated in ten native Thai speakers. All participants were adult learners of English with an average length of residence in the US of 1.4 years. They were asked to produce and give perceptual judgments on 40 English non-words of varying syllabic structures in noun and verb sentence frames. Results of the production data suggested that syllables with a long vowel attracted stress more often than syllables containing a short vowel and nouns received initial stress more often than verbs. Additionally, regression analyses with the three factors as predictors suggested that Thai participants' pattern of stress assignment on non-words was significantly influenced by the stress patterns of phonologically similar real words. These results were compared and contrasted to those found in previous work with Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals.

  14. Taiwanese University Students' Attitudes to Non-Native Speakers English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted to explore issues surrounding non-native speakers (NNS) English teachers and native speaker (NS) teachers which concern, among others, the comparison between the two, the self-perceptions of NNS English teachers and the effectiveness of their teaching, and the students' opinions on and attitudes towards them.…

  15. Comprehending non-native speakers: theory and evidence for adjustment in manner of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Non-native speakers have lower linguistic competence than native speakers, which renders their language less reliable in conveying their intentions. We suggest that expectations of lower competence lead listeners to adapt their manner of processing when they listen to non-native speakers. We propose that listeners use cognitive resources to adjust by increasing their reliance on top-down processes and extracting less information from the language of the non-native speaker. An eye-tracking study supports our proposal by showing that when following instructions by a non-native speaker, listeners make more contextually-induced interpretations. Those with relatively high working memory also increase their reliance on context to anticipate the speaker's upcoming reference, and are less likely to notice lexical errors in the non-native speech, indicating that they take less information from the speaker's language. These results contribute to our understanding of the flexibility in language processing and have implications for interactions between native and non-native speakers.

  16. The Acquisition and Interpretation of English Locative Constructions by Native Speakers of Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley-Vroman, Robert; Joo, Hye-Ri

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether native speakers of Korean learning English develop Knowledge of the holism effect in the English locative and knowledge of the narrow constraints. Results suggest that when given a ground-object structure, both learners and English native speakers preferentially chose a ground-holism picture. (Author/VWL)

  17. White Native English Speakers Needed: The Rhetorical Construction of Privilege in Online Teacher Recruitment Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Todd; Ives, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, scholars have paid increasing attention to the role of native speakerism in the field of TESOL. Several recent studies have exposed instances of native speakerism in TESOL recruitment discourses published through a variety of media, but none have focused specifically on professional websites advertising programs in…

  18. Foreign Language Performance Requirements for Decoding by Native Speakers: A Study of Intelligibility of Foreigners' English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigdorsky-Vogelsang, Leopoldo

    This work is intended to find replies to practical questions, such as how well native speakers of Spanish are decoded by native speakers of English, which errors interfere with decoding by the listener, and what the implications of the study might be for teaching. Fifteen Chileans were asked to tell stories in English, and several panels of native…

  19. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  20. ESL Speakers' Production of English Lexical Stress: The Effect of Variation in Acoustic Correlates on Perceived Intelligibility and Nativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Non-native speakers of English often experience problems in pronunciation as they are learning English, many such problems persisting even when the speaker has achieved a high degree of fluency. Research has shown that for a non-native speaker to sound most natural and intelligible in his or her second language, the speaker must acquire proper…

  1. Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L; Francis, Alexander L

    2008-06-01

    Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of lexical stress contrasts by 10 Mandarin and 10 native English speakers. Results showed that Mandarin speakers produced significantly less native-like stress patterns, although they did use all four acoustic correlates to distinguish stressed from unstressed syllables. Mandarin and English speakers' use of amplitude and duration were comparable for both stressed and unstressed syllables, but Mandarin speakers produced stressed syllables with a higher F0 than English speakers. There were also significant differences in formant patterns across groups, such that Mandarin speakers produced English-like vowel reduction in certain unstressed syllables, but not in others. Results suggest that Mandarin speakers' production of lexical stress contrasts in English is influenced partly by native-language experience with Mandarin lexical tones, and partly by similarities and differences between Mandarin and English vowel inventories.

  2. The effect on recognition memory of noise cancelling headphones in a noisy environment with native and non-native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesworth, Brett R C; Burgess, Marion; Gunnell, Belinda; Löffler, Diana; Venjakob, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Noise has the potential to impair cognitive performance. For nonnative speakers, the effect of noise on performance is more severe than their native counterparts. What remains unknown is the effectiveness of countermeasures such as noise attenuating devices in such circumstances. Therefore, the main aim of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of active noise attenuating countermeasures in the presence of simulated aircraft noise for both native and nonnative English speakers. Thirty-two participants, half native English speakers and half native German speakers completed four recognition (cued) recall tasks presented in English under four different audio conditions, all in the presence of simulated aircraft noise. The results of the research indicated that in simulated aircraft noise at 65 dB(A), performance of nonnative English speakers was poorer than for native English speakers. The beneficial effects of noise cancelling headphones in improving the signal to noise ratio led to an improved performance for nonnative speakers. These results have particular importance for organizations operating in a safety-critical environment such as aviation.

  3. Discriminative Phoneme Sequences Extraction for Non-Native Speaker's Origin Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bouselmi, Ghazi; Illina, Irina; Haton, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an automated method for the classification of the origin of non-native speakers. The origin of non-native speakers could be identified by a human listener based on the detection of typical pronunciations for each nationality. Thus we suppose the existence of several phoneme sequences that might allow the classification of the origin of non-native speakers. Our new method is based on the extraction of discriminative sequences of phonemes from a non-native English speech database. These sequences are used to construct a probabilistic classifier for the speakers' origin. The existence of discriminative phone sequences in non-native speech is a significant result of this work. The system that we have developed achieved a significant correct classification rate of 96.3% and a significant error reduction compared to some other tested techniques.

  4. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  5. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  6. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment.

  7. Infants’ Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants’ preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants’ looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants’ allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment. PMID:27536263

  8. The use of native speaker norms in critical period hypothesis research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.

    2014-01-01

    In critical period hypothesis (CPH) research, native speaker (NS) norm groups have often been used to determine whether nonnative speakers (NNSs) were able to score within the NS range of scores. One goal of this article is to investigate what NS samples were used in previous CPH research. The liter

  9. Auditory Training for Experienced and Inexperienced Second-Language Learners: Native French Speakers Learning English Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Paul; Pinet, Melanie; Evans, Bronwen G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether high-variability auditory training on natural speech can benefit experienced second-language English speakers who already are exposed to natural variability in their daily use of English. The subjects were native French speakers who had learned English in school; experienced listeners were tested in England and the less…

  10. The native-speaker fever in English language teaching (ELT: Pitting pedagogical competence against historical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchimbe, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses English language teaching (ELT around the world, and argues that as a profession, it should emphasise pedagogical competence rather than native-speaker requirement in the recruitment of teachers in English as a foreign language (EFL and English as a second language (ESL contexts. It establishes that being a native speaker does not make one automatically a competent speaker or, of that matter, a competent teacher of the language. It observes that on many grounds, including physical, sociocultural, technological and economic changes in the world as well as the status of English as official and national language in many post-colonial regions, the distinction between native and non-native speakers is no longer valid.

  11. Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L.; Alexander L. Francis

    2008-01-01

    Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of l...

  12. Students Writing Emails to Faculty: An Examination of E-Politeness among Native and Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesenbach-Lucas, Sigrun

    2007-01-01

    This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has…

  13. The Production of Referring Expressions in Oral Narratives of Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers and Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which the production of referring expressions such as noun phrases and pronouns to fulfill various discourse functions in narratives of Chinese-English bilingual children matches that of their monolingual peers in each of the two languages. Spoken narratives in English and Chinese were elicited from 30 9-year-old…

  14. THE EFFECT OF NATIVE SPEAKER TEACHERS OF ENGLISH ON THE ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. İsmet ŞAHİN

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are considered to be one of the most crucial elements affecting the success ofstudents learning a foreign language in non-English speaking countries.Native speakers of English were recruited as language teachers all over the non-English speaking world only because of their competency in the language for a long time. Butlater, it was admitted that being adept in a language doesn’t necessarily make anyone asuccessful language teacher. Skill in teaching is also very important in native speakers ofEnglish as language teachers.Attitude and motivation are proved to be the determinants of success in EFL learning.Native speaker teachers may also have an effect on the attitudes of learners as representativesof their culture and society. And they may be more advantageous in doing that because theyare also more competent in that culture compared to nonnative speakers.The study investigated the effect of native speaker teachers of English on the attitudesand success of EFL learners in Turkish setting.The results confirm that the learners who are exposed to native speaker teachers ofEnglish have more positive attitudes towards target language community and are moresuccessful in English lessons compared to those who are not exposed to any native speakerteachers of English. The results also verify that the attitude of EFL learners towards the targetcommunity correlates significantly with their success in language learning.

  15. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker’s native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich experience using Mandarin Chinese, the Cantonese speakers had problems distinguishing specific Mandarin segmental and tonal contrasts that do not exist in Guangzhou Cantonese. However, we found evidence that the subtle differences between two members of a contrast were nonetheless represented in the lexicon. We also found different processing patterns for non-native segmental versus non-native tonal contrasts. The results provide substantial new information about the representation and processing of segmental and prosodic information by individuals listening to a closely-related, very well-learned, but still non-native language. PMID:22707849

  16. The Acquisition of Multiple "Wh"-Questions by High-Proficiency Non-Native Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley-Vroman, Robert; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the knowledge of multiple wh-questions such as "Who ate what?" by high-proficiency Japanese speakers of English. Acceptability judgments were obtained on six different types of questions. Acceptability of English examples was rated by native speakers of English, Japanese examples were judged by native speakers of Japanese,…

  17. Non-Native Speakers Speak in Phonemes: A Phono-Acoustic Analysis of Fricatives and Affricates by Native and Chinese Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation measured the acoustic properties of the English fricatives and affricates produced by native and Chinese L2 speakers of English to identify the phonetic basis and sources of a foreign accent and to explore the mechanism involved in L2 speech production and L2 phonological acquisition at the segmental level. Based on a Network…

  18. A Study of Avoidance Strategy of Face Threat of Native Speaker and Non-Native Speaker by Using Goffman’s Face-Work Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmon Pandarangga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the avoidance strategy of face threat by English native speaker and non-native speaker who learnt other language e.g. English. This study used Irving Goffman’s face-work theory and its relation to avoidance face threat as a framework. 2 participants (one Australian and one Indonesian took part in this study. Both participants were interviewed in English language in English speaking environment for about 30 minutes each. The participants were asked to tell about their hobbies with some open-ended questions. This study focused on spoken sentences produced by both interviewees that indicated avoidance of face threat. The findings revealed that the native speaker and non-native speaker reacted differently to avoid face threat. In addition, they also had their own strategy to avoid the face threat. This study concluded that different cultures significantly contributed to the strategy of avoidance of face threat. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v2i2.3087

  19. A Comparative Study on the Use of Compliment Response Strategies by Persian and English Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Shabani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance of pragmatic knowledge and politeness strategies has recently been emphasized in language learning and teaching. Most communication failures originate in the lack of pragmatic awareness which is evident among EFL learners while communicating with English native speakers. The present study aimed at investigating compliment response strategies, as a sub-category of politeness strategies, used by a group of Persian and English native speakers, and examining the effect of gender on the use of strategies to respond to compliments. To these ends and with the use of convenient sampling, thirty Iranian native speakers (15 females and 15 males in Iran and 26 English native speakers (13 females and 13 males in Canada, all college students with age range of 17-30, participated in this study. In order to collect a corpus of compliment responses, a researcher-made questionnaire in the form of a Discourse Completion Task was distributed among the participants. Using two-way ANOVAs, the findings indicated that there is a significant difference between Persian native speakers and Canadian English speakers (p .05.Considering the findings of the present study, materials developers and textbook writers can make more space in EFL textbooks for exercises about compliments (responses; and help in highlighting the significance of this aspect of pragmatic knowledge. Keywords: pragmatics, politeness, compliment, compliment response, EFL

  20. How Well Do U.S. High School Students Achieve in Spanish When Compared to Native Spanish Speakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Luebbers, Julie; Castañeda, Martha E.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign language educators have developed measures to assess the proficiency of U.S. high school learners. Most have compared language learners to clearly defined criteria for proficiency in the language (criterion-referenced assessment) or to the performance of other monolingual English speakers (norm-referenced assessment). In this study, the…

  1. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  2. Structural Correlates for Lexical Efficiency and Number of Languages in Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, A.; Parker Jones, O.; Ali, N.; Crinion, J.; Orabona, S.; Mechias, M. L.; Ramsden, S.; Green, D. W.; Price, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM) to investigate whether the efficiency of word processing in the non-native language (lexical efficiency) and the number of non-native languages spoken (2+ versus 1) were related to local differences in the brain structure of bilingual and multilingual speakers.…

  3. The relationship between conceptual metaphors and classroom management language: reactions by native and non-native speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Low

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the target language to manage a class and organise its work represents one of the few genuinely communicative uses of the target language in many formal foreign-language or bilingual-education teaching situations. It is thus important that both teachers and learners understand and know how to use the key expressions involved. These tend to be highly metaphoric (Low, 2008 with one particularly productive conceptual metaphor involving the JOURNEY (or TRAVEL source domain seemingly standing out. There seems to have been little investigation to date into whether or not learners whose first language is not English actually understand the expressions involved in such classroom management language. Moreover, with the recent growing interest in the area of content-based learning, there is increasing pressure on language teachers, whose first language is not English, to use English as their classroom management language. Our first aim was to look at whether the acceptability judgements for classroom management expressions offered by non-native speaking teachers of English resembled those of native speakers, and whether these judgements reflected corpus findings regarding the frequency of usage in spoken English. To do this, we analysed native and non-native speaker responses to a short questionnaire. Our second aim was to look at how non-native speakers of English perceive the meanings of these expressions, comparing our findings to native speaker judgements and corpus results.

  4. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  5. Infants’ selectively pay attention to the information they receive from a native speaker of their language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Marno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFrom the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as towards speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants’ preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed towards unfamiliar objects. At test, infants’ looking behaviour to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants’ allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment.

  6. Complex brain network properties in late L2 learners and native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Alejandro; Gillon Dowens, Margaret; Molinaro, Nicola; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Barraza, Paulo; García-Pentón, Lorna; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Whether the neural mechanisms that underlie the processing of a second language in highly proficient late bilinguals (L2 late learners) are similar or not to those that underlie the processing of the first language (L1) is still an issue under debate. In this study, a group of late learners of Spanish whose native language is English and a group of Spanish monolinguals were compared while they read sentences, some of which contained syntactic violations. A brain complex network analysis approach was used to assess the time-varying topological properties of the functional networks extracted from the electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Late L2 learners showed a lower degree of parallel information transfer and a slower propagation between regions of the brain functional networks while processing sentences containing a gender mismatch condition as compared with a standard sentence configuration. In contrast, no such differences between these conditions were detected in the Spanish monolinguals. This indicates that when a morphosyntactic language incongruence that does not exist in the native language is presented in the second language, the neural activation pattern is configured differently in highly proficient late bilinguals than in monolinguals.

  7. Infants' preferences for native speakers are associated with an expectation of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Humans' preference for others who share our group membership is well documented, and this heightened valuation of in-group members seems to be rooted in early development. Before 12 mo of age, infants already show behavioral preferences for others who evidence cues to same-group membership such as race or native language, yet the function of this selectivity remains unclear. We examine one of these social biases, the preference for native speakers, and propose that this preference may result from infants' motivation to obtain information and the expectation that interactions with native speakers will provide better opportunities for learning. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured EEG theta activity, a neural rhythm shown to index active and selective preparation for encoding information in adults. In study 1, we established that 11-mo-old infants exhibit an increase in theta activation in situations when they can expect to receive information. We then used this neural measure of anticipatory theta activity to explore the expectations of 11-mo-olds when facing social partners who either speak the infants' native language or a foreign tongue (study 2). A larger increase in theta oscillations was observed when infants could expect to receive information from the native speaker, indicating that infants were preparing to learn information from the native speaker to a greater extent than from the foreign speaker. While previous research has demonstrated that infants prefer to interact with knowledgeable others, the current experiments provide evidence that such an information-seeking motive may also underpin infants' demonstrated preference for native speakers.

  8. STUDENTS WRITING EMAILS TO FACULTY: AN EXAMINATION OF E-POLITENESS AMONG NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.

  9. The Non-Native English Speaker Teachers in TESOL Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi-Stein, Lía D.

    2016-01-01

    It has been almost 20 years since what is known as the non-native English-speaking (NNES) professionals' movement--designed to increase the status of NNES professionals--started within the US-based TESOL International Association. However, still missing from the literature is an understanding of what a movement is, and why non-native English…

  10. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  11. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  12. Intelligibility of American English Vowels of Native and Non-Native Speakers in Quiet and Speech-Shaped Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined intelligibility of twelve American English vowels produced by English, Chinese, and Korean native speakers in quiet and speech-shaped noise in which vowels were presented at six sensation levels from 0 dB to 10 dB. The slopes of vowel intelligibility functions and the processing time for listeners to identify vowels were…

  13. Intelligibility of American English Vowels of Native and Non-Native Speakers in Quiet and Speech-Shaped Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined intelligibility of twelve American English vowels produced by English, Chinese, and Korean native speakers in quiet and speech-shaped noise in which vowels were presented at six sensation levels from 0 dB to 10 dB. The slopes of vowel intelligibility functions and the processing time for listeners to identify vowels were…

  14. Second Life for Distance Language Learning: A Framework for Native/Non-Native Speaker Interactions in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusing, Jennifer; Berge, Zane L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a number of theoretical principles governing second language teaching and learning and the ways in which these principles are being applied in 3D virtual worlds such as Second Life. Also examined are the benefits to language learning afforded by the Second Life interface, including access, the availability of native speakers of…

  15. The Acquisition of Clitic Pronouns in the Spanish Interlanguage of Peruvian Quechua Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of four adult Quechua speakers' acquisition of clitic pronouns in Spanish revealed that educational attainment and amount of contact with monolingual Spanish speakers were positively related to native-like norms of competence in the use of object pronouns in Spanish. (CB)

  16. ERP evidence for different strategies in the processing of case markers in native speakers and non-native learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederici Angela D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present experiments were designed to test how the linguistic feature of case is processed in Japanese by native and non-native listeners. We used a miniature version of Japanese as a model to compare sentence comprehension mechanisms in native speakers and non-native learners who had received training until they had mastered the system. In the first experiment we auditorily presented native Japanese speakers with sentences containing incorrect double nominatives and incorrect double accusatives, and with correct sentences. In the second experiment we tested trained non-natives with the same material. Based on previous research in German we expected an N400-P600 biphasic ERP response with specific modulations depending on the violated case and whether the listeners were native or non-native. Results For native Japanese participants the general ERP response to the case violations was an N400-P600 pattern. Double accusatives led to an additional enhancement of the P600 amplitude. For the learners a native-like P600 was present for double accusatives and for double nominatives. The additional negativity, however, was present in learners only for double nominative violations, and it was characterized by a different topographical distribution. Conclusion The results indicate that native listeners use case markers for thematic as well as syntactic structure building during incremental sentence interpretation. The modulation of the P600 component for double accusatives possibly reflects case specific syntactic restrictions in Japanese. For adult language learners later processes, as reflected in the P600, seem to be more native-like compared to earlier processes. The anterior distribution of the negativity and its selective emergence for canonical sentences were taken to suggest that the non-native learners resorted to a rather formal processing strategy whereby they relied to a large degree on the phonologically salient

  17. Swedish Student Preferences Concerning the use of Native Speaker Norm English in Classroom Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Engelin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on a previous study made by Ivor Timmis (2002). It explores how important Swedish students find learning English to be and to what extent Swedish student want to conform to native speaker English now that it has become a global language with a multitude of common variants. (Sweden formerly allowed only British and/or American native speaker varieties in English education but have now allowed for other variants as well). The focus of this study was the attitudes and prefere...

  18. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  19. The Importance of Interlanguage Errors with Respect to Stereotyping by Native Speakers in Their Judgements of Second Language Learners' Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamere, Trish

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study investigating how Americans respond to English as a Second Language (ESL) speech depending on the non-native speaker's accent and whether there were errors in the ESL speech. Findings indicate that Americans exhibit different cultural prejudices towards different foreign speakers depending on the accent of the speakers. (50…

  20. Investigating cross-linguistic differences in refusal speech act among native Persian and English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the speech act of refusal performed by native Persian and English speakers with respect to linguistic devices. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, refusal utterances were analyzed with respect to semantic formulas - that is words, phrases, or sentences meeting a particular semantic criterion to perform an act of eliciting. In the second phase, gender differences were examined, as well. One hundred movies (50 in Persian, 50 in English were used as instruments for gathering the data. The movies were watched closely, and the utterances native speakers employed in their refusals were transcribed and analyzed. Persian speakers used excuse more than English speakers; however, they applied strategies such as regret, non-performative statements, and lack of enthusiasm less frequently than English speakers. The Chi-square (χ² formula was then conducted to find out whether there were any significant differences in performing refusal speech act among the speakers of the two languages. The results showed that there were some differences between the two languages with regard to refusal utterances and gender. Finally, pedagogical implications of study for language learning and teaching have been enumerated.

  1. Assessing the Performance of Automatic Speech Recognition Systems When Used by Native and Non-Native Speakers of Three Major Languages in Dictation Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Julián; Kirkedal, Andreas Søeborg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a two-part experiment aiming to assess and compare the performance of two types of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems on two different computational platforms when used to augment dictation workflows. The experiment was performed with a sample of speakers...... of three major languages and with different linguistic profiles: non-native English speakers; non-native French speakers; and native Spanish speakers. The main objective of this experiment is to examine ASR performance in translation dictation (TD) and medical dictation (MD) workflows without manual...

  2. The effects of contact on native language pronunciation in an L2 migrant setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Leeuw, Esther; Schmid, Monika S.; Mennen, Ineke

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether native speakers of German living in either Canada or the Netherlands are perceived to have a foreign accent in their native German speech. German monolingual listeners (n = 19) assessed global foreign accent of 34 L I German speakers in Anglopho

  3. Immersion for Native Speakers--The UCLA-Guadalajara Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mary Ellen; Torres-Ayala, Ventura

    1991-01-01

    Describes an immersion program for native Spanish-speaking university students from the University of California, Los Angeles, that was created to help them fulfill the language requirement. Reasons for the program, student characteristics, language characteristics, expected goals and outcomes of the program, and program observations are provided.…

  4. Immersion for Native Speakers--The UCLA-Guadalajara Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mary Ellen; Torres-Ayala, Ventura

    1991-01-01

    Describes an immersion program for native Spanish-speaking university students from the University of California, Los Angeles, that was created to help them fulfill the language requirement. Reasons for the program, student characteristics, language characteristics, expected goals and outcomes of the program, and program observations are provided.…

  5. Spanish-for-Native-Speaker Matters: Narrowing the Latino Achievement Gap through Spanish Language Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that Spanish-for-native-speakers (SNS) instruction at the secondary level can play a key role in narrowing the Latino achievement gap. To this end, SNS curricula and practices should be configured to: 1) support Spanish-English biliteracy, 2) support and facilitate learning across the curriculum, 3) socialize Latino students and…

  6. Classroom Interactions as Cross-Cultural Encounters: Native Speakers in EFL Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jasmine C. M.; Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    This book is about native English speakers teaching English as a global language in non-English speaking countries. Through analysis of naturally occurring dialogic encounters, the authors examine the multifaceted ways in which teachers and students utilize diverse communicative resources to construct, display, and negotiate their identities as…

  7. Native Speaker Norms and China English: From the Perspective of Learners and Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Deyuan; Zhang, Qunying

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the question of whether the norms based on native speakers of English should be kept in English teaching in an era when English has become World Englishes. This is an issue that has been keenly debated in recent years, not least in the pages of "TESOL Quarterly." However, "China English" in such debates has been given lesser…

  8. Infants Prefer Tunes Previously Introduced by Speakers of Their Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Gaye; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Infants show attentional biases for certain individuals over others based on various cues. However, the role of these biases in shaping infants' preferences and learning is not clear. This study asked whether infants' preference for native speakers (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007) would modulate their preferences for tunes. After getting…

  9. Floating Numeral Quantifiers as an Unaccusative Diagnostic in Native, Heritage, and L2 Japanese Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the knowledge of unaccusativity in Japanese native, heritage, and second/foreign language speakers with respect to licensing of floating numeral quantifiers (FNQs) by unaccusative and unergative subjects (the "FNQ diagnostic"). Two acceptability judgment experiments were conducted to examine (i) whether and how…

  10. Selectivity in L1 Attrition: Differential Object Marking in Spanish Near-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Gloria; Sturt, Patrick; Sorace, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown L1 attrition to be restricted to structures at the interfaces between syntax and pragmatics, but not to occur with syntactic properties that do not involve such interfaces ("Interface Hypothesis", Sorace and Filiaci in "Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian." "Second Lang…

  11. Native Speaker Norms and China English: From the Perspective of Learners and Teachers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Deyuan; Zhang, Qunying

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the question of whether the norms based on native speakers of English should be kept in English teaching in an era when English has become World Englishes. This is an issue that has been keenly debated in recent years, not least in the pages of "TESOL Quarterly." However, "China English" in such debates…

  12. Challenging the Native and Nonnative English Speaker Hierarchy in ELT: New Directions from Race Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, English Language Teaching (ELT) scholars have shown an increased interest in exploring the intersections of racism and native speakerism, leading to more articles, special journal issues, and edited collections dealing with this topic. While this work has been valuable, it has largely been limited to considering one's…

  13. Discrepancy Between Native English Speaker Teachers' Teaching Styles and Chinese English Learners' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Fan, Zhi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a growing number of native English speakers teaching English in Chinese classroom. However, their teaching does not gain expected ends. Extensive studies have found that the mismatch between learning styles and teaching styles is a possible reason for this phenomenon. This paper aims to investigate whether the…

  14. Native English Speakers' Perception of Arabic Emphatic Consonants and the Influence of Vowel Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Durham, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    Native English speakers experience difficulty acquiring Arabic emphatic consonants. Arabic language textbooks have suggested that learners focus on adjacent vowels for cues to these consonants; however, the utility of such a strategy has not been empirically tested. This study investigated the perception of Arabic emphatic-plain contrasts by means…

  15. Mediated Vocabulary in Native Speaker-Learner Interactions during an Oral Portfolio Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocaimaza-Hatch, C. Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    This project investigated vocabulary learning from a sociocultural perspective--in particular, the way in which lexical knowledge was mediated in Spanish second language (L2) learners' and native speakers' (NSs') interactions. Nine students who were enrolled in an advanced conversation course completed an oral portfolio assignment consisting of…

  16. An Evaluation of Native-speaker Judgements of Foreign-accented British and American English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, W.Z. van den

    2006-01-01

    This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and

  17. Linguistic Support for Non-Native English Speakers: Higher Education Practices in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow Andrade, Maureen; Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions in English-speaking nations host significant populations of non-native English speakers (NNES), both international and resident. English language proficiency is a critical factor to their success. This study reviews higher education practices in the United States related to this population. Findings indicate…

  18. White Mountain Apache Language: Issues in Language Shift, Textbook Development, and Native Speaker-University Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adley-SantaMaria, Bernadette

    This paper is an overview of topics covered at two sessions of the Fourth Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium, from the perspective of a native speaker of an indigenous language and member of a university academic community. The first section describes a Master's thesis on White Mountain Apache (WMA) language shift. Interviews with…

  19. Hyperarticulation of vowels enhances phonetic change responses in both native and non-native speakers of English: evidence from an auditory event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uther, Maria; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Iverson, Paul

    2012-08-27

    The finding that hyperarticulation of vowel sounds occurs in certain speech registers (e.g., infant- and foreigner-directed speech) suggests that hyperarticulation may have a didactic function in facilitating acquisition of new phonetic categories in language learners. This event-related potential study tested whether hyperarticulation of vowels elicits larger phonetic change responses, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) and tested native and non-native speakers of English. Data from 11 native English-speaking and 10 native Greek-speaking participants showed that Greek speakers in general had smaller MMNs compared to English speakers, confirming previous studies demonstrating sensitivity of the MMN to language background. In terms of the effect of hyperarticulation, hyperarticulated stimuli elicited larger MMNs for both language groups, suggesting vowel space expansion does elicit larger pre-attentive phonetic change responses. Interestingly Greek native speakers showed some P3a activity that was not present in the English native speakers, raising the possibility that additional attentional switch mechanisms are activated in non-native speakers compared to native speakers. These results give general support for models of speech learning such as Kuhl's Native Language Magnet enhanced (NLM-e) theory. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Specificity data for the b Test, Dot Counting Test, Rey-15 Item Plus Recognition, and Rey Word Recognition Test in monolingual Spanish-speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Luz; López, Enrique; Salazar, Xavier; Boone, Kyle B; Glaser, Debra F

    2015-01-01

    The current study provides specificity data on a large sample (n = 115) of young to middle-aged, male, monolingual Spanish speakers of lower educational level and low acculturation to mainstream US culture for four neurocognitive performance validity tests (PVTs): the Dot Counting, the b Test, Rey Word Recognition, and Rey 15-Item Plus Recognition. Individuals with 0 to 6 years of education performed more poorly than did participants with 7 to 10 years of education on several Rey 15-Item scores (combination equation, recall intrusion errors, and recognition false positives), Rey Word Recognition total correct, and E-score and omission errors on the b Test, but no effect of educational level was observed for Dot Counting Test scores. Cutoff scores are provided that maintain approximately 90% specificity for the education subgroups separately. Some of these cutoffs match, or are even more stringent than, those recommended for use in US test takers who are primarily Caucasian, are tested in English, and have a higher educational level (i.e., Rey Word Recognition correct false-positive errors; Rey 15-Item recall intrusions and recognition false-positive errors; b Test total time; and Dot Counting E-score and grouped dot counting time). Thus, performance on these PVT variables in particular appears relatively robust to cultural/language/educational factors.

  1. Native-speaker and English as a lingua franca pronunciation norms: English majors’ views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wach

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the communicative approach to English as a foreign language (EFL teaching, the aims of instruction are primarily to enable learners to communicate; hence, functional and communicative intelligibility has become the goal of pronunciation training. On the other hand, contemporary approaches to EFL teaching leave sufficient room for accommodating the individual learner and contextual factors which largely influence the choice of the target pronunciation models. Moreover, in a globalized world, where English has become a contemporary lingua franca for intercultural communication, the pronunciation norms of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF appear to meet the needs and expectations of learners of English in international settings, coexisting with or replacing native-speaker pronunciation models as the target of instruction. The ELF approach and the Lingua Franca Core elaborated by Jenkins (2000, 2002 have aroused controversy among both researchers and EFL teachers. The paper presents the findings of a questionnaire study involving 234 Polish students, English majors, which aimed to determine their preferences and opinions concerning native-speaker and ELF norms as pronunciation instruction targets. The findings revealed a strong preference for native-like pronunciation models in the subjects’ own language development and a less strong preference for such models in pronunciation teaching at all levels of proficiency. Moreover, the results pointed to the significant role played by the intensity of pronunciation training and the level of awareness of native-speaker pronunciation models in shaping the subjects’ attitudes toward native-like and ELF pronunciation norms.

  2. Processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L; Nusbaum, H C

    1993-02-01

    The processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese were investigated in a speeded classification task. Since in Chinese, unlike in English, tones convey lexically meaningful information, native speakers of these languages may process combinations of segmental and suprasegmental information differently. Subjects heard consonant-vowel syllables varying on a consonantal (segmental) dimension and either a Mandarin Chinese or constant-pitch (non-Mandarin) suprasegmental dimension. The English listeners showed mutual integrality with the Mandarin Chinese stimuli, but not the constant-pitch stimuli. The native Chinese listeners processed these dimensions with mutual integrality for both the Mandarin Chinese and the constant-pitch stimuli. These results were interpreted in terms of the linguistic function and the structure of suprasegmental information in Chinese and English. The results suggest that the way listeners perceive speech depends on the interaction between the structure of the signal and the processing strategies of the listener.

  3. Chinese Students' Views on the Native-speaker English Teachers-A Case Study of One University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹旭

    2015-01-01

    It is believed by both educationalists and policy makers that qualified native speaker English teachers with sound educa⁃tional background and training play an important role in EFL teaching in China. But research on the attitudes of Chinese university students towards native English teachers has rarely been conducted. This paper aims to investigate the students' perceptions of their own experience in the native speaker teachers' classrooms and identify the students' attitudes towards native speaker English teachers. The conclusion suggests that native speaker teachers use the communicative approach in teaching, and they are also aware of the cultural difference in class and willing to adapt either culturally or pedagogically. The Chinese students have positive attitudes towards native English teachers and would like to work with them for some courses. Meanwhile, they also agree that Chi⁃nese teachers of English play an important role, and they need teachers from both cultures.

  4. The Acquisition of English Focus Marking by Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines Mandarin and Korean speakers' acquisition of English focus marking, which is realized by accenting particular words within a focused constituent. It is important for non-native speakers to learn how accent placement relates to focus in English because appropriate accent placement and realization makes a learner's English more native-like and easier to understand. Such knowledge may also improve their English comprehension skills. In this study, 20 native English speakers, 20 native Mandarin speakers, and 20 native Korean speakers participated in four experiments: (1) a production experiment, in which they were recorded reading the answers to questions, (2) a perception experiment, in which they were asked to determine which word in a recording was the last prominent word, (3) an understanding experiment, in which they were asked whether the answers in recorded question-answer pairs had context-appropriate prosody, and (4) an accent placement experiment, in which they were asked which word they would make prominent in a particular context. Finally, a new group of native English speakers listened to utterances produced in the production experiment, and determined whether the prosody of each utterance was appropriate for its context. The results of the five experiments support a novel predictive model for second language prosodic focus marking acquisition. This model holds that both transfer of linguistic features from a learner's native language (L1) and features of their second language (L2) affect learners' acquisition of prosodic focus marking. As a result, the model includes two complementary components: the Transfer Component and the L2 Challenge Component. The Transfer Component predicts that prosodic structures in the L2 will be more easily acquired by language learners that have similar structures in their L1 than those who do not, even if there are differences between the L1 and L2 in how the structures are realized. The L2

  5. Other-Repair in Japanese Conversations Between Nonnative and Native Speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Hosoda, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Although a preference for self-repair over other-repair has been observed in both native speaker (NS) discourse (e.g., Schegloff, Jefferson, & Sacks, 1977) and nonnative speaker (NNS) discourse (e.g., Firth, 1996), researchers note that other-repair still often occurs, especially in interactions with NNSs (e.g., Varonis & Gass, 1983). The present study examines conditions under which other-repair occurs and the response to other-repair in natural NS/NNS conversations in Japanese. Analysis of ...

  6. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  7. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  8. Audibility of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers in long-term speech-shaped noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there were significant differences in audibility of American English vowels in noise produced by non-native and native speakers. Detection thresholds for 12 English vowels with equalized durations of 170 ms produced by 10 English-, Chinese- and Korean-native speakers were measured for young normal-hearing English-native listeners in the presence of speech-shaped noise presented at 70 dB SPL. Similar patterns of vowel detection thresholds as a function of the vowel category were found for native and non-native speakers, with the highest thresholds for /u/ and /ʊ/ and lowest thresholds for /i/ and /e/. In addition, vowel detection thresholds for non-native speakers were significantly lower and showed greater speaker variability than those for native speakers. Thresholds for vowel detection predicted from an excitation-pattern model corresponded well to behavioral thresholds, implying that vowel detection was primarily determined by the vowel spectrum regardless of speaker language background. Both behavioral and predicted thresholds showed that vowel audibility was similar or even better for non-native speakers than for native speakers, indicating that vowel audibility did not account for non-native speakers' lower-than-native intelligibility in noise. Effects of non-native speakers' English proficiency level on vowel audibility are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of visual speech information on the intelligibility of English consonants produced by non-native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Saya; Hannah, Beverly; Wang, Yue

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how visual speech information affects native judgments of the intelligibility of speech sounds produced by non-native (L2) speakers. Native Canadian English perceivers as judges perceived three English phonemic contrasts (/b-v, θ-s, l-ɹ/) produced by native Japanese speakers as well as native Canadian English speakers as controls. These stimuli were presented under audio-visual (AV, with speaker voice and face), audio-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) conditions. The results showed that, across conditions, the overall intelligibility of Japanese productions of the native (Japanese)-like phonemes (/b, s, l/) was significantly higher than the non-Japanese phonemes (/v, θ, ɹ/). In terms of visual effects, the more visually salient non-Japanese phonemes /v, θ/ were perceived as significantly more intelligible when presented in the AV compared to the AO condition, indicating enhanced intelligibility when visual speech information is available. However, the non-Japanese phoneme /ɹ/ was perceived as less intelligible in the AV compared to the AO condition. Further analysis revealed that, unlike the native English productions, the Japanese speakers produced /ɹ/ without visible lip-rounding, indicating that non-native speakers' incorrect articulatory configurations may decrease the degree of intelligibility. These results suggest that visual speech information may either positively or negatively affect L2 speech intelligibility.

  10. Acoustic comparisons of Japanese and English vowels produced by native speakers of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Kanae; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Kubo, Rieko; Strange, Winifred

    2003-10-01

    This study explored acoustic similarities/differences between Japanese (J) and American English (AE) vowels produced by native J speakers and compared production patterns to their perceptual assimilation of AE vowels [Strange et al., J. Phonetics 26, 311-344 (1998)]. Eight male native J speakers who had served as listeners in Strange et al. produced 18 Japanese (J) vowels (5 long-short pairs, 2 double vowels, and 3 long-short palatalized pairs) and 11 American English (AE) vowels in /hVbopena/ disyllables embedded in a carrier sentence. Acoustical parameters included formant frequencies at syllable midpoint (F1/F2/F3), formant change from 25% to 75% points in syllable (formant change), and vocalic duration. Results of linear discriminant analyses showed rather poor acoustic differentiation of J vowel categories when F1/F2/F3 served as input variables (60% correct classification), which greatly improved when duration and formant change were added. In contrast, correct classification of J speakers' AE vowels using F1/F2/F3 was very poor (66%) and did not improve much when duration and dynamic information were added. J speakers used duration to differentiate long/short AE vowel contrasts except for mid-to-low back vowels; these vowels were perceptually assimilated to a single Japanese vowel, and are very difficult for Japanese listeners to identify.

  11. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish : Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition

  12. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish : Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition

  13. Teaching Media in the Teaching of Arabic Language to Non-Native Arabic Speakers

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    Rais Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning media has demonstrated its superiority in helping educators or teachers in the process of conveying the message of learning more quickly and easily caught by the students. The media play a role in enriching the learning experience of students, increase their attention to the lesson, minimize differences in perception between teachers and students as well as to help resolve personal differences between students. The teaching Arabic to non-native speaker would be more interesting and easier to learn, remembered, understood and practiced by the students, if taught through the media. This article aims to explore the benefits, importance and role of instructional media in teaching Arabic to non- native Speaker

  14. Conceptualization of American English Native Speaker Norms: A Case Study of an English Language Classroom in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyungja

    2011-01-01

    This case study aims to reveal how conceptualization of native speakership was constructed and reinforced in a South Korean university classroom of English as a foreign language (EFL). In addition, it examines how this conceptualization positions native speakers, a non-native EFL teacher, and learners, and what learning opportunities were provided…

  15. Accommodation and Hyperaccommodation in Foreign Language Learners: Contrasting Responses to French and Spanish English Speakers by Native and Non-native Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A modified matched guise technique was used with 57 subjects to evaluate 14 recorded voices in 3 accent categories (broad, mild, hypercorrect). Some differences were found between native speakers and nonnative speakers, and the results pose questions in terms of the two distinct judgmental dimensions of solidarity and status. (60 references) (LB)

  16. The effect on recognition memory of noise cancelling headphones in a noisy environment with native and nonnative speakers

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    Brett R C Molesworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise has the potential to impair cognitive performance. For nonnative speakers, the effect of noise on performance is more severe than their native counterparts. What remains unknown is the effectiveness of countermeasures such as noise attenuating devices in such circumstances. Therefore, the main aim of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of active noise attenuating countermeasures in the presence of simulated aircraft noise for both native and nonnative English speakers. Thirty-two participants, half native English speakers and half native German speakers completed four recognition (cued recall tasks presented in English under four different audio conditions, all in the presence of simulated aircraft noise. The results of the research indicated that in simulated aircraft noise at 65 dB(A, performance of nonnative English speakers was poorer than for native English speakers. The beneficial effects of noise cancelling headphones in improving the signal to noise ratio led to an improved performance for nonnative speakers. These results have particular importance for organizations operating in a safety-critical environment such as aviation.

  17. On the native/nonnative speaker notion and World Englishes: Debating with K. Rajagopalan

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    John Robert SCHMITZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In a series of three articles published in the Journal of Pragmatics (1995, henceforth JP, the purpose of the papers is to question the division of English spoken in the world into, on one hand, "native" varieties (British English, American English. Australian English and, on the other, "new/nonnative" varieties (Indian English, Singaporean English, Nigerian English. The JP articles are indeed groundbreaking for they mark one of the first interactions among scholars from the East with researchers in the West with regard to the growth and spread of the language as well as the roles English is made to play by its impressive number of users. The privileged position of prestige and power attributed to the inner circle varieties (USA, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand is questioned. Rajagopalan (1997, motivated by his reading of the JP papers, adds another dimension to this questioning by pointing to the racial and discriminatory stance underlying the notions "native speaker" and "nonnative speaker" (henceforth, respectively NS and NNS. Rajagopalan has written extensively on the issue of nativity or "nativeness"; over the years, Schmitz has also written on the same topic. There appears, in some cases, to be a number of divergent views with regard to subject on hand on the part of both authors. The purpose of this article is to engage in a respectful debate to uncover misreading and possible misunderstanding on the part of Schmitz. Listening to one another and learning from each another are essential in all academic endeavors.

  18. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

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    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  19. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language.

  20. ARE NATIVE SPEAKERS “GOOD” LANGUAGE INSTRUCTORS? A CASE STUDY OF UNTRAINED ESL TUTORS

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    CHIU-YIN WONG

    Full Text Available Concerns are increasing in the field of ESL teaching over the growth of inexperienced English native speakers seeking to teach, as evidenced by recent research (Samimy andBrutt-Griffler 1999; Maum 2002. There are misconceptions that one must be a native speaker in order to teach a language. The present case study investigated the teaching performance and concerns of the inexperienced Native English Teachers (NETs. Specifically, the study looks closely into: (a the teaching behaviors of the untrained NETs; (b the problems the untrained NETs face in teaching; and (c the self-perceptions of the untrained NETs towards their teaching. Data was collected through observations, teachers‟ reflective journals, and interviews. The findings revealed: (a the untrained NETs tended to use authentic materials versus traditional grammar textbooks and that most of them were very creative in lesson plans; (b the untrained NETs were concerned about the length of the class and being incapable of explaining grammar and vocabulary; and (c the confidence level of the untrained NETs in teaching gained immensely in a short period of time. These findings are important because it provides valuable insights to ESL trainers about the kinds of training pre-service NETs need. It also shows that NETs can be very effective if they have enough experience and proper training.

  1. Toddlers Learn Words in a Foreign Language: The Role of Native Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koening, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the…

  2. Morphological facilitation for regular and irregular verb formations in native and non-native speakers: Little evidence for two distinct mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    FELDMAN, LAURIE BETH; KOSTIĆ, ALEKSANDAR; BASNIGHT-BROWN, DANA M.; ĐURĐEVIĆ, DUŠICA FILIPOVIĆ; PASTIZZO, MATTHEW JOHN

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared performance on two variants of the primed lexical decision task to investigate morphological processing in native and non-native speakers of English. They examined patterns of facilitation on present tense targets. Primes were regular (billed–bill) past tense formations and two types of irregular past tense forms that varied on preservation of target length (fell–fall; taught–teach). When a forward mask preceded the prime (Exp. 1), language and prime type interacted. Native speakers showed reliable regular and irregular length preserved facilitation relative to orthographic controls. Non-native speakers’ latencies after morphological and orthographic primes did not differ reliably except for regulars. Under cross-modal conditions (Exp. 2), language and prime type interacted. Native but not non-native speakers showed inhibition following orthographically similar primes. Collectively, reliable facilitation for regulars and patterns across verb type and task provided little support for a processing dichotomy (decomposition, non-combinatorial association) based on inflectional regularity in either native or non-native speakers of English. PMID:20526436

  3. Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.

  4. Temporal patterns of native Mandarin Chinese speakers' productions of English stop-vowel syllable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn M.

    2004-05-01

    Second language (L2) production can be a kind of interlanguage, a relatively stable system bearing the nature of both the native language (L1) and L2. Within such a system sound components of a syllable may bear their own interlanguage characteristics and yet interact with the other component sounds. The present study investigates temporal patterns of L1-L2 interaction at the syllable level. Audio recordings were made of English stop-vowel syllables produced by native speakers of Mandarin who were fluent in English (ChE). Native English productions (AmE) of these syllables and native productions of Mandarin (ChM) stop-vowel syllables were acquired as native norms. Temporal measures included stop closure duration, voice-onset time (VOT), vowel duration, and syllable duration. Results show that the internal timing components of ChE often deviate from AmE, with the closure duration, VOT, and vowel duration being intermediate to AmE and ChM. However, at the syllable level, ChE productions tend to follow the overall patterns of AmE. Temporal deviations were often compensated by temporal compensation of other components in the syllable, maintaining a balanced consonant/vowel distribution. These findings have implications for a broader understanding of L2 productions.

  5. Haunting Native Speakerism? Students' Perceptions toward Native Speaking English Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-huei; Ke, Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese university students perceive their native-speaking English teachers (NESTs). Mutual expectations between the NESTs and students are also investigated. Collected data include questionnaires from 107 students and interviews with three NESTs and 19 students who have filled out the questionnaire. The result…

  6. Production of the word-final English /t/-/d/ contrast by native speakers of English, Mandarin, and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, J E; Munro, M J; Skelton, L

    1992-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine if adults whose native language permits neither voiced nor voiceless stops to occur in word-final position can master the English word-final /t/-/d/ contrast. Native English-speaking listeners identified the voicing feature in word-final stops produced by talkers in five groups: native speakers of English, experienced and inexperienced native Spanish speakers of English, and experienced and inexperienced native Mandarin speakers of English. Contrary to hypothesis, the experienced second language (L2) learners' stops were not identified significantly better than stops produced by the inexperienced L2 learners; and their stops were correctly identified significantly less often than stops produced by the native English speakers. Acoustic analyses revealed that the native English speakers made vowels significantly longer before /d/ than /t/, produced /t/-final words with a higher F1 offset frequency than /d/-final words, produced more closure voicing in /d/ than /t/, and sustained closure longer for /t/ than /d/. The L2 learners produced the same kinds of acoustic differences between /t/ and /d/, but theirs were usually of significantly smaller magnitude. Taken together, the results suggest that only a few of the 40 L2 learners examined in the present study had mastered the English word-final /t/-/d/ contrast. Several possible explanations for this negative finding are presented. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the native English listeners made perceptual use of the small, albeit significant, vowel duration differences produced in minimal pairs by the nonnative speakers. A significantly stronger correlation existed between vowel duration differences and the listeners' identifications of final stops in minimal pairs when the perceptual judgments were obtained in an "edited" condition (where post-vocalic cues were removed) than in a "full cue" condition. This suggested that listeners may modify their

  7. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: An event-related potentials training study

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    Bao Mingzhen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Results Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Conclusion Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones. In

  8. Disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. The most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers may include: Overlooking, either unintentionally or even deliberately, the most important local health problems; failure to carry out groundbreaking research due to limited medical research budgets; violating generally accepted codes of publication ethics and committing research misconduct and publications in open-access scam/predatory journals rather than prestigious journals. The above mentioned disadvantages could eventually result in academic establishments becoming irresponsible or, even worse, corrupt. In order to avoid this, scientists, scientific organizations, academic institutions, and scientific associations all over the world should design and implement a wider range of collaborative and comprehensive plans.

  9. Learners' Perspectives on Networked Collaborative Interaction With Native Speakers of Spanish in the US

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    Lina Lee

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss a network-based collaborative project that focused on the learning conditions non-native speakers (NNSs of Spanish perceived to be necessary to satisfactoraly communicate with native speakers (NSs. Data from online discussions, end-of-semester surveys, and final oral interviews are presented and discussed. The results of this study demonstrated that the NNS and NS online collaboration promoted the scaffolding by which the NSs assisted the NNSs in composing meaning (ideas and form (grammar. In addition, the NNSs praised the unique learning condition of being exposed to a wide range of functional language discourse produced by the NSs. Students perceived that open-ended questions for two-way exchange were meaningful for them because they were encouraged to use specific vocabulary and structures during the discussions. In spite of the positive conditions and benefits created by networked collaborative interaction (NCI, it was found that there were some major issues that are crucial for NCI. This study demonstrates that learners' language proficiency, computer skills, and age differences are important factors to be considered when incorporating institutional NCI as these may linguistically and socially affect the quality of online negotiation and students' motivation toward NCI. Practical ideas for further research are suggested.

  10. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  11. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  12. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(®) - fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment.

  13. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  14. Discriminability and identification of English vowels by native Japanese speakers in different consonantal contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takeshi; Frieda, Elaina M.; Wayland, Ratree

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the effects of consonantal context on discrimination and identification of English vowels by native Japanese speakers learning English in Japan. A number of studies have assessed the effects of consonantal contexts on the perception of nonnative vowels. For instance, Strange et al. (1996, 2001) found that perceptual assimilation of nonnative vowels is affected by consonantal contexts, and Morrison (2002) has shown that Japanese speakers use durational cues to perceive English /i/-/I/. The present study revealed that consonantal context affects discriminability and identification of each English vowel differently. Of all the six vowel contrasts tested, /i/-/I/ was the most likely to be affected by voicing status of the surrounding consonants with it being easier to discriminate in voiceless consonantal contexts. Moreover, /I/ is more likely to be equated with the Japanese short vowel /i/ in a voiceless consonantal context which is in keeping with Morrison (2002). /æ/-/opena/, on the other hand, is the most strongly affected by the place of articulation of the preceding consonants. [Work supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)(1)(1410635).

  15. Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: the role of native vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda L

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems.

  16. Perception of Personality and Naturalness through Dialogues by Native Speakers of American English and Arabic

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    Makatchev, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic markers of personality traits have been studied extensively, but few cross-cultural studies exist. In this paper, we evaluate how native speakers of American English and Arabic perceive personality traits and naturalness of English utterances that vary along the dimensions of verbosity, hedging, lexical and syntactic alignment, and formality. The utterances are the turns within dialogue fragments that are presented as text transcripts to the workers of Amazon's Mechanical Turk. The results of the study suggest that all four dimensions can be used as linguistic markers of all personality traits by both language communities. A further comparative analysis shows cross-cultural differences for some combinations of measures of personality traits and naturalness, the dimensions of linguistic variability and dialogue acts.

  17. Some features of a typical house as perceived by native speakers of English and of Serbian

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    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surround­ing buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representa­tives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.

  18. Has the emergence of English as a Lingua Franca been an entirely beneficial phenomenon for both native and non-native English speakers

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    HU; RUOXI

    2015-01-01

    <正>Recently,the emergence of English as a lingua franca generates a controversial issue which has been fiercely discussed whether it is a wholly beneficial phenomenon for both native and non-native English speakers.Based on the Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language,English was widely transmitted all over the world due to the British colonization in the early19th century.With advanced industry and frequent multilateral trade,Britain further impelled the spread of English.Besides,

  19. "Would you like RED or WHITE wine? - I would like red WINE" : Native speaker perception of (non-)native intonation patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of intonation in communication cannot be denied (Gussenhoven, 2004; Ladd, 2008). Since the goal of most foreign language learners is to successfully communicate in a language other than their mother tongue, more research on the way they are perceived by native speakers and the role of

  20. "Would you like RED or WHITE wine? - I would like red WINE" : Native speaker perception of (non-)native intonation patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of intonation in communication cannot be denied (Gussenhoven, 2004; Ladd, 2008). Since the goal of most foreign language learners is to successfully communicate in a language other than their mother tongue, more research on the way they are perceived by native speakers and the role of

  1. Lesson Adaptations and Accommodations: Working with Native Speakers and English Language Learners in the Same Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.

    2004-01-01

    This article brings theory into practice and demonstrates clearly how to apply commonly accepted language acquisition theories to science lesson plans designed for native speakers of English. In the first section of the article, readers will learn not only how to apply theory to science lessons, but also, and more important, why to apply certain…

  2. 3D Talking-Head Mobile App: A Conceptual Framework for English Pronunciation Learning among Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah

    2013-01-01

    One of the critical issues pertaining learning English as second language successfully is pronunciation, which consequently contributes to learners' poor communicative power. This situation is moreover crucial among non-native speakers. Therefore, various initiatives have been taken in order to promote effective language learning, which includes…

  3. Non-Native Speakers of English in the Classroom: What Are the Effects on Pupil Performance? CEE DP 137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, Charlotte; McNally, Sandra; Telhaj, Shqiponja

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the number of children going to school in England who do not speak English as a first language. We investigate whether this has an impact on the educational outcomes of native English speakers at the end of primary school. We show that the negative correlation observed in the raw data is mainly an…

  4. Sources of Performance and Processing Errors in Near-Native L2 Spanish Speakers, L1 Farsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    While normal child language acquisition results in complete productive and comprehension abilities at a relatively young age, adult language acquisition is more belabored and often results in linguistic abilities that differ from those of native speakers in terms of both productive and comprehension abilities. A major line of research in language…

  5. EFL Learners' Perceived Use of Conversation Maintenance Strategies during Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication with Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the perceived use of conversation maintenance strategies during synchronous computer-mediated communication with native English speakers. I also correlated the relationships of the strategies used with students' speaking ability and comprehensive proficiency level. The research questions were: (1) how were the learners'…

  6. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  7. The relationship between brain reaction and English reading tests for non-native English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Tian, Yu-Jie; Kuo, Ting-Hua; Sun, Koun-Tem

    2016-07-01

    This research analyzed the brain activity of non-native English speakers while engaged in English reading tests. The brain wave event-related potentials (ERPs) of participants were used to analyze the difference between making correct and incorrect choices on English reading test items. Three English reading tests of differing levels were designed and 20 participants, 10 males and 10 females whose ages ranged from 20 to 24, voluntarily participated in the experiment. Experimental results were analyzed by performing independent t-tests on the ERPs of participants for gender, difficulty level, and correct versus wrong options. Participants who chose incorrect options elicited a larger N600, verifying results found in the literature. Another interesting result was found: For incorrectly answered items, different areas of brain showing a significant difference in ERPs between the chosen and non-chosen options corresponded to gender differences; for males, this area was located in the right hemisphere whereas for females, it was located in the left. Experimental results imply that non-native English speaking males and females employ different areas of the brain to comprehend the meaning of difficult items.

  8. Gender agreement violations modulate beta oscillatory dynamics during sentence comprehension: A comparison of second language learners and native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ashley Glen; Lemhӧfer, Kristin; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Schriefers, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    For native speakers, many studies suggest a link between oscillatory neural activity in the beta frequency range and syntactic processing. For late second language (L2) learners on the other hand, the extent to which the neural architecture supporting syntactic processing is similar to or different from that of native speakers is still unclear. In a series of four experiments, we used electroencephalography to investigate the link between beta oscillatory activity and the processing of grammatical gender agreement in Dutch determiner-noun pairs, for Dutch native speakers, and for German L2 learners of Dutch. In Experiment 1 we show that for native speakers, grammatical gender agreement violations are yet another among many syntactic factors that modulate beta oscillatory activity during sentence comprehension. Beta power is higher for grammatically acceptable target words than for those that mismatch in grammatical gender with their preceding determiner. In Experiment 2 we observed no such beta modulations for L2 learners, irrespective of whether trials were sorted according to objective or subjective syntactic correctness. Experiment 3 ruled out that the absence of a beta effect for the L2 learners in Experiment 2 was due to repetition of the target nouns in objectively correct and incorrect determiner-noun pairs. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that when L2 learners are required to explicitly focus on grammatical information, they show modulations of beta oscillatory activity, comparable to those of native speakers, but only when trials are sorted according to participants' idiosyncratic lexical representations of the grammatical gender of target nouns. Together, these findings suggest that beta power in L2 learners is sensitive to violations of grammatical gender agreement, but only when the importance of grammatical information is highlighted, and only when participants' subjective lexical representations are taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Performance of Native and Non-Native Speakers of English on Subtests of the Comprehensive English Language Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Kenneth G.

    1978-01-01

    The listening comprehension and structure subtests of the Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT) were administered to 211 secondary students from an urban center on Canada's west coast. The subtests appeared to be powerful enough to separate immigrant students of English (Second Language) from Canadian born bilinguals and monolinguals. (EJS)

  10. Sociolinguistic competence in the complimenting act of native Chinese and American English speakers: a mirror of cultural value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Chung

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines sociolinguistic features of a particular speech act, paying compliments, by comparing and contrasting native Chinese and native American speakers' performances. By focusing on a relatively understudied speaker group such as the Chinese, typically regarded as having rules of speaking and social norms very different from those of Westerners, this paper aims at illuminating the fact that, in cross-cultural communication, foreign language speakers have to pay close attention to sociolinguistic rules of the target language in addition to structure and discourse rules to meet the needs of linguistic accuracy and fluency. This is due to the fact that such rules play an indispensable role in appropriating the proper use of linguistic forms. The data for this study were collected using ethnographic observation pioneered in this field by Wolfson and Manes (1980). The analysis will first explore both the features of distribution of paying compliments, and the functions they may serve in spoken exchanges for native Chinese and American English speakers. To present a fuller picture of the socio-cultural features this speech act may represent in Chinese and American societies, the analysis will further focus on the issues of topics, the addresser-addressee relationship, and culture-specificity versus universality.

  11. THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH SYLLABLE TIMING BY NATIVE SPANISH SPEAKERS LEARNERS OF ENGLISH. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gutierrez Diez

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish. Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units, we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equal duration of unstressed syllables in both languages, which challenges an opposite view underlying a teaching practice common among Spanish teachers of English to Spanish learners of that language. As for the interlanguage of the group of Spanish leamers of English, we comment on the presence of an interference error represented by a stressed/unstressed durational ratio mid way between the ratios for Spanish and English; we have also detected a developmental error related to the tempo employed by the leamers in their syllable timing, which is slower than the tempo produced by native speakers of English.

  12. Training native English speakers to perceive Japanese length contrasts in word versus sentence contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yukari

    2004-10-01

    This study investigated whether native speakers of American English with no knowledge of Japanese could learn to perceive Japanese vowel and consonant length distinctions through auditory training with immediate feedback. One group of participants was trained to identify the number of moras in Japanese words spoken in isolation (word training), and another group in sentences (sentence training). Trained groups' pretest and post-test scores in the words-in-isolation context (word context) and the words-in-sentences context (sentence context) were compared to those of an untrained control group. The questions addressed were whether there was an overall effect of training, and whether there were differential effects of two types of training. Both trained groups showed similar improvement in their overall test scores. The results suggested that learning in one context generalized to the other. However, an advantage of sentence training over word training was found: at the post-test, there was a greater difference between the scores of the two contexts for the word-training group than for the sentence-training group. The results are discussed in terms of the factors that might contribute to the differences in second language learning between the word and the sentence contexts. .

  13. Can Nonnative Speakers Reduce English Vowels in a Native-Like Fashion? Evidence from L1-Spanish L2-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo Fabra, Lucrecia

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the production of English unstressed vowels by two groups of early (ESp) and late Spanish (LSp) bilinguals and a control group of native English (NE) monolinguals. Three acoustic measurements were obtained: duration and intensity ratios of unstressed to stressed vowels, normalized vowel formants and euclidean distances. Both groups of bilinguals showed significantly fewer differences in duration between stressed and unstressed vowels than the NE monolinguals. Intensity differences depended on whether the stress pattern of the target English words matched the stress pattern of their Spanish cognates. As for vowel quality, the early bilinguals reduced the unstressed vowels, which clustered around the midcenter area of the vowel space, in the same fashion as the NE monolinguals, suggesting that vowel reduction might be operating at the phonological level. However, the late bilinguals showed a context-dependent, phonetic-level pattern with vowels that were more peripheral in the vowel space. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effective Prediction of Errors by Non-native Speakers Using Decision Tree for Speech Recognition-Based CALL System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongcui; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) systems using ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) for second language learning have received increasing interest recently. However, it still remains a challenge to achieve high speech recognition performance, including accurate detection of erroneous utterances by non-native speakers. Conventionally, possible error patterns, based on linguistic knowledge, are added to the lexicon and language model, or the ASR grammar network. However, this approach easily falls in the trade-off of coverage of errors and the increase of perplexity. To solve the problem, we propose a method based on a decision tree to learn effective prediction of errors made by non-native speakers. An experimental evaluation with a number of foreign students learning Japanese shows that the proposed method can effectively generate an ASR grammar network, given a target sentence, to achieve both better coverage of errors and smaller perplexity, resulting in significant improvement in ASR accuracy.

  15. Components and context: exploring sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J; Vukovic, Rose K

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on standardized English language and reading measures. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relative contributions of code-related and linguistic comprehension skills in first and second grade to third grade reading comprehension. Linguistic comprehension and the interaction between linguistic comprehension and code-related skills each explained substantial variation in reading comprehension. Among students with low reading comprehension, more than 80% demonstrated weaknesses in linguistic comprehension alone, whereas approximately 15% demonstrated weaknesses in both linguistic comprehension and code-related skills. Results were remarkably similar for the language minority learners and native English speakers, suggesting the importance of their shared socioeconomic backgrounds and schooling contexts.

  16. Cortical encoding and neurophysiological tracking of intensity and pitch cues signaling English stress patterns in native and nonnative speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-01-01

    We examined cross-language differences in neural encoding and tracking of intensity and pitch cues signaling English stress patterns. Auditory mismatch negativities (MMNs) were recorded in English and Mandarin listeners in response to contrastive English pseudowords whose primary stress occurred either on the first or second syllable (i.e., "nocTICity" vs. "NOCticity"). The contrastive syllable stress elicited two consecutive MMNs in both language groups, but English speakers demonstrated larger responses to stress patterns than Mandarin speakers. Correlations between the amplitude of ERPs and continuous changes in the running intensity and pitch of speech assessed how well each language group's brain activity tracked these salient acoustic features of lexical stress. We found that English speakers' neural responses tracked intensity changes in speech more closely than Mandarin speakers (higher brain-acoustic correlation). Findings demonstrate more robust and precise processing of English stress (intensity) patterns in early auditory cortical responses of native relative to nonnative speakers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scenes of an acquisition and learning process of French by a native speaker of Brazilian Portuguese: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Maranúbia Pereira; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Durão, Adja Balbino de Amorim Barbieri; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2008-01-01

    This article approaches some aspects of the acquisition/learning process of a native speaker of Brazilian Portuguese whose learning of French language took place in the country where this language had its origin, France. Inserted directly in the foreign context, this informant is an example of the complicated process of acquisition/learning of a second language concerning linguistic and sociocultural aspects. By using descriptive analysis of Portuguese (L1) and French (L2), as well as a descr...

  18. Making the Transition from Non-Native Speaker to Near-Native Speaker Teachers of English: Facing Globalization Challenges in Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohamed Ali, Haja Mohideen

    2009-01-01

    Many job advertisements seeking teachers of English to work in Japan, China, South Korea and Thailand, for instance, specify that they are looking for native speaking teachers from USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. They do not seem to be interested even in trained non-native speaking teachers from their own countries. This situation also exists…

  19. Iambic-Trochaic Law Effects among Native Speakers of Spanish and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Crowhurst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Iambic-Trochaic Law (Bolton, 1894; Hayes, 1995; Woodrow, 1909 asserts that listeners associate greater intensity with group beginnings (a loud-first preference and greater duration with group endings (a long-last preference. Hayes (1987; 1995 posits a natural connection between the prominences referred to in the ITL and the locations of stressed syllables in feet. However, not all lengthening in final positions originates with stressed syllables, and greater duration may also be associated with stress in nonfinal (trochaic positions. The research described here challenged the notion that presumptive long-last effects necessarily reflect stress-related duration patterns, and investigated the general hypothesis that the robustness of long-last effects should vary depending on the strength of the association between final positions and increased duration, whatever its source. Two ITL studies were conducted in which native speakers of Spanish and of English grouped streams of rhythmically alternating syllables in which vowel intensity and/or duration levels were varied. These languages were chosen because while they are prosodically similar, increased duration on constituent-final syllables is both more common and more salient in English than Spanish. Outcomes revealed robust loud-first effects in both language groups. Long-last effects were significantly weaker in the Spanish group when vowel duration was varied singly. However, long-last effects were present and comparable in both language groups when intensity and duration were covaried. Intensity was a more robust predictor of responses than duration. A primary conclusion was that whether or not humans’ rhythmic grouping preferences have an innate component, duration-based grouping preferences, at least, and the magnitude of intensity-based effects are shaped by listeners’ backgrounds.

  20. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-08-10

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Grammatical versus Pragmatic Error: Employer Perceptions of Nonnative and Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna; Shanmugaraj, Nisha; Sipe, Jaclyn

    2016-01-01

    Many communication instructors make allowances for grammatical error in nonnative English speakers' writing, but do businesspeople do the same? We asked 169 businesspeople to comment on three versions of an email with different types of errors. We found that businesspeople do make allowances for errors made by nonnative English speakers,…

  2. The influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners / Rhelda Krügel

    OpenAIRE

    Krügel, Rhelda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners. The words: English teachers in this study refer to teachers teaching English as subject learning area but who are not native speakers of English. The word learners refer to English second language learners. Although the literature review highlights the specific features of each of the language skills namely l...

  3. Katakana variants yield better English pronunciation : Japanese-naive native American English speakers' perception of vowel length as stress in the recognition of Japanese borrowed English

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Mark

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was made to determine whether native American English speakers perceive vowel length in Japanese borrowed English words as stress. Native speakers of American English were asked to identify spoken tokens of words of both Japanese borrowed English and Japanese variants in which the vowel length had been altered. Significantly more variants were identified, establishing a perceptual link between Japanese vowel length and English stress, although identification of vowel-length vari...

  4. The influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners / Rhelda Krügel

    OpenAIRE

    Krügel, Rhelda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the language proficiency of English teachers who are not native speakers of English on the language skills of their learners. The words: English teachers in this study refer to teachers teaching English as subject learning area but who are not native speakers of English. The word learners refer to English second language learners. Although the literature review highlights the specific features of each of the language skills namely l...

  5. Acoustic and perceptual speech characteristics of native Mandarin speakers with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sih-Chiao; Jiao, Yishan; McAuliffe, Megan J; Berisha, Visar; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Levy, Erika S

    2017-03-01

    This study examines acoustic features of speech production in speakers of Mandarin with Parkinson's disease (PD) and relates them to intelligibility outcomes. Data from 11 participants with PD and 7 controls are compared on several acoustic measures. In speakers with PD, the strength of association between these measures and intelligibility is investigated. Speakers with PD exhibited significant differences in fundamental frequency, pitch variation, vowel space, and rate relative to controls. However, in contrast to the English studies, speech rate was consistently slow and most strongly correlated with intelligibility. Thus, acoustic cues that strongly influence intelligibility in PD may vary cross-linguistically.

  6. Non-native English language speakers benefit most from the use of lecture capture in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Graham P; Molnar, David

    2011-01-01

    Medical education in the United States and Canada continues to evolve. However, many of the changes in pedagogy are being made without appropriate evaluation. Here, we attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of lecture capture technology as a learning tool in Podiatric medical education. In this pilot project, student performance in an inaugural lecture capture-supported biochemistry course was compared to that in the previous academic year. To examine the impact of online lecture podcasts on student performance a within-subjects design was implemented, a two way ANCOVA with repeated measures. The use of lecture capture-supported pedagogy resulted in significantly higher student test scores, than achieved historically using traditional pedagogy. The overall course performance using this lecture capture-supported pedagogy was almost 6% higher than in the previous year. Non-native English language speakers benefitted more significantly from the lecture capture-supported pedagogy than native English language speakers, since their performance improved by 10.0 points. Given that underrepresented minority (URM) students, whose native language is not English, makes up a growing proportion of medical school matriculates, these observations support the use of lecture capture technology in other courses. Furthermore, this technology may also be used as part of an academic enrichment plan to improve performance on the American Podiatric Medical Licensing Examination, reduce the attrition of URM students and potentially address the predicted minority physician shortage in 2020.

  7. Native and Non-Native Speakers in Online and Face-to-Face Discussions: Leveling the Playing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlas, Anne Cummings; Schuh, Kathy L.; Alessi, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the role of native language in the context of online versus face-to-face learning environments. Findings from a mixed-methods analysis revealed that native language was a factor in distinguishing among the learning opportunities in these two classes. Data for the online course were 10 archived asynchronous discussions on…

  8. Standard Chinese Has No Native Speakers%没有人天生就会讲汉语普通话

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国清

    2001-01-01

    This article proves that the standard chinese has no native speakers from three aspects: the conditions of the emerging of the standard chinese, the definition of it and the compare between it and a pidgin.%本文借助一些语言学理论,从汉语普通话产生的原因和条件、汉语普通话的定义以及它与洋泾浜混合语言的比较这三方面,论证了"没有人天生就会讲普通话"这一观点.

  9. Going Beyond the Native Speaker in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    a period of three years has been carried out. The study findings reveal that despite they teach Chinese in their own home cultures, the teachers face challenges in constructing their identities as CFL teacher, and that the challenges that arose with their Chinese learning trajectory and their intercultural......In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (see e.g., Moloney, 2013; Gao, 2012; Wu et al., 2014); however, whilst insightful, this research has not addressed the ways in which...... nonnative speakers identify themselves as CFL teachers while interacting with students and how they construct their professional identities in their home culture. This paper addresses this research gap by exploring the discursive construction of four nonnative speakers (Danish speakers) construct...

  10. The Influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin Writing Systems on the Acquisition of Mandarin Word Forms by Native English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the "congruent" condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]); in the "incongruent" condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., ) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with "incongruent" items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to the effects of orthographic

  11. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition.

  12. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  13. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  14. "Cool" English: Stylized Native-Speaker English in Japanese Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes stylized pronunciations of English by Japanese speakers on televised variety shows in Japan. Research on style and mocking has done much to reveal how linguistic forms are utilized in interaction as resources of identity construction that can oftentimes subvert hegemonic discourse (Chun 2004). Within this research area,…

  15. Verbal Miscommunication Between English Native Speakers and Chinese Learners of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhenxian

    2004-01-01

    The CLEs' ultimate goal of learning English is to communicate smoothly with NSEs or other speakers of English.The reality, however, is that miscommunication between them appears constantly rather than incidentally. The purpose of this study is to reach an understanding of the nature and sources of verbal miscommunication -- the problematic face-to-face talk

  16. Report on the NFLC/AATSP Survey of Spanish Language Programs for Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, Catherine; Rivers, William; Tesser, Carmen Chavez; Ashby, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a National Foreign Language Center survey of 240 randomly-selected higher-education Spanish programs on the availability and the nature of programming for heritage speakers of Spanish. The survey queried the need for such programming and challenges to meeting needs of heritage learners. Results are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  17. Gender Signalling in Russian: A Contrastive Analysis of Native Speakers and Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Edna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two surveys conducted in the Soviet Union are reported that demonstrate the complicated interrelationship between linguistic form and meaning. They support Jakobson and Gorbacevic on gender signalling, particularly when the speaker is not certain of the noun in question. (Contains 44 references.) (LB)

  18. Early Mathematics Achievement Trajectories: English-Language Learner and Native English-Speaker Estimates, Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998 –1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills. PMID:21574702

  19. Early mathematics achievement trajectories: English-language learner and native English-speaker estimates, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane

    2011-07-01

    This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills.

  20. English speakers attend more strongly than Spanish speakers to manner of motion when classifying novel objects and events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W; Meissner, Christian A; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L; Albrechtsen, Justin S; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in a Spanish-speaking context at sorting novel, animated objects and events into categories on the basis of manner of motion, an attribute that is prominently marked in English but not in Spanish. In contrast, English and Spanish speakers performed similarly at classifying on the basis of path, an attribute that is prominently marked in both languages. Similar results were obtained regardless of whether categories were labeled by novel words or numbered, suggesting that an English-speaking tendency to focus on manner of motion is a general phenomenon and not limited to word learning. Effects of age of acquisition of English were also observed on the performance of bilinguals, with early bilinguals performing similarly in the 2 language contexts and later bilinguals showing greater contextual variation.

  1. The Perception of Selected Danish Vowels by Native Speakers of British English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a study which investigates the effects of direct transfers of the four Danish vowels into English. The study employs a perception experiment and a forced-choice word identification experiment, in which the Danish words were presented to native English listeners. Results showed...... the spelling-sound relationship and assimilation of the foreign into native category sound which can lead to the use of an unmodified native language sound production in the foreign language....

  2. The influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems on the acquisition of Mandarin word forms by native English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eHayes-Harb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of written input in second language (L2 phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers’ ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the ‘congruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]; in the ‘incongruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]. At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., 'xiu' were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group’s difficulty with ‘incongruent’ items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ] from the foils (e.g., [z], suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to

  3. Phoneme Error Pattern by Heritage Speakers of Spanish on an English Word Recognition Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Heritage speakers acquire their native language from home use in their early childhood. As the native language is typically a minority language in the society, these individuals receive their formal education in the majority language and eventually develop greater competency with the majority than their native language. To date, there have not been specific research attempts to understand word recognition by heritage speakers. It is not clear if and to what degree we may infer from evidence based on bilingual listeners in general. This preliminary study investigated how heritage speakers of Spanish perform on an English word recognition test and analyzed their phoneme errors. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was employed. Twelve normal-hearing adult Spanish heritage speakers (four men, eight women, 20-38 yr old) participated in the study. Their language background was obtained through the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire. Nine English monolingual listeners (three men, six women, 20-41 yr old) were also included for comparison purposes. Listeners were presented with 200 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words in quiet. They repeated each word orally and in writing. Their responses were scored by word, word-initial consonant, vowel, and word-final consonant. Performance was compared between groups with Student's t test or analysis of variance. Group-specific error patterns were primarily descriptive, but intergroup comparisons were made using 95% or 99% confidence intervals for proportional data. The two groups of listeners yielded comparable scores when their responses were examined by word, vowel, and final consonant. However, heritage speakers of Spanish misidentified significantly more word-initial consonants and had significantly more difficulty with initial /p, b, h/ than their monolingual peers. The two groups yielded similar patterns for vowel and word-final consonants, but heritage speakers made significantly

  4. Music-to-language transfer effect: may melodic ability improve learning of tonal languages by native nontonal speakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Lampis, Giulia; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta

    2006-09-01

    In tonal languages, as Mandarin Chinese and Thai, word meaning is partially determined by lexical tones. Previous studies suggest that lexical tones are processed by native listeners as linguistic information and not as pure tonal information. This study aims at verifying if, in nontonal languages speakers, the discrimination of lexical Mandarin tones varies in function of the melodic ability. Forty-six students with no previous experience of Mandarin or any other tonal language were presented with two short lists of spoken monosyllabic Mandarin words and invited to perform a same-different task trying to identify whether the variation were phonological or tonal. Main results show that subjects perform significantly better in identifying phonological variations rather than tonal ones and interestingly, the group with a high melodic ability (assessed by Wing subtest 3) shows a better performance exclusively in detecting tonal variations.

  5. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  6. ERPs show that classroom-instructed late second language learners rely on the same prosodic cues in syntactic parsing as native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Stefanie; Opitz, Bertram; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2013-12-17

    The loss of brain plasticity after a 'critical period' in childhood has often been argued to prevent late language learners from using the same neurocognitive mechanisms as native speakers and, therefore, from attaining a high level of second language (L2) proficiency [7,11]. However, more recent behavioral and electrophysiological research has challenged this 'Critical Period Hypothesis', demonstrating that even late L2 learners can display native-like performance and brain activation patterns [17], especially after longer periods of immersion in an L2 environment. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to show that native-like processing can also be observed in the largely under-researched domain of speech prosody - even when L2 learners are exposed to their second language almost exclusively in a classroom setting. Participants listened to spoken sentences whose prosodic boundaries would either cooperate or conflict with the syntactic structure. Previous work had shown that this paradigm is difficult for elderly native speakers, however, German L2 learners of English showed very similar ERP components for on-line prosodic phrasing as well as for prosody-syntax mismatches (garden path effects) as the control group of native speakers. These data suggest that L2 immersion is not always necessary to master complex L2 speech processing in a native-like way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies for Improving Academic Performance by Non-Native English Speakers in Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Tracye A.; Stinson, Terrye A.; Sivakumaran, Thillainatarajan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of non-native English speaking students in higher education has increased dramatically. Educators at all levels have experienced challenges in meeting the academic needs of these students and continue to seek strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper describes some of this research related to K-12 and…

  8. Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research with Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouriotis, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The ethical considerations of three education researchers working with non-native English-speaking participants were examined from a critical theory stand-point in the light of the literature on research ethics in various disciplines. Qualitative inquiry and data analysis were used to identify key themes, which centered around honor and respect…

  9. The Perception of Selected Danish Vowels by Native Speakers of British English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a study which investigates the effects of direct transfers of the four Danish vowels into English. The study employs a perception experiment and a forced-choice word identification experiment, in which the Danish words were presented to native English listeners. Results showed...

  10. Second Language Acquisition of Spanish /e/ and /ei/ by Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Miriam; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present article reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of the Spanish /e/-/ei/ contrast, as in "pena-peina" and "reno-reino," by native-English intermediate and advanced learners of Spanish. The acoustic parameter that distinguishes Spanish /e/ from /ei/ is formant change--/e/ is a…

  11. Other-Repair in Japanese Conversation Between Nonnative and Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Looks at conversation in Japanese between native and nonnative speaking peers. Focuses on other-repair, taking the conversation analytic approach to phenomena in nonnative discourse. Identifies a range of speaking practices as well as embodied resources that are understood by recipients as inviting or initiating other repair. (Author/VWL)

  12. Second Language Acquisition of Spanish /e/ and /ei/ by Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Miriam; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present article reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of the Spanish /e/-/ei/ contrast, as in "pena-peina" and "reno-reino," by native-English intermediate and advanced learners of Spanish. The acoustic parameter that distinguishes Spanish /e/ from /ei/ is formant change--/e/ is a…

  13. The Perception of Selected Danish Vowels by Native Speakers of British English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian; Mees, Inger M.

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of sounds from L1 to L2 can obviously lead to inappropriate pronunciations, but assumptions about the effects such transfer may have on native listeners are often based on intuition or casual observation. This paper investigates the effects of direct transfer of four Danish vowels into English through a forced-choice word identification…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Offering Advice Speech Acts by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers: Pragmatic Transfer in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Sherveh; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the speech act of offering advice as realized by Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The study, more specifically, attempted to find out whether there was any pragmatic transfer from Persian (L1) among Iranian EFL learners while offering advice in English. It also examined whether…

  15. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Attitudes of Iranian EFL Learners to Native English Speakers and Their Reported Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarnia, Shabnam; Ghafar-Samar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the possible differences between Iranian English and non-English major students in terms of their attitude towards native English speakers and reported self-identity change. It also attempted to investigate the possible significant relationships between these two variables. The results of the independent-sample…

  16. Learning for Life, a Structured and Motivational Process of Knowledge Construction in the Acquisition/Learning of English as a Foreign Language in Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino-Garces, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L) as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The…

  17. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Attitudes of Iranian EFL Learners to Native English Speakers and Their Reported Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarnia, Shabnam; Ghafar-Samar, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the possible differences between Iranian English and non-English major students in terms of their attitude towards native English speakers and reported self-identity change. It also attempted to investigate the possible significant relationships between these two variables. The results of the independent-sample…

  18. Comparing Ease-of-Processing Values of the Same Set of Words for Native English Speakers and Japanese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Hiroomi

    2009-01-01

    Ease of processing of 3,969 English words for native speakers and Japanese learners was investigated using lexical decision and naming latencies taken from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al. The English Lexicon Project: A web-based repository of descriptive and behavioral measures for 40,481 English words and nonwords, 2002) and accuracy…

  19. The effect of native vowel processing ability and frequency discrimination acuity on the phonetic training of English vowels for native speakers of Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengeris, Angelos; Hazan, Valerie

    2010-12-01

    The perception and production of nonnative phones in second language (L2) learners can be improved via auditory training, but L2 learning is often characterized by large differences in performance across individuals. This study examined whether success in learning L2 vowels, via five sessions of high-variability phonetic training, related to the learners' native (L1) vowel processing ability or their frequency discrimination acuity. A group of native speakers of Greek received training, while another completed the pre-/post-tests but without training. Pre-/post-tests assessed different aspects of their L2 and L1 vowel processing and frequency acuity. L2 and L1 vowel processing were assessed via: (a) Natural English (L2) vowel identification in quiet and in multi-talker babble, and natural Greek (L1) vowel identification in babble; (b) the categorization of synthetic English and Greek vowel continua; and (c) discrimination of the same continua. Frequency discrimination acuity was assessed for a nonspeech continuum. Frequency discrimination acuity was related to measures of both L1 and L2 vowel processing, a finding that favors an auditory processing over a speech-specific explanation for individual variability in L2 vowel learning. The most efficient frequency discriminators at pre-test were also the most accurate both in English vowel perception and production after training.

  20. Some linguistic and pragmatic considerations affecting science reporting in English by non-native speakers of the language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourilova-Urbanczik, Magda

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 50% of publications in English peer reviewed journals are contributed by non-native speakers (NNS) of the language. Basic thought processes are considered to be universal yet there are differences in thought patterns and particularly in discourse management of writers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The study highlights some areas of potential incompatibility in native and NNS processing of English scientific papers. Principles and conventions in generating academic discourse are considered in terms of frequently occurring failures of NNS to meet expectations of editors, reviewers, and readers. Major problem areas concern organization and flow of information, principles of cohesion and clarity, cultural constraints, especially those of politeness and negotiability of ideas, and the complicated area of English modality pragmatics. The aim of the paper is to sensitize NN authors of English academic reports to problem areas of discourse processing which are stumbling blocks, often affecting acceptance of manuscripts. The problems discussed are essential for acquiring pragmalinguistic and sociocultural competence in producing effective communication.

  1. Musical experience modulates categorical perception of lexical tones by native Chinese speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han eWu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although musical training has been shown to facilitate both native and nonnative phonetic perception, it remains unclear whether and how musical experience affects native speakers’ categorical perception (CP of speech at the suprasegmental level. Using both identification and discrimination tasks, this study compared Chinese-speaking musicians and non-musicians in their categorical perception of a lexical tone continuum (from the high level tone, Tone1 to the high falling tone, Tone4. While the identification functions showed similar steepness and boundary location between the two subject groups, the discrimination results revealed superior performance in the musicians for discriminating within-category stimuli pairs but not for between-category stimuli. These findings suggest that musical training can enhance sensitivity to subtle pitch differences between within-category sounds in the presence of robust mental representations in service of categorical perception of lexical tonal contrasts.

  2. Gairaigo in Japanese Foreign Language Learning: A Tool for Native English Speakers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Champ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable academic literature on the usefulness of loanwords to Foreign Language (FL learners. This literature, based on empirical studies conducted among learners of various language backgrounds and learning various target languages, indicates that cognates shared by the first language (L1 of the learner and the target language are generally a positive learning resource in Foreign Language Learning (FLL contexts. This study extends the current literature by its examination of the specific context of English speakers learning Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL. It takes both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the investigation of teaching practices related to the use of loanwords borrowed from English into Japanese, known as gairaigo. A quantitative analysis of three series of JFL textbooks reveals that gairaigo nouns are used in introductory texts at an unrepresentatively high proportion. While there is currently no empirical basis for this strategy, qualitative interviews with teachers give some support to the strategy of using gairaigo in preference to words of Japanese origin in introductory courses to assist learner comprehension and production. This study identifies a number of variables driving teachers’ use of gairaigo that have so far not been articulated in the literature.

  3. Optimizing Automatic Speech Recognition for Low-Proficient Non-Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Cucchiarini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL applications for improving the oral skills of low-proficient learners have to cope with non-native speech that is particularly challenging. Since unconstrained non-native ASR is still problematic, a possible solution is to elicit constrained responses from the learners. In this paper, we describe experiments aimed at selecting utterances from lists of responses. The first experiment on utterance selection indicates that the decoding process can be improved by optimizing the language model and the acoustic models, thus reducing the utterance error rate from 29–26% to 10–8%. Since giving feedback on incorrectly recognized utterances is confusing, we verify the correctness of the utterance before providing feedback. The results of the second experiment on utterance verification indicate that combining duration-related features with a likelihood ratio (LR yield an equal error rate (EER of 10.3%, which is significantly better than the EER for the other measures in isolation.

  4. Does Euro-English have native speakers? Making sense of conflicting views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Gozdawa-Gołębiowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the status of European English (EE in current linguistictheory, in particular the hotly debated issue of whether or not it is possible to treat EE as an endonormative linguistic variety in its own right. Alternatively, EE may remain a form of English as a foreign language (EFL, and the decision has far-reaching socio-political consequences. Some relevant data from Polish English is discussed in this context. It is argued that there is no reason to reanalyse the observed deviations from English native standards as simplifications or innovations characteristic of a new language. The debate is shown to relate to the opposition between utilitarian and epistemic goals in foreign language teaching methodology, as exemplified by the dichotomy between competence and performance or between training for interaction and training of the faculties of the mind.

  5. Composition Medium Comparability in a Direct Writing Assessment of Non-Native English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Wolfe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL contains a direct writing assessment, and examinees are given the option of composing their responses at a computer terminal using a keyboard or composing their responses in handwriting. This study sought to determine whether performance on a direct writing assessment is comparable for examinees when given the choice to compose essays in handwriting versus word processing. We examined this relationship controlling for English language proficiency and several demographic characteristics of examinees using linear models. We found a weak two-way interaction between composition medium and English language proficiency with examinees with weaker English language scores performing better on handwritten essays while examinees with better English language scores performing comparably on the two testing media. We also observed predictable differences associated with geographic region, native language, gender, and age.

  6. The role of morphological awareness in reading comprehension among typical and learning disabled native Arabic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills, and morphological ability were given to both groups in addition to tests of nonverbal ability. For the mainstream children, unique variability in comprehension was predicted by the morphological measures over that of the measures of phonological skills and general nonverbal ability. In contrast, for the LD data, variability in comprehension was not predicted by morphological ability even though the children with LD performed the morphology task as well as their typically developing peers did. These findings are discussed in terms of theories of reading acquisition across languages as well as recommendations for literacy teaching and LD intervention in Arabic.

  7. Comparing ease-of-processing values of the same set of words for native English speakers and Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Hiroomi

    2009-12-01

    Ease of processing of 3,969 English words for native speakers and Japanese learners was investigated using lexical decision and naming latencies taken from the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al. The English Lexicon Project: A web-based repository of descriptive and behavioral measures for 40,481 English words and nonwords, 2002) and accuracy of English word translation by Japanese university students (Takashima, H. Eigo goi chishiki no keisei [The structure of English lexical knowledge of Japanese college students], 2002). Correlations among these ease-of-processing values were all significant, suggesting substantial commonalities between native English speakers and Japanese learners. Regression analyses, however, showed that some factors differentially affect ease of processing for natives and Japanese. Comparison of the predicted and the observed values of translation accuracy revealed specific differences of lexical knowledge between native speakers and Japanese learners. Loanword effect on translation accuracy and translation errors similar to dyslexic/aphasic reading errors were observed, suggesting the possibility of insufficient orthographic/phonological activation and the possibility of the use of first language phonological representations. The implications of these results for the study of second/foreign language lexical processing are discussed.

  8. English vowel production by native Mandarin speakers: Influences of AoA, LoR, education, perception, and orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Yu, Yan Helen

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates relations among several factors that are expected to influence vowel production in second language learning, including AoA, LoR, L2 and general education, L2 perception, and orthography. Vowel production will be examined through duration and formant frequency measurements and listener identification. The results will be analyzed in relation to educational background and language use. Among the educational factors examined are general education level, English education (in their native land and/or New York City), and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin (Pinyin or Zhuyin). The language-use factors include AoA, LoR, language spoken at work and at home, and perception of English vowels. The hypotheses addressed include: (1) educational background, language use, and sound-annotating system experiences in Mandarin all influence L2 English speakers perception and production of English vowels; (2) the more accurately an L2 listener discriminates a vowel contrast, the more distinctly he/she produces that contrast.

  9. Learning English vowels with different first-language vowel systems II: Auditory training for native Spanish and German speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Paul; Evans, Bronwen G

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated whether individuals with small and large native-language (L1) vowel inventories learn second-language (L2) vowel systems differently, in order to better understand how L1 categories interfere with new vowel learning. Listener groups whose L1 was Spanish (5 vowels) or German (18 vowels) were given five sessions of high-variability auditory training for English vowels, after having been matched to assess their pre-test English vowel identification accuracy. Listeners were tested before and after training in terms of their identification accuracy for English vowels, the assimilation of these vowels into their L1 vowel categories, and their best exemplars for English (i.e., perceptual vowel space map). The results demonstrated that Germans improved more than Spanish speakers, despite the Germans' more crowded L1 vowel space. A subsequent experiment demonstrated that Spanish listeners were able to improve as much as the German group after an additional ten sessions of training, and that both groups were able to retain this learning. The findings suggest that a larger vowel category inventory may facilitate new learning, and support a hypothesis that auditory training improves identification by making the application of existing categories to L2 phonemes more automatic and efficient.

  10. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  11. The Critique of Native-speakerism in English Education%英语教育中的英本主义批评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘君栓

    2015-01-01

    The arena of the English education has been dominated by the discourse of Native-speakerism in the whole world. Native -speakerism is rooted in the western cultural Chauvinism and has formulated many discriminatory dichotomies based on the difference in language and culture. Nevertheless,it is still widely accepted in the circle of the English education. This is mainly because those working in this field have inadequate cognition of the globalization of the English language,the structure of the professional competence of non-native-English-speaker teachers (NNESTs)and the contextualization of any teaching methodology. It is proposed accordingly that the concept of Critical Pedagogy should be incorporated into the English education in order to foster learners'consciousness to resist Native-speakerism.%全球英语教育领域一直为英本主义话语所控制。英本主义话语根植于西方文化沙文主义,并在英语教育领域构建了很多基于语言和文化差别的歧视性二元对立体。英本主义为英语教育界普遍接受,主要原因在于业内人士对母语非英语本族语者教师的职业能力和教学方法使用的语境化认知不足。因此,在英语教育和教学活动中应引入批判性教育理念,以期培养学习者抵制英本主义的意识。

  12. Experimental Phonetics Contrastive Study on [dʒ] [tʃ] [ʃ] - Spoken by American Native Speakers and Yantai English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rong

    2016-01-01

    The negative transfer of native language influences the English acquisition process of the college students from Yantai in a great degree,both in the segmental and suprasegmental level, while the consonants in the segmental level are influenced most.The paper makes an experimental phonetic contrastive study on [dʒ],[tʃ],[ʃ] in the aspect of frication between native Eng-lish speakers from America and English learners from Yantai basing on processing a large number of English word corpora by using PRAAT. It is found that the degree of frication of [dʒ], [tʃ], [ʃ] in American English is strong, while Yantai weak.

  13. It does exist! A left-to-right spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect among native Hebrew speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar-Shai, Bar; Tzelgov, Joseph; Karni, Avi; Rubinsten, Orly

    2017-04-01

    Several studies, starting with Dehaene, Bossini, and Giraux (1993), have reported that, in parity-judgment tasks, the difference in response latencies generated by the right and left hand are negatively correlated with number magnitudes. This SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect is in line with the notion that the "mental number line" extends from left to right. The SNARC effect has been found mainly in native speakers of Germanic/Romanic languages; it has been suggested that the SNARC effect may derive from the experience of reading from left to right. To date, there is no evidence that the SNARC (or reverse SNARC) effect exists in parity judgments in native speakers of Hebrew readers. Here we provide the first demonstration of a horizontal, left-to-right SNARC effect in native speakers of Hebrew performing the parity task. Although we found no SNARC effect using the standard parity task, a reliable SNARC effect was found when we succeeded in reducing the MARC (markedness association of response codes) effect. We succeeded in reducing the MARC effect by implementing the parity task in 2 sessions, on 2 different days, each time using a different mapping of the parity-to-response side. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. An acoustic investigation of the interpretation of Russian palatalized consonants by American English speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwade, Allan Jay

    This thesis experimentally addresses a theoretical debate in the loanword literature concerning the validity of the perception and production approaches to adaptation. According to the perception approach, adapters who only know the borrowing language generate loans by taking a non-native auditory representation and mapping the perceived constituents to existing native categories. In the production theory, adapters who know both the source and borrowing languages generate loans by taking the categorical form of a source word and passing it through the borrowing phonological grammar. In order to evaluate the validity of each theory, Russian words containing palatalized consonants were auditorily presented to English monolingual speakers and Russian-English bilinguals who were then asked to "Americanize" the words. Since palatalization has a host of co-articulatory effects that would be familiar to bilinguals but not monolinguals, it was predicted that the palatalization would not manifest itself in bilingual borrowings but would in monolingual borrowings. The logic underlying these predictions is that co-articulation is noise which bilinguals would avoid including in their adaptations. The monolinguals, with no knowledge of what constitutes noise in the foreign words presented to them, would preserve the co-articulation in some form. The results of the study support these predictions. Bilinguals overwhelmingly adapted palatalized consonants as plain (i.e. tja > ta) while monolinguals sometimes preserved the co-articulation in a variety of expected ways (e.g. tja > ti.a, tju > tSu, etc). These results suggest that the production account is valid since bilinguals were insensitive to phonetic details and the perception account is valid since monolinguals were sensitive to them.

  15. Second-Language Fluency Predicts Native Language Stroop Effects: Evidence from Spanish–English Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Paola A.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana; Group, HNRC

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.–...

  16. Evaluating the lexico-grammatical differences in the writing of native and non-native speakers of English in peer-reviewed medical journals in the field of pediatric oncology: Creation of the genuine index scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Alberto Alexander; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    The predominance of English in scientific research has created hurdles for "non-native speakers" of English. Here we present a novel application of native language identification (NLI) for the assessment of medical-scientific writing. For this purpose, we created a novel classification system whereby scoring would be based solely on text features found to be distinctive among native English speakers (NS) within a given context. We dubbed this the "Genuine Index" (GI). This methodology was validated using a small set of journals in the field of pediatric oncology. Our dataset consisted of 5,907 abstracts, representing work from 77 countries. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to generate our model and for scoring. Accuracy, precision, and recall of the classification model were 93.3%, 93.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Class specific F-scores were 96.5% for NS and 39.8% for our benchmark class, Japan. Overall kappa was calculated to be 37.2%. We found significant differences between countries with respect to the GI score. Significant correlation was found between GI scores and two validated objective measures of writing proficiency and readability. Two sets of key terms and phrases differentiating NS and non-native writing were identified. Our GI model was able to detect, with a high degree of reliability, subtle differences between the terms and phrasing used by native and non-native speakers in peer reviewed journals, in the field of pediatric oncology. In addition, L1 language transfer was found to be very likely to survive revision, especially in non-Western countries such as Japan. These findings show that even when the language used is technically correct, there may still be some phrasing or usage that impact quality.

  17. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use.

  18. Acquisition of Chinese Directional Complements by Native Lao Speakers%老挝语母语者汉语趋向补语习得情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐春红

    2015-01-01

    This paper redefines the acquisition criterion,and based on interlanguage corpus of Chinese,summarizes the ac-quisition sequence of Chinese directional complements(DCS)by native Lao speakers. Then,based on the overgeneralization theory,the author analyzes the types of errors and acquisition difficulties of DCS for native Lao speakers. A comparison be-tween the acquisition sequence of native Lao speakers with that of other non-native speakers reveals that native Lao speakers acquire the“verb+location object+directional complement(original meaning)”structure earlier than other non-native spea-kers,which shows the non-linear acquisition of directional complements. The paper analyzes the types of acquisition difficulties of DCS for native Lao speakers which are as follows: 1. the overgeneralization of simple DCS instead of compound DCS,2.“dao(到)”acting as directional complement,3. avoiding using“ba(把)”sentences,4. the acquisition of sentence pattern“verb+location object+directional complement”,5. overgeneralization of similar complements,6. wrong order of object and compound DCS. In addition,this paper illustrates how to carry out targeted teaching and improve teaching efficiency with examples.%基于对老挝语母语者中介语语料库的统计分析,得出老挝语母语者汉语趋向补语的习得顺序,同时基于泛化理论分析老挝语母语者习得汉语趋向补语的偏误类型和习得难点。在将老挝语母语者的习得顺序和其他非汉语母语者的习得顺序二者进行对比的基础上,指出老挝语母语者习得“动词+处所宾语+来/去(本义)”的顺序比其他非汉语母语者提前,这一差异体现了趋向补语习得的非线性。针对老挝语母语者习得汉语的以下难点:(1)简单趋向补语误代复合趋向补语;(2)“到”作趋向补语;(3)回避使用“把”字句;(4)“动词+处所宾语+来/去”句式的习得;(5)同

  19. Overlap and Differences in Brain Networks Underlying the Processing of Complex Sentence Structures in Second Language Users Compared with Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kirsten; Luther, Lisa; Indefrey, Peter; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-05-01

    When we learn a second language later in life, do we integrate it with the established neural networks in place for the first language or is at least a partially new network recruited? While there is evidence that simple grammatical structures in a second language share a system with the native language, the story becomes more multifaceted for complex sentence structures. In this study, we investigated the underlying brain networks in native speakers compared with proficient second language users while processing complex sentences. As hypothesized, complex structures were processed by the same large-scale inferior frontal and middle temporal language networks of the brain in the second language, as seen in native speakers. These effects were seen both in activations and task-related connectivity patterns. Furthermore, the second language users showed increased task-related connectivity from inferior frontal to inferior parietal regions of the brain, regions related to attention and cognitive control, suggesting less automatic processing for these structures in a second language.

  20. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostić, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-07-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low (guided-GUIDE) or high (pushed-PUSH) in resonance, a measure of semantic richness. Overall, semantic richness of irregular verbs (nested and irregular change) and of regular verbs (high and low resonance) was matched. Native speakers of English revealed comparable facilitation across regularity and greater facilitation for nested than change stem irregulars. Like native speakers, Serbian, but not Chinese bilinguals matched for proficiency, showed facilitation due to form overlap between irregular past and present tense forms with a nested stem. Unlike native speakers, neither group showed reliable facilitation to stem change irregulars. Results demonstrate the influence of first language on inflectional processing in a second language.

  1. Evaluating the lexico-grammatical differences in the writing of native and non-native speakers of English in peer-reviewed medical journals in the field of pediatric oncology: Creation of the genuine index scoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Alberto Alexander; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The predominance of English in scientific research has created hurdles for “non-native speakers” of English. Here we present a novel application of native language identification (NLI) for the assessment of medical-scientific writing. For this purpose, we created a novel classification system whereby scoring would be based solely on text features found to be distinctive among native English speakers (NS) within a given context. We dubbed this the “Genuine Index” (GI). Methodology This methodology was validated using a small set of journals in the field of pediatric oncology. Our dataset consisted of 5,907 abstracts, representing work from 77 countries. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to generate our model and for scoring. Results Accuracy, precision, and recall of the classification model were 93.3%, 93.7%, and 99.4%, respectively. Class specific F-scores were 96.5% for NS and 39.8% for our benchmark class, Japan. Overall kappa was calculated to be 37.2%. We found significant differences between countries with respect to the GI score. Significant correlation was found between GI scores and two validated objective measures of writing proficiency and readability. Two sets of key terms and phrases differentiating NS and non-native writing were identified. Conclusions Our GI model was able to detect, with a high degree of reliability, subtle differences between the terms and phrasing used by native and non-native speakers in peer reviewed journals, in the field of pediatric oncology. In addition, L1 language transfer was found to be very likely to survive revision, especially in non-Western countries such as Japan. These findings show that even when the language used is technically correct, there may still be some phrasing or usage that impact quality. PMID:28212419

  2. "But This Program Is Designed for Native Speakers...": The Perceived Needs of Nonnative English Speaking Students in MA TESOL Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly A.

    Discussions of training and preparation needs for nonnative English speaking (NNES) master's students in teachers of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) graduate programs have seldom given voice to the students themselves nor addressed their perceptions of whether their needs are being met in existing programs. This study reports on the…

  3. Differences of English Mental Lexicon Organization: A Comparative Study between Advanced Chinese English Language Learners and English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sibo

    2012-01-01

    Among various study topics of advanced second language (L2) learners, mental lexicon shares a unique significance. This paper will introduce a comparative experiment between advanced Chinese English as a Second Language (CESL) learners and English as first language (EL1) speakers. The research question of the study is whether advanced CESL…

  4. Training the perception of Hindi dental and retroflex stops by native speakers of American English and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John S; Jenkins, James J; Strange, Winifred

    2006-03-01

    Perception of second language speech sounds is influenced by one's first language. For example, speakers of American English have difficulty perceiving dental versus retroflex stop consonants in Hindi although English has both dental and retroflex allophones of alveolar stops. Japanese, unlike English, has a contrast similar to Hindi, specifically, the Japanese /d/ versus the flapped /r/ which is sometimes produced as a retroflex. This study compared American and Japanese speakers' identification of the Hindi contrast in CV syllable contexts where C varied in voicing and aspiration. The study then evaluated the participants' increase in identifying the distinction after training with a computer-interactive program. Training sessions progressively increased in difficulty by decreasing the extent of vowel truncation in stimuli and by adding new speakers. Although all participants improved significantly, Japanese participants were more accurate than Americans in distinguishing the contrast on pretest, during training, and on posttest. Transfer was observed to three new consonantal contexts, a new vowel context, and a new speaker's productions. Some abstract aspect of the contrast was apparently learned during training. It is suggested that allophonic experience with dental and retroflex stops may be detrimental to perception of the new contrast.

  5. The effect of task complexity on functional adequacy, fluency and lexical diversity in speaking performances of native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N.H.; Steinel, M.P.; Florijn, A.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.; Housen, A.; Kuiken, F.; Vedder, I.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how task complexity affected native and non-native speakers’ speaking performance in terms of a measure of communicative success (functional adequacy), three types of fluency (breakdown fluency, speed fluency, and repair fluency), and lexical diversity. Participants (208 non-

  6. The interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for native speakers of Mandarin: Production and perception of English word-final voicing contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Smith, Bruce L; Bent, Tessa; Bradlow, Ann R

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the intelligibility of native and Mandarin-accented English speech for native English and native Mandarin listeners. The word-final voicing contrast was considered (as in minimal pairs such as `cub' and `cup') in a forced-choice word identification task. For these particular talkers and listeners, there was evidence of an interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for listeners (i.e., native Mandarin listeners were more accurate than native English listeners at identifying Mandarin-accented English words). However, there was no evidence of an interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for talkers (i.e., native Mandarin listeners did not find Mandarin-accented English speech more intelligible than native English speech). When listener and talker phonological proficiency (operationalized as accentedness) was taken into account, it was found that the interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for listeners held only for the low phonological proficiency listeners and low phonological proficiency speech. The intelligibility data were also considered in relation to various temporal-acoustic properties of native English and Mandarin-accented English speech in effort to better understand the properties of speech that may contribute to the interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit.

  7. 双语情境中母语者身份与非母语者身份的构建%Construction of Native Speaker Identity and Nonnative Speaker Identity in a Chinese-English Bilingual Setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪

    2016-01-01

    本文基于日常对话的语料分析,以会话分析与成员类别分析法为理论框架,重点研究中英双语交流情境中构成母语者身份与非母语者身份的对话特征并分析其语用意义。研究发现:语言知识的不对称性是构成母语者身份与非母语者身份的重要机制;母语者身份与非母语者身份并非交际者先验的外在标签,是为实现交际目的而被选择呈现的成员类别,语言知识的不对称在具体交际情境中为实现交际目的提供了所需的资源。%The framework of Membership Categorization Device is adopted and a conversation analytic(CA)approach is drawn to document detailed phenomena that account for native speaker/ nonnative speaker(NS/ NNS)identity construction in multi-party bilingual interaction among Chinese and British. And their pragmatic meaning is discussed. The findings are:knowledge asym-metry upon a language is an important mechanism that constructs NS/ NNS identity. Instead of a priori labels externally imposed on the dialog participants,NS/ NNS are members’ categories selected to facilitate communication,and the knowledge asymmetry upon a language provides resources for the interlocutors to use in order to move the interaction ahead.

  8. Reorientando a identidade nacional em Native speaker, de Chang-rae Lee, e O sol se põe em São Paulo, de Bernardo Carvalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex P. Nielson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative reading of the novels Native speaker (1995, by the North American writer Chang-rae Lee, and O sol se põe em São Paulo (2007, by Bernardo Carvalho, allows for a reevaluation of how minority identities have been constructed in the two American megalopolises New York and São Paulo. The plotlines of both nove ls hinge on the identity crisis of a second-generation Asian immigrant (from Korea in one case and Japan in the other who is seeking to negotiate his American identity (speaking in hemispheric terms in terms of his family‟s origin and language. However, despite the similar anxieties over assimilation present in both novels, they both reveal significant differences regarding the ways in which the United States and Brazil have responded to cultural difference even as they challenge national myths of inclusi on and belonging.

  9. Speaking Japanese in Japan: Issues for English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Due to the global momentum of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), Anglophones may perceive that there is less urgency for them to learn other languages than for speakers of other languages to learn English. The monolingual expectations of English speakers are evidenced not only in Anglophone countries but also abroad. This study reports on the…

  10. Integrating Academic Language, Thinking, and Content: Learning Scaffolds for Non-Native Speakers in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to explore possibilities for scaffolding academic language and historical thinking for non-native English speaking students in two middle school classrooms. The teaching approach focused on six dimensions of historical thinking: background knowledge, cause, effect, bias, empathy, and application. The…

  11. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...... in applications like banking by telephone and voice mail. The focus of this project is speaker identification, which consists of mapping a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a database of known speakers, i.e. the system has been trained with a number of speakers which the system can recognize....

  12. Evaluating causes of foreign accent in English sentences spoken by native speakers of Italian differing in age of arrival (AOA) in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, James; Mackay, Ian; Imai, Satomi

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluated potential causes of foreign accent (FA) by including native Italian (NI) speakers with a later age of arrival (AOA) in Canada than in previous studies. Three NI groups (n=18 each) differing in AOA (means=10, 18, and 26 years) participated. Listeners used a 9-point scale to rate sentences produced by the three NI groups and native English controls. The ratings obtained for all four groups differed significantly. The stronger foreign accents of the AOA-18 than AOA-10 group might be attributed to the passing of a critical period, or to stronger cross-language interference by more robust Italian phonetic categories. The difference might also be attributed to differences in language use. This is because the AOA-10 and AOA-18 groups (but not the AOA-18 and AOA-26 groups) differed significantly in percentage of English and Italian use, length of residence in Canada, and years of education in Canada. None of these explanations will apparently explain the stronger FAs of the AOA-26 than AOA-18 group. The difference between these groups might be attributed to cognitive aging [Hakuta et al., Appl. Psycholinguistics (in press)], which results in gradually less successful second-language acquisition across the adult life span. [Work supported by NIH.

  13. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  14. A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.

  15. A signal delection theory-based analysis of American English vowel identification and production performance by native speakers of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambacher, Stephen; Martens, William; Kakehi, Kazuhiko

    2005-04-01

    The identification and production performance by two groups of native Japanese of the American English (AE) vowels /æ/, /a/, /squflg/, /squflg/, /squflg/ was measured before and after a six-week, identification training program. A signal detection theory (SDT) analysis of the confusion data, as measured by d', revealed that all five AE vowels were more identifiable by the experimental trained group than the control untrained group. The d' results showed that /squflg/ was less identifiable than /squflg/ in the pretest, even though the percentage identification rate for /squflg/ was slightly greater than that for /squflg/. Both groups productions of a list of CVCs, each containing one of the target AE vowels, were presented to a group of native AE listeners in a series of identification tasks. The d' results revealed that the AE listeners could more sensitively identify the experimental groups post-test vowel productions than they could the control groups. SDT analysis also clarified an additional potentially confusing result: /squflg/ was somewhat less identifiable than /squflg/, despite the fact that the percentage identification rate for /squflg/ was higher. Overall, the SDT-based analysis served to change the pattern of results observed for L2 vowel identification and influenced the interpretation of the data.

  16. Native and novel language prosodic sensitivity in English-speaking children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Lin, Candise Y; Wang, Min

    2013-05-01

    Children with reading disability and normal reading development were compared in their ability to discriminate native (English) and novel language (Mandarin) from nonlinguistic sounds. Children's preference for native versus novel language sounds and for disyllables containing dominant trochaic versus non-dominant iambic stress patterns was also assessed. Participants included second and third grade monolingual native English speakers with reading disability (N = 18) and normal reading development (N = 18). Children selected from pairs of novel, native, and nonlinguistic sounds that was more like language. Both groups discriminated disyllabic linguistic sounds (native and novel) from nonlinguistic sounds. Both groups showed preference for the dominant English trochaic stress pattern over the non-dominant iambic stress pattern. Implications for development of prosodic sensitivity in relation to reading skills and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Modulation of the mismatch negativity (MMN) to vowel duration changes in native speakers of Finnish and German as a result of language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmse, Ursula; Ylinen, Sari; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti; Schröger, Erich; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    While crucial for phoneme distinctions in the Finnish language, mere vowel duration is of lower relevance as a phonetically distinctive cue in the German language. To investigate the pre-attentive processing of vowel duration between these two languages, the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) that is an index of automatic auditory change detection, was measured in Finnish and German native speakers for vowel duration changes embedded in the pseudoword sasa. Vowel duration changes thereby were presented as a shortening or a lengthening of either the first- or second-syllable vowel. An additional non-speech condition measured the MMN to duration and frequency changes in tones. In both language groups, diminished MMN amplitudes for the shortening of vowel duration in the word-final syllable suggested a generally more difficult discrimination of vowel duration in a word-final position. Further, shorter MMN latencies for the Finns than the Germans for vowel duration as well as tone duration deviants suggested a generally higher sensitivity to duration contrasts in the Finnish language group. No latency difference between the groups was found for tone frequency processing. Moreover, the Finns, but not the Germans, showed a leftward shift of the MMN scalp distribution for changes in vowel duration, whereas the MMN topography was highly similar between both groups in the tone condition. An enhanced phonetic processing of vowel duration changes and possibly an enhanced processing of sound duration in general is thus indicated for the Finns as a result of their extensive linguistic experience with phonetically distinctive vowel duration contrasts in the native language.

  18. Learning for life, a structured and motivational process of knowledge construction in the acquisition/learning of English as a foreign language in native Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miño-Garcés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The Learning for Life philosophy was created by Patricia López de Jaramillo, M.A. and Fernando Miño-Garcés, Ph.D. at the Andean Center for Latin American Studies (ACLAS in Quito – Ecuador. In the Learning for Life philosophy, the learner is the center of the process and becomes the creator of his/her own knowledge. To get to this new dimension in learning, acquisition is emphasized, and the principles of this philosophy are applied in the EFL classroom. The definition of the philosophy and its principles are presented, and explained in detail as to how they can be applied in the teaching of a foreign language. This paper also explains the difference between acquisition versus learning, and what process should be applied in the classroom to emphasize on acquisition, and not so much on learning.

  19. Perceptual assimilation and L2 learning: evidence from the perception of Southern British English vowels by native speakers of Greek and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengeris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which previous experience with duration in first language (L1) vowel distinctions affects the use of duration when perceiving vowels in a second language (L2). Native speakers of Greek (where duration is not used to differentiate vowels) and Japanese (where vowels are distinguished by duration) first identified and rated the eleven English monophthongs, embedded in /bVb/ and /bVp/ contexts, in terms of their L1 categories and then carried out discrimination tests on those English vowels. The results demonstrated that both L2 groups were sensitive to durational cues when perceiving the English vowels. However, listeners were found to temporally assimilate L2 vowels to L1 category/categories. Temporal information was available in discrimination only when the listeners' L1 duration category/categories did not interfere with the target duration categories and hence the use of duration in such cases cannot be attributed to its perceptual salience as has been proposed.

  20. Voice low tone to high tone ratio, nasalance, and nasality ratings in connected speech of native Mandarin speakers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Wang, Ching-Ping; Lee, Guo-She

    2012-07-01

    Voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) is defined as the power ratio of a voice spectrum with a specific cut-off frequency. Previous studies have shown that there are significant correlations between VLHR and nasalance and hypernasality ratings in vowels. The correlation was investigated in this study using connected speech material. The Zoo Passage, the Rainbow Passage, the English Nasal Sentences, the Mandarin Nonnasal Sentences, and the Mandarin Nasal Sentences were used to acquire VLHRs, nasalance scores, and perceptual judgments of nasality. Each passage was recorded twice for averaging, and the cut-off frequencies from 200 Hz to 1200 Hz were used to survey for the presence of optimal correlations with VLHR. Participants : Ten native Mandarin speakers with an English learning history of over 8 years were enrolled. Main outcome measures : VLHRs, nasalance scores, and hypernasality ratings. The correlations of VLHR with nasalance (rho  =  .76, p connected speech show that these approaches have a potential value in terms of basic and clinical application.

  1. Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning in Monolinguals and Language Minority English-Speaking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…

  2. Effects of semantic richness on lexical processing in monolinguals and bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Taler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of number of senses (NoS, a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n=17 and bilingual speakers of English and French (n=18. Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages.

  3. Effects of Semantic Richness on Lexical Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; López Zunini, Rocío; Kousaie, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of number of senses (NoS), a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n = 17) and bilingual speakers of English and French (n = 18). Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP) NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages. PMID:27524963

  4. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  5. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Different speakers but same Language Acquisition Device?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents studies which examine the impact of level of education on the knowledge of language. A study of adult native speakers of Dutch discovered large individual differences in lexical memory, lexical fluency and lexical knowledge. Another study of Dutch native speakers showed that

  7. Speaker Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qi (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on use of voice as a biometric measure for personal authentication. In particular, "Speaker Recognition" covers two approaches in speaker authentication: speaker verification (SV) and verbal information verification (VIV). The SV approach attempts to verify a speaker’s identity based on his/her voice characteristics while the VIV approach validates a speaker’s identity through verification of the content of his/her utterance(s). SV and VIV can be combined for new applications. This is still a new research topic with significant potential applications. The book provides with a broad overview of the recent advances in speaker authentication while giving enough attention to advanced and useful algorithms and techniques. It also provides a step by step introduction to the current state of the speaker authentication technology, from the fundamental concepts to advanced algorithms. We will also present major design methodologies and share our experience in developing real and successful speake...

  8. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  9. Estrategias de cortesía para la petición en hablantes nativos del español de Chile y en hablantes de español como lengua extranjera (Politeness strategies for requests in Chilean Spanish native speakers and Spanish foreign language speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Toledo Vega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un estudio sobre el comportamiento pragmático de hablantes nativos del español de Chile en la petición, dentro de contextos formales. El objetivo es comparar el desempeño de los hablantes chilenos con el de hablantes no nativos, aprendices de español como lengua extranjera. Para establecer una taxonomía clara con la cual comparar a ambos grupos de informantes, nos valimos de las estrategias para la petición de Blum-Kulka y otros cuyo trabajo se enmarca en la pragmática de la interlengua, que, al igual que este estudio, busca establecer puntos de comunión y discrepancia entre dos lenguas, para analizar el desarrollo interlingüístico de hablantes no nativos. (This article presents a study on the pragmatic behaviour of Chilean native speakers of Spanish in requests as speech acts, inside formal contexts. This study aims at comparing pragmatic behaviours between native and non native speakers, who are Spanish as Foreign Language learners. In our study we take into account the strategies for requests of Blum-Kulka et al. in order to compare both groups of informants. As ours, Blum-Kulka´s study is framed into the Pragmatics of Interlanguage, which looks for stablishing equivalences or discrepancies to analize the development of a second language.

  10. Perceptual assimilation of French and German vowels by American English monolinguals: Acoustic similarity does not predict perceptual similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika; Lehnholf, Robert

    2001-05-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that the perceived similarity of vowels across languages is not always predictable from the closeness of their target formant values in F1/F2/F3 space. In this study, perceptual similarity was established using a task in which 11 American English (AE) monolinguals were presented multiple tokens of 9 French vowels and 14 North German vowels (in separate blocks) produced in citation-form /hVb(a)/ (bi)syllables by native speakers. They selected 1 of 11 AE vowel responses to which each non-native vowel token was most similar, and rated its goodness on a 9-point Likert scale. Of special interest was the perceptual assimilation of front rounded French [y, oe] and German [y, Y, o/, oe] vowels. Acoustically, all six French and German vowels are more similar to front unrounded AE vowels. However, all six vowels were perceived to be more similar to back rounded AE vowels (range across vowels = 55% to 100%), although relatively poor exemplars. There were differences across languages in how the same vowel was assimilated (e.g., French /y/ assimilated to front AE vowels 13%, German /y/, 0% French [oe] 3%, German [oe] 45%). There were also large individual differences in listeners assimilation patterns. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  11. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.

  12. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  13. Heritage, Second-Language and Native Speakers’ Intuitions on Deictic Verbs in Spanish: Beyond the Linguist’s Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of the Spanish deictic verbs venir ‘to come’, ir ‘to go’, traer ‘to bring’ and llevar ‘to take’ have drawn upon Fillmore’s (1975 series of lectures on deixis in noting that speakers of Spanish forbid the use of the verbs venir and traer to express movement towards the hearer. Under this egocentric view (Beinhauer, 1940; Ibañez, 1983, the Spanish verbs venir and traer can only be used to describe movement towards the speaker’s location. Little experimental research has been done, however, to confirm the extent to which heritage and second language (L2 speakers of the language conform to this pattern. The present study gathered data on the deictic preferences of bilingual, heritage speakers of Spanish and English (HS and compared this data with that of L2 and monolingual native speakers of Spanish (NS. 74 participants, consisting of 12 NS, 34 HS, and 29 L2 speakers, assessed the grammaticality of 20 stimulus items that contained prescriptively correct and incorrect usages of the deictic verbs venir, traer, llevar and ir. Both HS and L2 speakers made significantly more errors than NS when the direction expressed in the stimulus was oriented towards the hearer, suggesting both groups may benefit from instruction on this topic.

  14. A New Database for Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss properties of speech databases used for speaker recognition research and evaluation, and we characterize some popular standard databases. The paper presents a new database called ELSDSR dedicated to speaker recognition applications. The main characteristics of this database...... are: English spoken by non-native speakers, a single session of sentence reading and relatively extensive speech samples suitable for learning person specific speech characteristics....

  15. A time sharing cross-sectional study of monolinguals and bilinguals at different levels of second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1986-10-01

    Several methodological factors associated with the concurrent activities (finger-tapping) paradigm were considered in a cross-sectional study investigating cerebral patterns of asymmetry in three groups of English-speaking non-Hispanic dextral males at three levels of second language (Spanish) acquisition and one control group of monolinguals. Results revealed the fluent bilinguals to be bilateral and significantly different from other groups for native language tasks in English. Moreover, a priori contrasts indicate that greater right- than left-hand disruption in concurrent tapping may be typical of monolinguals, but can be influenced by other factors. Monolingual reliability test-retest correlations were .77 and .47.

  16. Intelligibility of native and non-native Dutch Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van

    2001-01-01

    The intelligibility of speech is known to be lower if the speaker is non-native instead of native for the given language. This study is aimed at quantifying the overall degradation due to limitations of non-native speakers of Dutch, specifically of Dutch-speaking Americans who have lived in the Neth

  17. Learning foreign labels from a foreign speaker: the role of (limited) exposure to a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nameera; Menjivar, Jennifer; Hoicka, Elena; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    Three- and four-year-olds (N = 144) were introduced to novel labels by an English speaker and a foreign speaker (of Nordish, a made-up language), and were asked to endorse one of the speaker's labels. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared to bilingual children and English-speaking children who were regularly exposed to a language other than English. All children tended to endorse the English speaker's labels when asked 'What do you call this?', but when asked 'What do you call this in Nordish?', children with exposure to a second language were more likely to endorse the foreign label than monolingual and bilingual children. The findings suggest that, at this age, exposure to, but not necessarily immersion in, more than one language may promote the ability to learn foreign words from a foreign speaker.

  18. Prolonged L2 immersion engenders little change in morphosyntactic processing of bilingual natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christopher; Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-12-01

    Bilingual and monolingual language processing differ, presumably because of constant parallel activation of both languages in bilinguals. We attempt to isolate the effects of parallel activation in a group of German first-language (L1) attriters, who have grown up as monolingual natives before emigrating to an L2 environment. We hypothesized that prolonged immersion will lead to changes in the processing of morphosyntactic violations. Two types of constructions were presented as stimuli in an event-related potential experiment: (1) verb form combinations (auxiliaries+past participles and modals+infinitives) and (2) determiner-noun combinations marked for grammatical gender. L1 attriters showed the same response to violations of gender agreement as monolingual controls (i.e. a significant P600 effect strongest over posterior electrodes). Incorrect verb form combinations also elicited a significant posterior P600 effect in both groups. In attriters, however, there was an additional posterior N400 effect for this type of violation. Such biphasic patterns have been found before in L1 and L2 speakers of English and might reflect the influence of this language. Generally, we interpret our results as evidence for the stability of the deeply entrenched L1 system, even in the face of L2 interference.

  19. Vowel perception: Effects of non-native language versus non-native dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2005-01-01

    Three groups of listeners identified the vowel in CV and VC syllables produced by an American English talker. The listeners were (a) native speakers of American English, (b) native speakers of Australian English (different dialect), and (c) native speakers of Dutch (different language). The syllable

  20. Native- and Non-Native Speaking English Teachers in Vietnam: Weighing the Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…

  1. Vowel perception: Effects of non-native language versus non-native dialect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Cooper, N.

    2005-01-01

    Three groups of listeners identified the vowel in CV and VC syllables produced by an American English talker. The listeners were (a) native speakers of American English, (b) native speakers of Australian English (different dialect), and (c) native speakers of Dutch (different language). The

  2. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  3. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  4. The Influence of Bilectalism and Non-standardization on the Perception of Native Grammatical Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivada, Evelina; Papadopoulou, Elena; Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2017-01-01

    Research in speakers of closely related varieties has shown that bilectalism and non-standardization affect speakers’ perception of the variants that exist in their native languages in a way that is absent from the performance of their monolingual peers. One possible explanation for this difference is that non-standardization blurs the boundaries of grammatical variants and increases grammatical fluidity. Affected by such factors, bilectals become less accurate in identifying the variety to which a grammatical variant pertains. Another explanation is that their differential performance derives from the fact that they are competent in two varieties. Under this scenario, the difference is due to the existence of two linguistic systems in the course of development, and not to how close or standardized these systems are. This study employs a novel variety-judgment task in order to elucidate which of the two explanations holds. Having administered the task to monolinguals, bilectals, and bilinguals, including heritage language learners and L1 attriters, we obtained a dataset of 16,245 sentences. The analysis shows differential performance between bilectal and bilingual speakers, granting support for the first explanation. We discuss the role of factors such as non-standardization and linguistic proximity in language development and flesh out the implications of the results in relation to different developmental trajectories. PMID:28265248

  5. Toward a Composite, Personalized, and Institutionalized Teacher Identity for Non-Native English Speakers in U.S. Secondary ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chen; Varghese, Manka M.

    2015-01-01

    Research in English language teaching and teacher identity has increasingly focused on understanding non-native English-speaking teachers. In addition, much of this research has been conducted in adult English as a second language (ESL) settings. Through a multiple-case qualitative study of four teachers in an underexplored research setting--that…

  6. Toward a Composite, Personalized, and Institutionalized Teacher Identity for Non-Native English Speakers in U.S. Secondary ESL Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chen; Varghese, Manka M.

    2015-01-01

    Research in English language teaching and teacher identity has increasingly focused on understanding non-native English-speaking teachers. In addition, much of this research has been conducted in adult English as a second language (ESL) settings. Through a multiple-case qualitative study of four teachers in an underexplored research setting--that…

  7. Learner Agency and Non-Native Speaker Identity in Pedagogical Lingua Franca Conversations: Insights from Intercultural Telecollaboration in Foreign Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Kurt; Hoffstaedter, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses insights gained from a case study on telecollaboration for intercultural communication in foreign language school contexts. Focus was on non-native English and German lingua franca conversations between pairs of students (aged 14-16, B1 level) from schools in France, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain. Telecollaboration…

  8. Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Benjamin D; Malt, Barbara C; Ameel, Eef; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS FACE A DUAL CHALLENGE IN VOCABULARY LEARNING: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA) named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls) in both Chinese and English. Participants' response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005). For English, bilinguals' names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals' language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English) native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals' L2 picture naming responses.

  9. Native-Likeness in Second Language Lexical Categorization Reflects Individual Language History and Linguistic Community Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Zinszer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the hundreds of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999, and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls in both Chinese and English. Participants’ response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005. For English, bilinguals’ names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals' language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals’ L2 picture naming responses.

  10. Native-likeness in second language lexical categorization reflects individual language history and linguistic community norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Ameel, Eef; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners face a dual challenge in vocabulary learning: First, they must learn new names for the 100s of common objects that they encounter every day. Second, after some time, they discover that these names do not generalize according to the same rules used in their first language. Lexical categories frequently differ between languages (Malt et al., 1999), and successful language learning requires that bilinguals learn not just new words but new patterns for labeling objects. In the present study, Chinese learners of English with varying language histories and resident in two different language settings (Beijing, China and State College, PA, USA) named 67 photographs of common serving dishes (e.g., cups, plates, and bowls) in both Chinese and English. Participants’ response patterns were quantified in terms of similarity to the responses of functionally monolingual native speakers of Chinese and English and showed the cross-language convergence previously observed in simultaneous bilinguals (Ameel et al., 2005). For English, bilinguals’ names for each individual stimulus were also compared to the dominant name generated by the native speakers for the object. Using two statistical models, we disentangle the effects of several highly interactive variables from bilinguals’ language histories and the naming norms of the native speaker community to predict inter-personal and inter-item variation in L2 (English) native-likeness. We find only a modest age of earliest exposure effect on L2 category native-likeness, but importantly, we find that classroom instruction in L2 negatively impacts L2 category native-likeness, even after significant immersion experience. We also identify a significant role of both L1 and L2 norms in bilinguals’ L2 picture naming responses. PMID:25386149

  11. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  12. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  13. Language Distance and Non-Native Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiszewski, Adam; Gutierrez, Eva; Fernandez, Beatriz; Laka, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explore native and non-native syntactic processing, paying special attention to the language distance factor. To this end, we compared how native speakers of Basque and highly proficient non-native speakers of Basque who are native speakers of Spanish process certain core aspects of Basque syntax. Our results suggest that…

  14. Why do students choose English as a medium of instruction? A Bourdieusian perspective on the study strategies of non-native English speakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    by the Bourdieusian perspective, this relationship is not directly observable but operates through hidden mechanisms, such as cultural capital (relative English proficiency) and a better sense of gaming and positioning (career orientation). Business students from the lowest stratum self-select against EMI due......Taking a Bourdieusian perspective, we analyze the relevance of social background and capital for choosing English as a medium of instruction (EMI). Our work focuses on students with a non-native English-language background in a business school setting. Although proponents argue that EMI generally...

  15. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  16. Influential Factors in Incomplete Acquisition and Attrition of Young Heritage Speakers' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Khadijeh; Boers, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether young heritage speakers, either simultaneous or sequential bilinguals, have limited vocabulary knowledge in their family language compared to matched monolingual counterparts and, if so, what factors help to account for this difference. These factors include age, age at emigration, length of emigration, frequency of…

  17. Influential Factors in Incomplete Acquisition and Attrition of Young Heritage Speakers' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Khadijeh; Boers, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether young heritage speakers, either simultaneous or sequential bilinguals, have limited vocabulary knowledge in their family language compared to matched monolingual counterparts and, if so, what factors help to account for this difference. These factors include age, age at emigration, length of emigration, frequency of…

  18. Spanish-English L2 speakers' use of subcategorization bias information in the resolution of temporary ambiguity during second language reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E; Cramer Scaltz, Tracy R

    2008-07-01

    Using a self-paced moving window reading paradigm, we examine the degree to which structural commitments made while 60 Spanish-English L2 speakers read syntactically ambiguous sentences in their second language (L2) are constrained by the verb's lexical entry about its preferred structural environment (i.e., subcategorization bias). The ambiguity under investigation arises because a noun phrase immediately following a verb can be parsed as either the direct object of the verb 'The CIA director confirmed the rumor when he testified before Congress', or as the subject of an embedded complement 'The CIA director confirmed the rumor could mean a security leak'. In an experiment with 59 monolingual English participants, we replicate the findings reported in the previous literature demonstrating that native speakers are guided by subcategorization bias information during sentence interpretation. In a bilingual experiment, we then show that L2 subcategorization biases influence L2 sentence interpretation. The results indicate that L2 speakers keep track of the relative frequencies of verb-subcategorization alternatives and use this information when building structure in the L2.

  19. 中国高中和大学学生英语语音变体偏好研究%An examination of Chinese high school and university students’ preferences on native speaker varieties in English language learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈潇潇

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the Chinese students’ attitude and preference for the native speaker varieties. Forty students from a high school and a university in central China were chosen as the participants of the research. The main results and findings of the research showed that more high school students preferred the British English, and the university students displayed the same in preferring the two varieties. Most of the students who preferred British English are because their English teacher’s effects, while the participants chose American English were influenced by the American pop culture.%本文旨在探讨中国学生对于英语母语变体的态度和偏好,研究者用问卷调查和采访的方式对来自高中和大学的四十名学生进行了数据收集。结果发现,高中生更加偏好英式英语;大学生对于英式和美式两种母语变体的偏好基本持平。在偏好英式英语的学生当中,教师影响因素占有较大比重;而偏好美式英语的学生多受到美国文化的影响。

  20. Extending research on the influence of grammatical gender on object classification: A cross-linguistic study comparing Estonian, Italian and Lithuanian native speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vernich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using different experimental tasks, researchers have pointed to a possible correlation between grammatical gender and classification behaviour. Such effects, however, have been found comparing speakers of a relatively small set of languages. Therefore, it’s not clear whether evidence gathered can be generalized and extended to languages that are typologically different from those studied so far. To the best of our knowledge, Baltic and Finno-Ugric languages have never been examined in this respect. While most previous studies have used English as an example of gender-free languages, we chose Estonian because – contrary to English and like all Finno-Ugric languages – it does not use gendered pronouns (‘he’ vs. ‘she’ and is therefore more suitable as a baseline. We chose Lithuanian because the gender system of Baltic languages is interestingly different from the system of Romance and German languages tested so far. Taken together, our results support and extend previous findings and suggest that they are not restricted to a small group of languages. "Grammatiline sugu objektide kategoriseerimise mõjutajana: eesti, itaalia ja leedu keele võrdlev uurimus" Eri tüüpi eksperimente kasutades on uurijad osutanud grammatilise soo ja objektide klassifitseerimise võimalikele seostele. Senised tulemused on saadud siiski suhteliselt väheste keelte andmete võrdlemisel. Seetõttu ei ole teada, kas need järeldused on üldistatavad ka nendele keeltele, mille struktuur erineb siiani uuritud keeltest. Probleemi uurimiseks laiendasime vaadeldavate keelte hulka ja tegime grammatilise soo ja objektide kategoriseerimise seoste katse läbi balti ja soome-ugri keelte hulka kuuvate keeltega, mida ei ole kõnealusest vaatenurgast uuritud. Enamik seniseid uuringuid on seadnud nn lähtepunktiks ehk grammatilise soota keeleks inglise keele. Siinses uuringus valisime aga selliseks lähtepunktiks hoopis eesti keele, kus erinevalt inglise keelest ei ole ka

  1. Articulatory settings of French-English bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    The idea of a language-specific articulatory setting (AS), an underlying posture of the articulators during speech, has existed for centuries [Laver, Historiogr. Ling. 5 (1978)], but until recently it had eluded direct measurement. In an analysis of x-ray movies of French and English monolingual speakers, Gick et al. [Phonetica (in press)] link AS to inter-speech posture, allowing measurement of AS without interference from segmental targets during speech, and they give quantitative evidence showing AS to be language-specific. In the present study, ultrasound and Optotrak are used to investigate whether bilingual English-French speakers have two ASs, and whether this varies depending on the mode (monolingual or bilingual) these speakers are in. Specifically, for inter-speech posture of the lips, lip aperture and protrusion are measured using Optotrak. For inter-speech posture of the tongue, tongue root retraction, tongue body and tongue tip height are measured using optically-corrected ultrasound. Segmental context is balanced across the two languages ensuring that the sets of sounds before and after an inter-speech posture are consistent across languages. By testing bilingual speakers, vocal tract morphology across languages is controlled for. Results have implications for L2 acquisition, specifically the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation.

  2. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  3. A Comparative Study of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Monolingual and Bilingual Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Keshavarz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers argue that linguistic knowledge of one’s native language facilitates the acquisition of additional languages (see, for example, Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Grenfell & Harris, 2006; Hakuta, 1990; Keshavarz & Astaneh, 2004. To contribute to this line of research, the present study investigated the probability of significant differences among monolingual and bilingual EFL learners in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive reading strategies and in the subscales of these strategies (i.e., global, supportive, and problem-solving strategies. To achieve this goal, 100 Persian monolingual and 100 Azeri Turkish-Persian bilingual male and female second-year university students, majoring in English Literature, ELT, and Translation with the age range of 20-28 participated in the study.  Both groups took the Nelson Test of English language proficiency and completed the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI questionnaire. Participants’ reading strategy use was determined by asking them to rate their self-perceived reading ability in English on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of data analyses revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilingual learners in the use of overall and global metacognitive reading strategies with bilingual learners having greater awareness of these two strategies. However, no significant difference was found between monolingual and bilingual participants in the use of problem-solving and supportive metacognitive strategies.

  4. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  5. Visual speaker gender affects vowel identification in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte; Tøndering, John

    2013-01-01

    The experiment examined the effect of visual speaker gender on the vowel perception of 20 native Danish-speaking subjects. Auditory stimuli consisting of a continuum between /muːlə/ ‘muzzle’ and /moːlə/ ‘pier’ generated using TANDEM-STRAIGHT matched with video clips of a female and a male speaker...... were used to determine whether visual speaker gender affected Danish listeners similarly to American English-speaking listeners tested in a similar way....

  6. RTP Speakers Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Research Triangle Park Speakers Bureau page is a free resource that schools, universities, and community groups in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, N.C. area can use to request speakers and find educational resources.

  7. Working with Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Ann

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses working with speakers from business and industry to present career information at the secondary level. Advice for speakers is presented, as well as tips for program coordinators. (CH)

  8. 汉语作为第二语言的声调认知发展模拟%Simulating Mandarin tone acquisition by CSL learners who are native English speakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈默

    2011-01-01

    A growing tree-structured self-organizing feature map network was developed to simulate the acquisition of Mandarin tones by native English speakers.This network has a dynamic network construction and capacity that is better than the traditional Kohonen self-organizing feature map.This network also more effectively preserves the global topology mapping than early dynamic tree-like maps.Simulations of the acquisition of Mandarin tones are consistent with experimental results.These show the dynamic developmental process of Mandarin tones.The results show that self-organization is an important mechanism for tone emergence and that tone feature teaching is important for Mandarin tone-teaching strategies.%该文提出了一个动态的生长型树型自组织特征映射网络,用以模拟英语母语者汉语声调的认知发展。该网络既克服了传统的Kohonen自组织特征映射网络的固定网络结构限制以及容量有限性,又克服了其他类似动态网络的较弱的拓扑映射特性,可以较好地模拟英语母语者汉语声调认知的发展。模拟结果跟实验结果呈现出非常好的一致性,既证明了行为实验中汉语声调的动态发展过程,也为汉语声调认知的机制研究提供了机理上的解释。

  9. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Singh

    2017-01-01

    The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that ta...

  10. Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual

  11. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  12. Privilege (or "Noblesse Oblige") of the Nonnative Speaker of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Thomas J.

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. Focusing on the nonnative speaker of Russian and Russian language education in the United States, it asserts that both the quantity and…

  13. Prosodic Marking of Information Structure by Malaysian Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Ulrike; Pillai, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Various researchers have shown that second language (L2) speakers have difficulties with marking information structure in English prosodically: They deviate from native speakers not only in terms of pitch accent placement (Grosser, 1997; Gut, 2009; Ramírez Verdugo, 2002) and the type of pitch accent they produce (Wennerstrom, 1994, 1998) but also…

  14. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  15. Speakers' Sensitivity to Rules of Frozen Word Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Birdsong, David

    1979-01-01

    Two studies elicited native speaker and nonnative speaker judgments regarding preferred word order of the idioms known as "freezes." The results support the notion that rules of frozen word order are psychologically real and reflect universal language rules. (Author/AM)

  16. Native and Non-Native Perceptions on a Non-Native Oral Discourse in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dikilitaş

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates discourse-level patterns typically employed by a Turkish lecturer based on the syntactic patterns found in the collected data. More specifically, the study aims to reveal how different native and non-native speakers of English perceive discourse patterns used by a non-native lecturer teaching in English. The data gathered from a Turkish lecturer teaching finance, and the interviews both with the lecturer and the students. The lecturer and the students were videotaped and the data was evaluated by content analysis. The results revealed a difference between the way non-native and native speakers evaluate an oral discourse of a non-native lecturer teaching in English. Native speakers of English found the oral performance moderately comprehensible, while non-native speakers found it relatively comprehensible.

  17. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pragmatics, Bilingualism, and the Native Speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosangela Souto

    2000-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of the compound view for second language acquisition, which suggests that two languages coexist in the bilingual mind and does not agree with the linguistic transfer process. Using a metapragmatic judgment task and a post-interview, this study examined pragmatic transfer of 207 Brazilians and Americans from their first…

  19. Influence of L2 Proficiency on Speech Movement Variability: Production of Prosodic Contrasts by Bengali-English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…

  20. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  1. Finding Difficult Speakers in Automatic Speaker Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Lara Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The task of automatic speaker recognition, wherein a system verifies or determines a speaker's identity using a sample of speech, has been studied for a few decades. In that time, a great deal of progress has been made in improving the accuracy of the system's decisions, through the use of more successful machine learning algorithms, and the application of channel compensation techniques and other methodologies aimed at addressing sources of errors such as noise or data mismatch. In general, ...

  2. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  3. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  4. Is a shared interlanguage beneficial? Mutual intelligibility of American, Dutch and Mandarin speakers of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Doel, van den R.; Rupp, L.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the mutual intelligibility Mandarin Chinese, Dutch and American speakers of English in all nine logically possible combinations of speaker and listener native language backgrounds. Designated speakers (one male, one female per language group) were selected from larger sets of 20

  5. Native and Nonnative Interpretation of Pronominal Forms: Evidence from French and Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Sarah; Colonna, Saveria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of grammatical role and discourse-level cues on the interpretation of different pronominal forms in native speakers of French, native speakers of Turkish, and Turkish learners of French. In written questionnaires, we found that native speakers of French were influenced by discourse-level cues when interpreting…

  6. Lexical bundles in learner language: Lithuanian learners vs. native speakers. Leksinių samplaikų vartojimas mokinių kalboje: kontrastinis lietuvių ir gimtakalbių anglų kalbos vartotojų tyrimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Juknevičienė

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corpus studies of recurrent word sequences, also known as lexical bundles, have outlined new directions in ELT/EFL research. The fact that naturally produced English consists of prefabricated multi-word units gave rise to the question of chunkiness in learner language. This study was thus designed to compare and contrast language produced by learners of three different levels of proficiency in terms of the use of lexical bundles. The analysis of lexical bundles retrieved from three corpora of written learner English showed that many more different bundles were established in the corpora representing less proficient learners which is interpreted as an indication of a more limited lexical repertoire which leads to more repetition. Furthermore, structural and functional analysis of lexical bundles showed that the language of non-native learners bears more resemblance to spoken English than the language of native speakers. These findings may be particularly useful to EFL practitioners as they seem to give new insights into the development of learner language. ------ Leksinių samplaikų arba pasikartojančių žodžių sekų tyrimai anglų lingvistikoje atvėrė naujų tyrimo krypčių anglų kaip svetimosios kalbos studijoms. Tekstynų tyrinėjimai parodė, jog autentiškoje anglų kalboje itin dažnai pasitaiko pasikartojančių žodžių sekų, kurios produkuojant kalbą atkuriamos kaip nedalomi vienetai. Todėl tikėtina, jog kintant kalbos vartotojų pasiekimams tokių sekų kiekis ir pobūdis jų kalboje taip pat gali kisti. Straipsnyje pristatomas kontrastinis mokinių kalbos (angl. learner language tekstynų tyrimas, analizuojantis leksinių samplaikų vartojimą skirtingų pasiekimo lygių mokinių kalboje. Keliama hipotezė, kad samplaikų vartojimo skirtumai gali lemti kokybinius įvairių lygių mokinių kalbos skirtumus. Tyrimo duomenys rinkti iš trijų tekstynų, kurių du (AFK1 ir LICLE tekstynai reprezentuoja lietuvių gimtosios

  7. 汉语学习者常见偏误分析和母语对第二语言习得的影响--以英语为母语者的作文为例%Common Errors in Chinese learners and the Impact Analysis of Native Speakers to Second Language Acquisition--Take Native speakers of English's Composition for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雅沁

    2015-01-01

    汉语对于大部分留学生来说,并不是一门容易掌握的语言,本文旨在从偏误分析的角度出发,以英语为母语的汉语学习者作文中出现的问题为例,着重探讨偏误类型以及偏误产生的原因和母语对于第二语言习得的影响以及在第二语言教学过程中,教师需要注意和改进的方法和策略。%Chinese for most foreign students, it is not an easy grasp of the language, this paper aims to analyze the perspec-tive of Errors in English-speaking learners of Chinese writing problems arising, for example, focuses on the type of bias caus-es and native errors generated effects for the second language acquisition and second language teaching process, teachers need to pay attention and improve methods and strategies.

  8. Familiar Speaker Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    linguistic information (such as a laughter or stutter ) may allow the listener to quickly identify the speaker. For speakers that are less familiar to...EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Figure 2 shows the results for Sessions 1-6. Remember that there are 25 voices and for every session, each voice is presented twice...Thus, a 90% correct means that out of 50 voice presentations , the listener identified the correct speaker 45 times. It was always a forced choice

  9. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  10. Prescriptivism, Linguistic Variation, and the So-Called Privilege of the Nonnative Speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Betsy J.

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. Focusing on French, this paper suggests that it is not certain whether the elevation of the native speaker model ever was as real or…

  11. More about the Differences between Native Speakers and Chinese College English Learners in the Use of "make+object+complement"%中外学习者使役结构使用对比研究——以“make+object+complement”结构为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束超超

    2012-01-01

    中国大学英语学习者在表达使役关系的时候多倾向于使用“make+object+complement”结构,但对中国学生在使用这一结构和本族语者使用这一结构存在哪些差异及其原因的研究却不多。利用WordNeighbors数据库对本族语者使用这一结构的情况进行了调查研究,结果显示:就使用频率而言,本族语者也比较频繁地使用这一结构,但在具体用法上与汉语存在两点不同之处。究其原因,主要是受母语负迁移的影响。研究表明,输入的匮乏是造成中国学习者过度依赖母语的一个原因。%The purpose of this article is to investigate the differences between native speakers and Chinese college English learners in the use of "make + object + complement". The results indicate that as far as the overall frequency of "make + object + complement" is concerned, it is high in the use of this structure by native speakers. But as far as the specific use of this structure, there are striking differences between native speakers and Chinese college English learners. There are two major reasons for these differences: one is negative language transfer, the other is lack of input of authentic language materials.

  12. Comparing L1 and L2 speakers using articulography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Veenstra, Pauline; Adank, Patti; Weber, Andrea; Tiede, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study uses articulography, the measurement of the position of tongue and lips during speech, as a tool to quantitatively assess the differences between pronunciations of native and non-native (Dutch) speakers of English. In our study, we focus on two pairs of English sound contrasts: /s/-/ʃ/

  13. Comparing L1 and L2 speakers using articulography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Veenstra, Pauline; Adank, Patti; Weber, Andrea; Tiede, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study uses articulography, the measurement of the position of tongue and lips during speech, as a tool to quantitatively assess the differences between pronunciations of native and non-native (Dutch) speakers of English. In our study, we focus on two pairs of English sound contrasts: /s/-/ʃ/ an

  14. Preparing Non-Native English-Speaking ESL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that non-native English-speaking teacher trainees face as they begin teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in Western, English-speaking countries. Despite a great deal of training, non-native speaker teachers may be viewed as inadequate language teachers because they often lack native speaker competence…

  15. Sensitivity to phonological context in L2 spelling: evidence from Russian ESL speakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2010-01-01

    of vowels in English monosyllabic nonwords. In addition, the study assessed the participants’ spelling proficiency as their ability to correctly spell commonly misspelled words (Russian participants were assessed in both Russian and English). Both native and non-native English speakers were found to rely...... on the information about the coda when spelling vowels in nonwords. In both native and non-native speakers, context sensitivity was predicted by English word spelling; in Russian ESL speakers this relationship was mediated by English proficiency. L1 spelling proficiency did not facilitate L2 context sensitivity......The study attempts to investigate factors underlying the development of spellers’ sensitivity to phonological context in English. Native English speakers and Russian speakers of English as a second language (ESL) were tested on their ability to use information about the coda to predict the spelling...

  16. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  17. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  18. Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others

    This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…

  19. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andringa; N. Olsthoorn; C. van Beuningen; R. Schoonen; J. Hulstijn

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation mo

  20. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  1. Bidirectional Crosslinguistic Influence in L1-L2 Encoding of Manner in Speech and Gesture: A Study of Japanese Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Whereas most research in SLA assumes the relationship between the first language (L1) and the second language (L2) to be unidirectional, this study investigates the possibility of a bidirectional relationship. We examine the domain of manner of motion, in which monolingual Japanese and English speakers differ both in speech and gesture. Parallel…

  2. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  3. A Contrastive Study on the Use of Grammatical Cohesion between Native English Speakers and Chinese Speakers%中国学者和英语本族语学者语法衔接手段运用的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀云

    2011-01-01

    本文通过独立样本T检验对中国学者和英语本族语学者语法衔接手段的运用进行对比研究。结果表明:1)中国学者语法衔接手段总的使用频率比英语本族语学者低;2)中国学者连接词的运用频率比英语本族语学者低;3)中国学者和英语本族语学者在照应、替代的使用频率方面不存在差异。%The paper conducts a contrastive study on the use of grammatical cohesion between NES and Chinese speakers.Findings show that 1)grammatical cohesion has a much lower frequency in the abstracts by Chinese speakers than by NES;2)conjunction has a lower frequency in the abstracts by Chinese speaker than by NES;3)no significant difference exists in the frequency of reference and substitution between the two groups.

  4. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  5. Production of phonetic and phonological contrast by heritage speakers of Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles B; Yao, Yao; Haynes, Erin F; Rhodes, Russell

    2011-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that heritage speakers of a minority language, due to their childhood experience with two languages, would outperform late learners in producing contrast: language-internal phonological contrast, as well as cross-linguistic phonetic contrast between similar, yet acoustically distinct, categories of different languages. To this end, production of Mandarin and English by heritage speakers of Mandarin was compared to that of native Mandarin speakers and native American English-speaking late learners of Mandarin in three experiments. In experiment 1, back vowels in Mandarin and English were produced distinctly by all groups, but the greatest separation between similar vowels was achieved by heritage speakers. In experiment 2, Mandarin aspirated and English voiceless plosives were produced distinctly by native Mandarin speakers and heritage speakers, who both put more distance between them than late learners. In experiment 3, the Mandarin retroflex and English palato-alveolar fricatives were distinguished by more heritage speakers and late learners than native Mandarin speakers. Thus, overall the hypothesis was supported: across experiments, heritage speakers were found to be the most successful at simultaneously maintaining language-internal and cross-linguistic contrasts, a result that may stem from a close approximation of phonetic norms that occurs during early exposure to both languages. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  6. The Cognitive Function of Linguistic Performance: Tense/Aspect Use by L1 and L2 Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Proposes that formal properties of speech reflect individuals' mental processes during problem solving, focusing on ways native and non-native speakers of English construct narrative. In difficult tasks, speakers cope by externalizing their inner order as private speech, whose content and formal properties reflect cognitive processes. It is argued…

  7. English word stress as produced by English and Dutch speakers : the role of segmental and suprasegmental differences

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, B.; Lemhöfer, K.; Cutler, A.

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that Dutch listeners use suprasegmental cues (duration, spectral tilt) more than English listeners in distinguishing English word stress. We tested whether this asymmetry also holds in production, comparing the realization of English word stress by native English speakers and Dutch speakers. Results confirmed that English speakers centralize unstressed vowels more, while Dutch speakers of English make more use of suprasegmental differences.

  8. English as a lingua franca : mutual intelligibility of Chinese, Dutch and American speakers of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Hongyan

    2007-01-01

    English has become the language of international communication. As a result of this development, we are now confronted with a bewildering variety of ‘Englishes’, spoken with non-native accents. Research determining how intelligible non-native speakers of varying native-language backgrounds are to ea

  9. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  10. Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite,Aline Gisele Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those...

  11. Infant sensitivity to speaker and language in learning a second label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Jui; Casasola, Marianella

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments examined when monolingual, English-learning 19-month-old infants learn a second object label. Two experimenters sat together. One labeled a novel object with one novel label, whereas the other labeled the same object with a different label in either the same or a different language. Infants were tested on their comprehension of each label immediately following its presentation. Infants mapped the first label at above chance levels, but they did so with the second label only when requested by the speaker who provided it (Experiment 1) or when the second experimenter labeled the object in a different language (Experiment 2). These results show that 19-month-olds learn second object labels but do not readily generalize them across speakers of the same language. The results highlight how speaker and language spoken guide infants' acceptance of second labels, supporting sociopragmatic views of word learning.

  12. Sensitivity to phonological context in L2 spelling: evidence from Russian ESL speakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2010-01-01

    The study attempts to investigate factors underlying the development of spellers’ sensitivity to phonological context in English. Native English speakers and Russian speakers of English as a second language (ESL) were tested on their ability to use information about the coda to predict the spelli...... in Russian speakers. The results speak against a common factor underlying different aspects of spelling proficiency in L1 and L2 and in favor of the idea that spelling competence comprises different skills in different languages....

  13. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  14. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  15. Palatal Morphology Can Influence Speaker-Specific Realizations of Phonemic Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Melanie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to further explore the understanding of speaker-specific realizations of the /s/--/?/ contrast in German in relation to individual differences in palate shape. Method: Two articulatory experiments were carried out with German native speakers. In the first experiment, 4 monozygotic and 2 dizygotic twin pairs…

  16. Privilege of the Nonnative Speaker Meets the Practical Needs of the Language Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Dale A.; Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    This chapter responds to an article by Claire Kramsch on the privilege of nonnative speakers. It agrees with Kramsch that in second language teaching, there is no single standard of native speaker language to target, since the cultural and linguistic reality of a given language is too complex and multifaceted to allow identification of…

  17. Global Foreign Accent and Voice Onset Time Among Japanese EFL Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riney, Timothy J.; Takagi, Naoyuki

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the correlation between global foreign accent (GFA) and voice onset time (VOT). VOT values for /p/, /t/, and /k/ were measured at two times, separated by an interval of 42 months. Subjects were 11 Japanese speakers of English as a foreign language; 5 age-matched native speakers of English served as the control group. (Author/VWL)

  18. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  19. Processing Subject Relative Clauses in English: Evidence from Child Speakers of English-Lexified Creoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clachar, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale continuous migration of speakers from the Anglophone Caribbean to the United States over the past 2 decades has led to an influx of school children who are native speakers of English-lexified Creoles (ELCs). These are oral languages which do not generally occur in formal institutional domains requiring academic registers. Thus,…

  20. The acquisition of Arabic geminate consonants by American English speakers: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah A. Moftah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the acquisition of some Arabic geminate consonants by American English speakers learning Arabic. The study starts by describing the phonetic and phonological characteristics of geminate and long consonants and how they differ in nature and distribution from singleton consonants. Two groups of native and non-native speakers (American learners of Cairene Arabic were recorded as producing one sentence that carries the token geminate consonants. The productions of the Arabic geminate consonants by the two groups are described and compared to study the features of such geminate sounds when produced by non-native learners of Arabic. The phonological and phonetic characteristics of these consonants in the production of the non-native group are discussed to see how far they were successful in their overall achievement of the task they were assigned in the experiment. The results of the production study show that non-native speakers of Cairene Arabic produced significantly longer Arabic geminates in general, particularly stops and nasals.  Non-native informants also produced significantly different adjacent vowels to the target geminates from those produced by the native informants in the study. A perception experiment was carried out to verify the acceptability of the produced sounds by non-natives using native speakers of Cairene Arabic as listeners. Native listeners were able to identify the production of Arabic geminates by non native speakers as different in the present study. The results of the perception test clearly reflect the findings of the production experiments. Key Words: Geminates- Arabic- Optimality theory- non native speakers

  1. Espanol para el hispanolhablante (Spanish for the Spanish Speaker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, George M.

    This guide provides Texas teachers and administrators with guidelines, goals, instructional strategies, and activities for teaching Spanish to secondary level native speakers. It is based on the principle that the Spanish speaking student is the strongest linguistic and cultural resource to Texas teachers of languages other than English, and one…

  2. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language (ESL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.

  3. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, Figen

    2000-01-01

    The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over ma...

  4. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  5. El Discurso de Pasado en el Espanol de Houston: Imperfectividad Y Perfectividad Verbal en una Situacion de Contacto (Past Tense in the Discourse of Spanish Speakers in Houston: Use of Preterite and Imperfect in a Language Contact Situation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, N. Ariana

    1998-01-01

    Investigates whether, due to the language contact situation in Houston in a group of a Mexican-American speakers, the imperfect forms of subordinate language (Spanish) are going through a process of reduction in favor of the forms of the superordinate language (English) when compared to the speech of Spanish monolinguals. (Author/VWL)

  6. Discrimination Between Native and Non-Native Speech Using Visual Features Only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakis, Christos; Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Accent is a soft biometric trait that can be inferred from pronunciation and articulation patterns characterizing the speaking style of an individual. Past research has addressed the task of classifying accent, as belonging to a native language speaker or a foreign language speaker, by means of the

  7. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this research article a study is made of the approach followed to compile the first-ever monolingual dictionary for Lusoga. Lusoga is a Bantu language spoken in Uganda by slightly over two mil-lion people. Being an under-resourced language, the Lusoga orthography had to be designed, a grammar written, and a corpus built, before embarking on the compilation of the dictionary. This compilation was aimed at attaining an academic degree, hence requiring a rigorous research methodology. Firstly, the prevail-ing methods for compiling dictionaries were mainly practical and insufficient in explaining the theoretical linguistic basis for dictionary compilation. Since dictionaries are based on meaning, the theory of meaning was used to account for all linguistic data considered in dictionaries. However, meaning is considered at a very abstract level, far removed from the process of compiling dictionaries. Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different parts of the dictionary article or dictionary information in general. Secondly, the research also had to contend with the different approaches for analysing Bantu languages for Bantu and European audiences. A descrip-tion of the Bantu- and European-centred approaches to Bantu studies was undertaken in respect of (a the classification of Lusoga words, and (b the specification of their citations. As a result, Lusoga lexicography deviates from the prevailing Bantu classification and citation of nouns, adjectives and verbs in particular. The dictionary was tested on two separate occasions and all the feedback was considered in the compilation pro-cess. This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

  8. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English monolingu

  9. Word Magic Revisited: Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Understanding of the Word-Object Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)

  10. A study of sentence stress production in Mandarin speakers of American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Robb, M P; Gilbert, H R; Lerman, J W

    2001-04-01

    Acoustic characteristics of American English sentence stress produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. Fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and vowel intensity in the sentence-level stress produced by 40 Mandarin speakers were compared to those of 40 American English speakers. Results obtained from two methods of stress calculation indicated that Mandarin speakers of American English are able to differentiate stressed and unstressed words according to features of F0, duration, and intensity. Although the group of Mandarin speakers were able to signal stress in their sentence productions, the acoustic characteristics of stress were not identical to the American speakers. Mandarin speakers were found to produce stressed words with a significantly higher F0 and shorter duration compared to the American speakers. The groups also differed in production of unstressed words with Mandarin speakers using a higher F0 and greater intensity compared to American speakers. Although the acoustic differences observed may reflect an interference of L1 Mandarin in the production of L2 American English, the outcome of this study suggests no critical divergence between these speakers in the way they implement American English sentence stress.

  11. The effects of L2 proficiency level on the processing of wh-questions among Dutch second language speakers of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, C.N.; Hell, J.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch–English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line rea

  12. The Effects of L2 Proficiency Level on the Processing of "Wh"-Questions among Dutch Second Language Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English "wh"-subject-extractions and "wh"-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject-versus…

  13. Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WISEHEART, MELODY; VISWANATHAN, MYTHILI; BIALYSTOK, ELLEN

    2015-01-01

    Many bilinguals routinely switch between their languages, yet mixed evidence exists about the transfer of language switching skills to broader domains that require attentional control such as task switching. Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a nonverbal task-switching paradigm in which they viewed colored pictures of animals and indicated either the animal or its color in response to a cue. Monolinguals and bilinguals performed similarly when switching between tasks (local switch cost) in a mixed-task block, but bilinguals demonstrated a smaller mixing effect (global switch cost) than monolinguals, indicating better ability to reconfigure stimulus–response associations. These results suggest that regular practice using multiple languages confers a broader executive function advantage shown as improved flexibility in task switching. PMID:26877705

  14. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them. Keywords: monolingual dictionary, learning strategies, language acquisition, lexicography

  15. Is grammatical gender considered arbitrary or semantically motivated? Evidence from young adult monolinguals, second language learners, and early bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Benedetta A L

    2014-05-01

    It is generally assumed that speakers of grammatical gender languages consider grammatical gender arbitrary, but this assumption has never been tested. Research shows that the grammatical gender of nouns can affect perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of the noun's referent in speakers of languages with masculine and feminine noun classes. However, bilingualism facilitates the development of lexical arbitrariness awareness, and could therefore affect awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. This study then compared three groups of young adult speakers of a grammatical gender language: monolinguals, early bilinguals, and instructed second language learners. Participants evaluated the gender assignments of 25 nouns of entities (animals, abstract concepts, natural kinds, and artefacts), and answered open and closed questions about grammatical gender. Participants considered grammatical gender as semantically motivated and mostly related gender assignments to perceived masculine or feminine connotations of referents. Knowledge of an additional grammatical gender language was linked to increased awareness of the arbitrariness of first language gender assignments in both early bilinguals and later instructed learners. It is argued that grammatical gender awareness deserves further investigation. Knowing more than one grammatical gender language can increase awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. Implications are discussed for language teaching and language reform.

  16. Phoneme discrimination and mismatch negativity in English and Japanese speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Bomba, Marie D.; Choly, David; Elizabeth W Pang

    2011-01-01

    Neural templates for phonemes in one’s native language are formed early in life; these can be modified but are difficult to form de novo. These can be examined with mismatch negativity. Three phonemic contrasts were presented to adult native English compared to Japanese speakers who acquired English later: vowels native to both languages (/i//iy/); consonant-vowel contrasts (/da//wa/) phonemic in both languages; and consonant-vowel contrasts phonemic in English but not in Japanese (/ra//la/)....

  17. Lexical and grammatical development in trilingual speakers of isiXhosa, English and Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke P. Potgieter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of normative data on linguistic development among child speakers of Southern African languages, especially in the case of the multilingual children who constitute the largest part of this population. This inevitably impacts on the accuracy of developmental assessments of such speakers. Already negative lay opinion on the effect of early multilingualism on language development rates could be exacerbated by the lack of developmental data, ultimately affecting choices regarding home and school language policies.Objectives: To establish whether trilinguals necessarily exhibit developmental delay when compared to monolinguals and, if so, whether this delay (1 occurs in terms of both lexical and grammatical development; and (2 in all three the trilinguals’ languages, regardless of input quantity.Method: Focusing on isiXhosa, South African English and Afrikaans, the study involved a comparison of 11 four-year-old developing trilinguals’ acquisition of vocabulary and passive constructions with that of 10 age-matched monolingual speakers of each language.Results: The trilinguals proved to be monolingual-like in their lexical development in the language to which, on average, they had been exposed most over time, that is, isiXhosa. No developmental delay was found in the trilinguals’ acquisition of passive constructions, regardless of the language of testing.Conclusion: As previously found for bilingual development, necessarily reduced quantity of exposure does not hinder lexical development in the trilinguals’ input dominant language. The overall lack of delay in their acquisition of the passive is interpreted as possible evidence of cross-linguistic bootstrapping and support for early multilingual exposure.

  18. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  19. The Intelligibility of Natural and Vocoded Semantically Anomalous Sentences: A Comparative Analysis of English Monolinguals and German-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-10

    MASSACHUSETTS i i Prepared for the Department of the Air Force under Eilectronic Systems Division Contract F19628-85-C -002. Approved for public...beginner and 10 represents the score of a native speaker) 14. What is your TOEFL score? 32 N. APPENDIX 11 Semantically Anomalous Sentences 1. A painted

  20. Linguistic influences in adult perception of non-native vowel contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, L

    1995-02-01

    Perception of natural productions of two German vowels contrasts, /y/ vs /u/ and /Y/ vs /U/, was examined in monolingual English-speaking adults. Subjects were tested on multiple exemplars of the contrasting vowels produced in a dVt syllable by a native German speaker. Discrimination accuracy in an AXB discrimination task was well above chance for both contrasts. Most of the English adults failed to attain "nativelike" discrimination accuracy for the lax vowel pair /U/ vs /Y/, whereas all subjects showed nativelike performance in discriminating the tense vowel pair /u/ vs /y/. Results of a keyword identification and rating task provided evidence that English listeners' mapping of the German vowel to English vowel categories can be characterized as a category goodness difference assimilation, and that the difference in category goodness was more pronounced for the tense vowel pair than for the lax vowel pair. The results failed to support the hypothesis that the acoustic structure of vowels consistently favors auditory coding. Overall, the findings are compatible with existing data on discrimination of cross-language consonant contrasts in natural speech and suggest that linguistic experience shapes the discrimination of vowels and consonants as phonetic segmental units in similar ways.

  1. Second-language fluency predicts native language stroop effects: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Paola A; Gollan, Tamar H; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana

    2014-03-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.-Mexico border region (education range = 8-20 and age range = 20-63). A language dominance index was calculated as the ratio of English words to total words produced in both languages using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test with letters PMR in Spanish and FAS in English. Greater degree of English fluency as measured by the dominance index predicted better speed on the Stroop incongruent trial independent of education effects. On the other hand, neither the dominance index nor education predicted performance on the word reading and color-naming trials. These results suggest an advantage in inhibitory control among those with greater second-language ability.

  2. Second-Language Fluency Predicts Native Language Stroop Effects: Evidence from Spanish–English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Paola A.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana; Group, HNRC

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.–Mexico border region (education range =8–20 and age range =20–63). A language dominance index was calculated as the ratio of English words to total words produced in both languages using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test with letters PMR in Spanish and FAS in English. Greater degree of English fluency as measured by the dominance index predicted better speed on the Stroop incongruent trial independent of education effects. On the other hand, neither the dominance index nor education predicted performance on the word reading and color-naming trials. These results suggest an advantage in inhibitory control among those with greater second-language ability. PMID:24622502

  3. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  4. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  5. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  6. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  7. Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…

  8. School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…

  9. Stakeholder Perspectives on CLIL in a Monolingual Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Nina K.

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a study concerning the perspectives on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the monolingual context of Jaén. The research has involved the design, validation and administration of two sets of questionnaires to 745 informants (692 students and 53 teachers) within eight secondary schools with a…

  10. Native and Non-native English Teachers' Perceptions of their Professional Identity: Convergent or Divergent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Tajeddin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is still a preference for native speaker teachers in the language teaching profession, which is supposed to influence the self-perceptions of native and nonnative teachers. However, the status of English as a globalized language is changing the legitimacy of native/nonnative teacher dichotomy. This study sought to investigate native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’ perceptions about native and nonnative teachers’ status and the advantages and disadvantages of being a native or nonnative teacher. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. A total of 200 native and nonnative teachers of English from the UK and the US, i.e. the inner circle, and Turkey and Iran, the expanding circle, participated in this study. A significant majority of nonnative teachers believed that native speaker teachers have better speaking proficiency, better pronunciation, and greater self-confidence. The findings also showed nonnative teachers’ lack of self-confidence and awareness of their role and status compared with native-speaker teachers, which could be the result of existing inequities between native and nonnative English-speaking teachers in ELT. The findings also revealed that native teachers disagreed more strongly with the concept of native teachers’ superiority over nonnative teachers. Native teachers argued that nonnative teachers have a good understanding of teaching methodology whereas native teachers are more competent in correct language. It can be concluded that teacher education programs in the expanding-circle countries should include materials for teachers to raise their awareness of their own professional status and role and to remove their misconception about native speaker fallacy.

  11. Non-native educators in English language teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Braine, George

    2013-01-01

    The place of native and non-native speakers in the role of English teachers has probably been an issue ever since English was taught internationally. Although ESL and EFL literature is awash, in fact dependent upon, the scrutiny of non-native learners, interest in non-native academics and teachers is fairly new. Until recently, the voices of non-native speakers articulating their own concerns have been even rarer. This book is a response to this notable vacuum in the ELT literature, providing a forum for language educators from diverse geographical origins and language backgrounds. In additio

  12. Acoustic Cues to Perception of Word Stress by English, Mandarin, and Russian Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrabaszcz, Anna; Winn, Matthew; Lin, Candise Y.; Idsardi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how listeners' native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. Method: Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification…

  13. 中国英语学习者“TASTE”使用情况的调查分析--基于语料库的对比研究%An Investigation of“Taste”Used by Chinese English Learners---A Corpus-based Contrast between Chinese Learners and Native Speakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新娜

    2014-01-01

    As one of the five senses, taste belongs to the basic vocabulary in English. This paper intends to investigate the difference of taste between Chinese learners and native speakers from 3 aspects: frequency,collocate and colligation. By means of corpus-based contrast between CLEC and Brown, it reveals the characteristic of taste used by Chinese learners.%“Taste”意为五种感官中的味觉,属于英语的基本词汇。通过中国英语学习者语料库(CLEC)和美国英语语料库(BROWN)对比,调查分析了中国英语学习者和本族语者在使用“taste”的频数、搭配、类连接方面存在的差异,揭示出中国学习者“taste”的使用特点,以期对该词的教学提出合理化建议。

  14. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  15. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  16. Oral cavity awareness in nonnative speakers acquiring English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Patricia

    2008-06-01

    This investigation assessed awareness of the oral cavity of nonnative speakers acquiring English. University students (60 men, 60 women) were placed into three equal-size groups. The Less Experienced group lived in the USA less than 6 mo. (M = 3.3 mo., SD = 2.4). The More Experienced group lived in the United States 3 or more years (M = 5.0 yr., SD = 1.9). Native English speakers were the control group. Participants were recruited from undergraduate general education classes and passed a speech screening in English including accurate production of the seven English syllables tested, namely, suh, luh, tuh, kuh, ruh, shuh, and thuh. Participants answered four multiple-choice questions about lingual contact for each of the syllables imitated. Total test mean scores were significantly higher for the More Experienced group. Native speakers performed the task best. Findings support the effects of amount of time speaking the language. Training methods employed to teach English and slight dialectal variations may account for the significant differences seen in the two groups of nonnative speakers. Further study is warranted.

  17. Respirator Speech Intelligibility Testing with an Experienced Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    intelligibility during mask wear using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT).2 The MRT consists of 50 six-word lists of monosyllabic English words, most...having three sounds in a consonant- vowel -consonant sequence. The MRT requires listeners to correctly identify single-syllable words spoken by a...years) gave written informed consent prior to participation in the study. All volunteers were native speakers of American English and had normal

  18. Expression and recognition of emotion in native and foreign speech : the case of Mandarin and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Yinyin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the perception and production of emotional prosody by native and non-native listeners and speakers, i.e. Chinese and Dutch listeners and speakers, including Dutch L2 learners of Chinese. There is an acoustic analysis in this dissertation which shows the differences between

  19. Expression and recognition of emotion in native and foreign speech : the case of Mandarin and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Yinyin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the perception and production of emotional prosody by native and non-native listeners and speakers, i.e. Chinese and Dutch listeners and speakers, including Dutch L2 learners of Chinese. There is an acoustic analysis in this dissertation which shows the differences between th

  20. Phonetic Influences on English and French Listeners' Assimilation of Mandarin Tones to Native Prosodic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Connie K.; Best, Catherine T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how native speakers of Australian English and French, nontone languages with different lexical stress properties, perceived Mandarin tones in a sentence environment according to their native sentence intonation categories (i-Categories) in connected speech. Results showed that both English and French speakers categorized…

  1. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  2. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    OpenAIRE

    Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...

  3. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...

  4. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...

  5. Lexical Selection Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415

  6. Cheater's Guide to Speaking English Like a Native

    CERN Document Server

    De Mente, Boye

    2007-01-01

    Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.

  7. A general auditory bias for handling speaker variability in speech? Evidence in humans and songbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhamas eKriengwatana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Different speakers produce the same speech sound differently, yet listeners are still able to reliably identify the speech sound. How listeners can adjust their perception to compensate for speaker differences in speech, and whether these compensatory processes are unique only to humans, is still not fully understood. In this study we compare the ability of humans and zebra finches to categorize vowels despite speaker variation in speech in order to test the hypothesis that accommodating speaker and gender differences in isolated vowels can be achieved without prior experience with speaker-related variability. Using a behavioural Go/No-go task and identical stimuli, we compared Australian English adults’ (naïve to Dutch and zebra finches’ (naïve to human speech ability to categorize /ɪ/ and /ɛ/ vowels of an novel Dutch speaker after learning to discriminate those vowels from only one other speaker. Experiment 1 and 2 presented vowels of two speakers interspersed or blocked, respectively. Results demonstrate that categorization of vowels is possible without prior exposure to speaker-related variability in speech for zebra finches, and in non-native vowel categories for humans. Therefore, this study is the first to provide evidence for what might be a species-shared auditory bias that may supersede speaker-related information during vowel categorization. It additionally provides behavioural evidence contradicting a prior hypothesis that accommodation of speaker differences is achieved via the use of formant ratios. Therefore, investigations of alternative accounts of vowel normalization that incorporate the possibility of an auditory bias for disregarding inter-speaker variability are warranted.

  8. On the Perception Difference between Chinese Japanese Learners and Japanese Native Speakers in Emotional Pronunciation:With"Gladness"and"Anger"as the Cen-ter%论感情语音中中国人日语学习者与日语母语者之间的感知差异--以“喜悦”“愤怒”为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李歆玥; 罗米良

    2015-01-01

    Through a pronunciation experiment on registered Chinese Japanese learners in colleges and universities, this paper aims to make clear the degree of Chinese Japanese learners' un-derstanding of emotions in Japanese pronunciation, and explores the differences in the degree of understanding between Chinese Japanese learners and Japanese native speakers. The experiment data shows that in addition to foreign language learning hours, the word meanings of stimulating sentences are also one of the ele-ments influencing the identification rate of emotional pronuncia-tion. Using pronunciation analysis software, this research focuses on the rhythmic characteristics of the stimulating pronunciation with highest identification rate in such two emotions as "glad-ness"and"anger".%该文通过对大学在籍的中国人日语学习者进行语音实验,旨在探明中国人日语学习者对日语语音中感情的理解程度,并探究与日语母语者之间的理解程度差异。语音实验数据显示,不止外语学习时间是感情语音的辨认率的影响要素,刺激语句的字意也是值得探讨的因素之一。此外该研究利用语音分析软件,重点探讨了“喜悦”“愤怒”这两种感情中,辨认率最高的刺激语音的语音韵律特征。

  9. Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.R.; Quené, H.; van Berkum, J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Anne van Leeuwen Utrecht institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension We often smile (and frown) while we talk. Speakers use facial expression, posture and prosody to provide additional cues that signal speaker stance. Speaker stance

  10. A Bilingualised English Dictionary for Catalan Speakers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    disadvantages, which largely condition the choice of one type of dictionary over the other ... Most monolingual learners' dictionaries are aimed at a global market: the same .... (Figure 3), by segmentation (Figure 4) or by contiguity (Figure 5).

  11. The Impact of Non-Native English Teachers' Linguistic Insecurity on Learners' Productive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftari, Giti Ehtesham; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2017-01-01

    The discrimination between native and non-native English speaking teachers is reported in favor of native speakers in literature. The present study examines the linguistic insecurity of non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) and investigates its influence on learners' productive skills by using SPSS software. The eighteen teachers…

  12. Communication Interface for Mexican Spanish Dysarthric Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Bonilla-Enriquez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La disartria es una discapacidad motora del habla caracterizada por debilidad o poca coordinación de los músculos del habla. Esta condición puede ser causada por un infarto, parálisis cerebral, o por una lesión severa en el cerebro. Para mexicanos con esta condición hay muy pocas, si es que hay alguna, tecnologías de asistencia para mejorar sus habilidades sociales de interacción. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de una interfazde comunicación para hablantes con disartria cuya lengua materna sea el español mexicano. La metodología propuesta depende de (1 diseño especial de un corpus de entrenamiento con voz normal y recursos limitados, (2 adaptación de usuario estándar, y (3 control de la perplejidad del modelo de lenguaje para lograr alta precisión en el Reconocimiento Automático del Habla (RAH. La interfaz permite al usuario y terapéuta el realizar actividades como adaptación dinámica de usuario, adaptación de vocabulario, y síntesis de texto a voz. Pruebas en vivo fueron realizadas con un usuario con disartria leve, logrando precisiones de 93%-95% para habla espontánea.Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speechmuscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, cerebral palsy, or by a traumatic braininjury. For Mexican people with this condition there are few, if any, assistive technologies to improve their social interaction skills. In this paper we present our advances towards the development of a communication interface for dysarthric speakers whose native language is Mexican Spanish. We propose a methodology that relies on (1 special design of a training normal-speech corpus with limited resources, (2 standard speaker adaptation, and (3 control of language model perplexity, to achieve high Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR accuracy. The interface allows the user and therapist to perform tasks such as dynamic speaker adaptation, vocabulary

  13. Linguistic Creativity in Heritage Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Rakhilina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes lexical and syntactic evidence from heritage Russian as spoken by bilinguals dominant in American English. The data come from the Russian Learner Corpus, a new resource of spoken and written materials produced by heritage re-learners and L2 learners of Russian. The paper focuses on lexical phrase violations, which we divide further into transfer-based structures and novel creations, showing that the latter are used by heritage speakers, but generally not freely available to L2 learners. In constructing innovative expressions, heritage speakers follow general principles of compositionality. As a result, novel constructions are more semantically transparent than their correlates in the baseline or dominant language. We argue that such semantically transparent, compositional patterns are based on structures that are universally available across languages. However, L2 speakers resort to these universal strategies for creating novel phrases much less often than heritage speakers. In their linguistic creativity, heritage speakers’ utterances parallel those of L1 child learners rather than L2 speakers.

  14. When the Teacher Is a Non-native Speaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pèter Medgyes

    2005-01-01

    @@ (Continued from Issue 57) The Bright Side of Being a Non-NEST One item in the questionnaire inquired whether the participants thought the NEST or the non-NEST was a better teacher.While an approximately equal number of votes went for either option (27 percent for NESTs and 29 percent for nonNESTs), 44 percent inserted "both," an alternative which had not even been supplied in the questionnaire.

  15. The NNEST lens non native english speakers in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Mahboob, Ahmar

    2010-01-01

    The NNEST Lens invites you to imagine how the field of TESOL and applied linguistics can develop if we use the multilingual, multicultural, and multinational perspectives of an NNEST lens to re-examine our assumptions, practices, and theories in the field

  16. Native-Speakerism, Stereotyping and the Collusion of Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Although, in recent years there have been several advances in critical applied linguistics which have attempted to problematize the ideological underpinnings of language practices, there have in parallel been resistances mounted on the part of traditional applied linguistics that adamantly oppose any form of coming to terms with the political and…

  17. Encouraging Students to Engage with Native Speakers during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadd, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Students, their parents, and educators trust that a study-abroad experience is the best way to increase linguistic proficiency. The professional literature, however, shows a much more complex picture. Gains in linguistic proficiency appear to depend on variables such as whether the students experience a homestay or dormitory, the length of time…

  18. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Fasoli, Fabio; Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Vespignani, Francesco; Eyssel, Friederike; Bentler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency) and to non-native speakers (language-specificity), has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  19. Production of tense-lax contrast by Mandarin speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    2006-01-01

    The spectral and temporal characteristics of three English tense-lax vowel pairs [see text] produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. The euclidean distance based on first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2), the durational differences, as well as the perceptual judgment of the tense-lax vowel contrast were examined in the syllable level productions of 40 Mandarin speakers compared to 40 American English speakers. Results of the comparative analysis indicated that Mandarin speakers differed significantly from the American English speakers in distinguishing the English tense/lax contrast. The general pattern shown across the Mandarin subjects was one in which the temporal feature, rather than the spectral feature, was more indicative of the tense-lax contrast as compared to the American speakers. In addition, the perception for the tense-lax contrast produced by Mandarin speakers was less distinctive as compared to the American speakers. The phonetic influences of the Mandarin language on the production of English tense-lax vowels are discussed.

  20. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sulpizio

    Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  1. The effects of native language on Indian English sounds and timing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsa, Hema; Redford, Melissa A

    2013-11-01

    This study explored whether the sound structure of Indian English (IE) varies with the divergent native languages of its speakers or whether it is similar regardless of speakers' native languages. Native Hindi (Indo-Aryan) and Telugu (Dravidian) speakers produced comparable phrases in IE and in their native languages. Naïve and experienced IE listeners were then asked to judge whether different sentences had been spoken by speakers with the same or different native language backgrounds. The findings were an interaction between listener experience and speaker background such that only experienced listeners appropriately distinguished IE sentences produced by speakers with different native language backgrounds. Naïve listeners were nonetheless very good at distinguishing between Hindi and Telugu phrases. Acoustic measurements on monophthongal vowels, select obstruent consonants, and suprasegmental temporal patterns all differentiated between Hindi and Telugu, but only 3 of the measures distinguished between IE produced by speakers of the different native languages. The overall results are largely consistent with the idea that IE has a target phonology that is distinct from the phonology of native Indian languages. The subtle L1 effects on IE may reflect either the incomplete acquisition of the target phonology or, more plausibly, the influence of sociolinguistic factors on the use and evolution of IE.

  2. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Native and Non-Native Listeners' Perception of Second Language Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jennifer A; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Second language speech learning is predicated on learners' ability to notice differences between their own language output and that of their interlocutors. Because many learners interact primarily with other second language users, it is crucial to understand which dimensions underlie the perception of second language speech by learners, compared to native speakers. For this study, 15 non-native and 10 native English speakers rated 30-s language audio-recordings from controlled reading and interview tasks for dissimilarity, using all pairwise combinations of recordings. PROXSCAL multidimensional scaling analyses revealed fluency and aspects of speakers' pronunciation as components underlying listener judgments but showed little agreement across listeners. Results contribute to an understanding of why second language speech learning is difficult and provide implications for language training.

  3. Perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Sang-Hee

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.

  4. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2015-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580

  5. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  6. Effects of Age and Experience on the Production of English Word-Final Stops by Korean Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of second language (L2) age of acquisition and amount of experience on the production of word-final stop consonant voicing by adult native Korean learners of English. Thirty learners, who differed in amount of L2 experience and age of L2 exposure, and 10 native English speakers produced 8 English monosyllabic words…

  7. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  8. Effect of Training Japanese L1 Speakers in the Production of American English /r/ Using Spectrographic Visual Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Iomi; Edmonds, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of training native Japanese speakers in the production of American /r/ using spectrographic visual feedback. Within a modified single-subject design, two native Japanese participants produced single words containing /r/ in a variety of positions while viewing live spectrographic feedback with the aim of…

  9. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  10. Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent…

  11. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  12. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  13. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  14. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  15. Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More than Monolingual Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bilingual adults use more gestures than English monolinguals. Because no study has compared the gestures of bilinguals and monolinguals in both languages, the high gesture rate could be due to transfer from a high gesture language or could result from the use of gesture to aid in linguistic access. In this study we…

  16. The Understanding of English Emotion Words by Chinese and Japanese Speakers of English as a Lingua Franca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekjær, Stine

    In this thesis I investigate the understanding and use of the English emotion words guilty, ashamed, and proud by Japanese and Chinese speakers of English as a lingua franca. By exploring empirical data I examine (1) how Japanese and Chinese participants understand and use the three stimulus words......, (2) if their understanding and use differ from that of native English speakers, and (3) if so, what these differences are. In the thesis 65 participants are investigated. The participants consist of 20 native Japanese and 23 native Chinese. For comparison, a group of 22 British native English...... speakers is also investigated. The study is theoretically and conceptually founded in the literature of the interplay between language, culture, and thought, and draws on notions from the fields of cross-cultural semantics and emotions. As existing methods are not adequate for the purpose of the thesis...

  17. The Understanding of English Emotion Words by Chinese and Japanese Speakers of English as a Lingua Franca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekjær, Stine

    In this thesis I investigate the understanding and use of the English emotion words guilty, ashamed, and proud by Japanese and Chinese speakers of English as a lingua franca. By exploring empirical data I examine (1) how Japanese and Chinese participants understand and use the three stimulus words......, (2) if their understanding and use differ from that of native English speakers, and (3) if so, what these differences are. In the thesis 65 participants are investigated. The participants consist of 20 native Japanese and 23 native Chinese. For comparison, a group of 22 British native English...... speakers is also investigated. The study is theoretically and conceptually founded in the literature of the interplay between language, culture, and thought, and draws on notions from the fields of cross-cultural semantics and emotions. As existing methods are not adequate for the purpose of the thesis...

  18. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  19. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  20. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  1. Discrimination and production of English vowels by bilingual speakers of Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2004-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether listeners bilingual in Spanish and English would have difficulty in the discrimination of English vowel contrasts. An additional goal was to estimate the correlation between their discrimination and production of these vowels. Participants (40 bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking and 40 native monolingual English-speaking college students, 23-36 years of age) participated (M age = 25.3 yr., Mdn = 25.0). The discrimination and production of English vowels in real and novel words by adult participants bilingual in Spanish and English were examined and their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English-speaking participants. Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. Novel words were chosen to represent new words when learning a new language and to provide a more valid test of discrimination. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels were judged by two independent listeners to estimate the correlation between discrimination and production. Discrimination accuracy was significantly greater for native English-speaking participants than for bilingual participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' productions of certain vowels. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production.

  2. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cat, Cecile; Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baayen, R Harald

    2015-01-01

    The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs) was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1) had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2), and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e., incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure) or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit vs. reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish). The EEG data, analyzed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the violation condition (reversed constituent order). Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers-the licit order in their L1-supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1. The pattern of results for the German speakers in the violation condition suggested a strong conflict arising due to licit constituents being

  3. Syntactic features and reanalysis in near-native processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopp, Holger

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate second language (L2) processing at ultimate attainment, 20 first language (L1) English and 20 L1 Dutch advanced to near-native speakers of German as well as 20 native Germans were tested in two experiments on subject-object ambiguities in German. The results from a self-paced

  4. Writing Like a Native: The Process of Reformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    A procedure for providing feedback on compositions of advanced second language learners is described. Under this procedure, called reformulation, a native speaker rewrites second language learners' essays so that the ideas are preserved but presented in a native-like manner. A case study in reformulating Hebrew-as-a-second-language essay and a…

  5. Musical Sophistication and the Effect of Complexity on Auditory Discrimination in Finnish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Musical experiences and native language are both known to affect auditory processing. The present work aims to disentangle the influences of native language phonology and musicality on behavioral and subcortical sound feature processing in a population of musically diverse Finnish speakers as well as to investigate the specificity of enhancement from musical training. Finnish speakers are highly sensitive to duration cues since in Finnish, vowel and consonant duration determine word meaning. Using a correlational approach with a set of behavioral sound feature discrimination tasks, brainstem recordings, and a musical sophistication questionnaire, we find no evidence for an association between musical sophistication and more precise duration processing in Finnish speakers either in the auditory brainstem response or in behavioral tasks, but they do show an enhanced pitch discrimination compared to Finnish speakers with less musical experience and show greater duration modulation in a complex task. These results are consistent with a ceiling effect set for certain sound features which corresponds to the phonology of the native language, leaving an opportunity for music experience-based enhancement of sound features not explicitly encoded in the language (such as pitch, which is not explicitly encoded in Finnish). Finally, the pattern of duration modulation in more musically sophisticated Finnish speakers suggests integrated feature processing for greater efficiency in a real world musical situation. These results have implications for research into the specificity of plasticity in the auditory system as well as to the effects of interaction of specific language features with musical experiences.

  6. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  7. The immediate and chronic influence of spatio-temporal metaphors on the mental representations of time in english, mandarin, and mandarin-english speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Boroditsky, Lera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people's representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatio-temporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME) bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2), and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1). These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatio-temporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience.

  8. The immediate and chronic influence of spatio-temporal metaphors on the mental representations of time in English, Mandarin, and Mandarin-English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky T. Lai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people’s representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatiotemporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2, and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1. These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatiotemporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience.

  9. The Pedagogy and Its Effectiveness among Native and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers in the Korean EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyun Ha

    2010-01-01

    As English progressively becomes the global language, many native English speakers move to foreign countries to work as English teachers. However a review of the literature reveals that there is little research on their actual performance compared to the non-native local English teachers. This comparative case study examines pedagogic practices of…

  10. An Analysis of Written Discourse of North Korean Second Language Speakers of English: Its Linguistic Features and Their Discursive Functions with Pragmatic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined linguistic and pragmatic characteristics of written discourse of North Korean second language speakers of English comparing it with that of North American native speakers of English by analyzing linguistic features used in the two sets of texts and their discursive functions based on Biber's (1995) and Hinkel's (2002)…

  11. Learning Words from Speakers with False Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Fairchild, Sarah; Cohen, Matthew L.; Friedberg, Carlyn

    2017-01-01

    During communication, hearers try to infer the speaker's intentions to be able to understand what the speaker means. Nevertheless, whether (and how early) preschoolers track their interlocutors' mental states is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, there is disagreement about how children's ability to consult a speaker's belief in communicative…

  12. Speaker Identity Supports Phonetic Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Schneider, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Visual cues from the speaker's face, such as the discriminable mouth movements used to produce speech sounds, improve discrimination of these sounds by adults. The speaker's face, however, provides more information than just the mouth movements used to produce speech--it also provides a visual indexical cue of the identity of the speaker. The…

  13. Speaker Identification Based on Fractal Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽敏; 王朔中

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses application of fractal dimensions to speech processing. Generalized dimensions of arbitrary orders and associated fractal parameters are used in speaker identification. A characteristic vactor based on these parameters is formed, and a recognition criterion definded in order to identify individual speakers. Experimental results show the usefulness of fractal dimensions in characterizing speaker identity.

  14. Prevalence of vocal fry in young adult male American English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed.

  15. A cross-linguistic PET study of tone perception in Mandarin Chinese and English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Zatorre, R J; Milner, B; Zhao, V

    2001-04-01

    PET was used in a cross-linguistic study to determine whether neural mechanisms subserving pitch perception differ as a function of linguistic relevance. We compared tone perception in 12 native Mandarin speakers, who use tonal patterns to distinguish lexical meaning, with that of 12 native speakers of a nontone language, English. Subjects were scanned under two conditions: a silent resting baseline and a tonal task involving discrimination of pitch patterns in Mandarin words. Both groups showed common regions of CBF increase, but only Mandarin speakers showed additional activation in frontal, parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of the left hemisphere; this latter finding indicates that language experience may influence brain circuitry in the processing of auditory cues. In contrast, only the English group showed activity in the right inferior frontal cortex, consistent with a right-hemispheric role in pitch perception. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Why reference to the past is difficult for agrammatic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic aphasia. That is, verb inflections for past tense and perfect aspect are hard to produce. Furthermore, verb clusters that refer to the past will be affected as well, even if the auxiliary is in present tense, as in he has been writing a letter. It will be argued that all these verb forms referring to the past require discourse linking [Zagona, K. (2003). Tense and anaphora: Is there a tense-specific theory of coreference. In A. Barrs (Ed.), Anaphora: A reference guide (pp. 140-171). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing] and discourse linking is affected in agrammatic aphasia [Avrutin, S. (2006). Weak syntax. In K. Amunts, & Y. Grodzinsky (Eds.), Broca's region (pp. 49-62). New York: Oxford Press]. This hypothesis has been coined the PAst DIscourse LInking Hypothesis (PADILIH) [Bastiaanse, R., Bamyaci, E., Hsu, C.-J., Lee, J., Yarbay Duman, T., & Thompson, C.K. (2011). Time reference in agrammatic aphasia: A cross-linguistic study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 24, 652-673]. The PADILIH has been tested in several languages and populations that have hardly been studied before in aphasiology: languages such as Turkish, Swahili and Indonesian were included, as well as monolingual and bilingual populations. In all these populations, the same test has been used: the Test for Assessing Reference of Time [Bastiaanse, R., Jonkers, R., & Thompson, C.K. (2008). Test for assessing reference of time (TART). Groningen: University of Groningen] to enable reliable comparisons between the languages. The results show that the PADILIH predicts the performance of agrammatic speakers very well: discourse-linked grammatical morphemes expressing time

  17. Processing ser and estar to locate objects and events: An ERP study with L2 speakers of Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E; Contemori, Carla; Román, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Spanish locative constructions, a different form of the copula is selected in relation to the semantic properties of the grammatical subject: sentences that locate objects require estar while those that locate events require ser (both translated in English as 'to be'). In an ERP study, we examined whether second language (L2) speakers of Spanish are sensitive to the selectional restrictions that the different types of subjects impose on the choice of the two copulas. Twenty-four native speakers of Spanish and two groups of L2 Spanish speakers (24 beginners and 18 advanced speakers) were recruited to investigate the processing of 'object/event + estar/ser' permutations. Participants provided grammaticality judgments on correct (object + estar; event + ser) and incorrect (object + ser; event + estar) sentences while their brain activity was recorded. In line with previous studies (Leone-Fernández, Molinaro, Carreiras, & Barber, 2012; Sera, Gathje, & Pintado, 1999), the results of the grammaticality judgment for the native speakers showed that participants correctly accepted object + estar and event + ser constructions. In addition, while 'object + ser' constructions were considered grossly ungrammatical, 'event + estar' combinations were perceived as unacceptable to a lesser degree. For these same participants, ERP recording time-locked to the onset of the critical word 'en' showed a larger P600 for the ser predicates when the subject was an object than when it was an event (*La silla es en la cocina vs. La fiesta es en la cocina). This P600 effect is consistent with syntactic repair of the defining predicate when it does not fit with the adequate semantic properties of the subject. For estar predicates (La silla está en la cocina vs. *La fiesta está en la cocina), the findings showed a central-frontal negativity between 500-700 ms. Grammaticality judgment data for the L2 speakers of Spanish showed that beginners were significantly less accurate than native

  18. Relationships between L2 Speakers' Development and Raters' Perception on Fluency in Group Oral Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Junko

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and developmental phenomena apparent in Japanese learners of English with their raters' perspectives in terms of fluency which has been recognized as a major factor in judging non-native speakers' proficiency. The following temporal indices demonstrated strong relationships with the raters'…

  19. Constraints on "Noticing the Gap": Nonnative Speakers' Noticing of Recasts in NS-NNS Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jenefer

    2003-01-01

    Interaction has been argued to promote noticing of L2 form in a context crucial to learning--when there is a mismatch between the input and the learner's interlanguage (IL) grammar (Gass & Varonis, 1994; Long, 1996; Pica, 1994). This paper investigates the extent to which learners may notice native speakers' reformulations of their IL grammar in…

  20. Identifying Core Vocabulary for Urdu Language Speakers Using Augmentative Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukati, Abdul Samad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify a core set of vocabulary used by native Urdu language (UL) speakers during dyadic conversation for social interaction and relationship building. This study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan at an institution of higher education. This research seeks to distinguish between general (nonspecific…

  1. Proficiency and Working Memory Based Explanations for Nonnative Speakers' Sensitivity to Agreement in Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Caitlin E.; Tremblay, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the roles of proficiency and working memory (WM) capacity in second-/foreign-language (L2) learners' processing of agreement morphology. It investigates the processing of grammatical and ungrammatical short- and long-distance number agreement dependencies by native English speakers at two proficiencies in French, and the…

  2. The Development of Lexical Bundle Accuracy and Production in English Second Language Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Thomas Lee

    2011-01-01

    Six adult, second language (L2) English learners were observed over a period of one year to explore the development of lexical bundles (i.e., bigrams) in naturally produced, oral English. Total bigrams produced by the L2 learners over the year of observation that were shared with native speakers were compared using a frequency index to explore L2…

  3. Revisiting the role of language in spatial cognition: Categorical perception of spatial relations in English and Korean speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kevin J; Moty, Kelsey; Regier, Terry

    2017-03-23

    The spatial relation of support has been regarded as universally privileged in nonlinguistic cognition and immune to the influence of language. English, but not Korean, obligatorily distinguishes support from nonsupport via basic spatial terms. Despite this linguistic difference, previous research suggests that English and Korean speakers show comparable nonlinguistic sensitivity to the support/nonsupport distinction. Here, using a paradigm previously found to elicit cross-language differences in color discrimination, we provide evidence for a difference in sensitivity to support/nonsupport between native English speakers and native Korean speakers who were late English learners and tested in a context that privileged Korean. Whereas the former group showed categorical perception (CP) when discriminating spatial scenes capturing the support/nonsupport distinction, the latter did not. An additional group of native Korean speakers-relatively early English learners tested in an English-salient context-patterned with the native English speakers in showing CP for support/nonsupport. These findings suggest that obligatory marking of support/nonsupport in one's native language can affect nonlinguistic sensitivity to this distinction, contra earlier findings, but that such sensitivity may also depend on aspects of language background and the immediate linguistic context.

  4. Verbal fluency in elderly bilingual speakers: normative data and preliminary application to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Picciotto, J; Friedland, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated verbal fluency abilities in 30 healthy elderly English-Afrikaans bilingual speakers, and 6 bilingual subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Three 1-min semantic verbal fluency tasks (animals) were obtained in the bilingual mode, Afrikaans and English. Results were analysed in terms of total correct, and semantic clusters. There was no significant difference between monolingual and bilingual performance. Some healthy bilingual subjects used code switching as a strategy but with no direct increase in the number of exemplars generated, and there was no relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores. In comparison, subjects with Alzheimer's disease did not make use of code switching strategies, and there was some relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores.

  5. Fluency in native and nonnative English speech

    CERN Document Server

    Götz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a new and holistic approach to fluency in English speech and differentiates between productive, perceptive, and nonverbal fluency. The in-depth corpus-based description of productive fluency points out major differences of how fluency is established in native and nonnative speech. It also reveals areas in which even highly advanced learners of English still deviate strongly from the native target norm and in which they have already approximated to it. Based on these findings, selected learners are subjected to native speakers' ratings of seven perceptive fluency variables in or

  6. Treatment of spelling variants in Setswana monolingual dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    writing system so that though northern Setswana speakers can speak using. [th/t] instead of [tlh/tl], in writing .... ants are caused by a difference in a single vowel or consonant, for instance fata/hata (dig) ..... Investigating English Style. London ...

  7. Feature extraction for speaker diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Negre Rabassa, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Se explorarán y compararán diferentes características de bajo y alto nivel para la diarización automática de locutores Feature extraction for speaker diarization using different databases Extracción de características para la diarización de locutores utilizando diferentes bases de datos Extracció de caracteristiques per a la diarització de locutors utilitzant diferents bases de dades

  8. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  9. The effect of L1 orthography on non-native vowel perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, P.; Wanrooij, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that orthography influences the learning and processing of spoken non-native words. In this paper, we examine the effect of L1 orthography on non-native sound perception. In Experiment 1, 204 Spanish learners of Dutch and a control group of 20 native speakers of Dutch

  10. The Effect of L1 Orthography on Non-Native Vowel Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Wanrooij, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that orthography influences the learning and processing of spoken non-native words. In this paper, we examine the effect of L1 orthography on non-native sound perception. In Experiment 1, 204 Spanish learners of Dutch and a control group of 20 native speakers of Dutch were asked to classify Dutch vowel tokens by…

  11. English vowel learning by speakers of Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ron I.

    2005-04-01

    One of the most influential models of second language (L2) speech perception and production [Flege, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience (York, Baltimore, 1995) pp. 233-277] argues that during initial stages of L2 acquisition, perceptual categories sharing the same or nearly the same acoustic space as first language (L1) categories will be processed as members of that L1 category. Previous research has generally been limited to testing these claims on binary L2 contrasts, rather than larger portions of the perceptual space. This study examines the development of 10 English vowel categories by 20 Mandarin L1 learners of English. Imitation of English vowel stimuli by these learners, at 6 data collection points over the course of one year, were recorded. Using a statistical pattern recognition model, these productions were then assessed against native speaker norms. The degree to which the learners' perception/production shifted toward the target English vowels and the degree to which they matched L1 categories in ways predicted by theoretical models are discussed. The results of this experiment suggest that previous claims about perceptual assimilation of L2 categories to L1 categories may be too strong.

  12. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eDe Cat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1 had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2, and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e. incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit versus reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish. The EEG data, analysed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the reversed constituent order. Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers - the licit order in their L1- supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1.

  13. Non-Native Pre-Service English Teachers’ Narratives about Their Pronunciation Learning and Implications for Pronunciation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Wen Chien

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes 58 non-native pre-service elementary school English teachers’ narratives about their pronunciation learning and teaching. Two important findings emerge in this study.  First, participants did not have the same attitude toward their roles as non-native English speakers regarding pronunciation learning and teaching. Second, regardless of their attitude or roles as non-native English speakers, participants claimed that when they become language teachers in the future, they wi...

  14. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-02-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy autobiographies and measured through UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The result of this pioneering work indicated no significant difference between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals in expressing happy memories while differences were observed on sad memories. Bilinguals expressed more negative emotions in their L2 than L1. This outcome support the dominant claim that second language is the preferred language for the expression of sad emotions since it is the language of emotional detachment and distance. Further analysis on the number of words bilinguals and monolinguals used to express both sad and happy autobiographies indicated that bilinguals used more words in expressing both sad and happy autobiographies.

  15. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.

  16. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  17. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  18. The effects of L2 proficiency level on the processing of wh-questions among Dutch second language speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English wh-subject-extractions and wh-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject- versus object-extractions in English. However, less-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers exhibit greater processing costs on subject-extractions relative to object-extractions, similar to previously reported findings (e.g., Dussias and Piñar, forthcoming; Juffs 2005; Juffs and Harrington 1995). These findings are discussed in light of relevant research surrounding on-line processing among L2 speakers and their ability to adopt native-like processing patterns in the L2. PMID:22888175

  19. Dublin City University at CLEF 2004: experiments in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more effective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...

  20. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...