WorldWideScience

Sample records for monogastric animal feed

  1. ORGANOFINERY: A biorefinery for the production of organic protein rich feed for monogastric animals

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Lübeck, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the organic farming sector is rapidly increasing in order to meet the increasing demand for organic products. However, the scarce availability of organic feed for monogastric animals together with the lack of organic fertilizers are challenging the development of this sector. In this context, a Danish project called Organofinery is focusing on developing a green biorefinery platform for the production of organic protein-rich feed for monogastric animals, of biogas and of organic fer...

  2. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl;

    2010-01-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors......Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink...

  3. [Problem of nitrogen metabolism in monogastric animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawielitzki, K; Bock, H D

    1976-02-01

    A new method has been developed for determining the proportion of endogenic and exogenic faecal N by measuring the degree of specific labelling in the feeding-stuff (administered orally) and in the excreta (faeces and urine). The method has also been developed to find out whether the endogenic excretion of intestinal N is actually independent of the N intake. The present technique had been worked out on the basis of the model that had been originally established by Czarnetzki et al. in 1969 with the aim of characterizing processes of nitrogen metabolism in monogastric animals. As a result, a multi-compartment model was developed and a number of conclusions were derived from it. These conclusions were tested in 3 series of experiments on rats fed 15N labelled spring barley and 15N labelled feed yeast. Additionally, 15N labelled experimental rats were used receiving unlabelled extracted soya bean meal. The proportion of endogenic intestinal nitrogen (DVN) varied between 15-22% relative to the proportion of N ingested. The relative proportion of endogenic faecal N in the tota faecal N was found to be 100% in the case of the nitrogen-free diet. With increasing levels of dietary N this proportion lended to decrease down to a final value that was quite characteristic for each partitular feeding-stuff. The absolute amount of endogenic faecal N, however, was found to increase with increasing N levels. This shows that contrary to current views, DVN is not constant and is not independent of protein intake. Rather, a close relationship was found to exist between the level of N intake and DVN excretion (r = 0.951...0.972). So, the proportion of exogenic N contained in the faeces is much smaller than was previously assumed on the basis of the classical and regressive methods. These were based on the assumption that DVN is constant. Consequently, higher digestibility values will be obtained in comparison with those calculated on the basis of the previous methods. Digestibility

  4. Novel and disruptive biological strategies for resolving gut health challenges in monogastric food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Z. Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of feed antibiotics as growth promoters for control of pathogens associated with monogastric food animal morbidity and mortality has contributed to the development of antimicrobial resistance, which has now become a threat to public health on a global scale. Presently, a number of alternative feed additives have been developed and are divided into two major categories, including 1 the ones that are supposed to directly and indirectly control pathogenic bacterial proliferation; and 2 the other ones that are intended to up-regulate host gut mucosal trophic growth, whole body growth performance and active immunity. A thorough review of literature reports reveal that efficacy responses of current alternative feed additives in replacing feed antibiotics to improve performances and gut health are generally inconsistent dependent upon experimental conditions. Current alternative feed additives typically have no direct detoxification effects on endotoxin lipopolysaccharides (LPS and this is likely the major reason that their effects are limited. It is now understood that pathogenic bacteria mediate their negative effects largely through LPS interactions with toll-like receptor 4, causing immune responses and infectious diseases. Therefore, disruptive biological strategies and a novel and new generation of feed additives need to be developed to replace feed antibiotic growth promoters and to directly and effectively detoxify the endotoxin LPS and improve gut health and performance in monogastric food animals.

  5. Toxico-Neurological Effects of Piroxicam in Monogastric Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganuwan, Saganuwan Alhaji; Orinya, Orinya Agbaji

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam is a benzothiazine compound with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. Because of the very high efficacy of piroxicam and its increasing use in the treatment of carcinomas in dogs and cats, there is a need for acute toxicity study of piroxicam in monogastric animals and its potential for causing secondary poisoning in puppies. Piroxicam manufactured by Shanxi Federal Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. was used for this study. Revised up-and-down procedure was used for the estimation of median lethal dose in mouse (259.4 ± 51.9 mg/kg), rat (259.4 ± 69.6 mg/kg), rabbit (707.5 ± 130.8 mg/kg), cat (437.5 ± 128.1 mg/kg), guinea pig (218.7 ± 64.1 mg/kg), monkey (733.3 ± 83.3 mg/kg), broiler (285.3 ± 62.5 mg/kg), hen (638.3 ± 115.4 mg/kg), turkey (707.5 ± 130.8 mg/kg), pigeon (375 ± 55.9 mg/kg), and duck (311.3 ± 46.6 mg/kg). The acute toxicity signs of piroxicam at doses 207.5 mg/kg and above observed in the animals are torticollis, opisthotonos, somnolence, lethargy, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, generalized internal bleeding, anemia, congestion of the lung and liver, flaccid paralysis, cheesy lung, urinary incontinence, engorged urinary bladder, convulsive jerking of the limbs, lying in ventral recumbency, gasping for air, roaring, and death. Three out of six puppies died after being fed the carcasses of poisoned turkey, duck, and hen administered piroxicam at doses of 1000, 415, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively. White flaky cheesy materials observed in turkeys were also observed in the gastrointestinal content of the puppies. Paleness of carcasses, watery crop content, dryness of pericardium, gastroenteritis, intestinal perforation, and whitish pericardium were observed in broilers. There were effusions in thoracic and abdominal cavities as seen in all other carcasses poisoned primarily by piroxicam. Administration of atropine (0.02 mg/kg) led to survival of the remaining puppies. In conclusion, piroxicam is very to moderately toxic in

  6. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...

  7. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    for cheaper protein rapeseed meal has been considered as an alternative to soya-protein. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. spp. oleifera) has a well-balanced amino acid profile for monogastrics, but it contains several compounds which are anti-nutritional and might lower the protein quality and limit the amount...

  8. An in vitro batch culture method to assess potential fermentability of feed ingredients for monogastric diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, B.A.; Bosch, M.W.; Boer, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in fermentation within the monogastric digestive tract is growing, particularly relative to animal health. This is of particular importance in relation to the forthcoming European ban on inclusion of anti-microbial growth promotors in animal diets. Fermentable carbohydrates are recognized

  9. Use of Bacillus subtilis isolates from Tua-nao towards nutritional improvement of soya bean hull for monogastric feed application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongputtisin, P; Khanongnuch, C; Kongbuntad, W; Niamsup, P; Lumyong, S; Sarkar, P K

    2014-09-01

    Soya bean hull (SBH) is a cheap and high-fibre content feed ingredient that obtained after soya bean oil extraction. Microbial fermentation was expected to improve SBH qualities before applying to animals, especially monogastric animals. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis MR10 and TK8 that were isolated from Tua-nao, a traditional fermented soya bean in northern Thailand, were used for fermented soya bean hull (FSBH) production. Both could easily grow at 37°C in SBH as the sole substrate. MR10 produced the highest β-mannanase activity (400 U g(-1) SBH) on day 2, while TK8 produced the highest cellulase activity (14·5 U g(-1) SBH) on day 3. After fermentation, the nutritional quality of SBH was obviously improved by an increase in soluble sugars, soluble proteins, crude protein and crude lipid, and a decrease in the content of raffinose family oligosaccharides. Scavenging activity (%) of SBH against ABTS radical cation was also increased from 14 to 27 and 20% by MR10 and TK8 fermentation, respectively. According to the GRAS property of these both strains and various improvements of nutritional values, the fermented SBH proved to be a potential feed ingredient, especially for the monogastric animals. Normally, soya bean hull has been recognized as only a worthless by-product from soya bean oil production process because of its low utilizable nutrients. Our study introduced an alternative way to utilize this worthless residue using biotechnological knowledge. The nutritional quality of soya bean hull was improved by microbial fermentation. Fermented soya bean hull can be used as a cheap, safe and high-nutrient feed ingredient for livestock production, especially monogastric animals, to promote their growth performances, instead of using antibiotics in some regions of the world. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species.

  11. The paradox of human equivalent dose formula: A canonical case study of abrus precatorius aqueous leaf extract in monogastric animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant literature on the toxicity of A. precatorius seeds. However there is a need to define the toxicity limit of the Abrus precatorius leaf in monogastric animals. Human Equivalent Dose (HED which is equal to animal dose multiplied by animal km (metabolism constant divided by human km was used to project the LD50 of fifteen monogastric animals , where human km factor is body weight (kg divided by body surface area (m2. Human Equivalent No-observable Adverse Effect Doses were determined by multiplying the animal no-observable adverse effect dose by animal weight (Wa divided by human weight (Wh. The LD50 of the aqueous leaf extract of Abrus precatorius in mice was estimated to be between 2559.5 and 3123.3 mg/kg body weight. The LD50 extrapolated from mouse to rat (1349.3-1646.6 mg/kg, hamster (1855.3-2264.1 mg/kg, guinea pig (1279.5-1561.4 mg/kg, rabbit (618.4-754.7 mg/kg, monkey (593.7-724.5 mg/kg, cat (392.7-479.2 mg/kg, dog and baboon (371.1-452.8 mg/kg, child (297-362 mg/kg and adult human (197.8-241.5 mg/kg body weight respectively could be a reality. The therapeutic safe dose range for the animals was 1-12.5 mg/kg body weight for a period of 7 days, but at a dose (≤ 200 mg/kg body weight the leaf extract showed haematinic effect. However, at a higher dose (> 200 mg/kg, the extract showed haemolytic activity in rats, whereas at a dose (≥25.0 mg/kg, the leaf extract might be organotoxic in hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, monkey, cat, dog, baboon, child and adult human if administered orally for a period of 7 days.

  12. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  13. [Relationship between the included levels of coffee pulp and the protein content in rations for monogastric animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brenes, R A; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of including fresh and ensilaged coffee pulp in rations for monogastric animals, and find the best protein and coffee pulp levels in rations for rats. Fresh coffee pulp and pulp ensilaged for 12 months were used; both kinds of pulp were sun-dried before incorporating them into the rations. The chemical analyses of the pulps revealed a lower content in caffeine, tannins, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the ensilaged pulp than in fresh coffee pulp. Thirty-two experimental rations were prepared, 16 with fresh coffee pulp and 16 with the ensilaged by-product, distributed into four different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%), and three levels of pulp (15, 30 and 45%) for each protein level. The rations thus prepared were fed to Wistar albino rats for a six-week period. The parameters used to measure the effect of the two types of pulp were mortality rate, food consumption, weight gain, food conversion and apparent digestibility of the rations. Ensilaged pulp had a higher nutritive value, lower toxicity and better digestibility than fresh pulp. The increase in the protein level of the ration resulted in partial protection against the negative effects of coffee pulp on the performance of animals, since this improved as the protein level of the ration increased.

  14. 乳酸杆菌在单胃动物生产中的应用现状%Application of Lactobacillus in Monogastric Animal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 许丽; 王晓翠

    2012-01-01

    乳酸杆菌是畜禽肠道中的优势菌群之一,由于其生长过程中会产生乳酸和乳酸菌素,具有稳定胃肠道功能、提高免疫力、改善机体营养状况等作用,因此是目前应用最广泛的益生菌制剂菌种之一。文章就乳酸杆菌的作用机理、影响使用效果的因素以及在单胃动物生产中的应用效果作一综述。%Lactobacillus is one of the advantages of bacteria in the animal intestines,due to the bacteriocin,produced during the lactic acid bacteria growth,can improve animal gastrointestinal function,immunity,nutritional status and so on.Lactobacillus as the most widely used strain is applicated in the probiotic preparation.This review focuses on the mechanism of lactic acid bacteria,the effect factors of Lactobacillus efficiency,also the application of Lactobacilli in monogastric animal were summarized.

  15. Middle-redox potential laccase from Ganoderma sp.: its application in improvement of feed for monogastric animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant; Shrivastava, Bhuvnesh; Sastry, V. R. B.; Sehgal, Neeta; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-01-01

    The variables influencing laccase production by white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp. rckk-02 were optimized employing response surface methodology. Malt extract (6.0% w/v), lignin (0.5% w/v) and pH (5.5) were found to be the most significant factors for enhanced laccase production by 7 fold (226.0 U/ml) as compared to unoptimized growth conditions (32.0 U/ml). The N-terminal sequence of laccase revealed its distinct amino acid profile (S- I- R- N- S- G), which suggested it as a novel enzyme. The Far-UV CD spectrum of the laccase showed single broad negative trough at around 213 nm, a typical signature of all β proteins. The laccase was found to fall in the range of middle redox potential laccases. Purified laccase at dosage of 2.5 Ug−1 body weight when supplemented with pelleted diet of rats, a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in nutrients digestibility without causing any elevation of blood stress enzymes was observed. PMID:23416696

  16. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  17. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote

  18. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.(Cranston,USA)and Anhui Wuchu Science,Technology and Culture Communication Co.,Ltd(Hefei,China)issued the journal Animal Husbandry and Feed Science(ISSN 1943-9911).The main content is basic theory and applied research about animal husbandry,veterinary,feed science and other related fields.The journal covers many research areas

  19. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  20. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the gen

  1. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.

  2. Attributional versus consequential life cycle assessment and feed optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van Hannah H.E.; Bikker, Paul; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Feed production is responsible for the majority of the environmental impact of livestock production, especially for monogastric animals, such as pigs. Some feeding strategies demonstrated that replacing one ingredient with a high impact, e.g. soybean meal (SBM), with an alternative

  3. Fur animal botulism hazard due to feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykoski, J; Lindström, M; Bekema, E; Pölönen, I; Korkeala, H

    2011-06-01

    To assess the botulism hazard in fur animal feed production, 236 fur animal feed components and feed samples were analysed for Clostridium botulinum by detecting BoNT-encoding genes (botA, botB, botC, botE or botF) by PCR and for sulphite-reducing clostridia (SRC) by iron sulphite agar. The quality of the hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) -based in-house control system (IHCS) was evaluated with respect to botulism risk in feed plants (n=32). The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 13% in different feed components and 5% in feed. The estimated MPN count of C. botulinum in feed components was 6.4 × 10(3)/kg at the highest and was shown to poorly correlate with SRC count. The critical control points in IHCSs were variable, and control limits were improperly set in most feed-producing plants. C. botulinum possesses a persistent safety hazard for fur animals by feed production, and control practices should be reassessed.

  4. 唇形科植物提取物对单胃动物的抗氧化作用及其机制%Antioxidation and Machnism of Lamiaceae species Extract in Monogastric Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史东辉; 陈俊锋; 马学会; 许云贺; 王佳丽

    2012-01-01

    Under the diseases, oxidative stress and special physiological conditions, large numbers of free radicals emerge, which leads to lipid peroxidation, enzyme inactivation and oxidative NDA damage. Some of the beneficial effects of Lamiaceae species extract are attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and carotenoid as antioxidants are considered to play an important role in scavenging the free radicals and prevention or delay of the oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This paper summarized the in vitro and in vivo studies of antioxidant activities and modes of action/functions of Lamiaceae species extracts in monogastric animals, and the potential antioxidant mechanism was also disscused.%动物在患病、应激或特殊生理条件下,机体内会大量产生自由基,自由基与机体内的脂质、DNA等产生反应,可对动物造成氧化损伤.唇形科植物提取物中的抗氧化物主要活性成分是酚类化合物,它和抗坏血酸及类胡萝卜素能够阻止自由基引发的氧化伤害.本文阐述了唇形科植物提取物对猪、鸡体外和体内抗氧化作用的实例与抗氧化功能,分析了其抗氧化作用机制.

  5. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein (N × 4.6) kg(-1) dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L(-1) sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg(-1) in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca. The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  6. Ethoxyquin: An Antioxidant Used in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Błaszczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethoxyquin (EQ, 6-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline is widely used in animal feed in order to protect it against lipid peroxidation. EQ cannot be used in any food for human consumption (except spices, e.g., chili, but it can pass from feed to farmed fish, poultry, and eggs, so human beings can be exposed to this antioxidant. The manufacturer Monsanto Company (USA performed a series of tests on ethoxyquin which showed its safety. Nevertheless, some harmful effects in animals and people occupationally exposed to it were observed in 1980’s which resulted in the new studies undertaken to reevaluate its toxicity. Here, we present the characteristics of the compound and results of the research, concerning, for example, products of its metabolism and oxidation or searching for new antioxidants on the EQ backbone.

  7. Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

  8. Review: Use of human-edible animal feeds by ruminant livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J M; Lee, M R F

    2017-09-12

    The drive to increase the output of animal product in some sectors of ruminant livestock production has led to greater use of feeds such as cereal grains and soyabean meal that are potentially human-edible. This trend has caused concern since, by so doing, ruminants compete not only with monogastric livestock but also with the human population for a limited global area of cultivatable land on which to produce grain crops. Reasons for using potentially human-edible feeds in ruminant diets include increased total daily energy intake, greater supply of essential amino acids and improved ruminal balance between fermentable energy and degradable protein. Soyabean meal, produced on land that has been in arable cultivation for many years can fulfil a useful role as a supplier of undegraded dietary protein in diets for high-yielding dairy cows. However, in the context of sustaining the production of high-quality foods from livestock to meet the demands of a growing human population, the use of potentially human-edible feed resources by livestock should be restricted to livestock with the highest daily nutrient requirements; that is, potentially human-edible feed inputs should be constrained to meeting requirements for energy and protein and to rectifying imbalances in nutrient supply from pastures and forage crops such as high concentrations of nitrogen (N). There is therefore a role for human-edible feeds in milk production because forage-only systems are associated with relatively low output per head and also low N use efficiency compared with systems with greater reliance on human-edible feeds. Profitability on farm is driven by control of input costs as well as product value and examples are given of low-cost bovine milk and meat production with little or no reliance on potentially human-edible feeds. In beef production, the forage-only systems currently under detailed real-time life-cycle analysis at the North Wyke Farm Platform, can sustain high levels of animal

  9. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin (1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4... prescribed conditions. (a) It is intended for use only: (1) As a chemical preservative for...

  10. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  11. Distiller’s Dried Grains With Solubles (DDGS for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS is co-product from dry milling of ethanol industry after removal of ethanol and CO2. From every 25.4 kg (1 bushel of corn, it can produce around 7.7 kg of DDGS. DDGS offers an opportunity for cost savings in animal feed rations, and will be available in abundant quantities in coming years. DDGS has been traded in many parts of the world with 27% protein, 9 – 10% fat and < 7% fiber. Although DDGS is mainly used for feeding ruminant, more DDGS are used for monogastric animals such as swine and poultry and recently an interest to be used for aquaculture. Recent studies by University of Arkansas indicated that Metabolizable Energy value of DDGS for poultry is 2850 kcal/kg. It was also reported that DDGS can be included up to 15% in broiler feed without affecting performance and higher level of inclusion was possible for finisher broiler. On swine diet, Digestible and Metabolizable Energy of DDGS is equal to corn and much higher value than that reported by NRC 1998. DDGS is a good source of protein, fat, phosphorus and energy for lactating dairy cows. Distiller’s grains can be included in dairy cow diets up to 20% of the ration without decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, milk fat and protein percentage. For beef cattle, it can effectively be used as an energy source and be fed up to 40% of ration with excellent growth performance, carcass and meat quality. For aquaculture, DDGS can be used up to 30% in freshwater fish such as catfish and tilapia and up to 20% in trout; it can also be used to feed shrimp up to 10%. However, in order to use DDGS for animal feeding, several quality factors include physical, chemical and biological should be considered especially in formulating a diet. DDGS quality may vary depending on the origin and corn quality, processing condition especially drying temperature and time and amount of solubles being added to distiller’s grains.

  12. Feeding and welfare of domestic animals: A Darwinistic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores the natural feeding behaviour, domestic feeding, behavioural problems related to feeding in captivity and welfare of domestic animals, particularly cattle, horse and chicken. The solutions for feeding problems and poor welfare are discussed. The concept of environment of evolut

  13. Aflatoxins in animal feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six samples of animal feed (barley, n = 60; wheat bran, n = 22; wheat dry pulp, n = 29; and canola meal, n = 35) were collected in 2011 from Mashhad (Khorasan, Iran). Aflatoxins (AFs) were determined in these samples after immunoaffinity column clean-up by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination was found in 28 samples: in five of the barley samples (8.3%) at a mean level of 0.48 µg·kg(-1), in two wheat bran samples (9.0%) at a mean level of 0.88 µg·kg(-1), in 10 wheat dry pulp samples (34.5%) at a mean level of 0.30 µg·kg(-1) and in 11 canola meal samples (31.4%) at a mean level of 0.92 µg·kg(-1). AFB1 levels were below the maximum levels of Iran regulations (5 µg·kg(-1)) and the EU maximum limit (5 µg·kg(-1)).

  14. A Novel and Rapid Colorimetric Method for Measuring Total Phosphorus and Phytic Acid in Foods and Animal Feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, is the primary source of inositol and storage phosphorus in plant seeds and has considerable nutritional importance. In this form, phosphorus is unavailable for absorption by monogastric animals, and the strong chelating characteristic of phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of multivalent minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Currently, there is no simple quantitative method for phytic acid; existing methods are complex, and the most commonly accepted method, AOAC Official Method (SM) 986.11, has limitations. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a simple, high-throughput method for the measurement of total phosphorus and phytic acid in foods and animal feeds. The method described here involves acid extraction of phytic acid, followed by dephosphorylation with phytase and alkaline phosphatase. The phosphate released from phytic acid is measured using a modified colorimetric molybdenum blue assay and calculated as total phosphorus or phytic acid content of the original sample. The method was validated to a maximum linearity of 3.0 g phytic acid/100 g sample. Accuracy ranged from 98 to 105% using pure phytic acid and from 97 to 115% for spiked samples. Repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 2.32%, and intermediate precision was 2.27%.

  15. The animal feed and energy conservation properties of Avotan (Avoparcin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.W. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom); O`Beirne, P. [Cyanamid (United Kingdom) Ltd. (United Kingdom). Animal Health Div.

    1994-12-31

    AVOTAN, avoparcin is a glycopeptide antibiotic manufactured by Cyanamid (UK) via the fermentation of a strain of Streptomyces candidus. The gross energy requirement of manufacturing avoparcin is calculated and compared with the gross energy savings of feed utilisation when used in animal feeding regimes for broiler chickens, pigs, beef cattle and dairy cows for milk production. Avoparcin improves farm animal production in terms of liveweight gains and feed conversion efficiency. So, by conserving animal feed it conserves the energy which would have been expended to produce that animal feed. The energy savings thus calculated range from one to two orders of magnitude on an energy ratio basis and so are very significant. The widespread use of avoparcin in world agriculture is therefore very beneficial in an energy conservation context. (Author)

  16. 76 FR 76894 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tilmicosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 558 continues to read as... antimicrobial use by a licensed veterinarian before reinitiating a further course of therapy with an...

  17. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  18. 76 FR 60721 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Division of Ivy Animal Health,...

  19. 75 FR 11451 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Zilpaterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of three abbreviated new animal drug applications (ANADAs) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div. of Ivy Animal Health, Inc. The ANADAs...

  20. Occurrence of arsenic impurities in organoarsenics and animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin; Li, Guoliang

    2013-01-16

    Organoarsenics are widely used as excellent feed additives in animal production in the world. Roxarsone (ROX) and arsanilic acid (ASA) are two organoarsenics permitted to be used in China. We collected 146 animal feed samples to investigate the appearance of ROX, ASA, and potential metabolites, including 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-A-HPA), 4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (4-HPA), As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in feeds. The stability of ROX in both ROX additives and animal feeds was also examined. The results show that 25.4% of the 146 animal feeds contained organoarsenics, with average contents of ROX and ASA as 7.0 and 21.2 mg of As/kg, respectively. Unexpectedly, As(III) and MMA frequently occurred as As impurities in feeds bearing organoarsenics, with higher contents than organoarsenics in some samples. 3-A-HPA, 4-HPA, and DMA were not detected in all samples. ROX and As impurities in both ROX additives and feeds stayed unchanged in the shelf life. It suggests that As impurities in animal feeds bearing organoarsenics should generate from the use of organoarsenics containing As impurities. This constitutes the first report of As impurities in organoarsenics.

  1. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary.

  2. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and containers, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Therefore, under... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; removal. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug...

  3. Identifying key odorants from animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odor emissions from animal agriculutre negatively impact air qualitly in surrounding communities. Current analytical practices are biased against agriculutral odorants and thus inadequate for odor quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different techniques ability to identify ...

  4. 77 FR 58021 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520 and 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove a... that the animal drug regulations for certain monensin free-choice Type C medicated feeds for...

  5. 77 FR 22667 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect the withdrawal of approval of those parts of a new animal drug application (NADA) for a tiamulin Type A medicated article that pertain to...

  6. 75 FR 7555 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Alpharma, Inc. The ANADA provides for...

  7. 78 FR 76059 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to remove dairy replacement...-8108, email: amey.adams@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA has noticed that the animal...

  8. 75 FR 20917 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol, Monensin, and Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental abbreviated new animal drug application (ANADA) filed by Ivy Laboratories, Div....

  9. 75 FR 60308 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to more accurately reflect the recent approval of two supplemental new animal drug applications (NADAs) filed by Pharmacia...

  10. NEW DIMENSION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. TIPU, M. S. AKHTAR, M. I. ANJUM1 AND M. L. RAJA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants and herbs have been used for many years in the treatment of various diseases in animals and human beings. Now-a-days, utilization of these medicinal plants is increasing. These are used in animal feed as the growth promoters. Due to prohibition of most of the antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feed because of their residual effects, plant extracts are becoming more popular. They act as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic, insecticidal, anticoccidial and growth promoters. These plant extracts compete with the synthetic drugs. Majority of medicinal plants do not have the residual effects. Azadiracht indica, Zizyphus vulgaris, Ocimum gratissimum and Atlanta monophylla have the strong antibacterial activity, whereas ocimum plant has strong antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are used for feeding and reducing the parasitic load of animals. The fruit of Azadirachta indica also has the anticoccidial activity for poultry.

  11. Research and Development on Animal Feed in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wan Zahari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the non-ruminant sector to self–sufficiency in meat and eggs has been matched by massive importation of feed. Thus, a major thrust to reduce the burden of feed imports is to increase the use of indigenous feed resources and intensify research to look for alternatives and substitutes. Over the past 3 decades, local researchers have reported on the availability nutritive content, optimal inclusion levels and treatment methods to enhance nutrient value of many locally available feed ingredients in practical poultry rations. The list includes evaluation and utilization of feed rice, palm kernel cake (PKC, broken rice, bran, sorghum, cassava, sago, fishmeal and commercial grain corn production; but the goal of import substitution and self- sufficiency is still unfulfilled. Although PKC, feed rice, local maize and specialty fats has potential to be viable energy feed sources and local fish meal is a promising protein feed source, more large scale Research and Development (R & D is needed. In the ruminant sub-sector, emphasis is towards maximizing use of locally available agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues for the production of cost-effective feeds. The utilization of local feed resources is highly dependent on the supply of agro- industrial byproducts or crop residues from the oil palm and rice industries. In order to encourage a sustainable ruminant industry in Malaysia, local feed production has to be maximized and strengthened. Current emphasis is towards the development of practical and low-cost feeds for various classes of livestock species, particularly by utilizing local forages, tree fodders, crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts. This paper highlights the research and development on animal feed in Malaysia over the last three decades and discusses various aspects of livestock feeding.

  12. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming).

  13. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno

    2010-07-31

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases highlight the need for reducing bacterial pathogens in foods of animal origin. Animal enteric pathogens are a direct source for food contamination. The ban of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) has been a challenge for animal nutrition increasing the need to find alternative methods to control and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization. The modulation of the gut microbiota with new feed additives, such as probiotics and prebiotics, towards host-protecting functions to support animal health, is a topical issue in animal breeding and creates fascinating possibilities. Although the knowledge on the effects of such feed additives has increased, essential information concerning their impact on the host are, to date, incomplete. For the future, the most important target, within probiotic and prebiotic research, is a demonstrated health-promoting benefit supported by knowledge on the mechanistic actions. Genomic-based knowledge on the composition and functions of the gut microbiota, as well as its deviations, will advance the selection of new and specific probiotics. Potential combinations of suitable probiotics and prebiotics may prove to be the next step to reduce the risk of intestinal diseases and remove specific microbial disorders. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the contribution of the gut microbiota to host well-being. Moreover, we review available information on probiotics and prebiotics and their application in animal feeding.

  14. Nutritional technologies in animal feed science and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Robinson, P.

    2007-01-01

    This preface outlines some of the challenges facing animal nutritionists in the area of feed processing, why those challenges are important and why the articles in this issue help to provide information that might assist in meeting those challenges. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Spirulina as a livestock supplement and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, B W B; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2013-08-01

    Spirulina (Athrospira sp.) is an edible microalga and a highly nutritious potential feed resource for many agriculturally important animal species. Research findings have associated Spirulina to improvements in animal growth, fertility, aesthetic and nutritional product quality. Spirulina intake has also been linked to an improvement in animal health and welfare. Its influence over animal development stems from its nutritive and protein-rich composition, thus leading to an increased commercial production to meet consumer demand. Consequently, Spirulina is emerging as a cost-effective means of improving animal productivity for a sustainable and viable food security future. However, our present knowledge of animal response to dietary Spirulina supplementation is relatively scanty and largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper was to review past and current findings on the utilisation of Spirulina as a feed supplement and its impact on animal productivity and health. Only animals deemed to be of agricultural significance were investigated; hence, only ruminants, poultry, swine and rabbits and their responses to dietary Spirulina supplementation are covered. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Antibiotics in animal feed and their role in resistance development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Animals and humans constitute overlapping reservoirs of resistance, and consequently use of antimicrobials in animals can impact on public health. For example, the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in food-animals is associated with the use of avoparcin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used...... as a feed additive for the growth promotion of animals. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and vancomycin resistance determinants can therefore spread from animals to humans. The bans on avoparcin and other antibiotics as growth promoters in the EU have provided scientists with a unique opportunity...... to investigate the effects of the withdrawal of a major antimicrobial selective pressure on the occurrence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The data shows that although the levels of resistance in animals and food, and consequently in humans, has been markedly reduced after the termination of use...

  17. Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M H; Pakfetrat, S

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20 µg kg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p < 0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2) = 0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively.

  18. Feed Assist”- An Expert System on Balanced Feeding for Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.B Angadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate feeding is the major factor for low livestock productivity in India. In dairying, feed cost is a major input and feeding practices has to be improved to ensure profits. Still the small scale farmers are following traditional feeding practices and fail to address the complexities involved in ration formulation. To address the complexities in ration balancing based on the nutrient requirements for different categories of livestock, nutrient composition of wide range of feed resources and the cost - a number of expert systems have been developed. However existing expert systems have not been widely used by majority of small farmers due to lack of awareness, access and basic skills required to operate. To address these limitations, “Feed Assist” a farmer friendly expert system for balanced feeding of dairy animals at least cost has been developed using linear programming. “Feed Assist” does not require much expertise to operate and enables the farmers to formulate least cost rations for different categories of livestock using locally available feed resources.

  19. 75 FR 15610 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2009,...

  20. 77 FR 14272 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 599, revised as of April 1, 2011,...

  1. Determination of processed animal proteins, including meat and bone meal, in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Holst, von C.; Baeten, V.; Berben, G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of processed animal proteins (PAP), including meat and bone meal (MBM) from various species, in animal feed was investigated. It was demonstrated that microscopy is the most reliable method for enforcing the current total MBM ban in the European Uion (EU). It was shown that near

  2. Determination of processed animal proteins, including meat and bone meal, in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Holst, von C.; Baeten, V.; Berben, G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of processed animal proteins (PAP), including meat and bone meal (MBM) from various species, in animal feed was investigated. It was demonstrated that microscopy is the most reliable method for enforcing the current total MBM ban in the European Uion (EU). It was shown that near infrare

  3. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella... Decisions § 500.35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations by the Food..., and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with...

  4. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  5. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  6. Control tools to detect processed animal proteins in feed and in animal by-products: specificity and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodgate SL.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper reviews the current situation with regard to a total feed ban on the use of processed animal proteins in feed for meat producing animals within the EU. The scientific aspects surrounding the development of control tools are discussed. In particular, focus is given to methods for marking those materials prohibited in animal feeds and for the determination of species specificity in those proteins that are potentially allowed in animal feeds. The overall objective is that the advancements in science are utilized to achieve a partial relaxation of the total feed ban in the near future.

  7. Gamma radiation in the control of insects in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Jose G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: villavic@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The pests as beetles, acarids, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal feeds, spices and dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting the deterioration of the products. The objective of this study was to use gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 in the disinfestation of some types of commercial feeds used for animals of small size. In the experiment, packages measuring 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate with 4 types of trademarks were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Each treatment had 10 repetitions, infested with 10 insects for each package with the following species: Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and S. oryzae. After the irradiation, all the packages were maintained at acclimatized room with 27 ± 2ºC and relative humidity of 70 ± 5%. The number of insects and holes in all packages were assessed after 60 days. The results showed that the dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control all the species of insects in the tested feeds. (author)

  8. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  9. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The supplemental NADA provides for approval of free-choice feeds for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot (stocker... Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, filed a supplement to NADA 95-735 that provides for use...

  10. 76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The supplemental NADA revises a manufacturing specification for monensin free-choice Type C medicated feed for growing... 46285, filed a supplement to NADA 95-735 that provides for use of RUMENSIN 90 (monensin, USP) Type...

  11. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition.

  12. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed... subtherapeutic (increased rate of gain, disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic and sulfonamide drugs whether granted by approval of new animal drug applications, master files and/or...

  13. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The g

  14. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The

  15. Energy use in the animal-feeds industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.

    1980-05-01

    Fuel and electricity use in the animal feeds industry is discussed. Data were collected by postal survey and by detailed energy survey from plant records. Energy conservation measures are discussed. Large energy savings are unlikely in lucerne pellet production but significant savings in imported fuel oil could be made by conversion to coal or other indigenous fuels. When heat pump technology has improved it may be economically feasible to use a heat pump to recover heat from the dryer outlet air and use it to preheat the incoming air stream. Electricity savings are unlikely in feed mills but the boiler fuel consumption can by reduced by better situation of boilers and upgrading of steam reticulation systems. Energy consumption in dog biscuit factories can be reduced by similar methods to those suggested in the biscuit baking industry report, in particular conversion to direct gas heating (where available) and waste heat recovery for hot water production offer potential savings. Methods used to manufacture processed animal foods differ between factories and a general list of conservation measures could not be prepared. Useful savings are likely by reduced baseload boiler fuel consumption and waste heat recovery for hot water production.

  16. Determination of processed animal proteins, including meat and bone meal, in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Giséile; von Holst, Christoph; Baeten, Vincent; Berben, Gilbert; van Raamsdonk, Leo

    2004-01-01

    An intercomparison study was conducted to determine the presence of processed animal proteins (PAPs), including meat and bone meal (MBM) from various species, in animal feed. The performances of different methods, such as microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunoassays, and a protocol based on iquid chromatography (LC), were compared. Laboratories were asked to analyze for PAPs from all terrestrial animals and fish (total PAPs); mammalian PAPs; ruminant PAPs; and porcine PAPs. They were free to use their method of choice. In addition, laboratories using microscopy were asked to determine the presence of PAPs from terrestrial animals, which is applicable only to microscopy. For total PAPs microscopy, LC and some immunoassays showed sufficient results at a concentration as low as 0.1% MBM in the feed. In contrast, PCR was not fit for purpose. In differentiating between MBM from terrestrial animals and fishmeal, microscopy detected 0.5% of terrestrial MBM in feed in the presence of 5% fishmeal, but was less successful when the concentration of MBM from terrestrial animals was 0.1%. The animal-specific determination of MBM from mammals or, more specifically from either ruminants or pigs, by PCR showed poor results, as indicated by a high number of false-positive and false-negative results. The only PCR method that scored quite well was applied by a member of the organizer team of the study. Immunoassays scored much better than PCR, showing sufficient sensitivity but some deficiency in terms of specificity. The results also demonstrated that the reliable determination of MBM from ruminants has not been resolved, especially for low concentrations of MBM (0.1%) in feed. Comparison of the results for mammalian MBM from all methods indicated that, for control purposes, the immunoassay method, especially when applied as dipsticks, could be used as a rapid screening method combined with microscopy to confirm the positive samples. However, implementation of such a

  17. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  18. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of ammonium formate as an acidifying agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food...

  19. Detection and isolation of Salmonella spp. in animal feeds from 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic pathogens that contaminate animal ingredients and finished feed and represent a significant hazard as identified by the Codex Animal Feed Taskforce. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration promulgated regulations prohibiting Salmonella contamination in feed and ...

  20. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross......-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts...... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors...

  1. Manipulating dietary PUFA in animal feed: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Gillian

    2014-02-01

    Milk, meat and eggs tend not to be regarded as an important source of PUFA. They are disproportionally high in SFA compared with their PUFA content, especially those from cattle and sheep, since their rumen microbes are responsible for the loss of over 90% of PUFA intake by livestock. This need not necessarily be the case since the relative proportion of PUFA in these foods is dictated by livestock management, especially feeding, and this can be manipulated to boost their content of crucial long-chain n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic fatty acids. The present paper considers the fatty acid composition in animal-derived foods and how these can be manipulated to be more conducive for consumers' health. The importance of recognising the effect of livestock production systems on fat composition is also highlighted along with the fact that we may have to compromise between intensive, high levels of production and this particular aspect of food quality.

  2. DRYING OF POULTRY MANURE FOR USE AS ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing sectors of livestock production in the world. The estimated 2010 world flock was over 18 billion birds with a yearly manure output of 22 million tonnes. Storage and disposal of raw poultry manure have become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Environmental and health problems such as odor and pathogens that may arise during and after land application of raw manure can be eliminated by drying. Dried manure can be utilized as a feed for ruminants because of its high nitrogen content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying temperature and depth, as well as the nutritional profile of dried manure and its suitability as an animal feed. Dried poultry manure contained sufficient levels of digestible energy, crude fiber, crude protein, crude fat, cobalt and iodine. Although dried poultry manure did not meet the dietary requirements for calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, sulfur or zinc it could be used as a feed stuff for ruminants after supplementation with the required nutrients. Heated air drying was most efficient at 60°C and at a depth of 3 cm. During drying poultry manure decreased in pH (8.4-6.9, protein content (43 to 39-43% and amino acid content. The greatest reductions in microbial population occurred at the highest temperature (60°C and the lowest manure depth (1cm. Reductions in the number of bacteria, mold/yeast and E. coli were 65-99, 74-99 and 99.97% respectively, Salmonellae was not detected in the dried product. Dried poultry manure was found to have a non-offensive odor. Odor intensity and offensiveness were reduced by 65 and 69% respectively during drying. Thin layer heated air drying of poultry manure between 40 and 60°C created a safe and nutritionally appropriate feed for ruminants.

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF MYCOTOXINS IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer DENLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of foods and feeds is a significant problem in worldwide. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, particularly by many species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Claviceps and Alternaria in many agricultural crops, especially in cereals and most oilseeds. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone and fumonisins are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Mycotoxins have various acute and chronic effects on animals (especially monogastrics depending on species and susceptibility of an animal within a species. The most applied method to prevent mycotoxicosis in animals involves the addition to the diet of additives with the ability to bind or metabolize mycotoxin in the gastrointestinal digesta, aluminosilicates, activated charcoal, yeast and several polymers have been tested regarding the adsorption of mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of different species. The efficiency of mycotoxin binders, however, differs considerably depending mainly on the chemical structure of both the adsorbent and the toxin. This review describes the most implications of mycotoxins in livestock feeds.

  4. Safety assessment and feeding value for pigs, poultry and ruminant animals of pest protected (Bt plants and herbicide tolerant (glyphosate, glufosinate plants: interpretation of experimental results observed worldwide on GM plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Aumaitre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New varieties of plants resistant to pests and/or tolerant to specific herbicides such as maize, soybean, cotton, sugarbeets, canola, have been recently developed by using genetic transformation (GT. These plants contain detectable specificactive recombinant DNA (rDNA and their derived protein. Since they have not been selected for a modification oftheir chemical composition, they can be considered as substantially equivalent to their parents or to commercial varietiesfor their content in nutrients and anti-nutritional factors. However, insect protected maize is less contaminated by mycotoxinsthan its parental counterpart conferring a higher degree of safety to animal feeds. The new feeds, grain and derivatives,and whole plants have been intensively tested in vivo up to 216 days for their safety and their nutritional equivalencefor monogastric farm animals (pig, poultry and ruminants (dairy cows, steers, lambs. The present article is basedon the interpretation and the summary of the scientific results published in original reviewed journals either as full papers(33 or as abstracts (33 available through September 2003. For the duration of the experiments adapted to the species,feed intake, weight gain, milk yield and nutritional equivalence expressed as feed conversion and/or digestibility of nutrientshave never been affected by feeding animals diets containing GT plants. In addition, in all the experimental animals,the body and carcass composition, the composition of milk and animal tissues, as well as the sensory properties of meatare not modified by the use of feeds derived from GT plants. Furthermore, the health of animals, their physiological characteristicsand the survival rate are also not affected.The presence of rDNA and derived proteins can be recognized and quantified in feeds in the case of glyphosate resistant soybeanand canola and in the case of insect protected maize. However, rDNA has never been recovered either in milk, or in

  5. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. (a) Definitions—(1) Protein derived from mammalian tissues means any protein-containing portion of mammalian animals, excluding: Blood and blood products; gelatin...

  6. Detection of pork and poultry meat and bone meals in animal feed using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other livestock animals. Many countries have banned the use MBM as an animal feed ingredient. Spectral imaging techniques have shown potential for rapid assessment and authentication...

  7. Molecular and biochemical characteristics of β-propeller phytase from marine Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 and its potential application for animal feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Jeung; Kim, Young-Ok; Ko, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Jin-Ku; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Lee, Chul-Soon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sunghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul

    2014-10-01

    Phytate is an antinutritional factor that impacts the bioavailability of essential minerals such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) by forming insoluble mineral-phytate salts. These insoluble mineral-phytate salts are hydrolyzed rarely by monogastric animals, because they lack the hydrolyzing phytases and thus excrete the majority of them. The β-propeller phytases (BPPs) hydrolyze these insoluble mineral-phytate salts efficiently. In this study, we cloned a novel BPP gene from a marine Pseudomonas sp. This Pseudomonas BPP gene (PsBPP) had low sequence identity with other known phytases and contained an extra internal repeat domain (residues 24-279) and a typical BPP domain (residues 280-634) at the C-terminus. Structurebased sequence alignment suggested that the N-terminal repeat domain did not possess the active-site residues, whereas the C-terminal BPP domain contained multiple calcium-binding sites, which provide a favorable electrostatic environment for substrate binding and catalytic activity. Thus, we overexpressed the BPP domain from Pseudomonas sp. to potentially hydrolyze insoluble mineral-phytate salts. Purified recombinant PsBPP required Ca(2+) or Fe(2+) for phytase activity, indicating that PsBPP hydrolyzes insoluble Fe(2+)-phytate or Ca2+-phytate salts. The optimal temperature and pH for the hydrolysis of Ca(2+)-phytate by PsBPP were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. Biochemical and kinetic studies clearly showed that PsBPP efficiently hydrolyzed Ca(2+)-phytate salts and yielded myo-inositol 2,4,6-trisphosphate and three phosphate groups as final products. Finally, we showed that PsBPP was highly effective for hydrolyzing rice bran with high phytate content. Taken together, our results suggest that PsBPP has great potential in the animal feed industry for reducing phytates.

  8. Changes in heavy metal contents in animal feeds and manures in an intensive animal production region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Dong, Yuanhua; Yang, Yunya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhang, Xumei

    2013-12-01

    The 360 feed and manure samples were collected from 150 animal farms in Jiangsu Province, China and analyzed for heavy metals. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in animal feeds were 15.9-2041.8 and undetected-392.1 mg/kg respectively, while Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and Cr in all feeds were below 10 mg/kg. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Cr in animal manures were 8.4-1726, 39.5-11379, and 1.0-1602 mg/kg respectively, while As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were animal feed and manure were positively correlated (p animal manure have been greatly increased over 18 years and the contribution of manures to soil should be considered.

  9. BYPRODUCTS OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AS ANIMAL FEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed manufacturers and farmers will thus, in future, be faced with intensified ..... source in complete dairy, beef, sheep, horse and rabbit feeds. ..... The German trial conducted ..... reduce the area of land normally required to ranch cattle in that ...

  10. Distillery effluents as animal feed: the use of condensed beet molasses stillage (CBMS) in broiler feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredo, M.; Cavani, C.

    1980-09-01

    The trial was conducted on 176 Hubbard male broilers, allotted into four groups of 44 animals each. The control group received a CBMS-free diet and the other groups were given feed containing 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% CBMS, respectively. The trial started at 21 days of age and ended at 56 days of age. Growth rate was not affected by 2.5% CBMS. Feed efficiency was practically the same for the control group for the 2.5%-CBMS group but tended to worsen as the CBMS level increased. As far as dressing out percentages, health (checked by means of anatomo-phathological examination at slaughter), feather pattern and meat organoleptic characteristics were concerned, no differences could be detected. Water content and ash content of the carcasses tended to increase, whereas ether extract decreased as CBMS level increased. Fatty acid composition of abdominal fat pad was uniform for the four groups; in the case of myristic, oleic and linoleic acids significant differences were recorded, but these differences must be considered as biologically not relecent. Excreta water content increased as CBMS level increased.

  11. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  12. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  13. Rapid Ammonia Deposition Measured Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, L. G.; Pan, D.; Sun, K.; Golston, L.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit massive amounts of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Current measurements of NH3 are generally conducted far away from the sources (satellites, airplanes, etc.). There is insufficient knowledge about the dry deposition rate of NH3 near the sources, which might contribute to the large discrepancies between measured concentrations at CAFOs and those from models. During the 2014 NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign, we designed a series of tests to measure the deposition rate of NH3 by utilizing a suite of sensors, including a LICOR LI-7700 methane sensor and Princeton University's custom open path NH3 sensor, which was mounted on top of a small SUV. Our mobile sampling technique enables us to follow feedlot emission plumes to see how ambient NH3 concentration decays as gases moves away from the CAFO. The mobile platform is used to perform upwind and downwind sampling to characterize the NH3 emission source. We tracked the change of the enhancement of NH3 concentration relative to the enhancement of CH4 concentration (ΔNH3:ΔCH4), while transecting the plume of individual cattle feedlots. Measured data shows that the high concentration of NH3 seen at the source decreases quickly as one moves further downwind from it. A time constant of approximately ten minutes has been calculated from the decay of the ΔNH3:ΔCH4 ratios while moving away from the sources. We also will compare our measurements with those of NASA's P-3B aerosol measurements to show that the majority must be lost to dry deposition. This rapid deposition suggests that large amounts of NH3 are being deposited in very close proximity to these CAFOs, which is consistent with previous findings of locally high soil pH near NH3 sources. Our results will be used to better characterize nitrogen deposition from cattle feedlots and estimate NH3 lifetime.

  14. Near infrared spectroscopy for enforcement of European legislation concerning the use of animal by-products in animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martnez A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the work done in the framework of two R&D projects aimed to demonstrate the contribution of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to help the enforcement of the European legislation governing the use of animal by-products in animal feeds. Three different types of animal feed products were studied: compound feeds (CFs, animal protein byproducts meals (APBPs and animal fats by-products (AFBPs. The quantitative and qualitative chemometric models produced with a large collection of compound feed samples (n = 1005 ground and 523 unground have demonstrated, that NIRS can be used for the detection and quantification of the meat and bone meal (MBM added to compound feeds. Discriminant models produced with unground samples produced 100% of correctly classified samples in two cloned instruments placed in two different locations. The results also show that two dimensions NIR spectra of Animal By-Products (ABP, animal meals and fats may contain information about the animal species or group of species from which the ABPs were produced. However, further work is needed to enlarge the sample bank and the spectral libraries with well authenticated samples in order to increase the robustness of the quantitative and qualitative NIRS models. The paper opens expectations for using NIRS for the enforcement of legislation concerning the use of ABPs in animal feeds. More research and demonstration efforts have to be done in order to obtain more definitive and robust predictive models and for optimising its implementation either at-line, on-line and in-line in feed factories and inspection laboratories.

  15. Production of monoclonal antibody for the detection of meat and bone meal in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Huang, Tung-Shi; Seymour, Thomas A; Wei, Cheng-i; Kempf, Stephen C; Bridgman, C Roger; Clemens, Roger A; An, Haejung

    2004-12-15

    For the detection of prohibited meat and bone meal (MBM) in animal feed, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against heat-stable h-caldesmon purified from bovine intestinal smooth muscle. The obtained hybridoma cells were screened against extracts of the bovine MBM and heat-treated smooth muscle, and MAb 5E12 was identified as having the best performance. Antibody 5E12 did not react with animal feed, milk product, plant proteins, and other ingredients used for commercial animal feed except for the gelatin. This antibody diluted to 100-fold was able to detect MBM mixed in animal feed at 0.05% in an ELISA, and it showed strong affinity toward bovine smooth muscle autoclaved at 130 degrees C. Therefore, this antibody can be used in the ELISA system for field testing of the presence of MBM in animal feed.

  16. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  17. The new Israeli feed safety law: challenges in relation to animal and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Shimon; Elad, Dani; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-01

    The Israeli feed safety legislation, which came to prominence in the early 1970s, has undergone a major change from simple feed safety and quality regulations to a more holistic concept of control of feed safety and quality throughout the whole feed production chain, from farm to the end user table. In February 2014, a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law, which is expected to enter into effect in 2017. The law is intended to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed, guaranteeing the safety and quality of animal products throughout the production chain. The responsibility on the implementation of the new feed law was moved from the Plant Protection Inspection Service to the Veterinary Services and Animal Health. In preparation for the law's implementation, we have characterized the various sources and production lines of feed for farm and domestic animals in Israel and assessed the current feed safety challenges in terms of potential hazards or undesirable substances. Moreover, the basic requirements for feed safety laboratories, which are mandatory for analyzing and testing for potential contaminants, are summarized for each of the contaminants discussed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. [Investigation of As, Cu and Zn species and concentrations in animal feeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li-Xian; Huang, Lian-Xi; Jiang, Zong-Yong; He, Zhao-Huan; Zhou, Chang-Min; Li, Guo-Liang

    2013-02-01

    Seventy chicken and seventy-six pig feeds were collected from the feed stores in Guangdong province, and the species and concentrations of As, Cu and Zn were determined. We also examined the stability of roxarsone (ROX), one of the most widely used organoarsenical additives, either in the additive or in the feed at room temperature. The results showed that, averagely, the chicken and pig feeds contained 3.6 and 6.5 mg.kg-1 (As), 18.2 and 119.4 mg.kg-1 (Cu),and 124.6 and 486.2 mg.kg-1 (Zn), respectively. The excessive dosages of As, Cu and As in animal feeds will lead to higher residue of As, Cu and Zn in animal manures. Based on the national limit criteria for feed or feed additive, it was supposed that organoarsenicals had been used, only few feed samples exceeded the As limit, however, the excessive Cu and Zn in pig feeds were much more common. Organoarsenicals were found in 25.4% of the total feed samples, and As(Ill) and As(V) were the two most commonly detected As impurities in feeds bearing organoarsenicals. The mean detectable ROX and arsenilic acid were 7.0 and 21.2 mg.kg-1, respectively. Organoarsenicals were detectable in 24. 3% of the chicken feed samples and 26. 3% of the pig feed samples. Moreover, ROX was commonly used in chicken feeds, while p-ASA in pig feeds. ROX and the inorganic As impurities, either in the commercial additive or in the feed, remained stable for at least 30 days at room temperature, indicating the higher As impurities in feeds probably originated from the As impurities in organoarsenical additives. This is a new As exposure pathway for the producer and user of organoarsenicals and feeds amending organoarsenicals.

  19. Distribution of microorganisms in animal feeds and their disinfection by radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H.; Kume, T.; Takehisa, M.; Iizuka, H.

    The demand for animal feeds in Japan has been increasing with the expansion of the farm animal industry. It is estimated that more than 17 million tons of feedstuffs are used in the breeding of farm animals, and the greater part of them have been imported from foreign countries. However, it has been stated that some amount of feeds and feedstuffs are contaminated by microorganisms or insects, and the damage caused by insects or microorganisms is severe in Japan. Recently, breeding of animals has become large scale in many stud farms, and there is also increasing poisoning by pathogen or fungi. In spite of these poisoning or damage, there have scarcely been reported about contamination by microorganisms in animal feeds on the market. In our laboratory, we had studied disinfectation of animal feeds by radiation, and these results contributed to commercial use of sterilization on laboratory animal diets. We also studied radiation-disinfection of putrefactive moulds on corn and milo. On the basis of these studies, we investigated radiation disinfection of farm animal feeds. In this paper we present the distribution of microorganisms in mixed feeds and fish meals on the market, and effect of radiation-inactivation of microorganisms.

  20. POTENTIAL OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) TO CONTRIBUTE ESTROGENS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFOs) are a growing industry, with a trend towards fewer operations with higher concentrations of animals. Animals are either fed and/or treated with many different types of pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics and hormones, which can end up in...

  1. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lauren; Tamir, Dan; Hyseni, Mimoza; Bühler, Dominique; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation.

  2. Animal feed controls implemented in Japan for the eradication of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in Japan in September 2001, the Japanese government introduced a series of animal feed control measures to reduce the risk of the spread of the disease from a feed source. To ensure the proper implementation of these measures, the Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Centre conducted audit inspections of feed importers, producers, distributors and end-users. The audit inspections include on-site inspection of the feed plants, warehouses, farms and other related premises and the laboratory analysis of feed samples taken from these premises to check for the presence of animal protein. The results of inspections conducted in recent years indicate good compliance with the feed control measures.

  3. Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than

  4. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Denli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry.

  5. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-23

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Open Feedlots Listed in the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Animal Feeding Operations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Currently, the Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) database does not allow facilities to be queried by watershed, therefore, this coverage was developed to assist with...

  7. The risk of contamination of food with toxic substances present in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Meijer, G.A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic substances such as dioxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are almost ubiquitous in the environment. Thus, they are also present in ingredients for animal feed. Adequate risk management depends on knowledge of absorption, metabolism,

  8. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  9. Particulate capture efficiency of a vegetative environmental buffer surrounding an animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  10. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Susan; Shepherd, Megan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP) to pets (dogs and cats) is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition. PMID:28265510

  11. New developments in the detection and identification of processed animal proteins in feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Holst, von C.; Baeten, V.; Berben, G.; Boix, A.; Jong, de J.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the most likely route of infection of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is by consumption of feeds containing low levels of processed animal proteins (PAPs). This likely route of infection resulted in feed bans, which were primarily aimed at ruminant fe

  12. Application of Dual Model to Animal Feed Formulation Optimizing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ben-hai; LUO Qing-yao; PANG Zhi-hong

    2003-01-01

    This study introduced a dual model on an original linear programming to obtain those shadowprices of resources that take part in optimizing. Of feed formulation, the shadow prices of nutrient resourcesshow their influencing degree on a diet last cost when increasing or decreasing expected diet nutrient values.The higher the shadow price of one nutrient resource, the more obvious its influencing action on a diet lastcost. When the shadow price of a kind of resource equals "zero", it means that reaching of this nutrient valuedoes not have influence on a special diet last cost within a particular value range. At the same time, this paperdiscussed the future development direction of feed formulation optimizing techniques in China.

  13. Ecofeed, animal feed produced from recycled food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.

  14. The Sorption of Roxarsone, an Organoarsenical Animal Feed Additive

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The organoarsenical roxarsone is added to poultry feed to increase weight gain. Studies have shown that roxarsone does not accumulate in poultry tissue but is excreted, resulting in elevated arsenic concentrations (~40 mg/kg) in poultry litter. However, there is little understanding of the fate of roxarsone once it is introduced into agricultural watersheds. Using batch experiments, I investigated the sorption characteristics of roxarsone to Ap and Bt soils of the Frederick series, commo...

  15. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  16. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  17. Research Progress of Grassland Feed-animal Balance at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohu; MAI; Yujuan; ZHANG; Yingjun; ZHANG; Shangli; SHI; Ding; HUANG; Yajun; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Feed-animal balance is the key technique on the grassland ecosystem management,and attracts widespread attention in the world.Many studies have been conducted by former researchers,and most of their efforts were intended to keep the balance of feed-animal.However,there are still much more issue needed to be studied in details on the face of grassland degeneration and animal husbandry sustainable development.The author analyzed the feed-animal balance research progress,including the concept of stocking rate and its practical management techniques,especially on the stocking rate calculation methods.In addition,the social and economy effects on feed-animal balance were also discussed during the progress of improving the development of pastoral economy.In order to achieve feed-animal balance more effectively,it was concluded that the focus must be shift from only on animal number to the grassland quality,and it’s necessary to strengthen market tax control.

  18. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... medicated article was voluntarily withdrawn (60 FR 37651, July 21, 1995) and approved conditions of use for... NADA 45-738, were removed (60 FR 39847, July 21, 1995). At this time, the tolerances for residues of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 556 and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and...

  19. The use of animal byproducts in broiler feeds: use of animal co-products in broilers diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMI Caires

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating live performance and carcass yield of broilers fed vegetarian diets or containing different animal byproduct meals after 8 days of age. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 6 treatments with 6 replicates. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal, and included or not animal meals, maintaining constant levels of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and sodium and amino acids (methionine, cystine, lysine, and threonine, The following treatments were applied: T1. Control (corn and soybean diet; T2. Inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM; T3. Inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM; T4. Inclusion of 5% feather meal (FM; T5. Inclusion of 5% poultry offal meal (OM; T6. Combination of meat and bone meal, feather meal, offal meal, and blood meal. Broiler weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, livability and carcass yield were evaluated. At 35 days of age, it was verified that the combination of the four animal meals compromised weight gain. Broiler performance at 42 days of age was influenced by treatments, and the worst weight gain and true feed conversion were observed in birds fed diets with the combination of the four animal meals. The inclusion of 5% BM negatively affected the weight gain. It is concluded that MBM, FM, and OM inclusion can be individually used with no negative influence on broiler performance or carcass yield. In addition, it reduces feed costs.

  20. Oat have multifunctional uses including animal feed, human food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akademia Rolnicza

    2014-07-11

    Jul 11, 2014 ... Department of Pig Breeding, Animal Nutrition and Food, West Pomeranian ... The experiment was carried out on a light soil of the IVb botanical class, using 550 grains/m2 and 90 kg. N/ha. ..... 2.3 Cereals, pulses and oilseeds.

  1. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry...

  2. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Paul; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Wikselaar, van Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; Hal, van Jaap W.; Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Cone, John W.; López-Contreras, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically

  3. Inter-laboratory comparison study for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal feed using spiked and incurred material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de W.C.M.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by plants. PAs in animal feed can cause acute or chronic intoxications in animals and can be transferred to milk. An inter-laboratory comparison study among 12 laboratories, using their own methods of analysis, was conducted for the

  4. Rapid and routine detection of melamine in animal feed and food by FT-Raman technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of melamine contaminated animal feed ingredients on food safety and animal health has become a major public concern in the past 2 years. As the part of Food Protection Plan, US federal agencies, such as USDA/FSIS and FDA, and other organizations have established the GC-MS and LC-MS/MS pro...

  5. Chemical treatment of animal feed and water for the control of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Andrew D; Allen, Vivien M; Davies, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The control of Salmonella in animal feedstuffs is important, principally to protect the human food chain from contamination by Salmonella derived from infected animals. The transmission of Salmonella from animal feeds to animals, and onward to human food products, has been convincingly documented. This is especially important for chicken breeding and laying flocks and pigs, in view of the consequences of recent or imminent control legislation in the European Union. Animal feed ingredients, particularly animal and plant-derived protein meals, are frequently contaminated with Salmonella either from source or from processing plant, and recontamination in compounding mills is an additional problem. Several complementary strategies have been used to control this feed contamination, and these include a range of chemical treatments. The principal agents used are as follows: organic acids and their salts, formaldehyde, and bacterial membrane disruptors such as terpenes and essential oils. Experimental agents include chlorate compounds. Many products use blends of agents from the same or different chemical groups to achieve synergistic or combination effects. The present review draws upon published and company data to describe the various modes of action and efficacies of different chemical agents delivered in feed or in drinking water against Salmonella occurring in feed or in livestock environments. Reasons for the failure of protection are explored, along with problems in usage such as corrosion and reduced palatability. Given the wide array of products available with contrasting modes of action, the need for standardized tests of efficacy is also discussed.

  6. Animals and People First. Why good animal welfare is important for feeding people, for trade and for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Michael Appleby.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLivestock contributes to both the potential and the problems of agriculture. Meat and animal products are important in people’s diet and also valuable trade goods. However, manure can cause pollution. One other issue receiving increased attention is the welfare offarm animals: this is a matter of public concern in many countries, particularly in Europe2. This paper explains why attention to farm animal welfare can help agriculture to feed people, to promote trade and to prevent future problems such as pollution – and why ittherefore needs to be considered in the Agreement on Agriculture.

  7. Zinc fate in animal husbandry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, A; Vacchina, V; Legros, S; Doelsch, E

    2014-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is considered in animal production systems as both an essential nutrient and a possible pollutant. While it is generally supplemented at low levels in animal diets, with less than 200 mg kg(-1) in complete feeds, it is under scrutiny due to potential accumulation in the environment. This explains why international regulations limit maximum supplementation levels in animal feeds in a stricter way. This article gives an overview of the current knowledge on the fate of zinc in animal production systems, from animal diets to animal wastes. Some analytical methods can be used for the quantification and qualification of Zn chemical forms: X-ray crystallography, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, separation techniques, hyphenated techniques… Analysis of chelated forms issued from complex matrices, like hydrolysed proteins, remains difficult, and the speciation of Zn in diluted carriers (premix and feed) is a challenge. Our understanding of Zn absorption has made progress with recent research on ZnT/Zip families and metallothioneins. However, fine-tuned approaches towards the nutritional and metabolic interactions for Zn supplementation in farm conditions still require further studies. The speciation of zinc in pig manure and poultry litter has been a priority as monogastric animals are usually raised under intensive conditions and fed with high quantities of trace minerals, leading to high animal density and elevated quantities of zinc from animal wastes.

  8. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  9. Occupational exposure to fungi and particles in animal feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Carolino, Elisabete; Sabino, Raquel; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    Very few studies regarding fungal and particulate matter (PM) exposure in feed industry have been reported, although such contaminants are likely to be a significant contributing factor to several symptoms reported among workers. The purpose of this study has been to characterize fungal and dust exposure in one Portuguese feed industry. Air and surface samples were collected and subject to further macro- and microscopic observations. In addition we collected other air samples in order to perform real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of genes from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus complexes as well as Stachybotrys chartarum. Additionally, two exposure metrics were considered - particle mass concentration (PMC), measured in 5 different sizes (PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10), and particle number concentration (PNC) based on results given in 6 different sizes in terms of diameter (0.3 μm, 0.5 μm, 1 μm, 2.5 μm, 5 μm and 10 μm). Species from the Aspergillus fumigatus complex were the most abundant in air (46.6%) and in surfaces, Penicillium genus was the most frequently found (32%). The only DNA was detected from A. fumigatus complex. The most prevalent in dust samples were smaller particles which may reach deep into the respiratory system and trigger not only local effects but also the systemic ones. Future research work must be developed aiming at assessing the real health effects of these co-exposures. Med Pr 2016;67(2):143-154. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Occupational exposure to fungi and particles in animal feed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viegas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very few studies regarding fungal and particulate matter (PM exposure in feed industry have been reported, although such contaminants are likely to be a significant contributing factor to several symptoms reported among workers. The purpose of this study has been to characterize fungal and dust exposure in one Portuguese feed industry. Material and Methods: Air and surface samples were collected and subject to further macro- and microscopic observations. In addition we collected other air samples in order to perform real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of genes from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus complexes as well as Stachybotrys chartarum. Additionally, two exposure metrics were considered – particle mass concentration (PMC, measured in 5 different sizes (PM0.5, PM1, PM2.5, PM5, PM10, and particle number concentration (PNC based on results given in 6 different sizes in terms of diameter (0.3 μm, 0.5 μm, 1 μm, 2.5 μm, 5 μm and 10 μm. Results: Species from the Aspergillus fumigatus complex were the most abundant in air (46.6% and in surfaces, Penicillium genus was the most frequently found (32%. The only DNA was detected from A. fumigatus complex. The most prevalent in dust samples were smaller particles which may reach deep into the respiratory system and trigger not only local effects but also the systemic ones. Conclusions: Future research work must be developed aiming at assessing the real health effects of these co-exposures. Med Pr 2016;67(2:143–154

  11. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to

  13. Multivariate near-infrared reflection spectroscopy strategies for ensuring correct labeling at feed bagging in the animal feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ahumada, E; Roger, J M; Palagos, B; Guerrero, J E; Pérez-Marín, D; Garrido-Varo, A

    2010-01-01

    A key concern in animal feed factories is guaranteeing the correct labeling of compound feeds. Therefore, due to incorrect labeling, there is an urgent need for new control methods on the claims that can be made. In this study, this question has been tackled with different multivariate classification algorithms based on the near-infrared spectral fingerprint obtained from a given compound feed analyzed in its original physical market presentation form (i.e., cubes, coarse meals, pellets). The objective of this paper is the evaluation of different methods for establishing a separation among 24 feed types. Two linear methods, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares (PLS) with two approaches to classification (PLSD and PLS-LDA); and one nonlinear method, support vector machines (SVM), were studied. The database used had the following structure: a first division was made between granules and meals; within these two groups, there was a second division according to three animal species to which the feed was marketed (bovine, ovine, and porcine); within each species there was a third division according to the age or physiological status of the animal (i.e., lactating dairy cattle, starters, etc.). Given the database structure, all the methods were evaluated following two strategies: (1) development of a model composed of the nine classification models corresponding to the structure of the data; and (2) development of a unique model that discriminates among the 24 classes of different feeds. With both strategies the lowest percentage of misclassified samples was achieved with the SVM method (3.96% with strategy 1 and 2.31% with strategy 2). Among the linear methods evaluated, SIMCA yielded the best results, with a percentage of 8.47% misclassified samples with strategy 1 and 4.05% misclassified samples with strategy 2. The results in this study show the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy to make acceptable classifications of feed

  14. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  15. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  16. Coordinated Feeding Behavior in Trichoplax, an Animal without Synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L Smith

    Full Text Available Trichoplax is a small disk-shaped marine metazoan that adheres to substrates and locomotes by ciliary gliding. Despite having only six cell types and lacking synapses Trichoplax coordinates a complex sequence of behaviors culminating in external digestion of algae. We combine live cell imaging with electron microscopy to show how this is accomplished. When Trichoplax glides over a patch of algae, its cilia stop beating so it ceases moving. A subset of one of the cell types, lipophils, simultaneously secretes granules whose content rapidly lyses algae. This secretion is accurately targeted, as only lipophils located near algae release granules. The animal pauses while the algal content is ingested, and then resumes gliding. Global control of gliding is coordinated with precise local control of lipophil secretion suggesting the presence of mechanisms for cellular communication and integration.

  17. Coordinated Feeding Behavior in Trichoplax, an Animal without Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn L; Pivovarova, Natalia; Reese, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Trichoplax is a small disk-shaped marine metazoan that adheres to substrates and locomotes by ciliary gliding. Despite having only six cell types and lacking synapses Trichoplax coordinates a complex sequence of behaviors culminating in external digestion of algae. We combine live cell imaging with electron microscopy to show how this is accomplished. When Trichoplax glides over a patch of algae, its cilia stop beating so it ceases moving. A subset of one of the cell types, lipophils, simultaneously secretes granules whose content rapidly lyses algae. This secretion is accurately targeted, as only lipophils located near algae release granules. The animal pauses while the algal content is ingested, and then resumes gliding. Global control of gliding is coordinated with precise local control of lipophil secretion suggesting the presence of mechanisms for cellular communication and integration.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the presence of seeds of Ambrosia spp. in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    of Ambrosia. Ambrosia seeds may contaminate feed. However, animal feed materials compounded for use in livestock are extensively processed. This processing destroys Ambrosia seeds and hence the contribution of compounded feed to the dispersion of Ambrosia is considered to be negligible. Bird feed often......The European Commission requested EFSA to provide a scientific opinion on the effect on public or animal health or on the environment on the further distribution of Ambrosia spp. in the European Union and on the importance of feed materials, in particular bird feed, in the dispersion of Ambrosia...... could become highly invasive in certain environmentally-valuable habitats and might be linked to an impoverishment of species richness, therefore further ecological studies are needed. The CONTAM Panel focused on the relative importance of animal feed, bird feed in particular, on the dispersion...

  19. Studies on Feeding Animals with Straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice 201

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-gui; CHEN Jun-chen; HUANG Qin-lou; ZHENG Kai-bin; YE Xin-fu; TU Jie-feng; CHEN Bing-huan

    2002-01-01

    The straw of Grain-Straw-Dual-Use-Rice (GSDUR) variety 201 of which the grain quality and yield were equivalent to that of common rice variety (the grain yield approximately 7.5 t ha-1 ), but straw protein content was 9.31% (common rice straw i.e. CK was approximately 4.0%), and other eight fodder indexes were better than CK to some extent, was employed to feed animals. 15 N tracing result suggested that the protein in 201 straw could be effectively transformed into fish body protein and white mouse body protein. The digestibility of fodder, the 15N recovery rate of animal body and the absorption of fodder protein were 13.8,9.6, 24. 49 % and 16.5, 6.0, 47.2 % higher than those of common rice straw respectively when feeding grass carp and white mice with 201 rice straw, whereas the 1s N recovery rates of animal manure were 3.25, 6.5 %lower than those of common rice straw, respectively. The results of feeding animals with 201 straw were as carp, fish weight gain per kg fresh rice straw were increased by 60.0, 16.8 and 37.0% respectively when 201fresh straw was used to feed grass carp compared to feeding CK, and fish yield could be increased by 297.5 kg creased by 33.9 and 26.8% respectively when 201 rice straw was used as the main raw material of the compound fodder to feed white geese compared to feeding CK, and geese weight could be increased by 2 358.0 kg powder substituting for wheat bran which made up of 5 % compound fodder to feed cross bred pigs compared to CK, but 0. 11 kg fine fodder could be saved when 1 kg cross bred pig weight was increased.

  20. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  1. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra (Madison, WI); Koegel, Richard G. (Madison, WI); Straub, Richard J. (Brooklyn, WI); Cook, Mark (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  2. PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF RAPESEED IN FEEDING OF FARM ANIMALS AND POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic conditions of the import substitution, special importance is given to the search for new feed sources, methods of preparing them for feeding, the use of biologically active substances and enzymes. At the forefront of feed production is rape as breeding work with this culture has showed positive results. Currently, selectionists have bred yellow double-zero "00" varieties of rapeseeds free of erucic acid of "Canole" type, that have low glucosinolate level. The development of new and modern technology standards are required for preparation them for feeding, since they are fundamentally different from the previously used rapeseed varieties and have fewer restrictions for feeding to different types of farm animals and poultry. The article presents a fairly lengthy and reasoned review of the literature of a large number of authors on the topic, as well as given rapeseed market analysis, rational and advanced methods of preparing rapeseed processed products for feeding to young and adult animals. Much attention is paid to the use of a variety of biologically active substances and enzymes, which improve digestion and absorption of nutrients from rations with rapeseed processingproducts, increase productivity and reduce feed costs per unit of production. The use of processing products of rapeseed improves the profitability of livestock production. Feeding of rapeseedcake to cattle increases the protein content and volatile fatty acids in the rumen content, increases the number of infusoria and decreases ammonia levels. The inclusion of rape forage in diets of farm animals and poultry improves hematological parameters. Products of rapeseed processing of the varieties with low glucosinolatesa1re recommended for the rations of farm animals and poultry depending on the species, age and physiological state

  3. Trace analysis of sulfamethazine in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater by electron capture gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, C.L.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Bowman, M.C.

    1981-12-01

    Sulfamethazine, a widely used antibacterial drug additive in feeds for swine, chickens, and cattle, was scheduled for toxicological evaluation because of potential human health hazards associated with its residues in edible animal tissues. Analytical chemical procedures that would ensure proper concentration, homogeneity, and stability of the drug in dosed feed and its safe usage during the animal studies were prerequisites for such toxicological tests. Electron capture gas chromatographic (EC/GC) methods were therefore devised for the analysis of sulfamethazine residues in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at levels as low as 100, 10, and 10 ppb, respectively. Sample extracts were cleaned up by using liquid/liquid partitioning, and the extracts were subjected to two derivatizations followed by cleanup on a silica gel column. The derivatizations of sulfamethazine consisted of methylation followed by trifluoroacetylation of the primary amine function. Ancillary data concerning stability of the compound in animal feed, water, and as a dry residue on glass, extraction efficiencies, partition values with various solvents, and the analysis of residues in feed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) at levels as low as 1.0 ppm are presented.

  4. Antibiotics: practice and opinions of Cambodian commercial farmers, animal feed retailers and veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhorvoin Om

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cambodia has reported multidrug resistant bacteria in poultry, similar to other countries in the region. We visited commercial food animal farms to explore opinions and antibiotic practices on the farms. Methods We used individual in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 commercial farmers, four feed retailers and nine veterinarians from food animal industry and government offices from the southwestern region of Phnom Penh. Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed. Results Widespread antibiotic use occurred on all farms and was driven by four facilitators: belief that antibiotics were necessary for animal raising, limited knowledge, unrestricted antibiotic access, and weak monitoring and control systems. “If we treat ducks for two days and they aren’t cured we change to human drugs. We cocktail 10 tablets of this, 10 tablets of that and 20 tablets of this one. Altogether 200 tablets are mixed in 100 or 200 L of water for the ducks to drink. No one taught me, just my experiences.” Antibiotics were believed to be necessary for disease prevention. “On the first day when we bring in the chicks, we let them drink Enro [enrofloxacin] and vitamins to make them resist to the weather. We place them in the house and there are some bacteria in the environment. When they are newly arrived, we have to give them feed. So we’re afraid they get diarrhea when they eat feed, we have to use Enro.” All farmers used pre-mixed feed that veterinarians and feed retailers acknowledged contained antibiotics but not all listed the antibiotics. Farmers viewed pre-mixed feed as a necessary ‘feed supplement’ for growth promotion. “….The fatten supplement is mixed in feed. Pigs aren’t growing well unless I use the supplement.” Farmers and veterinarians were concerned that ‘antibiotic residuals’ in animal meat could harm human health. But they did not link this with antibiotic resistance. Conclusions Antibiotic use in

  5. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, AB

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  6. 76 FR 79697 - Withdrawal of Notices of Opportunity for a Hearing; Penicillin and Tetracycline Used in Animal Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Questions regarding the use of antimicrobial drugs in food- producing animals have been raised and debated... therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal feeds and that existing data could neither prove nor disprove the postulated hazards to human health from subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in animal feed. (Refs. 5 and 9)...

  7. 75 FR 54019 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feed; Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Type C medicated feeds containing monensin, USP, or monensin, USP, and tylosin phosphate to cattle fed..., USP), and TYLAN (tylosin phosphate) Type A medicated articles to formulate three-way combination drug... containing monensin, USP, or monensin, USP, and tylosin phosphate to cattle fed in confinement for slaughter...

  8. 75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... drug application (NADA) filed by Intervet, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides for the manufacture of... INFORMATION: Intervet, Inc., 56 Livingston Ave., Roseland, NJ 07068, filed a supplement to NADA 141-264 for... that provides for the manufacture of Type B medicated swine feeds. The supplemental NADA is approved...

  9. 76 FR 16534 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... and Drug Administration (FDA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010 (75 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal...

  10. 75 FR 5887 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Ractopamine; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The NADA provides for use of single-ingredient Type A medicated articles containing ractopamine..., A Division of Eli Lilly ] & Co., Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, filed NADA 141-...

  11. The assessment of microbiological purity of selected components of animal feeds and mixtures which underwent thermal processing

    OpenAIRE

    SOBCZAK, Paweł; ZAWIŚLAK, Kazimierz; ŻUKIEWICZ-SOBCZAK, Wioletta; Jacek Mazur; Rafał Nadulski; Kozak, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms which contaminate animal feeds pose a threat not only to animals but also indirectly to humans through their consumption of products of animal origin. The aim of the present study was to assess microbiological cleanness of selected resources and ready-made feed mixtures before and after thermal processing. The results indicated that the most bacteriologically contaminated resources were oats (Avena sativa), wheat middlings, wheat (Triticum vulgare), and poultry feed mixture KDK...

  12. [Progress in predicting animal feed intake of plant secondary compounds by spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Su; Hong, Fu-Zeng; Wang, Kun

    2007-09-01

    Study on feed intake of phytophagic animals is a key issue in promoting animal productivity and conservation of wild life. However, how to accurately predict the feed intake of grazing animal and wild life is a long remaining problem. Under the mechanism of co-evolution, plant produces secondary compounds such as phenolics, terpenoids and nitrogen-containing compounds to avoid or reduce animal herbivorous damage as a defensive strategy, while animal attained detoxification capacity of biotransforming and mineralizing the compounds by microbial activities and reactions such as hydrolysis and reduction. The attributes of feedstuff and the amount of a particular feed consumed by the animal affect directly the urinary excretion of secondary metabolites. Plant secondary compounds and their metabolites can be efficiently extracted, separated and structure-identified by spectroscopic analytic method. Then the feed intake of the animal can be accurately measured or predicted by the inference model of concentration-ratio that is based on the regression of correlating the secondary metabolites to the precursors in plant. Aromatic compounds, an universal occurrence in vascular plants, play an important role in predicting feed intake of ruminants. Progresses have been made all-around about the new method. Intensive studies have found that different species and developing stage of plant have varying kinds and levels of secondary compounds, and the age, gender and type of animal have different capacity of metabolizing the compounds. Increasing concentrations of the compounds in the diet led to a dose-dependent decrease in food intake best described as an exponential decay. Animals that had not previously been exposed to the compounds ate significantly more when first offered food containing the compound than on subsequent days. Advanced spectroscopic analytic method has been developed and widely applied in extraction (e. g. microwave assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction

  13. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  14. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted;

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected ...

  15. Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburgh S; Oosterom R van; Stenvers O; Aalten M; Braks M; Schimmer B; Giessen A van de; Pelt W van; Langelaar M; Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWS; LZO; EPI

    2007-01-01

    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasyl, D.; Sandvang, D.; Skov, M. N.;

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-seven Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from poultry, swine and animal feed in Poland during the years 1979-1998 and 2000-2002 were analysed with conventional and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial resistance as well as multiresistance was found, respectively, in 80.1 % and 56...

  17. 78 FR 52774 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    .... The majority of entries in PETNet are associated with dog food products, followed by cat food products... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed..., Federal Cooperation To Prevent Spread of Pet Food and Animal Feed Related Diseases AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  18. Fermentation of Leucaena Leucocephala leaves for fuel, fertilizer, and animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.E.; Hales, A.L.; Minott, D.A.

    1982-10-01

    The paper reports on the successful series of novel investigations on the production of good quality fuel gas, along with fertilizer and mimosine-free animal feed by-products from leaves of Leucaena leucocephala. Discussion on a pilot plant specifically designed to produce fuel gas from Leucaena leaves is also presented.

  19. Some features of immune status of animals infected with bovine leukosis background unbalanced on feeding

    OpenAIRE

    TURKO I.; SEMANYUK V.; PELENYO R.; KULYABA O.; TURKO YA.; VERHOLYUK M.

    2012-01-01

    The features of protein metabolism and immunity in cows with leukemia by unbalanced feeding of animals. The peculiarities of the dynamics of total protein, protein fractions, immunoglobulins, Tand B-lymphocytes in cows under violation of the sugar-protein ratio of diet and infection with a virus leukemia.

  20. Standardization of flux chambers and wind tunnels for area source emission measurements at animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers and practitioners have used many varied designs of wind tunnels and flux chambers to measure the flux of volatile organic compounds, odor, and ammonia from area sources at animal feeding operations. The measured fluxes are used to estimate emission factors or compare treatments. We sho...

  1. Impacts of invasive plants on resident animals across ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types: a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Bundschuh, Mirco; Entling, Martin H; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    As drivers of global change, biological invasions have fundamental ecological consequences. However, it remains unclear how invasive plant effects on resident animals vary across ecosystems, animal classes, and functional groups. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis covering 198 field and laboratory studies reporting a total of 3624 observations of invasive plant effects on animals. Invasive plants had reducing (56%) or neutral (44%) effects on animal abundance, diversity, fitness, and ecosystem function across different ecosystems, animal classes, and feeding types while we could not find any increasing effect. Most importantly, we found that invasive plants reduced overall animal abundance, diversity and fitness. However, this significant overall effect was contingent on ecosystems, taxa, and feeding types of animals. Decreasing effects of invasive plants were most evident in riparian ecosystems, possibly because frequent disturbance facilitates more intense plant invasions compared to other ecosystem types. In accordance with their immediate reliance on plants for food, invasive plant effects were strongest on herbivores. Regarding taxonomic groups, birds and insects were most strongly affected. In insects, this may be explained by their high frequency of herbivory, while birds demonstrate that invasive plant effects can also cascade up to secondary consumers. Since data on impacts of invasive plants are rather limited for many animal groups in most ecosystems, we argue for overcoming gaps in knowledge and for a more differentiated discussion on effects of invasive plant on native fauna. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad taghi ghaneian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal feeds by production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the most common and dangerous mycotoxins produced by few species of Aspergillus and penicillium. This group of mycotoxin has disorder and risks, including the induction of liver cancer. They are mutagenic and teratogenic. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, which are naturally produced by several toxic fungi, may contaminate a wide range of dairy animal feeds resulted severe economic loss of cattle meat. Since Aflatoxin B1 and B2 can be transmitted via mammalian’s milk and cheese in form of synthetic Aflatoxin M1 and M2 to human consumers, cause significant health problems. Therefore contamination of animal feed with common toxic airborne saprophytic fungi is a major concern of health officials. Wheat, barley, corn, soybean and other animal feeds may be contaminated with toxic fungi during implantation, harvesting and storage. There are many dairy and livestock centers in Yazd that prepare milk and dairy products for Yazd and neighboring provinces. The aim of current study was to evaluate the amount and type of fungal contaminates of dairy feeds in Yazd dairies. Materials and methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the summer of 2012 on 23 dairies in Yazd. Samples of different animal feeds including concentrates, wheat straw, hay, corn, silage corn, soybean and canola as well as waste of bread, were randomly selected from their bulks. The temperature and humidity of feed storage were recorded

  3. The first direct evidence of a Late Devonian coelacanth fish feeding on conodont animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof; Qvarnström, Martin; Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Ahlberg, Per Erik

    2017-04-01

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Devonian coelacanth specimen from the lower Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, with a conodont element preserved in its digestive tract. A small spiral and phosphatic coprolite (fossil excrement) containing numerous conodont elements and other unrecognized remains was also found in the same deposits. The coprolite is tentatively attributed to the coelacanth. Although it is unclear whether the Late Devonian coelacanth from Poland was an active predator or a scavenger, these finds provide the first direct evidence of feeding on conodont animals by early coelacanth fish, and one of the few evidences of feeding on these animals known to date. It also expands our knowledge about the diet and trophic relations between the Paleozoic marine animals in general.

  4. An update on the safety of foods of animal origin and feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical hazards may occur in any phases of the different livestock production systems. Aim of this review is to address an update about the key issues related to the risk of contamination in foods of animal origin by environmental contaminants linked to industrialisation or urbanisation (e.g., heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, and natural contaminants (e.g., mycotoxins. This review deals with current issues and future perspectives on the complex issue of the safety of feeds and foods of animal origin, by taking into account the estimation of the occurrence of chemical residues in food, the hazard identification and characterisation of mycotoxins in animal feeds, and the analysis of feedstuffs as a tool to control and evaluate food safety.

  5. 78 FR 79299 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bambermycins; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059). The document amended the animal drug regulations to remove dairy..., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002, 301-796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the FR Doc. 2013-29810, appearing on page 76059 in the Federal Register of Monday, December 16, 2013 (78 FR 76059), the...

  6. ANIMAL NUTRITION. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNITS, ANIMAL NUTRITION, FEED CHARACTERISTICS, VITAMINS, MINERALS. FINAL REPORT NUMBER 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE ANIMAL NUTRITION PRACTICES WERE IDENTIFIED BY EXAMINATION OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. UTILIZING THIS INFORMATION, THE AUTHOR INVOLVED 16 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS. INSTRUCTIONAL RESULTS WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE…

  7. 77 FR 24138 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Tiamulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... drug application (NADA) filed by Novartis Animal Health US, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides for... Ave., Suite 300, Greensboro, NC 27408, filed a supplement to NADA 139-472 for DENAGARD (tiamulin.... The supplemental NADA is approved as of January 6, 2012, and the regulations in 21 CFR 558.4 and...

  8. A novel PCR-based method to enumerate Salmonella in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Andersson, Gunnar; Häggblom, Per

    2010-01-01

    Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed. The pro......Animal feed can serve as a reservoir for Salmonella in the food production chain. Therefore, it is important to have rapid and sensitive methods for detection and quantification. In this study, a novel approach for quantification of low numbers of Salmonella in feed samples was developed...... the pellet and subjected to real-time PCR. The qualitative PCR method was compared to a reference culture method using modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassilades (MSRV) agar plates (ISO 6579, Amd D, 2007). Of 81 naturally or artificially contaminated samples tested (soya meal, rape seed meal, rape seed cake......: (i) the dilution scheme was adjusted to better enumerate the low numbers presumably found in feed and (ii) the selective enrichment steps were replaced by the qualitative PCR method. In conclusion, the developed PCR method can be used as an alternative method for detecting low numbers of Salmonella...

  9. Determination of inorganic elements in animal feeds by NIRS technology and a fibre-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Alvarez-García, Noelia; González-Pérez, Claudio; Villaescusa-García, Virginia

    2006-05-15

    In the present work we study the use of near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for the analysis of the mineral composition of animal feeds. The method allows immediate control of the feeds without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe on the sample. The regression method employed was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The calibration results obtained using forty samples of animal feeds allowed the determination of Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P, Zn and Cu, with a standard error of prediction (SEP(C)) and a correlation coefficient (RSQ) of 0.129 and 0.859 for Fe; 0.175 and 0.816 for Mn; 5.470 and 0.927 for Ca; 2.717 and 0.862 for Na; 4.397 and 0.891 for K; 2.226 and 0.881 for P; 0.153 and 0.764 for Zn, and 0.095 and 0.918 for Cu, respectively. The robustness of the method was checked by applying it to 10 animal feeds samples of unknown mineral composition in the external validation.

  10. Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Poultry Feed for Food-Producing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moulds are capable of reducing the nutritional value of feedstuff as well as elaborating several mycotoxins. Mycotoxin-contaminated feed has adverse effects on animal health and productivity. Also, mycotoxins may be carried over into meat and eggs when poultry are fed with contaminated feed. In a point prevalence study feedstuff used for poultry nutrition in Argentina was analyzed for fungal flora, natural incidence of selected mycotoxins, and nutritional quality. Ten mould genera were recovered, six of them known to be mycotoxigenic. More than 28 species were determined. Fumonisins were detected in all the samples (median 1,750 ppb. Forty-four out of 49 samples (90% were contaminated with DON (median 222 ppb and OTA (median 5 ppb. Also, 44 out of 49 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (median 2.685 ppb, 42 samples (86% with ZEA (median 50 ppb, and 38 samples (78% with T2-toxin (median 50 ppb. Ninety percent of the samples had at least one type of nutritional deficiency. This study indicates the need for continuous assessment of the mycological status of animal feed production, in order to feed animals for optimal performance ensuring food safety.

  11. New approach for the quantification of processed animal proteins in feed using light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veys, P; Baeten, V

    2010-07-01

    A revision of European Union's total feed ban on animal proteins in feed will need robust quantification methods, especially for control analyses, if tolerance levels are to be introduced, as for fishmeal in ruminant feed. In 2006, a study conducted by the Community Reference Laboratory for Animal Proteins in feedstuffs (CRL-AP) demonstrated the deficiency of the official quantification method based on light microscopy. The study concluded that the method had to be revised. This paper puts forward an improved quantification method based on three elements: (1) the preparation of permanent slides with an optical adhesive preserving all morphological markers of bones necessary for accurate identification and precision counting; (2) the use of a counting grid eyepiece reticle; and (3) new definitions for correction factors for the estimated portions of animal particles in the sediment. This revised quantification method was tested on feeds adulterated at different levels with bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) and fishmeal, and it proved to be effortless to apply. The results obtained were very close to the expected values of contamination levels for both types of adulteration (MBM or fishmeal). Calculated values were not only replicable, but also reproducible. The advantages of the new approach, including the benefits of the optical adhesive used for permanent slide mounting and the experimental conditions that need to be met to implement the new method correctly, are discussed.

  12. An evaluation of total starch and starch gelatinization methodologies in pelleted animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Jones, C; Guo, Q; Lewis, L; Stark, C R; Alavi, S

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of total starch content (TS) or degree of starch gelatinization (DG) in animal feed is always challenging because of the potential interference from other ingredients. In this study, the differences in TS or DG measurement in pelleted swine feed due to variations in analytical methodology were quantified. Pelleted swine feed was used to create 6 different diets manufactured with various processing conditions in a 2 × 3 factorial design (2 conditioning temperatures, 77 or 88°C, and 3 conditioning retention times, 15, 30, or 60 s). Samples at each processing stage (cold mash, hot mash, hot pelletized feed, and final cooled pelletized feed) were collected for each of the 6 treatments and analyzed for TS and DG. Two different methodologies were evaluated for TS determination (the AOAC International method 996.11 vs. the modified glucoamylase method) and DG determination (the modified glucoamylase method vs. differential scanning calorimetry [DSC]). For TS determination, the AOAC International method 996.11 measured lower TS values in cold pellets compared with the modified glucoamylase method. The AOAC International method resulted in lower TS in cold mash than cooled pelletized feed, whereas the modified glucoamylase method showed no significant differences in TS content before or after pelleting. For DG, the modified glucoamylase method demonstrated increased DG with each processing step. Furthermore, increasing the conditioning temperature and time resulted in a greater DG when evaluated by the modified glucoamylase method. However, results demonstrated that DSC is not suitable as a quantitative tool for determining DG in multicomponent animal feeds due to interferences from nonstarch transformations, such as protein denaturation.

  13. 77 FR 6795 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) Animal Feeding Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) Animal Feeding Operations... Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Panel to conduct a peer... and Basins at Swine and Dairy Animal Feeding Operations'' (February 2012 draft). DATES: The SAB...

  14. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Baeten, V.; Murray, I.; Berben, G.; Brambilla, G.; Holst, von C.

    2003-01-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed.

  15. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...) in part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21...--IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority... / Friday, May 10, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food...

  16. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  17. Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Mortensen, Alicja; Broesboel-Jensen, B.

    2012-01-01

    By-products are secondary or discarded products from manufacturing. Contamination of by-products used for feed may result in carryover to animal food products and hence have impact on either animal health or food safety. Feed by-products from bioethanol production include, for example, 'dried dis...

  18. An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizzi, G.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Baeten, V.; Murray, I.; Berben, G.; Brambilla, G.; Holst, von C.

    2003-01-01

    Enforcing the ban on meat-and-bone meal in feed for farmed animals, and especially ruminants, is considered an important measure to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The authors describe current analytical methods for the detection and identification of animal tissues in feed.

  19. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorne, Jean Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Doerge, Daniel R. [NCTR, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Vandenbroeck, Marc [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, Johanna [University of Utrecht (Netherlands); Mennes, Wim [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Knutsen, Helle K. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Vernazza, Francesco [Dietary and Chemical Monitoring, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Castle, Laurence [FERA, York (United Kingdom); Edler, Lutz [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Benford, Diane [Food Standard Agency, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health.

  20. Elimination of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in an Animal Feed Manufacturing Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anne R; Schumacher, Loni L; Cochrane, Roger A; Poulsen, Elizabeth; Bai, Jianfa; Woodworth, Jason C; Dritz, Steve S; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) was the first virus of wide scale concern to be linked to possible transmission by livestock feed or ingredients. Measures to exclude pathogens, prevent cross-contamination, and actively reduce the pathogenic load of feed and ingredients are being developed. However, research thus far has focused on the role of chemicals or thermal treatment to reduce the RNA in the actual feedstuffs, and has not addressed potential residual contamination within the manufacturing facility that may lead to continuous contamination of finished feeds. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the use of a standardized protocol to sanitize an animal feed manufacturing facility contaminated with PEDV. Environmental swabs were collected throughout the facility during the manufacturing of a swine diet inoculated with PEDV. To monitor facility contamination of the virus, swabs were collected at: 1) baseline prior to inoculation, 2) after production of the inoculated feed, 3) after application of a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend cleaner, 4) after application of a sodium hypochlorite sanitizing solution, and 5) after facility heat-up to 60°C for 48 hours. Decontamination step, surface, type, zone and their interactions were all found to impact the quantity of detectable PEDV RNA (P production of the contaminated feed. Additionally, the majority of samples collected from non-direct feed contact surfaces were also positive for PEDV RNA after the production of the contaminated feed, emphasizing the potential role dust plays in cross-contamination of pathogen throughout a manufacturing facility. Application of the cleaner, sanitizer, and heat were effective at reducing PEDV genomic material (P < 0.05), but did not completely eliminate it.

  1. Inter-laboratory comparison study for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal feed using spiked and incurred material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; Elbers, Ingrid J W; Mulder, Patrick P J

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by plants. PAs in animal feed can cause acute or chronic intoxications in animals and can be transferred to milk. An inter-laboratory comparison study among 12 laboratories, using their own methods of analysis, was conducted for the detection and quantification of PAs in animal feed. The participants were asked to quantify PAs in a blank test sample, a blank test sample to be spiked with a provided spiking mixture of seven PA standards, and a test sample contaminated with common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). Ten of the participating laboratories used an LC-MS/MS method, one used an LC-ToF-MS method, and one used a GC-MS method. None of the laboratories reported false-negative samples, while two laboratories reported false-positive results in the blank sample. z-scores were calculated for each laboratory for seven PAs in test samples B and C. z-scores varied considerably between laboratories for the concentrations of the free bases and less for the N-oxides, probably due to the lower levels of the free bases as compared with the N-oxides in the contaminated feed. Questionable or unsatisfactory results for the z-scores were obtained for 8% of the cases for the spiked sample and for 12% of the incurred sample. Three laboratories scored consequently positive or negative results. No preferred method for quantification of PAs in feed could be identified within the methods used for this study due to the relatively small number of participants. It was concluded that this inter-laboratory study shows that the methods used for PA detection need further development for accurate estimation of PAs in contaminated feed.

  2. IMEP-32: Determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cordeiro, Fernando; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    A collaborative study, IMEP-32, was conducted in accordance with international protocols to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin. The method would support Directive No 2002/32/EC of the European...... Parliament and the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed [1] where it is indicated that "Upon request of the competent authorities, the responsible operator must perform an analysis to demonstrate that the content of inorganic arsenic is lower than 2 ppm". The method is based on solid phase...... (unspiked and spiked), fish fillet (spiked) and a lobster hepatopancreas (unspiked). In total seven samples were investigated within the concentration range of 0.07 – 2.6 mg kg-1. The test samples were dispatched to 23 laboratories in 12 different countries. Nineteen participants reported results...

  3. Comparison of the Kjeldahl method and a combustion method for total nitrogen determination in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcó, Alejandro; Rubio, Roser; Compañó, Ramon; Casals, Isidre

    2002-07-03

    The features of the Dumas combustion method (CM) and those of the Kjeldahl method (KM) were compared as they apply to total nitrogen determination in animal feed. Both methods achieved similar repeatability (S.D., 0.11-0.38 from Kjeldahl and 0.15-0.36 from combustion) and similar intra-laboratory reproducibility (S.D., 0.11-0.39 from Kjeldahl and 0.15-0.37 from combustion). R.S.D. is always below 2%. These results show that the CM is suitable for the analysis of protein content in animal feed (5-75% protein content). The CM is recommended owing to its shorter analysis time, its cost and its environmental suitability.

  4. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2016-03-01

    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic.

  5. Comparison of Selective Media for the Enumeration of Probiotic Enterococci from Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Johann Domig

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The project »Methods for the Official Control of Probiotics Used as Feed Additives« has been undertaken to develop and validate methods for the selective enumeration and strain identification of six probiotic microorganism genera (enterococci, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, pediococci, bacilli and yeast. A diversity of media has been used for the detection, isolation and enumeration of enterococci. Aiming at the selective enumeration of enterococci (mainly Enterococcus faecium present in probiotic animal feeds, either as a single component or in combination with other microorganisms, an extensive screening of published methods for culturing and enumerating enterococci was carried out. A collection of enterococcal strains used as probiotics in animal feeds and of isolates as well as reference strains from culture collections was established. Moreover, selected strains of lactobacilli, pediococci and streptococci were included for reference purposes. Based on a multitude of publications, twelve commercially available media were selected for testing and then compared with regard to their usefulness and selectivity. Bile esculin azide (BEA agar showed good selectivity and pronounced growth of most enterococcal strains. Good reproducibility and electivity (esculin hydrolysis as well as no influence of the feed matrix on the colony counts and a simple preparation procedure formed the basis for the proposed enumeration protocol. This work formed the basis for the enumeration protocol that was adapted to ISO format and validated in a collaborative study involving twenty laboratories from twelve European countries.

  6. Corn seeds as bioreactors for the production of phytase in the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rumei; Zhang, Chunyi; Yao, Bin; Xue, Guangxing; Yang, Wenzhu; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Junmin; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Ping; Fan, Yunliu

    2013-05-20

    Corn seed is a major ingredient of animal feed worldwide. However, it contains phytate, a major phosphate storage form that is unavailable to monogastric animals like pigs and poultry. We report a transgenic corn with bioavailable phosphate, achieved by seed-specific overexpression of Aspergillus niger phytase, an enzyme catalyzing the release of phosphate from phytate. We obtained maximal phytase activity of 125 FTU/g kernels, 1000-fold above that of the wild type, with 1000 g of kernels containing up to 67 times the feed industry requirement. Enzymatic characterization of Zea mays recombinant phytase (ZmrPhy) showed it to be equivalent to yeast (Pichia pastoris) recombinant phytase (PprPhy), a commercially available phytase product. An animal feeding trial demonstrated that ZmrPhy had similar nutritional effects on broiler chickens to PprPhy in terms of reducing inorganic phosphorus addition to feed and phosphate excretion in animal manure. These results suggest that transgenic phytase corn can be used directly in the feed industry. Experiments were conducted to assess the food safety of the corn; the results demonstrated no difference versus regular corn. This is the first genetically modified corn officially issued with a biosafety certificate in China and has great potential in the animal feed industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS system with timed and highly selective reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Na; Yang, Lingchen; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Suquan; Lin, Shanhai; Wu, Aibo; Zhou, Zhenlei; Hou, Jiafa

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxins have the potential to enter the human food chain through carry-over of contaminants from feed into animal-derived products. The objective of the study was to develop a reliable and sensitive method for the analysis of 30 mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food (meat, edible animal tissues, and milk) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the study, three extraction procedures, as well as various cleanup procedures, were evaluated to select the most suitable sample preparation procedure for different sample matrices. In addition, timed and highly selective reaction monitoring on LC-MS/MS was used to filter out isobaric matrix interferences. The performance characteristics (linearity, sensitivity, recovery, precision, and specificity) of the method were determined according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 401/2006/EC. The established method was successfully applied to screening of mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food. The results indicated that mycotoxin contamination in feed directly influenced the presence of mycotoxin in animal-derived food. Graphical abstract Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS.

  8. Stability of aflatoxin B1 in animal feed candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.H.; Mazijk, van R.J.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Huf, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two candidate reference materials animal feed were stored at a temperature of -18°C, 4 C, 20°C and 37°C. The stability of aflatoxin B1 was studied duringa period of two years. A significant decrease in the aflatoxin B1 content was measured in the samples stared at 20°C and 37°C. In the samples

  9. Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed--focus on Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Elisabeth; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Tassis, Panagiotis; Tzika, Eleni; Marin, Daniela; Taranu, Ionelia; Tabuc, Cristina; Nicolau, Anca; Aprodu, Iuliana; Puel, Olivier; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2012-10-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%-100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.

  10. Simultaneous determination of five quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides in animal feeds using an immunochromatographic strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tao; Zhu, Liqian; Shu, Lihui; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    An immunochromatographic (ICG) strip was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of five quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides in animal feed. For this purpose, polyclonal antibodies (PcAb) with group-specific quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides were conjugated to colloidal gold particles as the detection reagent for ICG strips to test for quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides. This method achieved semi-quantitative detection of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides within 5-10 min. The visual lower detection limits of the strip for quinocetone, cyadox, carbadox, mequindox and olaquindox were 10, 15, 15, 20 and 20 ng ml(-1), respectively. Using an ICG strip reader, the 50% inhibitions (IC50 values) were calculated to be 9.1, 13.5, 16.6, 20.2 and 21.3 ng ml(-1) for quinocetone, cyadox, carbadox, mequindox and olaquindox, respectively. When used to analyse samples of animal feed, acceptable recovery rates of 77.5-99.5% and coefficients of variation (CVs) of 4.3-10.7% were obtained. Levels measured with the ICG strip for 10 spiked samples were confirmed by HPLC with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9965 (n = 10). In conclusion, the method was rapid and accurate for simultaneous determination of five quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides antibiotics in animal feed.

  11. Dietary Fibres: Their Analysis in Animal Feeding, and Their Role in Rabbit Nutrition and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Gidenne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries ago Heinrich Einhof developed the so-called Weende method (crude fibre, to first deals with the fibre content of the feeds for ruminants, and proposes to isolate a residue called the "crude fibre". Then, dietary fibre concepts evolve and differ in animal feeding compared to human nutrition and health. Animal nutritionists deal with various fibre sources, often from whole plants (forages, by products of seeds processing, and recover a larger range of polysaccharidic components, including other polymers, such polyphenolic (lignins, tannins or polylipidic compounds (cutins. Dietary fibres are generally defined as polysaccharides and associated substances resistant to mammal enzyme digestion and absorption that can be partially or totally fermented in the gut. However, today this topic is still subjected to very active research, because of the complexity of the physical structure and chemical composition of the plant cell walls, and in the wide and different physiological effects of these different constituents. The importance of dietary fibre in animal feeding is due to its influence on rate of passage, mucosa functionality and its role as substrate for gut microbes performances and digestive health. This review will describe the definition and different structure of fibres and cell wall constituents and their analytical methods.

  12. Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Se Jin; Lee, Ju Hyun; Fu, Zhenli; Skinner, Margaret; Parker, Bruce L; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-07-01

    Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry.

  13. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  14. The vitamin B12 and Se status of lambs during their transition from milk-fed monogastric to grazing herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, S O; Grace, N D

    2017-05-01

    To estimate how the lamb's transition from a monogastric at birth to a grazing ruminant at weaning affects its dietary intake of trace nutrients from milk and pasture, and to determine whether its vitamin B12 and Se status changes during that period. We reviewed published reports of field trials in New Zealand where flocks were managed on mixed sward pastures without additional supplements. Information on intakes of milk and pasture was drawn from studies of suckling lambs grazing with ewes for up to 20 weeks. We calculated the quantities of vitamin B12, Co and Se ingested and absorbed by lambs between birth and weaning. Trace nutrient status was based on concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum and Se in blood. Six studies met our inclusion criteria regarding age of lambs, supplementation and sampling frequency. In each, blood had been collected at regular intervals from birth to weaning. Changes over time in concentrations of vitamin B12 and Se were analysed using regression procedures. Estimated Se intake increased from approximately 5 µg/day near birth to 25 µg/day near weaning, but Se absorbed was less variable, being approximately 10 µg/day. Estimated vitamin B12 intake near birth was approximately 8 µg/day and increased to 90 µg/day by weaning, with the amount being absorbed increasing from 0.8 to 9 µg/day. Concentrations of trace elements in unsupplemented lambs among the six studies varied from deficient to adequate. Linear regressions indicated that there was little change in concentrations of vitamin B12 and Se between birth and weaning in four studies (p>0.05), and mean concentrations measured at docking did not differ from those at weaning in four studies where this could be assessed (p>0.1). From newborn to weaned, a lamb's physiology develops from monogastric to ruminant. The change in diet from milk to pasture presents markedly different chemical forms and concentrations of some trace nutrients. Despite this, the vitamin B12 and Se

  15. Efficiency of feed utilization in young Nellore animals of different genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pinheiro dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In study of more efficient animals for food utilization, it is of great importance to know differences between genders. There are differences between male and female cattle in growing and body composition, mainly those related to the action of sex hormones. This study aimed to evaluate the sex effect on feed efficiency traits in young Nellore animals. Individual feed intake data from eight tests, performed from 2005 to 2012 at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte-Instituto de Zootecnia-Sertãozinho-SP were utilized. The tests began after weaning, when the animals had, on average, 286 days of age and 229 kg of body weight. The tests duration ranged from 56 to 112 days, depending on the year. Traits analyzed were final body weight (FBW, dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed efficiency ratio (FER, residual feed intake (RFI and Kleiber ratio (KR. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effect age at the test beginning as linear covariate and the random effects: sex, facilities and year. Least square means were calculated and compared by t test. Males had greater FBW than females, what was expected, due to the action of male hormones which benefits the muscle deposition. Greater means of ADG and DMI were also detected for males, when compared to females, because heavier animals have higher gains and consume food according to their body sizes. Among all the feed efficiency measures studied, significant differences between males and females were detected in FCR and KR. Analyzing FCR, females used more food than males for 1 kg of body weight gain, being less efficient. The same was found when KR was analyzed, having males higher KR and being more efficient. No significant differences were detected between males and females for FER and RFI. Young Nellore females are less efficient than males in this growth stage, because of the differences in growth curves due to the sex

  16. Biological treatments as a mean to improve feed utilization in agriculture animals-An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla A Abdel-Aziz; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Mounir M El-Adawy; Luis M Camacho; Ahmed E Kholif; Mona M Y Elghandour; Borhami E Borhami

    2015-01-01

    As a result of agriculture practices, mil ion tons of agriculture are produced as a secondary or by-products;however, with low nutritive values. Many methods are applied to improve the nutritive value and increase its utilization in ruminant’s nutrition. The biological treatments are the most common with more safe-treated products. In most cases, the biological treatments are paral eled with decreased crude ifber and ifber fractions content with increased crude protein content. Direct-fed micro-bial and exogenous enzymes to animal are other ways of biological methods for improving nutritive value of feeds. Here in this review, we wil try to cover the biological treatments of by-products from different sides view with different types of animals and different animal end-products.

  17. Estimation of green water footprint of animal feed for beef cattle production in Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA including green water footprint (GWF is one of the objectives. This manuscript describes the estimation of GWF of animal feed crops including grasses of native range and introduced pasture, winter pasture and small grains typical to Southern Great Plains. The estimates are based on modeled evapotranspiration from Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX model under Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT framework. NTT simulated crop growth, water balance, animal grazing, and manure management using 47 years of weather data from 1960. Our results aggregated by county indicate grasses in the native range and field crops used as winter pasture show smaller GWF than grasses in the introduced pasture and small grains. Animal stocking rate appears to be directly correlated with water requirement to produce a unit quantity of forage.

  18. The influence of feeding GMO-peas on growth of animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Mares

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of genetically modified (GM food or feed into the commercial sale represents a very complicated process. One of the most important steps in approval process is the evaluation of all risks on the health status of people and animal models. Within our project the genetically modified peas was breeded that showed significant resistance against Pea seed-borne mosaic virus and Pea enation mosaic virus. Preclinical studies have been conducted to found out the effect of GMO peas on animals - rats of outbreeding line Wistar. In a total, 24 male, specific pathogen free Wistar rats were used in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, the animals were 28 days old. The three experimental groups with 8 individuals were created. The first group of rats was fed with GMO peas, the second group of rats consumed mix of pea cultivar Raman and the third group was control without pea addition (wheat and soya were used instead of pea. In the present study we focused our attention on health, growth and utility features of rats fed with GM pea. All characteristic were observed during the experiment lasting 35 days. Consumed feed was weighted daily and the weight of the animals was measured every seven days. The average values were compared within the groups. The aim of the experiment was to verify if resistant lines of pea influence the weight growth of animal models. The results of our experiment showed that even a high concentration (30% of GM pea did not influence growth rate of rats to compare with both rats fed with pea of Raman cultivar and control group. We did not observe any health problems of animal models during the experiment.

  19. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  20. Analysis of Tetracyclines in Medicated Feed for Food Animal Production by HPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elvira Gavilán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer for the quantification of four tetracyclines in feed is presented. Validation was performed following the guidelines of Decision 2002/657/EC. Results indicated that the four tetracyclines can be identified and quantified in a concentration range between 50 and 500 mg/kg with recoveries between 84% and 109% and RSD for precision under reproducible conditions between 12% and 16%. Satisfactory results were also obtained with interlaboratory studies and by comparing the method with an HPLC-Fluorescent method.

  1. HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATION AT THE JEJUNUM LEVEL GENERATED BY INTRODUCING MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN BROILERS FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ŞTEF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and extracts including in monogastric animals feeding represents a current practice because phyto-additives can represent an alternative to antibiotics using. In this way, in Nutrition and animals feeding discipline was been performed an experiment on 6 weeks, respectively from hatching to 42 days of age, on 120 broiler chickens, divided on three experimental variants (LEU, LEP and LM with 40 individuals each of them. The used hybrid was Ross 308. In LEU group were incorporated essential oils of Coriandri fructus, Satureja hortensis, Hipophae rhamnoides, 250 mg at 1 kg combined fodder. In LEP group were included in combined fodder structure a plants premix (Mentha piperita, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis in 2% proportion.. Microscopic studies showed, in the case of experimental groups, a hypertropic process of intestinal mucous membrane, emphasized by villousities and glandular apparatus development, through capilar system extending and leucocytar infiltrate development on all mucous chorion thickness.

  2. Screening of mycotoxins in animal feed from the region of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Bojana M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of screening of mycotoxins in animal feed originating from the region of Vojvodina. Permanent screening is needed on all levels of production and storage, as well as the use of known methods to reduce mould contamination or toxin content in feedstuffs and feed. A total of 56 representative samples were collected from feed companies from the region of Vojvodina. Samples were collected during February 2009. The collected samples included 41 samples of feedstuffs (soybean, soybean meal, soybean grits, soybean cake, maize, sunflower meal, barley, wheat feed flour, rapeseed meal, dehydrated sugar beet pulps, alfalfa meal, yeast, dried whey, fish meal, meat-bone meal and 15 samples of complete feedingstuffs. The amounts of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol were determined. Screening method for the analysis was done using Neogen Veratox® testing kits. The test itself is a competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA. Mycotoxins were present in 71.4% of the samples, but the values determined were below the maximum allowed limits for both Serbian and EC reference values. Zearalenone was found with the highest incidence (57.1% of samples, followed by ochratoxin A (37.5%, fumonisin (33.9%, deoxynivalenol (14.3% and aflatoxins (3.6%.

  3. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: Result of an interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, M.; Berben, G.; Fumière, O.; Duijn, G. van; Mensinga-Kruize, J.; Reaney, S.; Boix, A.; Holst, C. von

    2007-01-01

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical

  4. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: Result of an interlaboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, M.; Berben, G.; Fumière, O.; Duijn, G. van; Mensinga-Kruize, J.; Reaney, S.; Boix, A.; Holst, C. von

    2007-01-01

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical m

  5. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, In-Hye; Do, Woo-Hyun; Nam, Woo-Seon; Li, Hua; Jang, Han-Sub; Lee, Chan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs), and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying) exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early) feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds. PMID:24366207

  6. Incidence and Levels of Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contaminants in Animal Feeds Used in Korea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and levels of deoxynivalenol (DON, fumonisins B1 and B2 (FBs, and zearalenone (ZEN contaminants in animal feeds used in Korea in 2012. Contamination with DON was observed in 91.33% and 53.33% in compound feeds and feed ingredients, respectively. Among compound feeds, poultry layer feed (laying exhibited the highest contaminant level of 1.492 mg/kg. FBs contaminants were present in compound feeds and feed ingredients at 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively. Most poultry broiler (early feeds were highly contaminated with FBs, and one of these feeds detected the level as 12.823 mg/kg as the highest level. The levels of ZEN in compound feeds and feed ingredients were 71.33% and 47%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of compound feeds for cattle were contaminated with ZEN, and the highest contamination level of 0.405 mg/kg was observed in cattle fatting feeds.

  7. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  8. Assessing the relationship between groundwater nitrate and animal feeding operations in Iowa (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkle, Keith W.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Jones, Rena R.; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.; Wheeler, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen is a common contaminant of drinking water in many agricultural areas of the United States of America (USA). Ingested nitrate from contaminated drinking water has been linked to an increased risk of several cancers, specific birth defects, and other diseases. In this research, we assessed the relationship between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and groundwater nitrate in private wells in Iowa. We characterized AFOs by swine and total animal units and type (open, confined, or mixed), and we evaluated the number and spatial intensities of AFOs in proximity to private wells. The types of AFO indicate the extent to which a facility is enclosed by a roof. Using linear regression models, we found significant positive associations between the total number of AFOs within 2 km of a well (p trend  5 mg/L) compared with low-nitrate (≤ 5 mg/L) wells (p = 0.001). A generalized additive model for high-nitrate status identified statistically significant areas of risk for high levels of nitrate. Adjustment for some AFO predictor variables explained a portion of the elevated nitrate risk. These results support a relationship between animal feeding operations and groundwater nitrate concentrations and differences in nitrate loss from confined AFOs vs. open or mixed types.

  9. Assessing the relationship between groundwater nitrate and animal feeding operations in Iowa (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkle, Keith W; Nolan, Bernard T; Jones, Rena R; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H; Wheeler, David C

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen is a common contaminant of drinking water in many agricultural areas of the United States of America (USA). Ingested nitrate from contaminated drinking water has been linked to an increased risk of several cancers, specific birth defects, and other diseases. In this research, we assessed the relationship between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and groundwater nitrate in private wells in Iowa. We characterized AFOs by swine and total animal units and type (open, confined, or mixed), and we evaluated the number and spatial intensities of AFOs in proximity to private wells. The types of AFO indicate the extent to which a facility is enclosed by a roof. Using linear regression models, we found significant positive associations between the total number of AFOs within 2km of a well (p trend 5mg/L) compared with low-nitrate (≤5mg/L) wells (p=0.001). A generalized additive model for high-nitrate status identified statistically significant areas of risk for high levels of nitrate. Adjustment for some AFO predictor variables explained a portion of the elevated nitrate risk. These results support a relationship between animal feeding operations and groundwater nitrate concentrations and differences in nitrate loss from confined AFOs vs. open or mixed types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a Biological Pathogen Decontamination Protocol for Animal Feed Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anne R; Cochrane, Roger A; Deliephan, Aiswariya; Stark, Charles R; Jones, Cassandra K

    2015-09-01

    Animal feed and ingredients are potential vectors of pathogenic bacteria. Contaminated ingredients can contaminate facility equipment, leading to cross-contamination of other products. This experiment was conducted to evaluate a standardized protocol for decontamination of an animal feed manufacturing facility using Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 31282) as an indicator. A pelleted swine diet inoculated with E. faecium was manufactured, and environmental samples (swabs, replicate organism detection and counting plates, and air samples) were collected (i) before inoculation (baseline data), (ii) after production of inoculated feed, (iii) after physical removal of organic material using pressurized air, (iv) after application of a chemical sanitizer containing a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend, (v) after application of a chemical sanitizer containing sodium hypochlorite, (vi) after facility heat-up to 60 8 C for 24 h, (vii) for 48 h, and (viii) for 72 h. Air samples collected outside the facility confirmed pathogen containment; E. faecium levels were equal to or lower than baseline levels at each sample location. The decontamination step and its associated interactions were the only variables that affected E. faecium incidence (P 0.22). After production of the inoculated diet, 85.7% of environmental samples were positive for E. faecium. Physical cleaning of equipment had no effect on contamination (P = 0.32). Chemical cleaning with a quaternary ammonium-glutaraldehyde blend and sodium hypochlorite each significantly reduced E. faecium contamination (P < 0.0001) to 28.6 and 2.4% of tested surfaces, respectively. All samples were negative for E. faecium after 48 h of heating. Both wet chemical cleaning and facility heating but not physical cleaning resulted in substantial E. faecium decontamination. These results confirmed both successful containment and decontamination of biological pathogens in the tested pilot-scale feed mill.

  11. Environmental contaminants associated with a swine concentrated animal feeding operation and implications for McMurtrey National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waste generated by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may contain a variety of contaminants including nutrients, pathogens, trace elements, antibiotics,...

  12. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  13. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer D; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Friis-Wandall, Søren; Simonsen, Yvonne; Broesbøl-Jensen, Birgitte; Bonnichsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected for analysis and risk assessment. The levels of contaminants in the samples from the official control were below maximum limits from EU regulations with only a few exceptions in the following groups; dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in fish-containing byproducts and dioxins in vegetable and animal fat, hydrogen cyanide in linseed, and cadmium in sunflowers. The levels of pesticides and mycotoxins in the additionally collected samples were below maximum limits. Enniatin B (ENN B) was present in all DDGS samples. The hypothetical cases of carry-over of contamination from these byproducts were designed assuming total absorption and accumulation of the ingested contaminant in meat and milk and high exposure (a byproduct formed 15-20% of the feed ration depending on the species). The risk assessment was refined based on literature data on metabolism in relevant animal species. Risk assessment of contaminants in byproducts is generally based on a worst-case approach, as data on carry-over of a contaminant are sparse. This may lead to erroneous estimation of health hazards. The presence of ENN B in all samples of DDGS indicates that potential impact of this emerging mycotoxin on feed and food safety deserves attention. A challenge for the future is to fill up gaps in toxicological databases and improve models for carry-over of contaminants.

  14. Determination of ash in animal feed: AOAC official method 942.05 revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, Nancy; Novotny, Lawrence; Crawford, Andy

    2012-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 942.05, Ash in Animal Feed, has been applied in feed laboratories since its publication in the Official Methods of Analysis in 1942. It is a routine test with renewed interest due to the incorporation of "ash values" into modern equations for the estimation of energy content of dairy feed, beef feed, and pet food. As with other empirical methods, results obtained are a function of the test conditions. For this method, the critical conditions are the ignition time, ignition temperature, and any other furnace or weighing conditions. Complete ignition can be observed by the absence of black color (due to residual carbonaceous material) in the ash residue. To investigate performance of AOAC 942.05, 15 samples were chosen to be representative of a wide range of feed materials. These materials were tested at the conditions of AOAC 942.05 (ignition at 600 degrees C for 2 h) and similar or more rigorous conditions. The additional conditions investigated included: 600 degrees C for 4 h; 600 degrees C for 2 h, cool, and ignite 2 additional h; 600 degrees C for 2 h, cool, wet, dry, and ignite 2 additional h; 550 degrees C for 6 h; 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, and ignite 3 additional h; and 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, wet, dry, ignite 3 additional h. Results for all other conditions investigated were found to be significantly different from the current AOAC Method 942.05. All ignition conditions were significantly different from each other except two: 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, ignite 3 additional h; and 550 degrees C for 3 h, cool, wet, dry, and ignite 3 additional h. Recommendations for modification to AOAC Official Method 942.05 are suggested based on statistical analysis of the data and a review of the literature.

  15. Representative sampling of animal feed and mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    will continue for two more years and will include international collaborators (Australia, Canada). The Danish authorities have instituted a system of control analysis, which contains a set of mandated sampling and analysis methods. From a preliminary survey it was concluded that in fact all of the existing...... sampling procedures are not optimized in the light of Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling (TOS).......Sampling of grain, animal feeds (solid & liquid) including important mineral mixtures in the Danish agricultural sector is subject to an ongoing investigation with the objective of improving existing (sub-optimal) sampling procedures. Results from the first 6 months are presented here; the project...

  16. Animal feed contamination by PCDDs-PCDFs in Italy in years 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, R.; Diletti, G.; Torreti, L.; Benedictis, A. De; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous toxic contaminants mainly originating from thermal and incineration processes and representing a potential risk for human health. Various studies show that environmental levels have decreased during the last 20 years. In contrast to this trend several cases of specific contamination have caused high PCDD and PCDF levels in feedstuffs. It is important to monitor the dioxin contamination of feed to avoid large scale feed contamination and to decrease human exposure to dioxins. In Italy PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring has been introduced in the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) since 1999 and all relevant laboratory tests have been carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/Fs levels and congener distribution patterns in different animal feed in Italy, collected in the period 2002-2003.

  17. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  18. Whey fermentation by anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for production of a succinate-based animal feed additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelov; Datta; Jain; Zeikus

    1999-05-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes for the production of a succinate-rich animal feed supplement from raw whey were investigated with batch, continuous, and variable-volume fed-batch cultures with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. The highest succinate yield, 90%, was obtained in a variable-volume fed-batch process in comparison to 80% yield in a batch cultivation mode. In continuous culture, succinate productivity was 3 g/liter/h, and the yield was 60%. Under conditions of excess CO2, more than 90% of the whey-lactose was consumed, with an end product ratio of 4 succinate to 1 acetate. Under conditions of limited CO2, lactose was only partially consumed and lactate was the major end product, with lower levels of ethanol, succinate, and acetate. When the succinic acid in this fermentation product was added to rumen fluid, it was completely consumed by a mixed rumen population and was 90% decarboxylated to propionate on a molar basis. The whey fermentation product formed under excess CO2, which contained mainly organic acids and cells, could potentially be used as an animal feed supplement.

  19. Environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations: implications for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Katie G

    2010-01-01

    Changes in livestock farming over the last 50 years have led to the increase of large-scale livestock farms called concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These farms pose a threat to the environment by polluting the air and nearby ground and surface waters. In addition, adverse health effects have been found in CAFO workers and CAFO neighbors. A multitude of respiratory effects have been noted by workers and neighbors, some of which are severe enough to cause workers to leave the industry. The mental health of CAFO neighbors appears to suffer as well, mainly because of noxious odors and stress. Concentrated animal feeding operations also contribute to the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which have the potential to harm populations nationwide. Although research is being done on this topic around the world, the nursing literature contains very little information on health effects from CAFOs. Occupational, community, and public health nurses should be aware of the dangers from CAFOs and should participate in caring practices, research, and advocacy to diminish the risks.

  20. Alternatives to the use of antibiotics as growth promoters for monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Williams, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, more and more is becoming known about the mode of action of antibiotics as growth promoters (AMGP), particularly in relation to the development of microbial resistance. Consequently, the use of these AMGP is already restricted or forbidden in many countries. Therefore, to compensate for th

  1. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia Faba L.)- antinutritional properties in monogastric animals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats

  2. Tannins in faba beans (Vicia faba L.) : antinutritional properties in monogastric animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Condensed tannins are found in coloured-flowering varieties of faba beans ( Viciafaba L.). They are considered as antinutritional factors for nonruminant species. High-tannin hulls of faba beans and isolated tannins were shown to induce a rapid hypertrophy of the parotid glands in rats and increase

  3. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin.

  4. Prevalence of Nontyphoidal Salmonella and Salmonella Strains with Conjugative Antimicrobial-Resistant Serovars Contaminating Animal Feed in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Cheng; Poole, Toni L; Runyon, Mick; Hume, Michael; Herrman, Timothy J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize 365 nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica isolates from animal feed. Among the 365 isolates, 78 serovars were identified. Twenty-four isolates (7.0%) were recovered from three of six medicated feed types. Three of these isolates derived from the medicated feed, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen), and Salmonella Lexington var. 15+ (Manila), displayed antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing revealed that only 3.0% (12) of the 365 isolates displayed resistance to any of the antimicrobial agents. These 12 isolates were recovered from unmedicated dry beef feed (n = 3), medicated dry beef feed (n = 3), cabbage culls (n = 2), animal protein products (n = 2), dry dairy cattle feed (n = 1), and fish meal (n = 1). Only Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium var. O 5- (Copenhagen) were multidrug resistant. Both isolates possessed the IncA/C replicon and the blaCMY-2 gene associated with cephalosporin resistance. Plasmid replicons were amplified from 4 of 12 resistant isolates. Plasmids (40 kb) were Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Kentucky. Conjugation experiments were done using 7 of the 12 resistant isolates as donors. Only Salmonella Montevideo, possessing a plasmid and amplifying IncN, produced transconjugants. Transconjugants displayed the same antimicrobial resistance profile as did the donor isolate. Three isolates that amplified replicons corresponding to IncA/C or IncHI2 did not produce transconjugants at 30 or 37°C. The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella contaminating animal feed is low in Texas. However, Salmonella was more prevalent in feed by-products; fish meal had the highest prevalence (84%) followed by animal protein products (48%). Ten of the 35 feed types had no Salmonella contamination. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible role of specific feed types in the dissemination of antimicrobial

  5. Traceability of processed animal proteins with varying texture in feed: determination with microscopic and polymerase Chain Reaction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormisch D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the traceability of different animal components that could enter the feed chain two methods for the determination of processed animal proteins (PAPs in feed – classical microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-analysis – were applied in the following study. To determine PAPs of varying but defined structure different animal meals were produced artificially and analysed after spiking to a set of 13 compound feed samples. The aims of the study were (i to compare the capacity and the limits of both methods with respect to the determination of animal constituents of varying composition, (ii to verify a correct interpretation of the results from each method and (iii to determine an optimum application area for each method. Both methods complemented each other. The microscopic approach allowed a reproducible, high sensitive and quantitative determination of animal ingredients with morphological detectable structures, and in the presence of bone fragments a d i fferentiation between fish and terrestrial animals was possible simultaneously. The PCR-analysis provided the detection of animal ingredients in feed even in absence of visible structures but fishmeal was not detected in a sufficient manner by the chosen screening setup. However, the PCR-method enabled to differentiate between animal groups or species and to identify animal species. The methods complemented each other not only in the analytical features but also regarding the results produced by the detection of two different analytical targets of PAPs, morphological structures and gene sequences, r e s p e c t i v e l y. Suitable data regarding the presence of their analytical targets were produced by each method, but a combination of both methods enabled furthermore to report correct results regarding the presence of the artificially composed PAPs in the feed samples. It was concluded that a combination of microscopy and PCR-analysis is reasonable for special application

  6. Integrated assessment of runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations: Analytical approaches, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the trend toward using concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased efficiency in food production, this has prompted concern regarding the impact these operations have on the environment. For example, animal waste from CAFOs can contain natural a...

  7. 76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal...), entitled ``Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for.... Information obtained will assist FDA in the development of guidance on preventive controls for food...

  8. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Danisco Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. Users’ inhalation exposure to betaine is expected to be minimal. Betaine anhydrous should be considered irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. It is likely to cause skin sensitisation. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

  10. Avian-specific real-time PCR assay for authenticity control in farm animal feeds and pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegels, Nicolette; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was developed for detection of an avian-specific DNA fragment (68bp) in farm animal and pet feeds. The specificity of the assay was verified against a wide representation of animal and plant species. Applicability assessment of the avian real-time PCR was conducted through representative analysis of two types of compound feeds: industrial farm animal feeds (n=60) subjected to extreme temperatures, and commercial dog and cat feeds (n=210). Results obtained demonstrated the suitability of the real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of low percentages of highly processed avian material in the feed samples analysed. Although quantification results were well reproducible under the experimental conditions tested, an accurate estimation of the target content in feeds is impossible in practice. Nevertheless, the method may be useful as an alternative tool for traceability purposes within the framework of feed control.

  11. Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

    2005-05-15

    The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

  12. Pleurotus ostreatus decreases cornstalk lignin content, potentially improving its suitability for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Fan, Huan; Meng, Fanrui

    2017-03-01

    The capacity of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade lignin was investigated in the fermentation of cornstalk. Cornstalk was incubated with P. ostreatus for 30 days, and acid-soluble and acid-insoluble lignins were assessed. The microscopic structure of cornstalk samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectroscopic characteristics were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13) C NMR) spectroscopy. During fermentation of cornstalk, the proportion of acid-soluble lignin did not vary significantly (P > 0.05), but that of acid-insoluble lignin decreased gradually from 17.8% on day 0 to 7.6% on day 30 (P ostreatus within 30 days. Pleurotus ostreatus decreases cornstalk lignin content, potentially improving its suitability for animal feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Methods and techniques for measuring gas emissions from agricultural and animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enzhu; Babcock, Esther L; Bialkowski, Stephen E; Jones, Scott B; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of gases from agricultural and animal feeding operations contribute to climate change, produce odors, degrade sensitive ecosystems, and pose a threat to public health. The complexity of processes and environmental variables affecting these emissions complicate accurate and reliable quantification of gas fluxes and production rates. Although a plethora of measurement technologies exist, each method has its limitations that exacerbate accurate quantification of gas fluxes. Despite a growing interest in gas emission measurements, only a few available technologies include real-time, continuous monitoring capabilities. Commonly applied state-of-the-art measurement frameworks and technologies were critically examined and discussed, and recommendations for future research to address real-time monitoring requirements for forthcoming regulation and management needs are provided.

  14. Efficiency of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride mixture for fumigation of important animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Khalsa

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that animal feeds like crushed barley, crushed gram and wheat bran can be effectively disinfested by fumigation with 3:1 mixture of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride at a dosage of 2.5 gallons per 1,000 cuft. The lowest average atmospheric temperatures, at which the fumigation for 48 hours and for 72 hours was found effective, were 28.6 and 24.15 degree celcius respectively. It was also found that the order of susceptibility of the three test insects, viz. Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Trogoderma granerium Everts and Latheticus oryzae Watrh and their various stages varied considerably. in all cases, adults and pupae were found to be more susceptible than larvae.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of FOur Arsenic Additives in Animal Feed by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaoguoSun; MiroslavMacka; 等

    2002-01-01

    Four additives,[4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid(Roxarsone),4-nitrophenylarsonic acid(4-NPAA),phenylarsonic acid (PAA) and p-aminophenylarsonic acid (p-ASA)] in chicken feed were simultaneously determinated by capillary zone electrophoresis(CZE) with on -line UV-detection.Based on our previous research,the sample extraction,cleanup and detection condition were discussed and optimised,Analytes were extracted with acidic 20% acetonitrile and the cleaned up with C18 SPE before the detection.20mM Carbonate buffer at pH10 was used as electrolyte,A fused silica capillary(48.5cm x75um),18kV working voltage and 200nm detection wavelength were applied for CE detection.Acetonitrile functioned as a modifier to reduce the conductivity of the sample soulution during the CE separation.The sensityvity of the method is sufficient for the routine inspection of Roxarsone in animal feed,The recoveries for all analytes were reasonably good but the precision of the method was poorer than HPLC.

  16. Determination of the Thyreostats in Animal Feeding Stuffs Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to detect and confirm five thyreostatic drugs: tapazole, thiouracil, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, and phenylthiouracil in animal feeding stuff samples. Thyreostats were extracted from feed with methanol, and then degreasing of the extract with petroleum ether was performed, followed by the derivatisation of the compounds with 3-iodobenzylbromide in basic medium (pH 8.0. The derivatives were extracted with diethyl ether and analysed by gradient elution on a Poroshell 120-EC C18 column with triple quadrupole MS detection with turbo spray source in positive ionisation mode. The method was validated in accordance with the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. For validation level of 10 ļig kg-1, the recovery ranged from 82% to 97.5% for all examined compounds. The repeatability and reproducibility did not exceed the limit of 20% for all analytes. The linearity was good for all thyreostats in the whole range of tested concentrations, as proved by the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The decision limits (CCa ranged from 1.63 ļig kg-1 to 3.95 ļig kg-1, whereas the detection capabilities (CCß ranged from 2.74 ļig kg-1 to 6.73 ļig kg-1. The developed analysis is sensitive and robust, and therefore useful for quantification and confirmation of thyreostats in residue control programme.

  17. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  18. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  19. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Nachev

    Full Text Available Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina, in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  20. Analysis of particle-borne odorants emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin

    2014-08-15

    Airborne particles are known to serve as a carrier of odors emanating from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, limited quantitative data about particle-borne odorants preclude an accurate assessment of the role of particles in odor transport. This study collected total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) at the air exhaust of eight types of CAFOs (swine: farrowing, gestation, weaning, and finishing; poultry: manure-belt layer hen, tom turkey, chicken broiler, and cage-free layer hen; in total 20 animal buildings) in multiple seasons, and examined the variability in particle odorant composition with animal operation type, season, and particle size. Fifty-seven non-sulfur-containing odorants were identified and quantitated, including carbonyls, alcohols, acids, phenols, and nitrogen-containing compounds. They in total accounted for 2.19±1.52% TSP and 4.97±3.25% PM10 mass. Acetic acid and ethanol were most abundant but less odor-contributing than phenylacetic acid, indole, dodecanoic acid, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, as determined by odor activity value. Particle odorant composition varied significantly with animal operation type, season, and particle size. The TSP and PM10 samples from swine gestation buildings, for example, showed distinctly different odorant compositions than those from tom turkey buildings. The summer TSP and PM10 samples contained in general lower concentrations of short-chain fatty acids but higher concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and short-chain alcohols than the winter samples. Compared to TSP, PM10 samples from different types of CAFOs shared a more similar odorant composition, contained higher odorant concentrations per mass of particles, and accounted for on average 53.2% of the odor strength of their corresponding TSP samples.

  1. Role of the gut microbiota in host appetite control: bacterial growth to animal feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2017-01-01

    The life of all animals is dominated by alternating feelings of hunger and satiety - the main involuntary motivations for feeding-related behaviour. Gut bacteria depend fully on their host for providing the nutrients necessary for their growth. The intrinsic ability of bacteria to regulate their growth and to maintain their population within the gut suggests that gut bacteria can interfere with molecular pathways controlling energy balance in the host. The current model of appetite control is based mainly on gut-brain signalling and the animal's own needs to maintain energy homeostasis; an alternative model might also involve bacteria-host communications. Several bacterial components and metabolites have been shown to stimulate intestinal satiety pathways; at the same time, their production depends on bacterial growth cycles. This short-term bacterial growth-linked modulation of intestinal satiety can be coupled with long-term regulation of appetite, controlled by the neuropeptidergic circuitry in the hypothalamus. Indeed, several bacterial products are detected in the systemic circulation, which might act directly on hypothalamic neurons. This Review analyses the data relevant to possible involvement of the gut bacteria in the regulation of host appetite and proposes an integrative homeostatic model of appetite control that includes energy needs of both the host and its gut bacteria.

  2. Fate of arsenic in swine waste from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Quazi, Shahida; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2008-01-01

    Swine diets are often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to treat animal diseases and promote growth. Recent work reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize a suite of swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs for soluble arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-HPPA), p-arsanilic acid, and roxarsone, and (ii) determine the geochemical fate of roxarsone in storage lagoons nearby CAFOs. Swine waste suspensions were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions to monitor roxarsone degradation kinetics. Arsenic speciation analysis using liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) illustrated the prevalence of As(V) in swine waste suspensions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to either organoarsenicals (3-HPPA) or As(V) and a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation occurred under anaerobic conditions for suspensions low in solids content, but suspensions higher in solids content facilitated roxarsone degradation under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Increased solids content enhanced roxarsone degradation kinetics under aerobic conditions. According to current waste storage and sampling practices, arsenic in swine wastes stored in lagoons has been overlooked as a possible environmental health issue.

  3. A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction approach for estimating processed animal proteins in feed: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cesarina Abete

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifting of the ban on the use of processed animal proteins (PAPs from non-ruminants in non-ruminant feed is in the wind, avoiding intraspecies recycling. Discrimination of species will be performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR, which is at a moment a merely qualitative method. Nevertheless, quantification of PAPs in feed is needed. The aim of this study was to approach the quantitative determination of PAPs in feed through Real Time (RT-PCR technique; three different protocols picked up from the literature were tested. Three different kind of matrices were examined: pure animal meals (bovine, chicken and pork; one feed sample certified by the European reference laboratory on animal proteins (EURL AP in feed spiked with 0.1% bovine meal; and genomic DNAs from bovine, chicken and pork muscles. The limit of detection (LOD of the three protocols was set up. All the results obtained from the three protocols considered failed in the quantification process, most likely due to the uncertain copy numbers of the analytical targets chosen. This preliminary study will allow us to address further investigations, with the purpose of developing a RT-PCR quantitative method.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, A; Stroka, J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B₁ and B₂, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B₁ determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB₁. Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB₁ determined.

  5. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for... generated from machine sources at energy levels not to exceed 10 million electron volts (MeV); (3)...

  6. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the... GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.45 Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) represent...

  7. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives in

  8. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  9. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  10. Determination of Starch, Including Maltooligosaccharides, in Animal Feeds: Comparison of Methods and a Method Recommended for AOAC Collaborative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discontinued production of the enzyme, Rhozyme-S, (required for AOAC method 14.075) invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds and necessitated a search for another assay. Although many starch methods are available, they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. Five enzymatic-colo...

  11. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and inaccuracy caused by inappropriate air velocity or sweep air flow...

  12. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  14. Major ionic compositions of fine particulate matter in an animal feeding operation facility and its vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-feng; Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Liu, Zifei; Jayanty, R K M; Shah, Sanjay B; Bloomfield, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) produce particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. Investigation of the chemical composition of PM2.5 inside and in the local vicinity of AFOs can help to understand the impact of the AFO emissions on ambient secondary PM formation. This study was conducted on a commercial egg production farm in North Carolina. Samples of PM2.5 were collected from five stations, with one located in an egg production house and the otherfour located in the vicinity ofthe farm alongfour wind directions. The major ions of NH4+, Na+, K+, SO4(2-), Cl-, and NO3- were analyzed using ion chromatography (IC). In the house, the mostly abundant ions were SO4(2-), Cl-, and K+. At ambient stations, SO4(2-), and NH4+ were the two most abundant ions. In the house, NH4+, SO4(2-), and NO3- accounted for only 10% of the PM2.5 mass; at ambient locations, NH4+, SO4(2-), and NO3- accounted for 36-41% of the PM2.5 mass. In the house, NH4+ had small seasonal variations indicating that gas- phase NH3. was not the only major force driving its gas-particle partitioning. At the ambient stations, NH4+ had the highest concentrations in summer In the house, K+, Na+, and Cl- were highly correlated with each other In ambient locations, SO4(2-) and NH4+ had a strong correlation, whereas in the house, SO4(2-) and NH4+ had a very weak correlation. Ambient temperature and solar radiation were positively correlated with NH4+ and SO4(2-). This study suggests that secondary PM formation inside the animal house was not an important source of PM2.5. In the vicinity, NH3 emissions had greater impact on PM2.5 formation.

  15. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodenchuk Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline, with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help

  16. Radionuclides in Animal Feed (Poultry) 'Assessment of Radiation Dose'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algadi, S.; Salih, I. [Radiation Safety Institute (Sudan)

    2014-07-01

    In this work a comprehensive study has been carried out for the determination of presents evaluation of effective dose due to consumption of chicken fed by fodders collected from four major Sudanese companies (Hader, Koudjs, Wifi and Preconex SPN.V). The concentrations of radionuclides in the thirty two (32) feed samples have been determined by gamma spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. Radionuclides observed were: Pb-212 (daughter of Th-238), Pb-214, Bi-214 (daughters of U-238), Cs-137 and K-40 concentration. In additives the activity concentration of these radionuclides has found in the following ranges: 0.81 - 22.06 Bq/kg, 0.59 - 32.07 Bq/kg, 0.64 - 15.77 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 2.02 Bq/kg and 33.58 - 204.61 Bq/kg respectively. In feed concentrates activity concentration ranges has: 0.73 - 13.79 Bq/kg, 0.33 - 20.04 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 1.67 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.28 Bq/kg, 26.86 - 99.21 Bq/kg respectively. In fodders the activity concentration ranges has: 1.25 - 1.52 Bq/kg, 0.12 - 1.24 Bq/kg, 0.51 - 1.25 Bq/kg, 0.01 - 0.61 Bq/kg, 11.94 - 127.88 Bq/kg respectively. The 'animal product' activity concentration ranges has: 0.31 - 1.65 Bq/kg, 0.22 - 1.11 Bq/kg, 0.26 - 1.07 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 0.51 Bq/kg, 14.07 - 79.93 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations (233.3 Bq/Kg) has typically found in toxo(additive); the lowest concentration (27.9 Bq/Kg ) has found in concentrate for layers and animal product. The total average effective dose due to the different feed-stuff has estimated and found to be 5.89x10{sup -6}±3.11x10{sup -6}mSv/y and 13.9 x 10{sup -7} ± 7.24 x 10{sup -7}mSv/y for age categories 7-12 y and >17 y respectively. If compared with the limits - Radioactivity Levels Permitted in foodstuffs Part 1 the Saudi Standards, Metrology and quality (300 Bq/Kg) and ICRP,FAO organization (5 mSv/y) - these values are very low. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. The association between proximity to animal feeding operations and community health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M O'Connor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A systematic review was conducted for the association between animal feeding operations (AFOs and the health of individuals living near AFOs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The review was restricted to studies reporting respiratory, gastrointestinal and mental health outcomes in individuals living near AFOs in North America, European Union, United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. From June to September 2008 searches were conducted in PUBMED, CAB, Web-of-Science, and Agricola with no restrictions. Hand searching of narrative reviews was also used. Two reviewers independently evaluated the role of chance, confounding, information, selection and analytic bias on the study outcome. Nine relevant studies were identified. The studies were heterogeneous with respect to outcomes and exposures assessed. Few studies reported an association between surrogate clinical outcomes and AFO proximity. A negative association was reported when odor was the measure of exposure to AFOs and self-reported disease, the measure of outcome. There was evidence of an association between self-reported disease and proximity to AFO in individuals annoyed by AFO odor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There was inconsistent evidence of a weak association between self-reported disease in people with allergies or familial history of allergies. No consistent dose response relationship between exposure and disease was observable.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin P. Kaaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650 were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71 were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%, followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n = 14 were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxa-zole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline, whereas 80.3% (n = 57 were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprim-suflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  19. Detection of Airborne Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Inside and Downwind of a Swine Building, and in Animal Feed: Potential Occupational, Animal Health, and Environmental Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dwight D; Smith, Tara C; Hanson, Blake M; Wardyn, Shylo E; Donham, Kelley J

    2016-01-01

    Aerosolized methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was sampled inside and downwind of a swine facility. Animal feed was sampled before and after entry into the swine facility. Aerosolized particles were detected using an optical particle counter for real-time measurement and with an Andersen sampler to detect viable MRSA. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on samples collected. Viable MRSA organisms isolated inside the swine facility were primarily associated with particles >5 µm, and those isolated downwind from the swine facility were associated with particles airborne MRSA organisms. Air samples collected after power washing with a biocide inside the swine facility resulted in no viable MRSA organisms detected. This pilot study showed that the ecology of MRSA is complex. Additional studies are warranted on the maximum distance that viable MRSA can be emitted outside the facility, and the possibility that animal feed may be a source of contamination.

  20. Phosphorus Bioavailability: A Key Aspect for Conserving this Critical Animal Feed Resource with Reference to Broiler Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhua Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential element, and the majority of animal feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource. Current global P reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. This poses the challenge of securing future P supply for the global animal feed industries. Currently, nutritionists formulate diets with substantial safety margins to guarantee that animals do not become P deficient. Excessive dietary P concentrations increase, not only the cost of diets, but also P excretion and pollution of the environment. We contend that understanding P bioavailability is central to the sustainable use of this mineral in animal agriculture. Poultry accounts for approximately 50% of animal feed phosphate consumption worldwide and for this reason we use the meat chicken or broiler as a case study to explore the nuances of P bioavailability. We conclude that, to tackle the challenge of dietary P bioavailability, cooperative research on a global scale is needed to standardise measurement procedures in order to produce a robust and reliable database which can be used by nutritionists to formulate diets to meet the bird’s P requirements precisely. Achievement of this goal will assist endeavours to sustain the global supply of phosphorus.

  1. Fruit and Vegetable Co-Products as Functional Feed Ingredients in Farm Animal Nutrition for Improved Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Kasapidou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant environmental, economic and social factors favoring the reutilization of fruit and vegetable processing co-products in farm animal nutrition. Current evidence shows that fruit and vegetable processing co-products can be effectively used in farm animal nutrition as functional feed ingredients for the production of food products of improved quality. These ingredients comply with consumer requests for the production of “clean,” “natural” and “eco/green” label food products. The main parameters affecting extensive application of fruit and vegetable processing by-/co-products as functional feed ingredients in livestock nutrition are related to animal factors, logistics, and commercial value. Further research is needed to enable the commercial application of these products to livestock nutrition.

  2. Solar energy project and biogas for animal feed production and jelly; Projeto de energia solar e biogas para producao de racao animal e geleia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, J.P. de; Selvam, P.V.P.; Silva, R.T. da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: johnsonmoura@yahoo.com.br, tatianesil@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a study for utilization of surplus of horticulture industry for the production of jam and sweet from the fruit pulp and the manufacture of animal feed, organic fertilizer and biogas from the waste of this production. It also presents the equipment development of low-cost construction and operation that enables high energy efficiency (without heat loss) and can then be traded with greater advantage over other products on the market.

  3. The analysis of soil characteristics near the animal feed and fertiliser mill using the Bartington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Adinda Syifa; Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-07-01

    Industrial activities have the potential to make pollution in agricultural land, the waste contains poisonous material and it is dangerous for the environment. In general, waste from factory is dumped directly into the river, but in the current study an object that is going to be conscientious is soil on around mill. There are three sampling sites are around fertilizer plants, feed mills and original uncontaminated soil. This research has been conducted to assess the impact of pollution resulting from the two mills for the environment. Physical parameter that used is magnetic susceptibility. Sampling was conducted using the method of magnetic susceptibility of rock to see the value of low frequency (lf) and shows Frequency Dependent (fd%) using the MS2B Bartington. The results from this study is at a location close to the fertilizer plant at a depth of 0-5 cm has a value susceptibility low frequency ( lf)=187.1 - 494.8, fd (%)=1.37 - 2:46, at a depth of 6-10 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=211 - 832.7,fd (%)=1.04 - 5.37. Results in the area of animal feed mill at a depth of 0-5 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=111.9 - 325.7, fd (%)=0.8 - 3.57, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=189.2 to 386.8,fd (%)=0.33 - 3.7. Results in the original soil at a depth of 0-5 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=1188.7 - 2237.8,fd (%)=2.75 - 4.65, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=977.7 - 2134.7,fd (%)=3.06 - 6.21. The highest value was in the arealf original, shows the area has a high mineral content andlf lows were in the area near the factory fodder it is caused by high pollution, resulting in lower mineral content in the soil.

  4. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  5. Scientific opinion on risks for animal health related to the presence of zearalenone and its modified forms in feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi, occurs predominantly in cereal grains. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risk to animal health related to ZEN and its modified forms in feed. Modified forms of ZEN occurring in feed include phase I......-censored data (ZEN about 60%, ZAN about 70%, others close to 100%). Samples for ZEN were collected between 2001 and 2015 in 25 different European countries, whereas samples for the modified forms were collected mostly between 2013 and 2015 from three Member States. Based on exposure estimates, the risk...

  6. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  7. Total polyphenols content, antioxidant activity and stability of a grape pomace incorporated in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica-Sanda Chedea

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (GP, resulting from wine making, is rich in antioxidant polyphenols originating from the input material, the grapes. Because of the high production volumes of grape pomace, environmental impact and nutritional content, new ways for its valorization are experimented. In order to incorporate it in animal feed (cow and pig, we determined its content in total polyphenols by the Folin Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity by the DPPH assay and its stability using the UV-Vis spectroscopy for different extraction media. In terms of total polyphenols the acetone extraction was the best (4667.1 mg GAE/100g sample comparing with ethanol and water (2140.4 mg GAE/100g sample respectively 2083.9 mg GAE/100g sample, and the ruminal fluid (732.9 mg GAE/100g sample and pepsin (712.2 mg GAE/100g sample. The highest antioxidant activity expressed as an antiradical activity against the DPPH radical, was registered for the acetone extract (32.8 μM Trolox Equivalents(TE, followed by the ethanol (6.5 μM TE and water extraction equal with pepsin extraction (4 μM TE, and the mixture of ruminal fluid (0.5 μM TE. The results show that even though the extraction of polyphenols in organic solvents is the best, when applied to the digestive media the situation changes. In both ruminal fluid and pepsin were measured almost the same amount of total polyphenols but the antioxidant activity was much lower in the ruminal fluid - 8 times lower. The UV-Vis spectroscopy shows that the acetone extract is stable over time when kept at – 20 ͦC.

  8. Availability of information about airborne hazardous releases from animal feeding operations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler J S Smith

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air from animal feeding operations (AFOs has been shown to transport numerous contaminants of public health concern. While federal statutes like the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA generally require that facilities report hazardous releases, AFOs have been exempted from most of these requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. We assessed the availability of information about AFO airborne hazardous releases following these exemptions. METHODS: We submitted public records requests to 7 states overlapping with or adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay watershed for reports of hazardous releases made by AFOs under EPCRA. From the records received, we calculated the proportion of AFOs in each state for which ≥1 reports were available. We also determined the availability of specific types of information required under EPCRA. The numbers of AFOs permitted under the Clean Water Act (CWA or analogous state laws, as determined from permitting databases obtained from states, were used as denominators. RESULTS: We received both EPCRA reports and permitting databases from 4 of 7 states. Across these 4 states, the mean proportion of AFOs for which ≥1 EPCRA reports were available was 15% (range: 2-33%. The mean proportions of AFOs for which the name or identity of the substance released, ≥1 estimates of quantity released, and information about nearby population density and sensitive populations were available were 15% (range: 2-33%, 8% (range: 0-22%, and 14% (range: 2-8%, respectively. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that information about the airborne hazardous releases of a large majority of AFOs is not available under federal law in the states that we investigated. While the results cannot be attributed to specific factors by this method, attention to multiple factors, including revision of the EPA's exemptions, may increase the availability of information relevant to the health of populations

  9. Zinc and copper in animal feed – development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Yazdankhah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular enterococci, is often associated with resistance to antimicrobial drugs like macrolides and glycopeptides (e.g. vancomycin. Such resistant bacteria may be transferred from the food-producing animals to humans (farmers, veterinarians, and consumers. Data on dose-response relation for Zn/Cu exposure and resistance are lacking; however, it seems more likely that a resistance-driven effect occurs at high trace element exposure than at more basal exposure levels. There is also lack of data which could demonstrate whether Zn/Cu-resistant bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance genes/become antibiotics resistant, or if antibiotics-resistant bacteria are more capable to become Zn/Cu resistant than antibiotics-susceptible bacteria. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between Zn/Cu and antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

  10. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted... agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

  11. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2014-09-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern, as a result of changes in livestock production methods. RSC emissions were determined from a swine CAFO in North Carolina. RSC measurements were made over a period of ≈1 week from both the barn and lagoon during each of the four seasonal periods from June 2007 to April 2008. During sampling, meteorological and other environmental parameters were measured continuously. Seasonal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) barn concentrations ranged from 72 to 631 ppb. Seasonal dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH3S2CH3) concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89 ppb and 0.47 to 1.02 ppb, respectively. The overall average barn emission rate was 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for H2S, which was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the DMS and DMDS overall average emissions rates, determined as 0.017 g day-1 AU-1 and 0.036 g day-1 AU-1, respectively. The overall average lagoon flux was 1.33 μg m-2 min-1 for H2S, which was approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.12 μg m-2 min-1) and DMDS (0.09 μg m-2 min-1) lagoon fluxes. The overall average lagoon emission for H2S (0.038 g day-1 AU-1) was also approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.0034 g day-1 AU-1) and DMDS (0.0028 g day-1 AU-1) emissions. H2S, DMS and DMDS have offensive odors and low odor thresholds. Over all four sampling seasons, 77% of 15 min averaged H2S barn concentrations were an order of magnitude above the average odor threshold. During these sampling periods, however, DMS and DMDS concentrations did not exceed their odor thresholds. The overall average barn and lagoon emissions from this study were used to help estimate barn, lagoon and total (barn + lagoon) RSC emissions from swine CAFOs

  12. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 μg m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 μg m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0

  13. Relationship between Molecular Structure Characteristics of Feed Proteins and Protein In vitro Digestibility and Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingmei; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Long, Guohui

    2016-08-01

    The nutritional value of feed proteins and their utilization by livestock are related not only to the chemical composition but also to the structure of feed proteins, but few studies thus far have investigated the relationship between the structure of feed proteins and their solubility as well as digestibility in monogastric animals. To address this question we analyzed soybean meal, fish meal, corn distiller's dried grains with solubles, corn gluten meal, and feather meal by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the protein molecular spectral band characteristics for amides I and II as well as α-helices and β-sheets and their ratios. Protein solubility and in vitro digestibility were measured with the Kjeldahl method using 0.2% KOH solution and the pepsin-pancreatin two-step enzymatic method, respectively. We found that all measured spectral band intensities (height and area) of feed proteins were correlated with their the in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.003); moreover, the relatively quantitative amounts of α-helices, random coils, and α-helix to β-sheet ratio in protein secondary structures were positively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.004). On the other hand, the percentage of β-sheet structures was negatively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility (pproteins are closely related to their in vitro digestibility at 28 h and solubility. Furthermore, the α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio can be used to predict the nutritional value of feed proteins.

  14. Domestic animal hosts strongly influence human-feeding rates of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo E Gürtler

    zooprophylaxis. Domestic animals in domiciles profoundly affect the host-feeding choices, human-vector contact rates and parasite transmission predicted by a model based on these estimates.

  15. Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A.R.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nadeau, E.;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep...... and cattle and feed characteristics established from Study I were tested on faeces samples from goat, sheep, llama and cattle fed other types of forages (Study II). Study I included 112 faeces samples from 5 trials, and Study II included 90 faeces samples from 3 trials. Animals were fed ad libitum...... and this effect was amplified in larger animals. The prediction model established from Study I, on the effect of BW, ADL/NDF in forage, C:F and forage NDF intake on particle size in faeces of grass silage-fed animals in Study I appeared to be valid to predict the geometric mean particle size in faeces from goat...

  16. Combination of chemical analyses and animal feeding trials as reliable procedures to assess the safety of heat processed soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Brasil, Isabel Cristiane F; Oliveira, José Tadeu A; Campello, Cláudio C; Maia, Fernanda Maria M; Campello, Maria Verônica M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele U

    2009-06-10

    This study assessed whether chemical analyses are sufficient to guarantee the safety of heat processing of soybeans (SB) for human/animal consumption. The effects of extrusion and dry-toasting were analyzed upon seed composition and performance of broiler chicks. None of these induced appreciable changes in protein content and amino acid composition. Conversely, toasting reduced all antinutritional proteins by over 85%. Despite that, the animals fed on toasted SB demonstrated a low performance (feed efficiency 57.8 g/100 g). Extrusion gave place to higher contents of antinutrients, particularly of trypsin inhibitors (27.53 g/kg flour), but animal performance was significantly (p trials, extrusion appears to be the safest method. In conclusion, in order to evaluate the reliability of any processing method intended to improve nutritional value, the combination of chemical and animal studies is necessary.

  17. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  18. Effect of creatine addition in feeds containing animal meals on the performance and carcass yield of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMC Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creatine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal; B. control + creatine (600g/ton; C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM, D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton, E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM, F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the risk for public and animal health related to the presence of sterigmatocystin in food and feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on sterigmatocystin (STC in food and feed. STC is a polyketide mycotoxin that shares its biosynthetic pathway with aflatoxins. Following an EFSA call for data, analytical results from 247 food and 334 feed samples were submitted. In food, analytical results on STC were reported to be all below the limit of detection or limit of quantification. In feed, only four quantified results were reported. Therefore, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel concluded that the available occurrence data are too limited to carry out a reliable human and animal dietary exposure assessment. Acute oral toxicity of STC is relatively low, and liver and kidneys are the target organs. STC is mutagenic in both bacterial and mammalian cells after metabolic activation and forms DNA adducts. Tumourigenicity has been observed after oral, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous and dermal administration resulting in hepatocellular carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas in the liver, angiosarcomas in brown fat and lung adenomas. Since no exposure data were available, the margin of exposure approach for substances that are genotoxic and carcinogenic could not be applied for STC, and thus the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for human health. Regarding animals, the Panel noted that STC is hepatotoxic in poultry and pigs, and nephrotoxic in poultry and toxic in several fish species. However, in the absence of exposure data for livestock, fish and companion animals, and given the limited knowledge on the adverse effects of STC, the CONTAM Panel could not characterise the risk for animal health. More occurrence data on STC in food and feed need to be collected to allow dietary exposure assessment. For food, methods with a limit of quantification of less than 1.5 µg/kg should be applied.

  20. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R; Harper, Michael T; Hristova, Rada A; Zimmerman, R Scott; Branco, Antonio F

    2015-09-07

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal's muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid.

  1. 76 FR 17776 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ...; Cuprimyxin; Diethylcarbamazine; Levamisole; Nitrofurazone; Phenylbutazone; Pyrantel; Tylosin; Tylosin and...., Chaska, MN 55318. G Premix (tylosin phosphate/ sulfamethazine). Abraxis Pharmaceutical Products, Division........ NADA 100-991, McNess Custom 558.625 (010439). Premix L200 (tylosin phosphate). Fort Dodge Animal Health...

  2. Detection of multiple mycotoxin occurrences in soy animal feed by traditional mycological identification combined with molecular species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Gutleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy products are a main component of animal feed. Because mycotoxins may harm farm animals, undermining productivity and health, a mycological and toxigenic screening was carried out on 36 batches used in animal feed, collected in 2008, 2009 and 2010 in Italy. The investigated mycoflora of a subset of soy seed (n = 6 suggested that Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. frequently colonize soy seeds. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol were detected in 88.9%, 72.2% and 30.6% of samples, respectively. Co-occurrence of at least two toxins was observed in 72% of cases. The molecular analysis of the Fusarium spp. population identified Fusarium verticillioides as potential producers of fumonisins, but no known deoxynivalenol producers were detected. It is suggested that the widespread presence of toxins can be due to non-optimal storing conditions of the feed. Moreover, our results suggest that mycotoxin thresholds should be adapted to consider the frequent case of toxin co-occurrence. This approach would better reflect the real toxigenic risk of feedstuffs.

  3. Determining mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds using stable isotope dilution and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Trucksess, Mary W

    2014-09-10

    We developed a stable isotope dilution assay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine multiple mycotoxins in baby foods and animal feeds. Samples were fortified with [(13)C]-uniformly labeled mycotoxins as internal standards ([(13)C]-IS) and prepared by solvent extraction (50% acetonitrile in water) and filtration, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Mycotoxins in each sample were quantitated with the corresponding [(13)C]-IS. In general, recoveries of aflatoxins (2-100 ng/g), deoxynivalenol, fumonisins (50-2000 ng/g), ochratoxin A (20-1000 ng/kg), T-2 toxin, and zearalenone (40-2000 ng/g) in tested matrices (grain/rice/oatmeal-based formula, animal feed, dry cat/dog food) ranged from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) <20%. The method provides sufficient selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to screen for aflatoxins at ng/g concentrations and deoxynivalenol and fumonisins at low μg/g concentrations in baby foods and animal feeds, without using conventional standard addition or matrix-matched calibration standards to correct for matrix effects.

  4. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  5. Mass cultivation of microalgae on animal wastewater: a sequential two-stage cultivation process for energy crop and omega-3-rich animal feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Mohr, Michael; Du, Zhenyi; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-09-01

    In this study, 97 microalgal strains purchased from algae bank and 50 microalgal strains isolated from local waters in Minnesota were screened for their adaptability growing on a 20-fold diluted digested swine manure wastewater (DSMW). A pool of candidate strains well adapted to the DSMW was established through a high-throughput screening process. Two top-performing facultative heterotrophic strains with high growth rate (0.536 day(-1) for UMN 271 and 0.433 day(-1) for UMN 231) and one strain with high omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid (EPA, 3.75 % of total fatty acids for UMN 231) were selected. Subsequently, a sequential two-stage mixo-photoautotrophic culture strategy was developed for biofuel and animal feed production as well as simultaneous swine wastewater treatment using above two strains. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 2.03 g/L and 23.0 %, and 0.83 g/L and 19.0 % for UMN 271 and UMN 231, respectively. The maximal nutrient removals for total phosphorus and ammonia after second-stage cultivation were 100 and 89.46 %, respectively. The experiments showed that this sequential two-stage cultivation process has great potential for economically viable and environmentally friendly production of both renewable biofuel and high-value animal feed and at the same time for animal wastewater treatment.

  6. Cemical composition of hemp (\\kur{Cannabis sativa}) and possibilities of its utilization as animal feed

    OpenAIRE

    NĚMCOVÁ, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual cultural plant used from ancient times up to the present in many spheres of the human life. The aim of this bachelor study was to summarize on the basis of literature sources the information about chemical composition of the hemp seed (basic composition, content of amino acids, fiber, vitamins and specific substances, etc.), genetic variability in the substances content, and possibilities of utilization of the hemp seed and also plant residues as feed. Feeding ...

  7. Role of Nano-Mineral as A Feed Additive to Enhance Animal Productivity and Quality of Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Kurnia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A development of nanotechnology today has penetrated almost all areas of life. Utilization in improving livestock production can be done by replacing commonly used conventional mineral by nanoparticles-mineral. Application of chromium (Cr, selenium (Se, silver (Ag and copper (Cu nanoparticles are reported to improve livestock production. However, the potential risk of the application such as mineral deposit in the body of animal itself and to people as consumers of livestock product has to be evaluated. Nanoparticle-minerals that have smaller size are easier to penetrate the cells and it is suspected that it may give more negative risk. Analysis evaluation of nanoparticle-minerals in the animal including people are still being developed.

  8. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Leeuwen, van, M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microflora, digestion and availability of nutrients, gut morphology, fermentation characteristics and animal performance are discussed. Inulin-type fructans can support animal performance and health by a...

  9. Degradation of caffeine by microorganisms and potential use of decaffeinated coffee husk and pulp in animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzafera Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee husk and coffee pulp are coffee processing by-products. Coffee husk is obtained when harvested coffee is processed by the dry method, and coffee pulp is produced by the wet method. In Brazil, coffee is usually processed by the dry method, therefore an expressive amount of husk is obtained every year. Some of the husk is used as organic fertilizer but, other applications are very limited, mainly because it is a bulky product. The presence of tannins and caffeine diminish acceptability and palatability of husk by animals. This review discuss degradation of caffeine by microorganisms, with special attention to bacterial, biological decaffeination of coffee husk and pulp and its subsequent use on animal feeding. The known biochemical routes of caffeine degradation by microorganisms are initially discussed; problems concerning physiological effects in animals, focusing on the limitations imposed by caffeine as an antiphysiological component are raised; the use of microorganisms to decaffeinate coffee husk and pulp is discussed. The discussions offer a view on decreasing caffeine content of coffee husk and pulp, which would allow the use of larger amounts of these products in animal feeding, partially replacing traditional components such as cereal grains.

  10. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 2.2. Centre feeding; Incrust technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 2.2. Centerfoedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  11. Protein, peptide, amino acid composition, and potential functional properties of existing and novel dietary protein sources for monogastrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kar, S.K.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Boeren, S.; Kruijt, L.; Smits, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of current protein resources for novel or alternative sources may be one of the solutions to abolish the expected scarcity of dietary protein for animal feeds. However, little is known about the nutritional, protein composition, and potential functional value of such novel or alternative

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-selenomethionine as feed additive for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element that is essential for vertebrates and involved in series of vital metabolic functions. Considering the purity of the L-selenomethionine (L-SeMet under application and the metabolic pathways of SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel considers the use of L-SeMet as safe for all animal species, provided that the maximum total selenium level authorised in feed is respected. The use of in animal nutrition is expected to result in a similar increase in selenium deposition in animal tissues/products as that resulting from other sources of SeMet. To ensure consumer safety from consumption of food originating from animals fed L-SeMet, the FEEDAP Panel concludes that dietary selenium supplementation from the additive should not exceed a maximum of 0.2 mg Se/kg complete feed. In the absence of specific data, the additive should be considered as an irritant to skin and eyes, as a skin sensitiser and as potentially harmful by inhalation. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of L-SeMet in feed does not pose an additional risk to the environment, compared with other sources of selenium for which it will substitute, as long as the maximum authorised content in feedingstuffs is not exceeded. L-SeMet is an efficient source of selenium for all species. This conclusion is derived from studies with laying hens and pigs for fattening and, in the case of ruminants, from literature describing the microbial incorporation of selenium from organic sources in the rumen. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations concerning (i the specification, (ii the use of the compound in premixtures, (iii the use in water for drinking and (iv risk reduction when handling the additive.

  13. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed – what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  14. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from Outback Australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thang eDuong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory – Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 µg mL-1 culture and 99.13 µg mL-1, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  15. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL(-1) culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  16. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter...... the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake...

  17. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, J M A J; Shim, S B; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W A

    2005-04-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microflora, digestion and availability of nutrients, gut morphology, fermentation characteristics and animal performance are discussed. Inulin-type fructans can support animal performance and health by affecting nutrient digestion, gut microflora and gut morphology, although results vary depending on composition of the basal diet, inclusion level, type of fructan, adaptation period and experimental hygienic conditions.

  18. Monitoring the prevalence of genetically modified maize in commercial animal feeds and food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karlık, Elif

    2016-07-01

    EU legislation strictly controls use of genetically modified (GM) crops in food and feed products, and requires them to be labelled if the total GM content is greater than 9 g kg(-1) (for approved GM crops). We screened maize-containing food and feed products from Turkey to assess the prevalence of GM material. With this aim, 83 food and feed products - none labelled as containing GM material - were screened using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for four common GM elements (35S/NOS/bar/FMV). Of these, 18.2% of feeds and 6% of food samples tested positive for one or more of these elements, and were subjected to event-specific PCR to identify which GM organisms they contained. Most samples were negative for the approved GM events tested, suggesting that they may contain adventitious GM contaminants. One sample was shown to contain an unapproved GM event (MON810, along with GA21) at a concentration well above the statutory labelling requirement. Current legislation has restricted the penetration of GM maize into the Turkish food industry but not eliminated it, and the proliferation of different GM events is making monitoring increasingly complex. Our results indicate that labelling requirements are not being followed in some cases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of Animal Feeding Operations on Water Resources and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    meal, meat/bone meal, tapioca, maize grits) from 57 feed mills. Among the isolated bacteria, the most frequent serotype was Salmonella hadar. Harris...their first year of operation. One basin (site A), located at a small dairy farm, holds a manure- silage mixture, milkhouse wastewater, and local runoff

  20. Assessing environmental consequences of using co-products in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Vries, de J.W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector has a major impact on the environment. This environmental impact may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products (e.g. beet tails) to livestock, as this transforms inedible products for humans into edible products, e.g. pork or beef. Nevertheless, co-products have different

  1. Fermentation instead of animal feeding; In den Fermenter statt in den Magen des Schweins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombach, T.

    2008-07-01

    Since 2006, Germany has prohibited the feeding of class K3 waste food from gastronomy, canteens and the food industry to pigs. Fermentation is a creative solution. In Haid on the Schwaebische Alb mountain range, two creative waste managers developed a plant for power generation from fat and used oils. (orig.)

  2. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  3. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Leeuwen, van P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut

  4. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Leeuwen, van P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microf

  5. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172

  6. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samp

  7. Feeding of the brine shrimp Artemia on yeast: effect of mechanical disturbance, animal density, water quality and light intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P. (Peter); Sorgeloos, P.

    1989-01-01

    Details are given of experiments conducted to determine the effects of tank culture conditions on the feeding of Artemia. Mechanical disturbance, animal density and water quality were found to affect the feeding rate of Artemia. The importance of culture conditions in maintaining a rate of food consumption which does not limit the growth of the brine shrimp is stressed.

  8. Decontamination and detoxification strategies for the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in animal feed and the effectiveness of microbial biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Wageha A; Ghareeb, Khaled; Bohm, Josef; Zentek, Jurgen

    2010-04-01

    Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecenes in food and feed, and is a significant contaminants due to its frequent occurrence in toxicologically relevant concentrations worldwide. Since toxin production depends strongly on environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, Fusarium toxin contamination can not be avoided completely. Therefore, exposure to this toxin is a permanent health risk for both humans and farm animals. As cereal crops are commonly contaminated with DON and animal diets consist mainly of cereals, it can be assumed that animals are frequently exposed to DON-contaminated feeds. Many strategies can be undertaken to reduce the toxic effect of DON. In addition to the general necessity for minimizing all risk factors that might influence the contamination of cereals with DON, such as the so-called field toxins before harvest, several post-harvest strategies can be applied to counteract possible deleterious effects of this mycotoxin in farm animals. Another approach for decontamination in feedstuffs is the use of adsorbent materials. Adsorbent materials may bind mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce absorption and systemic toxicity. It has been shown that some adsorbents are suitable to alleviate the toxic effects of specific mycotoxins, but its efficacy against trichothecenes is practically zero. Therefore, alternative strategies to reduce animal and human health risk are needed. The use of microbial additives is a method which uses microorganisms having the capability to detoxify mycotoxins by metabolism or degradation prior to their resorption in the gastrointestinal tract. DON has been reported to be completely transformed to de-epoxy-DON by ruminal and intestinal microflora. Eubacterium BBSH 797 was capable of DON degradation and counteracted the toxic effects of DON in animals. This review focuses on

  9. A self-limiting complete feed changes forage intake and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Society for Animal Science ... 1 Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Stephenville, TX 76401, USA. '2Tar1eton State ... in growing goats, but can result in decreased forage consumption due to substitution of forage intake with.

  10. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  11. An Integrated Approach to Measuring Emissions from Confined Animal Feeding Operations at the Whole Facility Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, G. E.; Hatfiels, J.; J. H. Prueger; Wilkerson, T. D.; Zavyalov, V. V.; Pfeiffer, R. L.; Hipps, L.; R. Martin; Silva., P; Eichinger, W.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural operations produce a variety of particulates and gases that influence air quality. Agriculture, through wind erosion, tillage and harvest operations, burning, diesel-powered machinery and animal production operations, is a source of particulate matter that can enter human lungs and cause pulmonary problems. Animal production operations can be a source of gaseous emissions such as ammonia, odor-causing volatile organic compounds, hydrogen sulfide, greenhouse gases (methane, nitrou...

  12. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  13. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhaskar; Mandal, Tapas K; Patra, Sanjukta

    2015-07-01

    The present work evaluates the phenol degradative performance of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that C. pyrenoidosa degrades phenol completely up to 200 mg/l. It could also metabolize phenol in refinery wastewater. Biokinetic parameters obtained are the following: growth kinetics, μ max (media) > μ max (refinery wastewater), K s(media)  K I(refinery wastewater); degradation kinetics, q max (media) > q max (refinery wastewater), K s(media)  K I(refinery wastewater). The microalgae could cometabolize the alkane components present in refinery wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting of biomass indicates intercellular phenol uptake and breakdown into its intermediates. Phenol was metabolized as an organic carbon source leading to higher specific growth rate of biomass. Phenol degradation pathway was elucidated using HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. It involved both ortho- and meta-pathway with prominence of ortho-pathway. SEM analysis shows that cell membrane gets wrinkled on phenol exposure. Phenol degradation was growth and photodependent. Infrared analysis shows increased intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids opening possibility for utilization of spent biomass as biodiesel feedstock. The biomass after lipid extraction could be used as protein supplement in animal feed owing to enhanced protein content. The phenol remediation ability coupled with potential applicability of the spent biomass as biofuel feedstock and animal feed makes it a potential candidate for an environmentally sustainable process.

  14. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  15. Sensitive Quantification of Aflatoxin B1 in Animal Feeds, Corn Feed Grain, and Yellow Corn Meal Using Immunomagnetic Bead-Based Recovery and Real-Time Immunoquantitative-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable natural mycotoxins encountered in foods, animal feeds, and feed grains. In this study, we demonstrate the application of our recently developed real-time immunoquantitative PCR (RT iq-PCR assay for sensitive detection and quantification of aflatoxins in poultry feed, two types of dairy feed (1 and 2, horse feed, whole kernel corn feed grains, and retail yellow ground corn meal. Upon testing methanol/water (60:40 extractions of the above samples using competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the aflatoxin content was found to be <20 μg/kg. The RT iq-PCR assay exhibited high antigen hook effect in samples containing aflatoxin levels higher than the quantification limits (0.1–10 μg/kg, addressed by comparing the quantification results of undiluted and diluted extracts. In testing the reliability of the immuno-PCR assay, samples were spiked with 200 μg/kg of aflatoxin B1, but the recovery of spiked aflatoxin was found to be poor. Considering the significance of determining trace levels of aflatoxins and their serious implications for animal and human health, the RT iq-PCR method described in this study can be useful for quantifying low natural aflatoxin levels in complex matrices of food or animal feed samples without the requirement of extra sample cleanup.

  16. 76 FR 72617 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Eprinomectin; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... reflect approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Merial Ltd. The NADA provides... Blvd., Bldg. 500, Duluth, GA 30096-4640 filed NADA 141-327 that provides for veterinary prescription... control of internal and external parasites of cattle on pasture with persistent effectiveness. The NADA is...

  17. Arsenic occurrence and species in near-shore macroalgae-feeding marine animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J; Maher, W; Spooner, D

    2005-08-15

    This study was undertaken to improve the understanding of arsenic species and their pathways of formation in marine animals: fish (Odax cyanomelas), abalone (Haliotis rubra), and sea urchins (Heliocidaris erythrogramma and Centrostephanus rodgersii) that are directly exposed through their diets to dimethyl arsenoriboses in macroalgae (Phyllospora comosa and Halopteris platycena). The identification of dimethyl arsenoriboses (phosphate, sulfonate, and glycerol) in both dominant macroalgae species, and especially digestive tissues of marine animals that consume them, suggests these arsenic species, are to some degree accumulated directly from their diets without degradation or conversion. An unknown arsenic species in H. rubra intestinal tissue was identified using tandem mass spectrometry as 2',3'-dihydroxypropyl 5-deoxy-5-trimethyl arsonioriboside (trimethyl glycerol arsenoribose). The concentration of trimethyl glycerol arsenoribose in H. rubra intestinal tissue was estimated to account for 28% (5.0 microg g(-1) dry mass) of the methanol-water-soluble arsenic fraction. The presence of a trimethyl glycerol arsenoribose in marine animal tissues may be due to microbial-mediated processes that promote the reduction and methylation of dimethyl arsenoriboses released during the breakdown of macroalgae in their diets. Arsenobetaine formation may then occur in the lumen of the digestive tract (i.e., mediated by microorganisms) or in the liver catalyzed by enzymes. The identification of a large amount of trimethyl glycerol arsenoribose in H. rubra intestinal tissue suggests this species is a main constituent in the pathway for arsenic in this marine animal.

  18. Nano zinc, an alternative to conventional zinc as animal feed supplement: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha S. Swain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of Zn is that, it is the second most abundant trace element in the animal body but can't be stored in the body, thus regular dietary intake is required. Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NP particles are being extensively used in paints, skin lotions pigments, food, electronics appliances, biological and pharmaceutical applications and many more. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are the specially prepared mineral salt having particle size of 1 to 100 nm. It promotes growth can act as antibacterial agent, modulates the immunity and reproduction of the animals. Both in lower and higher doses of specifications it has exhibited a variety of effects on animal performances. Apart from being highly bio-available, reports have already pointed out the growth promoting, antibacterial, immuno-modulatory and many more effects of nano zinc (nZn. These can be used at lower doses and can provide better result than the conventional Zn sources and indirectly prevents environmental contamination also. The toxicological studies provide mixed results in animal models. Studies been undertaken in diversified animal species and encouraging effects have been reported with nZn supplementation. However, there is a need to optimize the dose and duration of ZnO NP supplementation for human and livestock, depending on its biological effects. Actual bioavailability of ZnO NP in livestock is still to be worked out. In this review we have attempted to summarize, conclude the beneficial effects of nZnO and its possible usage as mineral supplement to different categories of human and livestock.

  19. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants.

  20. Evans blue as a simple method to discriminate mosquitoes' feeding choice on small laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, André; Gueroni, Daniele I; Ramos, Anderson D; Capurro, Margareth L; Sá-Nunes, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

  1. Evans Blue as a Simple Method to Discriminate Mosquitoes’ Feeding Choice on Small Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Ceres; Fujita, André; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Capurro, Margareth L.; Sá-Nunes, Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. Principal Findings By using Evans blue (EB) vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito’s choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host), either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. Significance Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc) and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment. PMID:25333369

  2. Evans blue as a simple method to discriminate mosquitoes' feeding choice on small laboratory animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Maciel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temperature, humidity, vision, and particularly odor, are external cues that play essential roles to mosquito blood feeding and oviposition. Entomological and behavioral studies employ well-established methods to evaluate mosquito attraction or repellency and to identify the source of the blood meal. Despite the efficacy of such methods, the costs involved in the production or acquisition of all parts, components and the chemical reagents involved are unaffordable for most researchers from poor countries. Thus, a simple and relatively low-cost method capable of evaluating mosquito preferences and the blood volume ingested is desirable. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using Evans blue (EB vital dye and few standard laboratory supplies, we developed and validated a system capable of evaluating mosquito's choice between two different host sources of blood. EB-injected and PBS-injected mice submitted to a number of situations were placed side by side on the top of a rounded recipient covered with tulle fabric and containing Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Homogenates from engorged mosquitoes clearly revealed the blood source (EB- or PBS-injected host, either visually or spectrometrically. This method was able to estimate the number of engorded mosquitoes, the volume of blood ingested, the efficacy of a commercial repellent and the attractant effects of black color and human sweat. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the obvious limitations due to its simplicity and to the dependence of a live source of blood, the present method can be used to assess a number of host variables (diet, aging, immunity, etc and optimized for several aspects of mosquito blood feeding and vector-host interactions. Thus, it is proposed as an alternative to field studies, and it could be used for initial screenings of chemical compound candidates for repellents or attractants, since it replicates natural conditions of exposure to mosquitoes in a laboratory environment.

  3. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad taghi ghaneian; abbasali jafari; sara jamshidi; mohammad hasan ehrampoush; habibe momeni; omid jamshidii; mohammad ali ghove

    2016-01-01

    Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal fee...

  4. [Animal-derived feedstuffs as possible vectors for bovine encephalopathy (BSE) in Germany. Part 2: Assessment of vector risk for compounded feed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, J; Oberthür, R C; Kamphues, J; Kreienbrock, L; Flachowsky, G; Coenen, M

    2002-02-01

    Specific conditions and practices of cattle feeding in Germany have to be taken into account for assessing the risk of feed born transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, especially regarding the situation before the year 2000 when specific directives were introduced for feed production. The present retrospective epidemiological study includes data on feed production and the estimated amount of animal derived feedstuffs for the production of compounded feed for cattle. Risk assessment was performed based on the 'reproduction rate' (R0), that is defined as the estimated number of infections resulting from the processing of brain and spinal cord of BSE affected cattle that is recycled to bovines via feed. Under the conditions as given in Germany until the year 2000 the reproduction rate of BSE via the inclusion of animal derived feedstuffs in compounded feed production for cattle was estimated to be 1.1. Thus, it can be expected that BSE could be reproduced in the system, but with comparatively low efficiency. The expected incidence of BSE should be considerably lower compared to the situation during the 90th in the UK, due to the markedly lower recycling rate of animal protein in cattle feeding. Animal fat could have been a significant factor for BSE transmission due to contamination by proteinaceous brain and spinal cord material during the production process. The relative significance of fat containing feedstuffs for BSE transmission could have been higher in Germany compared to the situation in the UK where meat and bone meal was produced under different conditions and frequently used in higher proportions as an ingredient for compounded feed for ruminants.

  5. Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinchon Crespo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

  6. A review of nutritional and toxicological implications of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) meal in animal feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, T O; Odunsi, A A; Akinfala, E O

    2016-04-01

    The nutrient-rich defatted castor meal has been tested as a potential source of protein in diets of many livestock species but has limitation due to challenges of toxins. This review was conducted to compile the relevant research information on advances in the use of raw and differently processed castor seed meal in animal feed. In this article, distribution and uses of castor and its products were identified. Research findings on the nutrients profile, principal toxins, various detoxification strategies, nutritional value and toxicity on common livestock species were compiled and reviewed. The defatted seed meal had crude protein range of 32-48%, gross energy of about 3200 kcal/kg. Ricin content was 9.3 mg/g seed, and the average RCA content was 9.9 mg/g. The meal had high activity of lectin, which produced agglutination at about 4.70 mg/ml minimum assays. Reports of detoxification strategies showed varying degrees of success but high pH, moist heating and microbial techniques appeared to exert greater effect on deactivating ricin. Detoxification strategy for the allergen component is inconclusive. Tannins and the phenolic contents were present at trace level and did not constitute notable threat. It was concluded that castor seed holds great potential as feedstuff when upgraded but such upgrading must be safe, cost-effective and labour efficient for commercial acceptability. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Cultivation of rice for animal feed with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater for enhanced nitrogen removal: comparison of cultivation systems feeding irrigation water upward and downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, A; Ito, H; Sasaki, A; Kajihara, A; Watanabe, T

    2015-01-01

    To achieve enhanced nitrogen removal, we modified a cultivation system with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater by using rice for animal feed instead of human consumption. The performance of this modified system was evaluated through a bench-scale experiment by comparing the direction of circulated irrigation (i.e. passing through paddy soil upward and downward). The modified system achieved more than three times higher nitrogen removal (3.2 g) than the system in which rice for human consumption was cultivated. The removal efficiency was higher than 99.5%, regardless of the direction of circulated irrigation. Nitrogen in the treated municipal wastewater was adsorbed by the rice plant in this cultivation system as effectively as chemical fertilizer used in normal paddy fields. Circulated irrigation increased the nitrogen released to the atmosphere, probably due to enhanced denitrification. Neither the circulation of irrigation water nor its direction affected the growth of the rice plant and the yield and quality of harvested rice. The yield of rice harvested in this system did not reach the target value in normal paddy fields. To increase this yield, a larger amount of treated wastewater should be applied to the system, considering the significant amount of nitrogen released to the atmosphere.

  8. Recycling technology of sugar industry by-products for animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadira Suárez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de una tecnología de reciclaje y enriquecimiento proteico mediante fermentación en estado sólido de los subproductos de la industria azucarera para su posterior utilización como alimento animal. A partir de un estudio bibliográfico sobre los aspectos más importantes de las tecnologías actuales de fabricación de alimentos para el consumo animal y las herramientas para el desarrollo de tecnologías de fermentaci ón en medios sólidos se ha desarrollado un procedimiento general para el diseño de una planta para la producción de un alimento a partir de bagazo y miel final, enriquecido proteicamente con levadura Candida utilis y que se le ha dado el nombre de Bagames. El diseño cuenta con varias etapas: preparaci ón de las materias primas, fermentación en estado sólido, sistema de aireaci ón, sistema de bombeo y transporte mecánico del producto, secado, humidificaci ón del aire. El diseño de todos los equipos fue realizado en Microsoft Excel. La metodología desarrollada puede ser generalizada a otras plantas del país. Mediante un análisis de prefactibilidad económica se calculó que la inversi ón en el Complejo Agro Industrial "Siboney" es de $72 697,91 con un tiempo de recuperación de 2,44 años. Con un valor del VAN de $219 407, 48 y un TIR de 39,13 %. Se demostró que la tecnología es técnico económicamente factible.

  9. Microscopic method in processed animal proteins identification in feed: applications of image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoini G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Processed animal proteins (PAP detection and identification in feedstuffs can be difficult in distinguishing among land animals, i.e. poultry and mammals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of image analysis in PAP identification. For this purpose four reference samples containing poultry meals and four reference samples containing mammalian meat and bone meals were used. Each sample was analyzed using the microscopic method (98/88/EC. Bone fragments are characterized by similar morphological features (colours, shape, lacunae shape, lacunae distribution, etc. that make it diff i c u l t to distinguish between poultry and mammals. Through a digital camera and an image analysis software a total of 30 bone fragment lacunae images at X400 were obtained. For each image 29 geometric parameters related to the lacunae and 3 geometric parameters related to the canaliculae of lacunae, were measured using the image analysis software obtaining 960 observations. Of the 32 descriptors used two, the area of the lacunae and their perimeter, were able to explain 96.15% of the total variability of the data, even though their contribution was different (83.97% vs. 12.18%, respectively. Through these two descriptors it was possible to distinguish between mammalian and poultry lacunae, except in two cases (6.6%, in which poultry lacunae were wrongly classified as mammalian. This latter can be related with higher variability in the lacunae area recorded for mammals compared to poultry. On the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that image analysis represents a promising potential tool in PAP identification, that may provide accurate and reliable results in feedstuffs characterisation, analysis and control.

  10. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: result of an interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Marta; Berben, Gilbert; Fumière, Olivier; van Duijn, Gert; Mensinga-Kruize, Jonne; Reaney, Scott; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2007-09-05

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of animal proteins in animal feed has been indicated in the TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) Roadmap (European Commission. The TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) roadmap. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/biosafety/bse/roadmap_en.pdf, 2005) as the main condition for lifting the extended feed ban. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seem to be a promising solution for this aim. The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four different real-time PCR methods, developed by three National expert laboratories from the European Union (EU), for the detection and identification of cattle or ruminant species in typical compound feeds, fortified with meat and bone meals (MBM) from different animal species at different concentration levels. The MBM samples utilized in this study have been treated using the sterilization condition mandatory within the European Union (steam pressure sterilization at 133 degrees C, 3 bar, and 20 min), which is an additional challenge to the PCR methods evaluated in this study. The results indicate that the three labs applying their PCR methods were able to detect 0.1% of cattle MBM, either alone or in mixtures with different materials such as fishmeal, which demonstrates the improvement made by this technique, especially when compared with results from former interlaboratory studies.

  11. Chemical and biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feed suitable for production of high-quality meat from farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, M. I.; Ivankin, A. N.; Stanovova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    The process of chemical biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feeds for effective pig rearing was studied. Protein components of feeds were obtained as a result of hydrolysis in the presence of lactic acid of the animal collagen from secondary raw materials, which comprised subcutaneous collagen (cuticle), skin and veined mass with tendons from cattle. For comparison, a method is described for preparing protein components of feeds by cultivating Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of the kinetic data of the conversion of a high-molecular collagen protein to an aminolyte polypeptide mixture showed the advantage of microbiological synthesis in obtaining a protein for feeds. Feed formulations have been developed to include the components obtained, and which result in high quality pork suitable for the production of quality meat products.

  12. Encapsulated whey-native yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus as a feed additive for animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vergara, Ladislao; Pereyra, Carina Maricel; Montenegro, Mariana; Pena, Gabriela Alejandra; Aminahuel, Carla Ayelen; Cavaglieri, Lilia R

    2017-05-01

    Whey is the main byproduct of the cheese industry. While the composition is variable, it retains up to 55% of milk nutrients. The beneficial features of whey indicates a promising source of new potentially probiotic strains for the development of food additives destined for animal production. The aim of this study was to identify Kluyveromyces spp. isolated from whey, to study some probiotic properties and to select the best strain to be encapsulated using derivatised chitosan. Kluyveromyces marxianus strains (VM003, VM004 and VM005) were isolated from whey and identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. These three yeast strains were able to survive under gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, they exhibited weak auto-aggregation and co-aggregation with pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp., Serratia sp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). In general the K. marxianus strains had a strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The potential probiotic K. marxianus VM004 strain was selected for derivatised-chitosan encapsulation. Material treated with native chitosan exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity of K. marxianus, showing a total growth inhibition at 10 min exposure. However, derivatised-chitosan encapsulation showed a reduced antimicrobial activity. This is the first study to show some probiotic properties of whey-native K. marxianus, in vitro. An encapsulation strategy was applied using derivatised chitosan.

  13. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2004-03-31

    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs.

  14. Comparison of HgO and CuSO4 as digestion catalysts in manual Kjeldahl determination of crude protein in animal feeds: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P F

    1984-01-01

    The official AOAC manual Kjeldahl method for determining crude protein in animal feeds, 7.015, uses HgO as a catalyst in the digestion step. Because of environmental considerations, there is considerable interest in alternative catalysts. A collaborative study compares the official HgO-catalyzed method and an alternative using CuSO4. Fifty-four samples consisting of blind duplicates of closely matched pairs, representing a range of animal feed materials and 2 standard materials, were analyzed once by each method. Results were returned by 22 laboratories. Means and standard deviations between methods were comparable. The CuSO4-catalyzed method has been adopted official first action.

  15. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  16. Relationship between Molecular Structure Characteristics of Feed Proteins and Protein Digestibility and Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingmei Bai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value of feed proteins and their utilization by livestock are related not only to the chemical composition but also to the structure of feed proteins, but few studies thus far have investigated the relationship between the structure of feed proteins and their solubility as well as digestibility in monogastric animals. To address this question we analyzed soybean meal, fish meal, corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles, corn gluten meal, and feather meal by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy to determine the protein molecular spectral band characteristics for amides I and II as well as α-helices and β-sheets and their ratios. Protein solubility and in vitro digestibility were measured with the Kjeldahl method using 0.2% KOH solution and the pepsin-pancreatin two-step enzymatic method, respectively. We found that all measured spectral band intensities (height and area of feed proteins were correlated with their the in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.003; moreover, the relatively quantitative amounts of α-helices, random coils, and α-helix to β-sheet ratio in protein secondary structures were positively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.004. On the other hand, the percentage of β-sheet structures was negatively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility (p<0.001 and solubility (p = 0.002. These results demonstrate that the molecular structure characteristics of feed proteins are closely related to their in vitro digestibility at 28 h and solubility. Furthermore, the α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio can be used to predict the nutritional value of feed proteins.

  17. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  18. Detailed insight into hordeins expression in high protein cultivars as a first stage to improve feed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Aaslo, Per; Vincze, Éva

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a very important nutrition source for monogastric animals like extensively produced pigs. Barley grain provides a high amount of starch and vitamins but is also characterized by unfavourable amino acid composition what force the need of supplementation before exploiting...

  19. Banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed: Collaborative trial on the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method developed in the feedstuffs-radius project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poucke, C.V.; Dumoulin, F.; Yakkundi, S.; Situ, C.; Elliott, C.T.; Grutters, E.M.; Verheijen, R.; Schilt, R.; Eriksson, S.; Peteghem, C.V.

    2006-01-01

    A chemical confirmation method for the identification and quantification of five banned antibacterial growth promoters (AGPs) in animal feed was developed and in-house validated as part of the European Feedstuffs-RADIUS project [1]. To complete the validation process a collaborative trial was

  20. DETERMINATION OF ROXARSONE, AN ARSENIC ANIMAL-FEED ADDITIVE. AND ITS TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE BY CE-ICPMS AND UHPLC -ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic animal-feed additives have been extensively used in the United States for their growth- promoting and disease-controlling properties. In particular most broiler chickens are fed roxarsone(3- nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) to control coccidiosis. Disposal of the result...

  1. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

  2. Banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed: Collaborative trial on the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method developed in the feedstuffs-radius project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poucke, C.V.; Dumoulin, F.; Yakkundi, S.; Situ, C.; Elliott, C.T.; Grutters, E.M.; Verheijen, R.; Schilt, R.; Eriksson, S.; Peteghem, C.V.

    2006-01-01

    A chemical confirmation method for the identification and quantification of five banned antibacterial growth promoters (AGPs) in animal feed was developed and in-house validated as part of the European Feedstuffs-RADIUS project [1]. To complete the validation process a collaborative trial was perfor

  3. Proficiency of European official control laboratories in the determination of authorized carotenoids in animal feed - EURL for Feed Additives Control PT exercise 2015 and annual workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Ursula; SERANO Federica; Von Holst, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed additives, has been mandated by the Directorate General for Health and Food Safety to organise a proficiency test (PT) among appointed National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The aim of the PT was to assess the capacity of the NRLs to correctly determine selected authorised carotenoids in feed matrices at authorised levels. This report presents the results of the PT. Eight laboratories from eight countries registered to this 2015 PT exercise an...

  4. Terra Incognita: Absence of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations from the National Land Cover Database and Implications for Environmental Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Vose, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Although important to food supplies, CAFOs may present significant risks to human health and environmental quality. The National land cover database (NLCD) is a publically available database of land cover whose purpose is to provide assessment of ecosystem health, facilitate nutrient modeling, land use planning, and developing land management practices. However, CAFOs do not align with any existing NLCD land cover classes. This is especially concerning due to their distinct nutrient loading characteristics, potential for other environmental impacts, and given that individual CAFOs may occupy several NLCD pixels worth of ground area. Using 2011 NLCD data, we examined the land cover classification of CAFO sites in North Carolina (USA). Federal regulations require CAFOs with a liquid waste disposal system to obtain a water quality permit. In North Carolina, there were 2679 permitted sites as of 2015, primarily in the southeastern part of the state. As poultry operations most frequently use dry waste disposal systems, they are not required to obtain a permit and thus, their locations are undocumented. For each permitted CAFO, we determined the mode of the NLCD land uses within a 50m buffer surrounding point coordinates. We found permitted CAFOS were most likely to be classified as hay/pasture (58%). An additional 13% were identified as row crops, leaving 29% as a non-agricultural land cover class, including wetlands (12%). This misclassification of CAFOs can have implications for environmental management and public policy. Scientists and land managers need access to better spatial data on the distribution of these operations to monitor the environmental impacts and identify the best landscape scale mitigation strategies. We recommend adding a new land cover class (concentrated animal operations) to the NLCD database.

  5. Pigs in Space: Determining the Environmental Justice Landscape of Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Young, Sean G; Tate, Eric

    2016-08-25

    Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables. We found that while swine CAFOs do cluster in certain regions and watersheds of Iowa, these high densities of swine are not associated with traditional EJ populations of low income and minority race/ethnicity. Instead, the potential for environmental injustice in the negative impacts of intensive swine production require a more complex appraisal. The clustering of swine production in watersheds, the presence of antibiotics used in swine production in public waterways, the clustering of manure spills, and other findings suggest that a more literal and figurative "downstream" approach is necessary. We document the presence and location of antibiotics used in animal production in the public waterways of the state. At the same time, we suggest a more "upstream" understanding of the structural, political and economic factors that create an environmentally unjust landscape of swine production in Iowa and the Upper Midwest is also crucial. Finally, we highlight the important role of publicly accessible and high quality data in the analysis of these upstream and downstream EJ questions.

  6. Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro, Margarita; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Diverse tetracyclines are used to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock and farmed fish. These drugs are administered through the diet, but farmers seldom check whether feed contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria that may colonise their crops or transfer their resistance traits to species of veterinary relevance. To examine whether antibiotic dosage defines the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal feed, we determined the concentration of parental compounds and epimers of oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, as well as the abundance and resistance level of OTC-resistant bacteria in samples of fish (n = 21), poultry (n = 21), swine (n = 21), and shrimp feed (n = 21) marketed in Costa Rica. Fish feed contained the highest amounts of tetracyclines (119-8365 mg kg(-1)) and the largest proportion of bacteria resistant to 10 μg ml(-1) (1.8-92.4%) or 100 μg ml(-1) of OTC (12.5-63.8%). Poultry (78-438 mg kg(-1)) and swine (41-1076 mg kg(-1)) feed had intermediate concentrations of tetracyclines and OTC-resistant bacteria (0.2-66% and 0.3-49%, respectively), whereas shrimp feed showed the lowest amounts of tetracyclines (21.5-50.3 mg kg(-1)), no OTC and no culturable OTC-resistant bacteria. In line with these results, the MIC50 of OTC for 150 isolates from fish and poultry feed was > 256 µg ml(-1), while that of 150 bacteria isolated from swine feed was 192 µg ml(-1). Phenotypic tests, fatty acid profiles and proteotypic analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass-spectroscopy revealed that most OTC-resistant isolates were Gram-positive bacteria of low G+C% content from the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Clear correlations between OTC dosage and feed colonisation with OTC-resistant bacteria were seen in medicated feed for fish (r = 0.179-0.651). Nonetheless, some unmedicated feed for fish, swine and poultry contained large populations of OTC-resistant bacteria

  7. Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Duck Hwa; Shim, Won Bo; Cho, Sik Bee; Nimakashim; Song, Jung Un [Gyungsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

  8. 动物饲料添加剂的发展方向%The Developmental Trend of Animal Feed Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅刚; 胡辽生; 刘金萍; 白子金

    2011-01-01

    The problem of human beings and animals being infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria has attracted increasingly great attention throughout the world.The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is mainly caused by the clinical abuse of antibiotics in human beings and animals and the abuse in agricultural production.As a result,the clinical use of antibiotics in human beings and animals has been required to be standardized in many countries.Besides,all countries in the world have taken measures to impose restrictions on or prohibit putting adding antibiotics into animals' food or feed in husbandry production.But it is thought that this practice can also produce negative effects on husbandry production.Therefore,researchers and scholars are looking for alternatives to replace antibiotics,which would be able to promote animals' health and growth performance without any induction of the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.This article is aimed at summarizing the researchers and scholars' study results and offer reference for further study.%动物感染耐药菌的问题日趋受到人们的关注,而人和动物及农业生产中滥用抗生素则是导致耐药菌产生的根本原因。为此,世界各国严格限制人和动物临床使用抗生素,还限制或禁止畜牧业生产中在饲料中添加抗生素。但这又会给畜牧业生产带来一定的影响。于是,众多学者探索寻找用有机酸、益生素或益生菌替代抗生素的产品,令这些替代品既不产生抗药性,又能促进畜禽健康生长的途径,极大地提高现代动物生产效率。

  9. Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2000-01-01

    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with a fibre-optic probe for the prediction of the amino acid composition in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Alvarez-García, Noelia; González-Cabrera, José Miguel

    2006-05-15

    The amino acids alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, proline, and tyrosine present in feeds with different textures (blocks, tablets, granules and flour (meal) and used in different stages of animal feeding regimes (lactation, growth, maintenance, etc.) were analysed using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe. The method allows immediate control of the animal feeds without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe on the sample. The regression method used was Modified Partial Least Squares (MPLS). The equations developed to determine the amino acid contents of the feeds afforded high values for the RSQ coefficient (0.814-0.963) in all the amino acids with the exception of lysine (0.687). The statistical prediction descriptors SEP, SEP(C) (with values between 0.134 for valine and 0.015 for aspartic acid) and bias indicated that the amino acid values in feeds predicted with NIRS with a fibre optic probe are comparable to those obtained with the chemical ion-exchange HPLC method.

  11. ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  12. Feasibility of feeding yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) in bioregenerative life support systems as a source of animal protein for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, LeYuan; Zhao, ZhiRuo; Liu, Hong

    2013-11-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems, using inedible plant biomass to feed animals can provide animal protein for astronauts, while at the same time treating with wastes so as to increase the degree of system closure. In this study, the potential of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) as an animal candidate in the system was analyzed. The feasibility of feeding T. molitor with inedible parts of wheat and vegetable was studied. To improve the feed quality of wheat straw, three methods of fermentation were tested. A feeding regime was designed to contain a proper proportion of bran, straw and old leaves. The results showed that T. molitor larvae fed on the plant waste diets grew healthily, their fresh and dry weight reached 56.15% and 46.76% of the larvae fed on a conventional diet (control), respectively. The economic coefficient of the larvae was 16.07%, which was 88.05% of the control. The protein and fat contents of the larvae were 76.14% and 6.44% on dry weigh basis, respectively. Through the processes of facultative anaerobic fermentation and larval consumption, the straw lost about 47.79% of the initial dry weight, and its lignocellulose had a degradation of about 45.74%. Wheat germination test indicated that the frass of T. molitor needs a certain treatment before the addition to the cultivation substrate.

  13. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  14. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  15. Meta-analysis on the effects of the physical environment, animal traits, feeder and feed characteristics on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, X; Brossard, L; Dourmad, J Y; de Greef, K H; Edwards, S A; Meunier-Salaün, M C

    2012-08-01

    A meta-analysis, using information from 45 experiments on growing-finishing pigs published in 39 manuscripts, was carried out to determine the simultaneous effects of the physical environment (space allowance, group size, flooring conditions, temperature, presence of enrichment), pig traits (initial body weight (BW) for each studied time interval, sex, genetics), feeder characteristics (water provision within the feeder, feeder design (individual/collective), feeder places/pig, presence of feeder protection) and feed characteristics (feed allowance (ad libitum/restricted), net energy content, crude protein (CP) content), as well as their potential interactions, on the feeding behaviour and performance of growing-finishing pigs. The detrimental effect of low temperature on performance was particularly evident for restricted-fed pigs (P < 0.05). At reduced feeder space allowance, a reduction in the percentage of time spent eating was predicted when increasing initial BW, whereas the opposite was predicted for larger feeder space allowances (P < 0.001). The reduction in visit duration to the feeder in higher BW groups became gradually more important with increasing feeder space allowance (P < 0.01), whereas the increase in the ingestion rate and average daily feed intake (ADFI) with increasing initial BW became smaller with increasing feeder space (P < 0.05). The model predicted a reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) with increasing group size (P < 0.05) and floor space allowance (P < 0.01) and on solid floors with or without bedding (P < 0.05). In comparison with other feeders, wet/dry feeders were associated with more frequent but shorter feeder visits (P < 0.05), higher ingestion rates (P < 0.001) and higher ADFI (P < 0.10). The use of protection within individual feeders increased the time spent feeding (P < 0.001), reduced the number of visits per day (P < 0.01), the ingestion rate (P < 0.001) and FCR (P < 0.01) in comparison with other feeder types. Sex

  16. Introduction to Animal Nutrition. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 28, Number 7 [and] Volume 28, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Andrea; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain five lessons about animal science for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover these topics: the monogastric digestive system, the ruminant digestive system, the importance of meeting nutritional needs, how…

  17. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Voshell, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO 4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17??-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000??g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R 2=0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R 2=0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO 4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R 2=0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO 4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO 4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. The probabilistic model of the process mixing of animal feed ingredients into a continuous mixer-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Lytkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the polydisperse medium mixing process reflects its stochastic features in the form of uneven distribution of phase elements on the time of their presence in apparatus, particle size, ripple retention of the apparatus, random distribution of the material and thermal phase flows of the working volume, heterogeneity of the medium physical- and chemical properties, complicated by chemical reaction. For the mathematical description of the mixing process of animal feed ingredients in the presence of chemical reaction the system of differential equations of Academician V.V. Kafarov was used. Proposed by him hypothesis based on the theory of Markov’s processes stating that "any multicomponent mixture can be considered as the result of an iterative process of mixing the two components to achieve the desired uniformity of all the ingredients in the mixture" allows us to consider a process of mixing binary composition in a paddle mixer in the form of differential equations of two ingredients concentration numerous changes until it becomes a homogenous mixture. It was found out that the mixing process of the two-component mixture is determined in a paddle mixer with a constant mixing speed and a limit (equilibrium dispersion of the ingredients in the mixture i.e. with its uniformity. Adjustment of the model parameters was carried out according to the results of experimental studies on mixing the crushed wheat with metallomagnetic impurity, which was a key (indicator component. According to the best values of the constant of the continuous mixing speed and the equilibrium disperse values of the ingredients contents, the mathematical model parameters identification was carried out. The results obtained are used to develop a new generation mixer design.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. The two vitamin sources under application are considered safe for the target animals provided the current maximum contents in feed are respected. Any administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking could exceed the safe amounts of vitamin D and therefore represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed, and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a dermal sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No environmental risk resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  20. 国内外草畜平衡研究进展%Research Progress of Grassland Feed-animal Balance at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买小虎; 张玉娟; 张英俊; 师尚礼; 黄顶; 张亚军

    2013-01-01

      草畜平衡长期以来是草地生态系统研究的热点。然而,多年来的研究成果未能有效解决草地退化以及畜牧业可持续发展的管理和技术问题,现有的草畜平衡研究体系尚存在一定缺陷。笔者论述了草畜平衡的国内外研究进展,讨论了确定草原载畜量所涉及的基本概念、基本方法和实践问题,特别是载畜量的确定和牧民收入问题。并通过对草原畜牧业发展、划区轮牧和季节畜牧业等概念的探讨,进一步阐述了在草原牧区提高畜牧业经营水平和维持草畜平衡的相关理论和实践问题。草畜平衡应由侧重牲畜数量监管模式改为以草原质量为依据,以税收等市场手段为主体的市场经济管理新模式。%Feed-animal balance was the key technique on the grassland ecosystem management, and attracts widespread attention in the world. Many studies have been conducted by former researchers, and most of their efforts were intended to keep the balance of feed-animal. However, there were still much more issue needed to be studied in details on the face of grassland degeneration and animal husbandry sustainable development. The author analyzed the feed-animal balance research progress, including the concept of stocking rate and its practical management techniques, especially on the stocking rate calculation methods. In addition, the social and economy effects on feed-animal balance were also discussed during the progress of improving the development of pastoral economy. In order to achieve feed-animal balance more effectively, it was concluded that the focus must be shift from only on animal number to the grassland quality, and it’s necessary to strengthen market tax control.

  1. Trace analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater by GC using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Holder, C.L.; Bowman, M.C.

    1982-08-01

    Doxylamine succinate, a drug used as a sleep-inducing agent, an antihistamine, and in a therapeutic formulation taken by pregnant women as an antinauseant, was scheduled for toxicological evaluation as part of a structure activity relationship study, with rats and mice, because a deficiency of such data exists with regard to many antihistamines. Analytical chemical procedures that ensure proper concentration, homogeneity, and stability of the drug in dosed feed, as well as the safety of personnel and the environment, were prerequisites for the toxicological tests. GC methods using a rubidium-sensitized nitrogen detector were developed for analysis of doxylamine succinate in animal feed, human urine, and wastewater at levels as low as 1 ppm, 100 ppb, and 100 ppb, respectively. Sample extracts were cleaned up by liquid-liquid partitioning, followed by additional cleanup on a column of silica gel. Data are presented concerning the stability of the drug in animal feed, extraction efficiencies, and the use of the silica gel cleanup column to separate the caffeine interference from doxylamine in extracts of human urine. Partition values and ancillary data concerning analysis of the drug in feed, by HPLC at levels as low as 10 ppm, are also reported.

  2. Nutrition mechanism and application in animal feeds of amylase%饲料淀粉类酶制剂的营养机理及应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋苏苏; 段红伟; 于锋

    2012-01-01

    饲料中的淀粉作为主要的供能物质,对动物的生长发育起着重要作用。淀粉类酶制剂的应用,提高了谷物的利用率及动物的生产效率,其研究具有重要意义。本研究综述了淀粉类酶制剂的分类及其对动物的作用,展望了淀粉酶的开发和利用前景。%Starch is one of the major nutrients in animal feeds and plays an important role in animal growth.Amylase,as a bio-catalyzer to depredate starch,can improve utilization efficiency of grain starch and increase animal production.The research on applications of amylase in grain processing has great significance,but there was a lack of information in feed processing and animal nutrition.In this paper,the classification and current application of amylase were reviewed,and the development of amylase on animal production was also discussed.

  3. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zhizeng Wang,1 Dejuan Zhi,2 Yang Zhao,1 Hailong Zhang,2 Xin Wang,2 Yi Ru,1 Hongyu Li1,2 1MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Institute of Microbiology and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Although high melamine (MEL intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 µg/kg, 1,000 µg/kg, and 800 µg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. Keywords: melamine, selenium nanoparticles, test strip, milk, animal feed, dairy food

  4. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhizeng; Zhi, Dejuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Ru, Yi; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Although high melamine (MEL) intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 μg/kg, 1,000 μg/kg, and 800 μg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient.

  5. Analytical Method for Sugar Profile in Pet Food and Animal Feeds by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, David J; Anderson, Phillip; Berg, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a standardized, accurate, rugged, and consistent method to measure for sugars in pet foods and animal feeds. Many traditional standard sugar methods exist for other matrixes, but when applied in collaborative studies there was poor agreement and sources of error identified with those standard methods. The advancement in technology over the years has given us the ability to improve on these standard methods of analysis. A method is described here that addresses these common issues and was subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess performance on a wide variety of pet foods and animal feeds. Of key importance to the method performance is the sample preparation before extraction, type of extraction solvent, postextraction cleanup, and, finally, optimized chromatography using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results obtained from the validation demonstrate how typical issues seen with these matrixes can influence performance of sugar analysis. The results also demonstrate that this method is fit-for-purpose and can meet the challenges of sugar analysis in pet food and animal feeds to lay the foundation for a standardized method of analysis.

  6. Development of an LC-MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of aldehydes from polyunsaturated fatty acids degradation in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douny, Caroline; Bayram, Pinar; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2016-05-01

    Knowing that polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to the formation of potentially toxic aldehydes as secondary oxidation products, an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed to measure the concentration of eight aldehydes in animal feed: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), crotonaldehyde (CRT), benzaldehyde (BNZ), hexanal (HXL), 2,4-nonadienal, and 2,4-decadienal. The developed method was validated according to the criteria and procedure described in international standards. The evaluated parameters were specificity/selectivity, recovery, precision, accuracy, uncertainty, limits of detection and quantification, using the concept of accuracy profiles. These parameters were determined during experiments conducted over three different days with ground Kellogg's® Corn Flakes® cereals as model matrix for animal feed and spiked at different levels of concentration. Malondialdehyde, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and hexanal can be analyzed in the same run in animal feed with a very good accuracy, with recovery rates ranging from 86 to 109% for a working range going from 0.16 to 12.50 mg/kg. The analysis of 2,4-nonadienal and 2,4-decadienal can also be performed but in a limited range of concentration and with a limited degree of accuracy. Their recovery rates ranged between 54 and 114% and coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision between 11 and 25% for these two compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic/ tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and doxycycline in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Chen, Yiqiang; Zhang, Liying; Yang, Wenjun; He, Pingli

    2012-01-01

    A selective and accurate LC/MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and doxycycline (DC) in animal feeds was developed. Samples were extracted with Na2EDTA-McIlvaine buffer and further purified with Oasis HLB SPE columns. The purified extract was separated on an Xbridge C18 column and detected by LC/MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. This method provided average recoveries of 80.9 to 119.5%, with CVs of 1.7 to 9.8% in the range of 0.5 to 50 mg/kg CTC, OTC, TC, and DC in feeds, except the average recovery of CTC was 76.0%, with a CV of 14.6% in pig feed spiked with 0.5 mg/kg CTC. The linear ranges for the four TCs determined by LC/MS/MS ranged from 0.005 to 2.5 microg/mL with a linear correlation coefficient (R2) >0.99. The LOD and LOQ for CTC, OTC, TC, and DC in pig and poultry feeds ranged from 0.003 to 0.02 and 0.01 to 0.05 microg/g, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 30 real feed samples, and no illegal use was detected.

  8. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian Cooper

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde

  9. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  10. Non-feed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for industrial microorganism fe...

  11. 75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    .... ] These clauses prohibit approval of substances that have been shown to induce cancer in man or animals... risk of cancer to the test animals of 1 in 1 million, and is calculated from tumor data of the cancer... statistical extrapolation of the data to a 1 in 1 million risk of cancer to test animals, but nevertheless the...

  12. 77 FR 50591 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... substances that have been shown to induce cancer in man or animals. However, each clause contains an... risk of cancer to the test animals of 1 in 1 million, and is calculated from tumor data of the cancer... the total diet of test animals that corresponds to a maximum lifetime risk of cancer in the test...

  13. Bakery by-products based feeds borne-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotic resistance properties for use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Valeria; Salvato, Lauranne; Pereyra, Carina; Oliveira, Aguida; Rosa, Carlos; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Keller, Kelly Moura

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to select S. cerevisiae strains able to exert probiotic and antimycotoxin effects plus antibiotics resistance properties for use in animal production. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 were isolated from bakery by-products intended for use in animal feed and examined for phenotypic characteristics and nutritional profile. Resistance to antibiotic, tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions, autoaggregation and coaggregation assay, antagonism to animal pathogens and aflatoxin B1 binding were studied. S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 showed resistance to all the antibiotics assayed (ampicillin, streptomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, sulfonamide and trimethoprim). The analysis showed that exposure time to acid pH had a significant impact onto the viable cell counts onto both yeast strains. Presence of bile 0.5% increased significantly the growth of the both yeast strains. Moreover, they were able to tolerate the simulated gastrointestinal conditions assayed. In general, the coaggregation was positive whereas the autoaggregation capacity was not observed. Both strains were able to adsorb AFB1. In conclusion, selected S. cerevisiae LL74 and S. cerevisiae LL83 have potential application to be used as a biological method in animal feed as antibiotic therapy replacement in, reducing the adverse effects of AFB1 and giving probiotic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of an open-formula, diagnostic real-time PCR method for 20-hr detection of Salmonella in animal feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of a 20-hr, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 8.......6%, respectively. This method is the fastest open PCR based analysis protocol for detection of Salmonella in feed samples. Implementing rapid methods such as the one validated in this study can speed up Salmonella testing of feed for food-producing animals......A comparative study of a 20-hr, non-commercial, open-formula PCR method and the standard culture-based method NMKL 187, for detection of Salmonella, was performed according to the validation protocol from the Nordic organization for validation of alternative microbiological methods (NordVal) on 81...... artificially or naturally contaminated animal feed samples. The PCR method is based on culture enrichment in buffered peptone water for 16 ± 2 h followed by a magnetic beads based semi automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR analysis, including an internal amplification control. The limit of detection (LOD...

  15. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Chelsea; Bernheim, Aude; Bergé, Jean-Baptiste; Kuntz, Marcel; Pascal, Gérard; Paris, Alain; Ricroch, Agnès E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed for which long-term or multigenerational study data were available. Many parameters have been examined using biochemical analyses, histological examination of specific organs, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. The statistical findings and methods have been considered from each study. Results from all the 24 studies do not suggest any health hazards and, in general, there were no statistically significant differences within parameters observed. However, some small differences were observed, though these fell within the normal variation range of the considered parameter and thus had no biological or toxicological significance. If required, a 90-day feeding study performed in rodents, according to the OECD Test Guideline, is generally considered sufficient in order to evaluate the health effects of GM feed. The studies reviewed present evidence to show that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed.

  16. Animal feeding strategies to abate N2O and NH3 emission from surface applied slurry to a grassland soil

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Cobeña, Alberto; Beccaccia, A.; Sánchez Martín, Laura; Blas, C. de; García Rebollar, Paloma; Estellés, F.; Andreu, Gemma; A. Marsden; Chadwick, Dave; Vallejo Garcia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five different feeds, in terms of protein content, on the emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from a grassland soil fertilized with pig slurries.

  17. Detection of bovine meat and bone meal in animal feed at a level of 0.1%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.J.M.; Bouw, E.M.; Buntjer, J.B.; Lenstra, J.A.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2006-01-01

    For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR® Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed

  18. Detection of bovine meat and bone meal in animal feed at a level of 0.1%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.J.M.; Bouw, E.M.; Buntjer, J.B.; Lenstra, J.A.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2006-01-01

    For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR® Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed

  19. CuSO4-TiO2 as Kjeldahl digestion catalyst in manual determination of crude protein in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P F

    1986-01-01

    The official AOAC manual Kjeldahl methods for determining crude protein in animal feeds have several disadvantages. For the HgO catalyst method, there are environmental concerns and a lengthy digestion. For the CuSO4 catalyst method, the digestion period is shorter, but still 90 min. A different catalyst combination, CuSO4-TiO2, makes 40 min digestion feasible. Comparison of these catalysts on a group of representative feeds resulted in a mean difference, Cu-Ti minus HgO, of 0.034% protein. Standard deviation of the differences was 0.36. A Student's t-test showed no significant difference. The method will be collaboratively studied.

  20. 9 CFR 95.13 - Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals; requirements for entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bone meal for use as fertilizer or as...), AND HAY AND STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.13 Bone meal for use as fertilizer or... °Fahrenheit (121 °Centigrade), may be imported without further restrictions for use as fertilizer or as...

  1. 医院科研课题实验动物成本核算研究%Animal's feeding cost accounting of the scientific researches in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳霞

    2014-01-01

    Due to lack of cost accounting,the scientific researches charge differently of experimental animals in every hospital.Animals feeding costs include two parts,direct costs and indirect costs.Through gathering statistics of different kinds of animals and cumulative feeding amounts of different researches,the article calculates the indirect costs of each research,this approach can make up deficiencies for the current management method and improve hospital management level.%由于缺少成本核算,我国各医院对科研课题实验动物的收费标准存在较大差异.文章将动物饲养成本分为直接成本和间接成本两部分,根据各品种动物的累计饲养数量情况,核算成本分摊系数,计算间接成本,可以弥补目前收费标准的不足,提高医院科研经费管理水平.

  2. 动物饲料中砷、铜和锌调查及分析%Investigation of As, Cu and Zn Species and Concentrations in Animal Feeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚丽贤; 黄连喜; 蒋宗勇; 何兆桓; 周昌敏; 李国良

    2013-01-01

    在广东省采集市售鸡、猪配合饲料样本70个和76个,调查评价其中砷、铜、锌形态和含量,并考察常用有机胂添加剂洛克沙胂(ROX)的稳定性.结果表明,鸡、猪料平均总As含量分别为3.6 mg· kg-1和6.5 mg· kg-1,总Cu含量为18.2 mg·kg-1和119.4 mg·kg-1,总Zn含量为124.6 mg·kg-1和486.2 mg· kg-.按照国家相关限量标准,如考虑到可能添加了有机胂,饲料总As超标现象较少,猪料Cu、Zn超标现象较为普遍.Zn、Cu、As在饲料中添加量较高成为它们在禽畜粪中残留较高的根本原因.另外,有25.4%的饲料样本检出有机胂,且普遍同时含有As(Ⅲ)和As(Ⅴ)杂质.检出ROX和阿散酸(p-ASA)含量平均分别为7.0 mg·kg-1和21.2 mg·kg-1.鸡、猪料中各有24.3%和26.3%的样本检出有机胂.鸡料中常用ROX,而猪料常用p-ASA.ROX及其无机砷杂质在添加剂和饲料中均在室温至少30 d内保持形态稳定,说明饲料中较高含量的无机砷杂质很可能源自有机胂添加剂中的砷杂质.对相关从业人员而言,这是一种新的砷暴露途径.%Seventy chicken and seventy-six pig feeds were collected from the feed stores in Guangdong province, and the species and concentrations of As, Cu and Zn were determined. We also examined the stability of roxarsone ( ROX) , one of the most widely used organoarsenical additives, either in the additive or in the feed at room temperature. The results showed that, averagely, the chicken and pig feeds contained 3.6 and 6.5 mg·kg-1 (As), 18.2 and 119.4 mg·kg-1 ( Cu) , and 124.6 and 486.2 mg·kg-1 ( Zn) , respectively. The excessive dosages of As, Cu and As in animal feeds will lead to higher residue of As, Cu and Zn in animal manures. Based on the national limit criteria for feed or feed additive, it was supposed that organoarsenicals had been used, only few feed samples exceeded the As limit, however, the excessive Cu and Zn in pig feeds were much more common. Organoarsenicals were found

  3. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 1. User economy; Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 1. Brugeroekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  4. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 4.0. Labelling; Incrust Technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 4.0. Maerkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  5. Incrust technology. Procedure for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell. Phase 3.0. Shortening device; Incrust Technology. Fremgangsmaede for produktion af foder indkapslet i en fordoejelig skal. Fase 3.0. Afkorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    More than 120 million tons animal feeds are produced within the European Union a year Denmark alone produces more than 6 million tons. Current industrial production of animal feeds implies different problems. This project aims at reducing or removing the following problems: Odour nuisances; Bacterium, especially salmonella; Nutrition, especially preservation of the animal feeds' natural elements; Energy, especially reduction of carbon dioxide emission; Independence of raw materials composition; Improved hygienic storage of the finished product. During the project a new method for production of animal feeds encapsulated in a digestible shell (feeding blocks) has been developed. Extruded feeding stuff is lead from an extruder to a common die, in which a shell pipe is formed vertically. Shape, diameter, and pipe thickness can be changed by adjustment of a set of nozzles. The shell pipe is lead to a cutter that shortens and closes one end. The shell pipe is now filled with the core product (feed mixture) from a feeder with a dosing screw. The quantity can be adjusted to the size of the feeding block by changing the number of the dosing screw's revolutions and the rotation speed. When the core product has been dosed into the shell pipe a shortening device shortens and closes the open end of the feeding block. The shortening device can be regulated so that make the feeding block form a line that is broken later in the process. If necessary a conveyor belt with condensate ventilation takes a number of feeding blocks in a line to a marker. Marks on the feeding blocks can be made with either a laser printer or an ink jet printer. (BA)

  6. Crude glycerin for monogastrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of biodiesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of fat ...

  7. Detection of bovine meat and bone meal in animal feed at a level of 0.1%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk J M; Bouw, El M; Buntjer, Jaap B; Lenstra, Johannes A; Van Raamsdonk, Leo W D

    2006-01-01

    For the control of the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle via feedstuff, a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with ruminant-specific Bov-B SINE primers, SYBR Green fluorescence detection, and melting curve analysis. In formulated cattle and chicken feed samples spiked with pure bovine and sheep meat and bone meal heated at 133 degrees C for 20 min, a contamination level of 0.1% was detected.

  8. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; ZIMMERMAN, PATRICK R.; Harper, Michael T.; Hristova, Rada A.; Zimmerman, R. Scott; Branco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but ...

  9. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2013-09-18

    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

  10. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol-Hofstad, I; Driessen-Van Lankveld, W; Tomassen, M; De Jong, J; Van Egmond, H

    2008-12-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samples was carried out to verify the performance characteristics. The detection level for tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin, expressed in microbiological activity, was 1 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 3, 0, and 6%, respectively). Avoparcin could be detected at 1 mg kg(-1) in feed in general (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 0%). However, in calf feed the sensitivity was lower. The percentages of false-negatives were found to be 12%, 7%, and 0% at 1, 3, and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively (false-positives, 4%). The limit of detection for zinc bacitracin was 3-5 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 5-10%; false-negatives, 77% at 1 mg kg(-1), 45% at 2 mg kg(-1), 12% at 3 mg kg(-1), and 4% at 5 mg kg(-1)). The method allowed for a distinction to be made between the groups of antibiotics: avoparcin/zinc bacitracin versus tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin. This definitely gives added value to the method in the framework of a follow-up of positive screening results by post-screening and confirmatory analysis.

  11. Development of an Ion-Pairing Reagent and HPLC-UV Method for the Detection and Quantification of Six Water-Soluble Vitamins in Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and simple method for detecting six water-soluble vitamins in animal feed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detector (HPLC/PDA and ion-pairing reagent was developed. The chromatographic peaks of the six water-soluble vitamins were successfully identified by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with reference standards. The mobile phase was composed of buffers A (5 mM PICB-6 in 0.1% CH3COOH and B (5 mM PICB-6 in 65% methanol. All peaks were detected using a wavelength of 270 nm. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision. The limits of detection (LODs for the instrument employed in these experiments ranged from 25 to 197 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs ranged from 84 to 658 μg/kg. Average recoveries of the six water-soluble vitamins ranged from 82.3% to 98.9%. Method replication resulted in intraday and interday peak area variation of <5.6%. The developed method was specific and reliable and is therefore suitable for the routine analysis of water-soluble vitamins in animal feed.

  12. Analysis of Experiment Animal Feed%北京市场供应部分实验动物饲料检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾; 蒋辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 检验北京市场供应的实验动物配合饲料是否符合国家实验动物配合饲料的标准及其质量的稳定性.方法 抽取A公司生产的大小鼠饲料、犬饲料、猴饲料各2批次,B公司生产的猪饲料、兔饲料各1批次,严格按照GBT 14924.9-2001操作,对各批次饲料进行粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、灰分、水分、钙、磷等含量检测.结果 大小鼠饲料、犬饲料基本合格,猪饲料、猴饲料和兔饲料存在不足.A公司产品质量较为稳定.%ObjectIve To aurvey the nutrient of Laboratory animal feed in Beijing market and to see if it reach the national atandard of china, Methods The Animal feed for rat, dog,monkey, swine and rabbit from Company A and B were analyzed by methods of GBT 14924. 9-2001 ,including componenta water、 ash、 fat 、fiber、 protein calcium and phosphorus and compared with the nation atandard. Results The nutrient in rat, dog and monkey feed reached the national atandard but thoea in awine and rabbit did not reached the national atandard. Conclusion Product from company A 8howed Sood and stable quality.

  13. Development and validation of a method for the determination of sub-additive levels of virginiamycin in compound animal feeds by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajee, C A; van Rhijn, H J; Lasaroms, J J; Keukens, H J; de Jong, J

    2001-08-01

    A method for the detection of virginiamycin M1 as a marker compound of virginiamycin at sub-additive level in pig, calf, piglet, sow, poultry, cattle and laying hen feeds was developed and validated. Both UV detection at 230 nm and MS detection were applied. Virginiamycin M1 was extracted from animal feeds with ethyl acetate after wetting of the feed with water followed by clean-up on Sep-Pak silica gel and OASIS HLB cartridges. Analysis of extracts was carried out on an Inertsil ODS-2 column with acetonitrile-water-formic acid as the mobile phase and UV detection at 230 nm. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 2.7 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was validated at a target species dependent minimum required performance limit (MRPL), at 2MRPL and at 5MRPL levels in pig, calf, piglet, sow, poultry, cattle and laying hen feeds. Recoveries at target species dependent MRPL levels ranged from 38 to 67%, within-day repeatabilities from 7 to 19% and within-laboratory reproducibilities from 13 to 27%. The proposed UV method is primarily suitable for screening purposes at subadditive levels, but semi-quantitative data can also be produced. Three MS detection modes (ion-source CID, full MS and MS2) were tested as an alternative and/or extension to UV detection. The selectivity and sensitivity of both LC-MS2 and LC-MS were much better than those of UV detection at 230 nm.

  14. Animal source foods have a positive impact on the primary school test scores of Kenyan schoolchildren in a cluster-randomised, controlled feeding intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulett, Judie L; Weiss, Robert E; Bwibo, Nimrod O; Galal, Osman M; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Neumann, Charlotte G

    2014-03-14

    Micronutrient deficiencies and suboptimal energy intake are widespread in rural Kenya, with detrimental effects on child growth and development. Sporadic school feeding programmes rarely include animal source foods (ASF). In the present study, a cluster-randomised feeding trial was undertaken to determine the impact of snacks containing ASF on district-wide, end-term standardised school test scores and nutrient intake. A total of twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to one of three isoenergetic feeding groups (a local plant-based stew (githeri) with meat, githeri plus whole milk or githeri with added oil) or a control group receiving no intervention feeding. After the initial term that served as baseline, children were fed at school for five consecutive terms over two school years from 1999 to 2001. Longitudinal analysis was used controlling for average energy intake, school attendance, and baseline socio-economic status, age, sex and maternal literacy. Children in the Meat group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than those in all the other groups, and the Milk group showed significantly greater improvements in test scores than the Plain Githeri (githeri+oil) and Control groups. Compared with the Control group, the Meat group showed significant improvements in test scores in Arithmetic, English, Kiembu, Kiswahili and Geography. The Milk group showed significant improvements compared with the Control group in test scores in English, Kiswahili, Geography and Science. Folate, Fe, available Fe, energy per body weight, vitamin B₁₂, Zn and riboflavin intake were significant contributors to the change in test scores. The greater improvements in test scores of children receiving ASF indicate improved academic performance, which can result in greater academic achievement.

  15. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates exclusive of resistant starch are collectively termed "dietary starch." This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals, as it can have posi...

  16. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal... that will inform the development of guidance on preventive controls for food facilities that... preventive controls. Given the diversity of registered facilities and regulated foods, FDA will use...

  17. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey and pollen-legal regulation of PA levels in food and animal feed required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Michael; Reinhard, Annika; Beuerle, Till

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant constituents that comprise about 400 different structures and occur in two major forms, a tertiary form and the corresponding N-oxide. PAs containing a 1,2-double bond are pre-toxins and metabolically activated by the action of hepatic P-450 enzymes to toxic pyrroles. Besides the acute toxic effects, the genotoxic and tumorigenicity potential of PAs was demonstrated in some eukaryotic model systems. Recently, the potential PA contamination of food and feeding stuff attracted recurrent great deals of attention. Humans are exposed to these toxins by consumption of herbal medicine, herbal teas, dietary supplements or food containing PA plant material. In numerous studies the potential threat to human health by PAs is stated. In pharmaceuticals, the use of these plants is regulated. Considering the PA concentrations observed especially in authentic honey from PA producing plants and pollen products, the results provoke an international regulation of PAs in food.

  18. New EU legislation for risk assessment of GM food: no scientific justification for mandatory animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kok, Esther J; Davies, Howard V

    2013-09-01

    This commentary focuses on the potential added value of and need for (sub)-chronic testing of whole genetically modified (GM) foods in rodents to assess their safety. Such routine testing should not be required since, due to apparent weaknesses in the approach, it does not add to current risk assessment of GM foods. Moreover, the demand for routine testing using animals is in conflict with the European Union (EU) Commission's efforts to reduce animal experimentation. Regulating agencies in the EU are invited to respect the sound scientific principles applied to the risk assessment of foods derived from GM plants and not to interfere in the risk assessment by introducing extra requirements based on pseudo-scientific or political considerations. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Antimicrobial Growth Promoters Used in Animal Feed: Effects of Less Well Known Antibiotics on Gram-Positive Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Butaye, Patrick; Devriese, Luc A.; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2003-01-01

    There are not many data available on antibiotics used solely in animals and almost exclusively for growth promotion. These products include bambermycin, avilamycin, efrotomycin, and the ionophore antibiotics (monensin, salinomycin, narasin, and lasalocid). Information is also scarce for bacitracin used only marginally in human and veterinary medicine and for streptogramin antibiotics. The mechanisms of action of and resistance mechanisms against these antibiotics are described. Special emphas...

  20. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin K3 (menadione sodium bisulphite and menadione nicotinamide bisulphite as a feed additive for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K describes a group of lipophilic vitamins that exist naturally in two forms: vitamin K1 (phylloquinone, found in green plants and vitamin K2 (a group of menaquinones synthesised by bacteria in the intestine. Vitamin K3 (or menadione is a synthetic form of vitamin K without a side chain. To become active, menadione needs to undergo prenylation. Vitamins K1, K2 and K3 are metabolically activated in the liver to become co-factors in the activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, which are important for normal blood coagulation, and normality of bones and arteries (Gla proteins. Acute toxicity of menadione or its derivatives is reached at levels exceeding the requirements by a factor of at least 1 000. Menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB and menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (MNB are safe for all animal species at practical use levels in feed. The use of MSB in water for drinking is likely to increase the exposure of target animals to chromium(VI. Therefore, the FEEDAP Panel has concerns about the safety of MSB when administered by this route. The use of MSB and MNB in animal nutrition does not give rise to safety concerns for consumers. MSB is an eye irritant; in the absence of adequate data, the additive should be considered as a skin sensitiser. In the absence of data, MNB should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as a skin sensitiser. Considering the high dusting potential of MSB and MNB, the absence of data on inhalation toxicity and the chromium(VI content of dust, inhalation exposure resulting from handling of MSB and MNB could be hazardous. The use of MSB and MNB in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. MSB and MNB are regarded as effective sources of vitamin K in animal nutrition.

  2. In-field evaluation of clinoptilolite feeding efficacy on the reduction of milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D.; Karatzia, Maria A.; Boscos, Constantinos; Wolf, Petra; Karatzias, Harilaos

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with high adsorption capacity for polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxins. The efficacy of clinoptilolite in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxicosis has been proven in monogastric animals, but there is no such evidence for ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, whether the dietary administration of clinoptilolite in dairy cows could reduce the concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in bulk-tank milk, in farms ...

  3. Fast gas chromatographic residue analysis in animal feed using split injection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienstra, M; Portolés, T; Hernández, F; Mol, J G J

    2015-11-27

    Significant speed improvement for instrumental runtime would make GC–MS much more attractive for determination of pesticides and contaminants and as complementary technique to LC–MS. This was the trigger to develop a fast method (time between injections less than 10 min) for the determination of pesticides and PCBs that are not (or less) amenable to LC–MS. A key factor in achieving shorter analysis time was the use of split injection (1:10) which allowed the use of a much higher initial GC oven temperature. A shorter column (15 m), higher temperature ramp, and higher carrier gas flow rate (6 mL/min) further contributed to analysis-time reduction. Chromatographic resolution was slightly compromised but still well fit-for-purpose. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique used (GC–APCI-triple quadrupole MS/MS), quantification and identification were still possible down to the 10 μg/kg level, which was demonstrated by successful validation of the method for complex feed matrices according to EU guidelines. Other advantages of the method included a better compatibility of acetonitrile extracts (e.g. QuEChERS) with GC, and a reduced transfer of co-extractants into the GC column and mass spectrometer.

  4. Research and demonstration to improve air quality for the U.S. animal feeding operations in the 21st century - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ji-Qin

    2015-05-01

    There was an increasing interest in reducing production and emission of air pollutants to improve air quality for animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the U.S. in the 21st century. Research was focused on identification, quantification, characterization, and modeling of air pollutions; effects of emissions; and methodologies and technologies for scientific research and pollution control. Mitigation effects were on pre-excretion, pre-release, pre-emission, and post-emission. More emphasis was given on reducing pollutant emissions than improving indoor air quality. Research and demonstrations were generally continuation and improvement of previous efforts. Most demonstrated technologies were still in a limited scale of application. Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. Advancement in instrumentation, computer technology, and biological sciences and genetic engineering is critical to bring major changes in this area. Development in research and demonstration will depend on the actual political, economic, and environmental situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  6. Analysis of sterigmatocystin in cereals, animal feed, seeds, beer and cheese by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC and LC-MS/MS quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Mackie, Jennifer; Donnelly, Carol; Wilcox, Joyce; Pietri, Amedeo; Macdonald, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A method is reported for the analysis of sterigmatocystin in various food and feed matrices using a commercial sterigmatocystin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample clean-up prior to HPLC analysis by UV with mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS). Cereals (wheat, oats, rye, maize and rice), sunflower seeds and animal feed were spiked with sterigmatocystin at levels from 0.75 to 50 µg kg(-1) to establish method performance. Using acetonitrile/water extraction followed by IAC clean-up, and analysis by HPLC with detection at 325 nm, recoveries ranged from 68% to 106%, with repeatability from 4.2% to 17.5%. The limit of quantification with UV detection in these matrices was 1.5 µg kg(-1). For the analysis of beer and cheese the sample preparation prior to IAC clean-up was changed to accommodate the different properties of the matrix, prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. For beer and cheese spiked at 5.0 µg kg(-1) the recoveries were 94% and 104%, and precision (RSDs) were 1.9% and 2.9% respectively. The limits of quantification by LC-MS/MS in beer and cheese were 0.02 and 0.6 µg kg(-1) respectively. The sterigmatocystin IAC was demonstrated to provide an efficient clean-up of various matrices to enable this mycotoxin to be determined by either HPLC with UV detection or LC-MS/MS.

  7. Probiotics in animal nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Durand, H

    2010-03-01

    The use of probiotics for farm animals has increased considerably over the last 15 years. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which can confer a health benefit for the host when administered in appropriate and regular quantities. Once ingested, the probiotic microorganisms can modulate the balance and activities of the gastrointestinal microbiota, whose role is fundamental to gut homeostasis. It has been demonstrated that numerous factors, such as dietary and management constraints, can strongly affect the structure and activities of the gut microbial communities, leading to impaired health and performance in livestock animals. In this review, the most important benefits of yeast and bacterial probiotics upon the gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem in ruminants and monogastric animals (equines, pigs, poultry, fish) reported in the recent scientific literature are described, as well as their implications in terms of animal nutrition and health. Additional knowledge on the possible mechanisms of action is also provided.

  8. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine (betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Glycine betaine (betaine) acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as feed additives up to a supplemen...

  10. Níveis de probiótico em rações de origem animal e vegetal para frangos de corte Levels of probiotics in animal and vegetal origin feed for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Djalma Appelt

    2010-04-01

    complete random design with 10 treatments, each one with 5 replicates of 20 broilers per experimental unity, allocated in a reused litter. The probiotic which was used was based on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and it was included at the levels of 0.00, 0.05; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20% in each feed. The evaluated performance traits were final weight, weight gain, feed intake, food conversion and mortality, evaluated at 7, 21 and 40 days of age. It was also evaluated the intestinal pH (duodenum and jejunum and blood parameters (calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total protein at 21 and 39 days of age, respectively. At 40 days of age, the yields of the whole carcass and noble cuts, and the percentage of abdominal fat were evaluated. There wasn't interaction between probiotic levels and type of feed (animal or vegetal origin, but there was effect of probiotic levels and type of feed on the weight, weight gain, food conversion and mortality in the phases 1 to 21 days of age, since vegetable origin feed promoted better blood values of calcium, cholesterol and glycerides, which are determined at 39 days of age, comparing to animal origin feed.

  11. THE APPLICATION OF ASC-ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE RATIONAL DESIGN FEATURES AND PARAMETERS OF THE MODES RELATIVE TO THE SCREW DRUMS FOR MIXING ANIMAL FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed and manufactured a large number of different designs of relative helical drums for mixing animal feed. We have conducted 749 field experiments with the drums of the 10 different designs with different parameters modes of operation. In all experiments, we measured the quality of the feed mixture. However, directly based on empirical data, rational choice of design features and parameters of the operation modes of the reels is not possible. For this, you must first develop a model reflecting these empirical data. The construction of meaningful analytical models of different types of drums is a difficult and demanding scientific task, the complexity of which is due to the large variety and complexity of forms of drums and their mode of usage, a large number of diverse physical factors affecting the processes in the drum. As a consequence, the development of analytical models associated with a large number of simplifying assumptions that reduce their versatility and reliability. Therefore, it is important to search of a mathematical method and software tools provide a quick and simple for the user to identify and influence the design of the drum and the parameters of the operating modes on the quality of the feed mixture directly on the basis of empirical (experimental data. The work proposes a solution to this problem with the use of a new universal innovative method of artificial intelligence: automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis and its programmatic Toolkit – universal cognitive analytical system called "Eidos". In the system of "Eidos" we have implemented a software interface that provides direct input into the system large amounts of empirical data from Excel file. Created on their basis in the system of "Eidos" system-cognitive model allows the visual form to reflect the effect of the structure of the drum and the parameters of the operating modes on the quality of the resulting feed mixture and to

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Trouw Nutritional International B.V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. In the absence of data, betaine anhydrous should be considered hazardous by inhalation, irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine (betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride as feed additives up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg betaine/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. In the absence of data, betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride should be considered hazardous by inhalation, as irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes, and skin sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. Betaine anhydrous and betaine hydrochloride are considered as nutritionally equivalent sources of betaine. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures; and (iv protection of users when handling the additives.

  14. Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.13304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thêmis Sakaguti Graciano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529, while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439.

  15. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  16. Effect of glycerine and essential oils (Anacardium occidentale and Ricinus communis on animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of crossbred bulls finished in a feedlot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Teresa Barreto Cruz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corn substitution by glycerine and essential oils on animal performance, apparent digestibility and red and white blood cells of crossbred bulls finished in feedlot was evaluated. Thirty bulls with average weight of 311±28.8 kg and 22±2 month-old were allocated in three diets: CON (without glycerine or essential oils, GLY (with glycerine and GEO (with glycerine and essential oils. The bulls were fed a diet of sorghum silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Three grams of cashew and castor oil/animal/day were included in GEO diet. Animals were kept in feedlot for 115 days and slaughtered at average weight of 467±40.6 kg. No differences (P<0.05 among diets regarding final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion were reported. Ether extract intake was higher (P<0.05 in CON diet compared to the others. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in GLY diet compared to CON. Acid detergent fibre digestibility was higher (P<0.05 in CON compared to GLY diet. Nonfibrous carbohydrate, fibrous carbohydrate and ether extract digestibility were similar (P>0.05 among diets. No effect of glycerine and essential oil addition on total blood cholesterol, triglycerides, haemogram, leukogram and plasmatic proteins was observed. Corn replacement by glycerine and essential oils addition did not affect (P>0.05 carcass weight, dressing and conformation, carcass length and cushion thickness.

  17. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  18. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  19. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  20. 9 CFR 3.129 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.129 Section 3.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.129 Feeding. (a) The food shall be wholesome,...

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin) is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplemen...

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  3. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  4. 脲酶抑制剂在单胃动物中的应用进展%Application Advance of Urease Inhibitor in Monogastric Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周延州; 陈安国

    2005-01-01

    畜舍氨气是影响动物生产性能发挥、危及动物健康、造成养殖场环境污染的主要因素之一,脲酶抑制剂可有效抑制动物肠道和粪中脲酶活性,减少氨气产生,控制养殖场环境污染,提高单胃动物生产性能,防治肉鸡腹水病.本文综述脲酶、脲酶抑制剂的种类、作用机理、在单胃动物生产中的应用.

  5. Rethinking the Withdrawal of Antimicrobial Growth Promotants in Animal Feed%对动物饲料中禁用抗菌促生长剂的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝海红; 程古月; 戴梦红; 王旭; 王玉莲; 黄玲利; 刘振利; 袁宗辉

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal of antimicrobial growth promotants (AGPs) in animal feed issued by European Union (EU) countries caused widespread controversy in the international community. This paper comprehensively reviewed the antimicrobial resistance monitoring data from animal original bacteria and the risk assessment results of veterinary usage. After profoundly rethinking the ban of AGPs in animal feed, the results showed that (1) the risk of some AGPs (e.g. macrolide AGP of tylosin and streptogramin AGP of virginiamycin) seemed to be overstated. The risk of the usage of macrolide AGPs in food animals to emergence of macrolide resistantCampylobacter in human is negligible, and the use of virginiamycin as AGPs could hardly affect the treatment of human infections caused byEnterococcus; (2)There is a lack of scientific evidence for supporting the proposition of transmission of antimicrobial resistance from farm to dining table. Although there are some evidence that antimicrobial resistant bacteria could directly transmit from food animal to those persons who closely contacted with animals, there is no direct and sufficient evidents to support the transfer of antimicrobial resistant pathogens through food chain to persons; (3) Withdrawal of AGPs did not change the epidemiology of resistant pathogens, especially for the avoparcin in glycopeptides, enrofloxacin in fluoroquinolones and chlorotetracycline in tetracyclines. After ban of these three classes of AGPs, the number of resistant bacteria from both animal and human continued to increase. The reason may be attributed to the enhanced fitness of fluoroquinolone resistance inCampylobacter and the increase of the consumption of therapeutic tetracycline agents; (4) Withdrawal of the AGPs may brought a certain loss for the animal breeding industry. For example, it may increase the incidence of necrotizing enteritis caused byClostridium, increase therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in the farmed animals, and increase breeding

  6. Application and research progress of bacitracin production in animal feed%杆菌肽产品在动物饲料中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岩民; 王龙昌

    2012-01-01

    Bacitracin is a kind of polypeptide antibiotics. It can promote the animal growth, improve the feed conversion ratio, prevent and cure a variety of animal intestinal diseases. Furthermore, it has many excellent properties, such as no residue, no withdrawal period, no drug resistance, no toxic side effect, and safety to use. Bacitracin has been widely used in animal production and feed industry. The brief introduction on the physicochemical properties and characteristics of bacitracin, application and research progress of bacitracin productions in animal feed was reviewed. Moreover, the market and application prospect of bacitracin in feed were discussed.%杆菌肽是一种多肽类抗生素,具有促进动物生长、提高饲料转化率、预防和治疗多种动物肠道疾病的作用,同时具有无残留、无休药期、不产生耐药性、无毒副作用、安全性好等特性,在动物养殖和饲料生产中已有广泛应用.文中简介了杆菌肽的理化性质及其特点,综述了杆菌肽产品在动物饲料中的应用研究进展,并分析和展望了杆菌肽产品的市场应用前景.

  7. 论饲养动物损害赔偿责任的一般规则%On the general rules of liability for damages to animal feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈华芳

    2011-01-01

    《侵权责任法》第78条所称的"动物"可依据《国民经济行业分类标准》界定。"饲养"包括喂养和放养。"造成的"不是在法律意义上使用,动物不能行为。"管理人"只有在能实际控制且从中受益的情况下才承担民事责任。《侵权责任法》第26条、第29至第31条适用于第78条。%"Animals" called in Article 78 of "Tort Liability Act" can be defined by " National Industry Classification Standards". "Feeding" includes feeding and stocking." Cause" is not used in the legal sense, animals can not act."Managers" only take civil liability in the actual control and can benefit from the circumstances.Articles 26, 29 to 31 of "Tort Liability Act" are applied to Article 78.

  8. Simultaneous determination of 16 brominated flame retardants in food and feed of animal origin by fast gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichon, E; Guiffard, I; Vénisseau, A; Lesquin, E; Vaccher, V; Brosseaud, A; Marchand, P; Le Bizec, B

    2016-08-12

    A gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation was developed for the monitoring of 16 brominated flame retardants (7 usually monitored polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) and BDE #209 and 8 additional emerging and novel BFRs) in food and feed of animal origin. The developed analytical method has decreased the run time by three compared to conventional strategies, using a 2.5m column length (5% phenyl stationary phase, 0.1mm i.d., 0.1μmf.t.), a pulsed split injection (1:5) with carrier gas helium flow rate at 0.48mLmin(-1) in one run of 20 min. For most BFRs, analytical data were compared with the current analytical strategy relying on GC/EI/HRMS (double sector, R=10000 at 10% valley). Performances in terms of sensitivity were found to meet the Commission recommendation (118/2014/EC) for nBFRs. GC/APCI/MS/MS represents a promising alternative for multi-BFRs analysis in complex matrices, in that it allows the monitoring of a wider list of contaminants in a single injection and a shorter run time.

  9. Enhancing the Bioconversion of Winery and Olive Mill Waste Mixtures into Lignocellulolytic Enzymes and Animal Feed by Aspergillus uvarum Using a Packed-Bed Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2015-10-28

    Wineries and olive oil industries are dominant agro-industrial activities in southern European regions. Olive pomace, exhausted grape marc, and vine shoot trimmings are lignocellulosic residues generated by these industries, which could be valued biotechnologically. In the present work these residues were used as substrate to produce cellulases and xylanases through solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus uvarum MUM 08.01. For that, two factorial designs (3(2)) were first planned to optimize substrate composition, temperature, and initial moisture level. Subsequently, the kinectics of cellulolytic enzyme production, fungal growth, and fermented solid were characterized. Finally, the process was performed in a packed-bed bioreactor. The results showed that cellulase activity improved with the optimization processes, reaching 33.56 U/g, and with the packed-bed bioreactor aeration of 0.2 L/min, reaching 38.51 U/g. The composition of fermented solids indicated their potential use for animal feed because cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and phenolic compounds were partially degraded 28.08, 10.78, 13.3, and 28.32%, respectively, crude protein was increased from 8.47 to 17.08%, and the mineral contents meet the requirements of main livestock.

  10. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for Cisgenesis. Recently, Dionisio et al. (2011) have cloned and characterized phytases belonging to the purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) in barley. We have isolated the genomic PAP-clone of the isoform expressed during grain filling including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...... increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1350 in wild type to 7500 FTU/kg in T0-plants. We have identified two Cisgenic T1-lines without selection gene and vector backbone but with one additional genomic clone of the phytase gene. Lines homozygous for the additional cisgene show 2-3 fold...

  11. Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia=Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Michelato

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529, while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439. O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes, bem como a energia digestível (variável dependente obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla “stepwise backward”. Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO, utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4 as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate in animal nutrition, which would substitute for other copper sources. The additive should be considered as a skin and eye irritant and, owing to its amino acid/peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Potential risks to soil organisms have been identified as a result of the application of piglet manure. Levels of copper in other types of manure are too low to create a potential risk within the timescale considered. There might also be a potential environmental concern related to the contamination of sediment resulting from drainage and the run-off of copper to surface water. In order to draw a final conclusion, further model validation is needed and some further refinement to the assessment of copper-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of copper-containing additives in aquaculture up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. The extent to which copper-resistant bacteria contribute to the overall antibiotic resistance situation cannot be quantified at present. Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is recognised as an efficacious source of copper to meet animal requirements.

  13. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  14. Urgency of Safety Assessment and Regulation of Animal Feed Ingredients Derived from Genetically Modified Crops%转基因农作物饲用安全性评价及管理的紧迫性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昆; 杨培龙; 姚斌

    2015-01-01

    转基因农作物饲用安全评价是我国农业生物安全管理的重要组成部分。中国已跃居世界第一商品饲料生产大国。为满足国内饲料产业的巨大需求,转基因作物已成为饲料产品的主要生产原料,国内大量饲料产品实为转基因饲料,但我国对转基因饲料生物安全的监管仍处于建设阶段。为提高对转基因饲料产品安全更为广泛的关注与重视,本文旨在讨论国内转基因饲料安全评价的科研进展、目前已有的相关法规以及建立转基因饲料安全评价体系的紧迫性,从而为及早完善转基因饲料安全评价及管理提供参考及依据。%Safety assessment of genetically modified ( GM) crops used in feed industries is an important part of agricultural biosafety management in China. China is the world’ s largest feed producer. To meet the huge do⁃mestic demand of animal industry, genetically modified ( GM) varieties of crops are widely introduced into feedstuff and represent the great majority of animal feed ingredients. However, biosafety regulation of GM feeds in China is still in the construction phase. In order to draw more attention to the biosafety of GM feeds, this paper discussed the current situation of biosafety regulation of GM feeds in China on the aspects of domes⁃tic safety studies on animals fed GM feeds, relevant laws and regulations, and urgency of establishment of GM feed biosafety assessment system. And constructive suggestions for quick improvement of GM feed biosafety assessment and regulation was given as well.

  15. Aproveitamento de alimentos de origem animal pela tartaruga-da-amazônia: Podocnemis expansa criada em cativeiro The use of animal feed in the diet of captive Arrau sideneck: Podocnemis expansa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauê Guion de Almeida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um trabalho para determinar o aproveitamento alimentar da farinha de carne e ossos (FCO, farinha de vísceras de aves (FVA e farinha de peixe (FP em tartaruga-da-amazônia, por meio dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e energia bruta (EB. Os animais experimentais foram 136 filhotes provenientes do Projeto Quelônios da Amazônia, no estado do Mato Grosso, mantidos em caixas com renovação de água e temperatura média de 29ºC. Os CDA foram determinados com dietas contendo 0,1% do marcador óxido de crômio III (Cr2O3. Os CDA da MS, PB, EE e EB foram, respectivamente, de 79,10; 87,61; 93,83 e 79,61% para FCO; 92,45; 94,89; 96,55 e 92,71% para FV e 93,53; 95,13; 94,05 e 93,18% para FP. Os melhores coeficientes foram obtidos com a farinha de peixe e a farinha de vísceras de aves.The effect of animal feed was studied in the Arrau sideneck, by the evaluation of apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE and gross energy (GE of the meat and bone meal (MBM, poultry by-products meal (PBM and fish meal (FM. The turtles used were 136 hatchlings from Projeto Quelônios da Amazônia, State of Mato Grosso. Experimental animals were raised in plastic containers, with continuous water flow and mean temperature kept at 29ºC. ADC was determined by the use of diets labeled with 0.1% of chromium oxide III (Cr2O3. The ADC of DM, CP, EE and GE were, respectively, 79.10, 87.61, 93.83 and 79.61% for MBM, 92.45, 94.89, 96.55 and 92.71% for PBM and 93.53, 95.13, 94.05 and 93.18% for FM. The best coefficients were obtained with the fish meal and poultry by-products meal.

  16. Research Progress on Methods of Determination of Diet Composition and Feed Intake of Grazing Animals%放牧家畜采食量和择食性测定方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔占鸿

    2011-01-01

    文章就国内外关于放牧家畜采食量和采食种类测定方法的研究现状进行了回顾与总结,分析了影响其测定的主要因素,并提出了合理的建议,为今后开展草地放牧家畜的采食量、择食性及其测定方法的研究提供了科学参考.%This article reviewed research developments and current situation of feed intake and diet composition of grazing animals,analyzed the main influencing factors, and presented the reasonable suggestions, which provided scientific references for future study on feed intake, diet composition and their research methods of grazing animals in Qinghai plateau.

  17. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the risks to animal and public health and the environment related to the presence of nickel in feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs), the CONTAM Panel concluded that any adverse impact of Ni via feed to cattle, pigs, rabbits, ducks, fish, dogs, chickens, horses, sheep, goats and cats is unlikely. Concerning the assessment of human health risks from the presence of Ni in food of animal origin......, the CONTAM Panel concluded that in the average population the current levels of chronic exposure to Ni, considering only foods of animal origin, might be of potential concern in the young population, in particular in ‘Toddlers’. In the highly exposed population (95th percentile), the concern also extends...... to the age class ‘Other children’. Regarding acute dietary exposure, the CONTAM Panel concluded that Ni-sensitized individuals are also at risk of developing eczematous flare-up skin reactions through the consumption of food of animal origin. The contribution of food of animal origin to human dietary...

  18. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  19. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilloteau Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Lonza Benelux BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Oral administration routes of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide via feed or water for drinking were considered bioequivalent. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of niacin in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. They are unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinic acid, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. Nicotinamide is considered to be of no concern for inhalation exposure. The use of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are regarded as effective sources of niacin in animal nutrition.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by EUROPE-ASIA Import Export GmbH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Oral administration routes of nicotinamide via feed or water for drinking are considered bioequivalent. Nicotinamide is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of nicotinamide in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinamide is not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. It is unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinamide, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. The use of nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinamide is regarded as an effective source of niacin in animal nutrition.

  2. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) : protein quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy

  3. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and

  4. Development and validation of a method for the determination of sub-additive levels of virginiamycin in compound animal feeds by liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajee, C.A.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Keukens, H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the detection of virginiamycin M1 as a marker compound of virginiamycin at sub-additive level in pig, calf, piglet, sow, poultry, cattle and laying hen feeds was developed and validated. Both UV detection at 230 nm and MS detection were applied. Virginiamycin M1 was extracted from anima

  5. Overview of differences between microbial feed additives and probiotics for food regarding regulation, growth promotion effects and health properties and consequences for extrapolation of farm animal results to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J-P

    2013-04-01

    For many years, microbial adjuncts have been used to supplement the diets of farm animals and humans. They have evolved since the 1990s to become known as probiotics, i.e. functional food with health benefits. After the discovery of a possible link between manipulation of gut microflora in mice and obesity, a focus on the use of these beneficial microbes that act on gut microflora in animal farming was undertaken and compared with the use of probiotics for food. Beneficial microbes added to feed are classified at a regulatory level as zootechnical additives, in the category of gut flora stabilizers for healthy animals and are regulated up to strain level in Europe. Intended effects are improvement of performance characteristics, which are strain dependent and growth enhancement is not a prerequisite. In fact, increase of body weight is not commonly reported and its frequency is around 25% of the published data examined here. However, when a Body Weight Gain (BWG) was found in the literature, it was generally moderate (lower than or close to 10%) and this over a reduced period of their short industrial life. When it was higher than 10%, it could be explained as an indirect consequence of the alleviation of the weight losses linked to stressful intensive rearing conditions or health deficiency. However, regulations on feed do not consider the health effects because animals are supposed to be healthy, so there is no requirement for reporting healthy effects in the standard European dossier. The regulations governing the addition of beneficial microorganisms to food are less stringent than for feed and no dossier is required if a species has a Qualified Presumption of Safety status. The microbial strain marketed is not submitted to any regulation and its properties (including BWG) do not need to be studied. Only claims for functional or healthy properties are regulated and again growth effect is not included. However, recent studies on probiotic effects showed that BWG

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Vertellus Specialties Belgium BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of niacin in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. They are unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. The use of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are regarded as effective sources of niacin in animal nutrition.

  7. Results of content of chemical contaminants in 4 kinds of animal feed by consecutive monitoring%实验动物饲料化学污染物含量连续监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茂忠; 马建升; 陈湛娟

    2012-01-01

    实验旨在监测实验动物饲料中化学污染物的含量.按照国标对鼠饲料、豚鼠饲料、家兔饲料和犬饲料中砷、铅、镉、汞、六六六、滴滴涕、黄曲霉毒素B1等化学污染物含量连续3年进行监测.结果表明:4种实验动物饲料一些重金属含量超国标,而六六六、滴滴涕和黄曲霉毒素B1含量均未超国标,3年中4种实验动物化学污染物超标发生率分别为14.29%、19.05%、19.05%和9.52%;4种重金属超标发生率镉=汞>砷>铅;豚鼠饲料和家兔饲料最易受重金属污染,然后依次为鼠饲料、犬饲料;不同年份,实验动物饲料化学污染物超标情况不一致.结果提示,实验动物饲料中重金属含量易超国标.%The experiment was to monitor the content of chemical contaminants in laboratory animal feed.' Content of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, HCH, DDT and aflatoxin B1 were consecutively monitored according to national standard in feeds of rat, guinea pig, rabbit and dog. The results showed that, content of some heavy metal of 4 kinds of feed exceeded the national standard limit. HCH, DDT and aflatoxin B1 did not exceed the standard limit. The incidence rate of chemical contaminants content exceeding standard limit of 4 kinds of feed were 14.29%, 19.05%, 19.05% and 9.52% in 3 consecutive years, respectively; The sequence of incidence rate was Cd=Hg> As> Pb in 3 years. The sequence of degree of difficulty of feed being polluted by heavy metal was guinea pig=rabbit>rat>dog; Degree of chemical contaminants content exceeding standard limit was different in different year.These results indicated that heavy metal content of laboratory animal feed could exceed the national standard limit easily.

  8. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  9. Effect of various levels of dietary Jatropha curcas seed meal on rabbits infested by the adult ticks of Hyalomma marginatum marginatum I. Animal performance, anti-tick feeding and haemogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafy, Sobhy; Nasr, Soad M; Abdel-Rahman, Hashem H; Habeeb, Salwa M

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the use of Jatropha curcas seed meal (JCSM) in different levels as acaricide in diet of rabbits experimentally infested by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum then determining animal performance, anti-tick feeding and its effects on haemogram of rabbits. Thirty healthy mixed-breed rabbits were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first group was kept as a control fed soya bean meal (20%) as a source of protein. Groups from the second to the fifth fed diets contained 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of JCSM instead of soya bean meal as a source of protein, respectively. Feeding and watering were given freely throughout the study. Animal performance for treatment groups were recorded from the 1st week up to the 6th week. Then each group divided into two subgroups, and the ticks were introduced to all of one subgroup and the other kept as control, following them until dropped at the end of the 8th week for all groups of the experiment. Feeding and reproductive performance of the adult tick females were determined. Blood samples were collected and analysed for haematological examination at the 0, 6th and 8th weeks post-treatment from all animals. Result revealed that rabbits received diets containing 5%, 7.5% and 10% had significantly (P Egg mass and reproductive index per female were marked increase (P drop in the group received 7.5% JCSM. Also, monocytosis was recorded in 7.5% and 10% JCSM groups. In conclusion, JCSM could be use in the treatment of ectoparasites at level less than 10% in diet. Further investigations should be done to detoxification the Jatropha seed meal to decrease the level of its toxicity.

  10. 中国区域畜禽粪便能源潜力及总量控制研究%Biogas energy potential for livestock manure and gross control of animal feeding in region level of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿维; 胡林; 崔建宇; 卜美东; 张蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    , according to EU's standard of limitation on nitrogen and phosphorus application, the loading capacity of agricultural land soil for nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in 31 provinces of China were also assessed and the environmental capacity for livestock and poultry feeding were preliminary assessed as well. Comparing environmental capacity of animal feeding with the actual number of livestock and poultry raised, manure pollution risk on agricultural land in different provinces was analyzed. The results indicated that China produced 2.235 billion tons of animal manure in 2010, which would produce biogas 107.275 billion cubic meters, with the biogas by animal manure being about 60% equivalent energy potential of natural gas manure. The cattle manure was 982 million tons, amounted to 44% of the total, followed by pig manure, which was 465 million tons, amounted to 21% of the total. Shandong, Henan, Sichuan, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and Liaoning were the top 6 provinces produced more than 100 million tons and sum up to 916 million tons, amounted to 41% of the total. The average values of agricultural land soil loading of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients were 43.73 kg/hm2 (TN) and 9.16 kg/hm2 (TP) in China. The loading values in Beijing, Tianjin, Hunan, Guangdong, Henan and Shandong were more than that in other provinces and have exceeded the EU's standard limitation. It can be considered that agricultural land soil in those provinces would be polluted if the animal manure were applied on the agricultural fields, because the number of livestock and poultry raised in those provinces has exceeded the environmental capacity of animal feeding. The environmental livestock feeding capacity in China are 12.956 billion pigs equivalent based on nitrogen and 15.974 billion pigs equivalent based on phosphorus. The actual total amount of livestock and poultry raised amounted to more than a quarter of the livestock feeding capacity, which was 3.473 billion pigs equivalent based on nitrogen

  11. Plasma Vitellogenin and Hormone Levels in Common Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Ponds versus a Reference Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff from land treated with animal manure may contaminate adjacent aquatic ecosystems and negatively impact organisms living in these environments. Of notable concern, influx of estrogens can result in endocrine disruption and affect reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Vitel...

  12. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as well as from requirement data for the respective species and production system. (1.) The ban of MBM from feeding caused a need for alternative protein sources. If all the amount of protein from MBM is to be replaced by soybean meal, in Germany and the EU about 0.30 and 2.30 x 10(6) t would be needed each year (supplementary amino acids not considered). Alternatively, doubling the grain legume acreage in Germany to about 420,000 ha would supply a similar amount of protein. A wider application of phase feeding with adjusted dietary amino acid concentrations, however, would allow for saving protein to an extent which is similar to the amount of protein that was contributed by MBM in recent years. Thus, the ban is a minor problem in terms of ensuring amino acid supply. (2.) However, alternative plant ingredients cannot compensate for the gap in P supply that is caused by the ban. An additional demand for inorganic feed phosphates of about 14,000 and 110,000 t per year is given in Germany and the EU, respectively. So far, this gap is filled almost completely by increased mining of rock phosphates. Alternatively, a general application of microbial phytase to all diets would largely fill this gap. Until the ban, MBM contributed to 57% of the supplementation of P that was needed for pigs and poultry. The ban of MBM makes large amounts of P irreversibly disappearing from the food chain. (3.) Energy from slaughter offal and cadavers can be utilized in different technologies, in the course of which the efficiency of energy utilisation depends on the technology applied. It is efficient in the cement work

  13. Las leguminosas en alimentación animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From an animal nutrition point of view, legumes can be divided into two groups: fodder legumes (e. g. lucerne mainly utilized in ruminant nutrition, and grain legumes (e. g. faba beans, peas, lupins mainly used in bird and swine nutrition and, to a lesser extent, in ruminants. Grain legumes can partially or even totally replace traditional protein sources of animal origin such as meat, bone and fish meals. Moreover, they represent an alternative protein-rich feed ingredient for soybean meal and other oilseed meals. Their average protein content is variable but high (25-45 g / 100 g dry matter. However, the presence of secondary plant metabolites such as protease inhibitors, saponins, lectins, glycosides, tannins, and alkaloids, and their high levels of fiber (non- starch-polysaccharides have restricted the use of legume-grains in monogastric (poultry and pigs and ruminant feeding. In spite of this, the interest in, and the number of studies on, these resources as functional food products, especially in human, but also in animal, nutrition, are still on the increase. The ban on the use of animal proteins such as meat and bone meals, which took place in the EU as a consequence of the BSE crisis, has boosted the interest for the use of vegetable proteins, preferentially of local origin, in animal feeds. In order to establish the nutritional value of legumes, particular attention must be paid to their nutritional composition, energy content and amino acid digestibility. In ruminants, the degradability in the rumen of the protein, individual amino acids and carbohydrates are not well known and must be established. Approaches into the presence of tannins in ruminant feeds are currently changing due to their potential beneficial effects on nutrient degradation in the rumen, and on product quality or methane mitigation. Soybean is the raw material preferentially utilized as a protein source in animal feeds, but the great dependency on imported soybean

  14. EFSA CONTAM Panel (EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risks for human and animal health related to the presence of modified forms of certain mycotoxins in food and feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Following a request from the European Commission, the risks to human and animal health related to modified forms of the Fusarium toxins zearalenone, nivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and fumonisins were evaluated. Modified (often called “masked”) mycotoxins are metabolites of the parent mycotoxin...... to the parent compounds, because many modified forms are hydrolysed into the parent compounds or released from the matrix during digestion. For modified forms of zearalenone, nivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and fumonisins, 100 %, 30 %, 10 % and 60 % were added, respectively based on reports on the relative...... contribution of modified forms. The same factors were used for animal exposure from feed. In the absence of specific toxicity data, toxicity equal to the parent compounds was assumed for modified mycotoxins. Risk characterization was done by comparing exposure scenarios with reference doses of the parent...

  15. Racionalização do uso de força motriz em fábrica de ração Management of motive power use in animal feed industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Teixeira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A falta de investimento no setor energético, aliada à sazonalidade de recursos naturais necessários para a geração de energia hidroelétrica, faz da racionalização do uso de energia elétrica uma ferramenta de apoio imprescindível para o crescimento do País. A ração animal pode representar entre 70 e 80% do custo de produção da criação de animais. Sendo assim, é importante o estudo da racionalização do uso de energia em processos que utilizam intensivamente força motriz, tais como as fábricas de ração. Na fábrica de ração estudada, os motores elétricos são utilizados principalmente para moagem e mistura de granulados e transporte. Com o objetivo de racionalizar o uso da energia elétrica, foi realizado estudo de adequação de força motriz dos equipamentos da fábrica de ração da Indústria Pif Paf Alimentos. O índice de carregamento médio dos motores elétricos estudados foi de 48,6%. O potencial estimado total de economia com energia elétrica anual, utilizando-se sempre da melhor opção de adequação de força motriz foi de R$ 24.426,50 ao ano (23,9%. Para que essas medidas sejam efetivadas, devem-se adequar também: (i as exigências elétricas do circuito, como ajuste de relés e escolha de fusíveis; (ii o horário de funcionamento, e (iii necessidade de implantação de sistema de armazenamento de ração.The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture

  16. A novel green chemistry method for nonaqueous extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography detection of first-, second-, and third-generation tetracyclines, 4-epitetracycline, and tylosin in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Sánchez, Jorge; García, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2012-07-25

    Although tetracyclines and macrolides are common additives for animal nutrition, methods for their simultaneous determination in animal feeds are nonexistent. By coupling an organic extraction and solid-phase extraction cleanup to a high-performance liquid chromatography separation and a nonaqueous postcolumn derivatization, we succeeded in detecting from 0.2 to 24.0 μg kg(-1) of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, tigecycline, and 4-epitetracycline in this complex and heterogeneous matrix. Minocycline and tylosin could also be detected with our procedure, but using UV spectrophotometry (1.5 ≤ LOD ≤ 1.9 mg kg(-1)). Linear responses with correlation coefficients between 0.996 and 0.999 were obtained for all analytes in the 0.5-10 mg kg(-1) concentration range. Average recoveries between 59 and 97% and between 98 and 102% were obtained for the tetracyclines and tylosin, respectively. Replicate standard deviations were typically below 5%. When this method was applied to 20 feeds marketed in Costa Rica, we detected labeling inconsistencies, banned mixtures of tetracyclines, and tetracycline concentrations that contravene international regulation.

  17. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II.

  18. Comparison of HgO and CuSO4/TiO2 as catalysts in manual Kjeldahl digestion for determination of crude protein in animal feed: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P F

    1987-01-01

    Because of environmental concerns about HgO, and because of lengthy digestion requirements for HgO and CuSO4, interest in alternative catalysts for the Kjeldahl determination of animal feeds remains high. A digestion system using a mixed CuSO4/TiO2 catalyst has been found to reduce digestion times to 40 min. A collaborative study was carried out to compare this system to the official AOAC HgO method, 7.015. Thirty-eight samples, consisting of blind duplicates of closely matched pairs and 2 standard materials, were analyzed once by each method. Results were received from 13 laboratories. Means and standard deviations of individual samples were comparable, with an overall difference of grand means of 0.005% protein. With only one exception, analyses of variance showed no significant method difference at the 95% confidence level. The CuSO4/TiO2 method has been approved interim official first action as an alternative method for determination of crude protein in animal feed.

  19. Utilization of byproducts from the tequila industry: part 1: agave bagasse as a raw material for animal feeding and fiberboard production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Covarrubias, G; Lange, S E; Rowell, R M

    2001-03-01

    Agave bagasse was successfully separated into fractions that were used in sheep feeding trials. Agave bagasse can be substituted for corn stubble in the sheep's diet which resulted in improved weight gain. Agave bagasse was also processed into long and short fiber fractions with a hammermill and fiberboards of medium and high specific gravities being produced. Medium specific gravity agave fiberboards had moisture and mechanical properties comparable to medium specific gravity fiberboards made using aspen fiber. All high specific gravity agave fiberboards made from short or long fibers were stronger in bending than the ANSI standard for hardboards.

  20. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.9 Section 3.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats...

  1. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.29 Section 3.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs...

  2. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates...

  3. 9 CFR 3.54 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.54 Section 3.54 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits...

  4. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  5. Quantitative analysis of penicillins in porcine tissues, milk and animal feed using derivatisation with piperidine and stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthoon, van F.L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Heskamp, H.H.; Zuidema, T.; Rhijn, van J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillins are used universally in both human and veterinary medicine. The European Union (EU) has established maximum residue levels (MRLs) for most ß-lactam antibiotics in milk and animal tissues and included them in the National Residue Monitoring Programs. In this study, a novel method is descr

  6. β-丙氨酸的生理功能及其在动物生产中的应用%Physiological Function and Its Application in Animal Feeding of β-Alanine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐博; 武书庚; 王晶; 齐广海; 张海军

    2016-01-01

    β-alanine, a precursor involved in the formation of carnosine and anserine but not involved in the bi-osynthesis of protein, has been widely used as a nutritional supplement to strength muscle endurance in sport medicine field nowadays. It is reported that β-alanine can increase the growth performance, improve the meat quality through regulating the growth rate of muscle and content of muscle-derived active peptide. This paper reviewed the source and metabolism, physiological functions and the application in animal feeding ofβ-alanine in order to provide theoretical basis for its regulation of animal nutrition and application in animal feeding field.%β-丙氨酸是一种不参与蛋白质合成的氨基酸,为肌肽、鹅肌肽等肌源活性肽合成的前体物,作为增强肌肉耐力的运动营养补充剂已经广泛应用于临床营养。研究表明,β-丙氨酸可提高动物生产性能,调控肌肉生长和肌源活性肽含量,改善肉品质量。本文旨在对β-丙氨酸的来源和代谢、生理功能及其在动物生产领域的应用进行综述,为β-丙氨酸在动物营养调控和生产实践中的应用提供理论依据。

  7. Relações planta-animal em ambiente pastoril heterogêneo: padrões de deslocamento e uso de estações alimentares Plant-animal relationships in a heterogeneous pastoral environment: displacement patterns and feeding station use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Nunes Gonçalves

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se como o padrão de deslocamento e de utilização de estações alimentares podem ser afetados por alturas de manejo de 4, 8, 12 e 16 cm numa pastagem nativa. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e duas repetições no tempo e no espaço. Os animais experimentais foram avaliados por meio de testes de pastejo de 45 minutos, para determinação dos número de bocados, número de estações alimentares e número de passos, utilizando-se contadores, com exceção do número de bocados, que foi registrado pelo aparelho IGER Behaviour Recorder. Observou-se correlação positiva entre altura do pasto e massa de forragem e correlação negativa entre alturas do pasto e densidade de forragem. As variáveis avaliadas diferiram entre bezerras e ovelhas. O número de estações alimentares por minuto diminuiu de forma quadrática com o aumento da altura do pasto. O número de bocados por estação alimentar visitada e o tempo por estação alimentar aumentaram de forma quadrática com o aumento da altura do pasto e foram afetados negativamente pela baixa densidade de forragem nos estratos superiores das maiores alturas do pasto. Na altura de 12 cm, as bezerras executaram mais bocados por estação alimentar e permaneceram mais tempo em cada estação alimentar; o mesmo foi observado na altura de 8 cm para as ovelhas. À medida que menos estações alimentares foram utilizadas, como resposta às variáveis anteriores, os animais andaram mais a passos mais lentos. Em alturas do pasto entre 8 e 12 cm, os animais permanecem mais tempo pastejando nas estações alimentares e percorrem distâncias maiores à procura de novos locais para o pastejo.This study assessed how the displacement patterns and feeding station used can be affected by sward heights of 4, 8, 12 and 16 cm. A randomized complete design was used with two replication in time and space. The animals were evaluated by 45- minute grazing tests, to

  8. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 2nd communication: glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, H; Aulrich, K; Daenicke, R; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    To analyse substantial equivalence of genetically modified sugar-beets and maize, in which the glufosinate-tolerant (Pat) gene is inserted, crude nutrients, the amino acid and the fatty acid profiles as well as the composition of the NDF-fraction of maize grains were determined and compared with those of the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Due to the genetic manipulation differences in crude nutrient contents including sugar and starch were not detected. The amino acid profile of maize grains was analysed to be the same. Fatty acid profile and composition of cell wall constituents did not show any influences as well. Digestibility of Pat-sugar-beets and maize grains for pigs did not demonstrate meaningful differences as compared to the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Digestibility of sugar-beet roots and sugar-beet top silage for ruminants proved to be also in the scope of natural variance. As the digestibility of the macro nutrients remained unaffected, the Pat-gene introduction into both crops did not show an influence on the energetic feeding value. For pigs the ME-content of Pat-sugar-beets was determined to be 14.1 MJ/kg DM versus 13.7 MJ of the non-transgenic cultivars. ME-content of Pat-maize grains was 16.0 MJ/kg DM versus 15.8 MJ for controls. For ruminants the feeding value of Pat-sugar-beets was found to be 8.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 13.2 MJ ME/kg DM, regardless of whether the Pat-gene was inserted or not. The corresponding energy values of sugar-beet top silage ranged between 5.2 and 5.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 8.6 and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM, with differences considered in the biological range.

  9. Effects of feeding drunken horse grass infected with Epichloë gansuensis endophyte on animal performance, clinical symptoms and physiological parameters in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Hucheng; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao; Li, Fadi

    2017-07-19

    Many reports showed that grass-endophyte symbiosis induced livestock poisoned. Yet, there is no study evaluating clinical symptoms and physiological parameters in sheep fed Epichloë gansuensis endophyte-infected grass. The objective of the present study was to investigate these indexes by feeding sheep with endophyte-infected A. inebrians (E+ Group) or endophyte-free A. inebrians (E- Group) drunken horse grass or alfalfa hay (Control Group). The Epichloë endophyte caused obvious toxicity symptoms in the sheep fed E+ A. inebrians, with 1 of the 5 sheep having died by the 35th day. The feed intake and body weight gain of the E+ Group were significantly less than the E- and control groups (P < 0.05). Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, 45.5 mmol/L) and aspartate aminotransferase for the E+ group (AST, 139.3 mmol/L) were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than for the E- (ALT, 31.2 mmol/L; AST, 78.6 mmol/L) and control (ALT, 32.6 mmol/L; AST, 56.6 mmol/L) groups at the fifth week; serum concentration of creatinine for the E+ group (63.8 mmol/L) was also significantly (P < 0.05) greater than for E- (56.6 mmol/L) and control groups (58.5 mmol/L). Meanwhile, urine biochemical indices for the E+ group indicated that ketone and occult blood were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated compared to the other groups while urine pH values were significantly (P < 0.05) acidic. The relative weight of heart, brain, liver, lung and kidney for Group E+ were almost two fold more than the other groups, but uterus weight was about half that found for Group E- or Control. We conclude that the Epichloë endophyte infection is the cause of A. inebrians toxicity to sheep. Interestingly, none of the measured parameters differed significantly between E- and the control groups, which implied that drunken horse grass could be utilized efficiently by sheep when not infected by the Epichloë endophyte.

  10. On-line gas analysis in animal cell cultivation: II. Methods for oxygen uptake rate estimation and its application to controlled feeding of glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, K; Oeggerli, A; Heinzle, E

    1995-01-05

    Different methods for oxygen uptake rate (OUR) determinations in animal cell cultivation were investigated using a high quality mass spectrometer. Dynamic measurements have considerable disadvantages because of disturbances of the growing cells by the necessary variations of dissolved oxygen concentration. Only infrequent discrete measurements are possible using this method. Stationary liquid phase balance yielded better results with much higher frequency. Gas phase balancing has the advantage of not requiring dissolved oxygen measurement and knowledge of K(L)a, both of them are easily biased. It was found that simple gas phase balancing is either very inaccurate (error larger than expected signal) or very slow, with gas phase residence times of several hours. Therefore, a new method of aeration was designed. Oxygen and CO(2) transfer are mainly achieved via sparging. The gas released to the headspace is diluted with a roughly 100-fold stream of an inert gas (helium). Through this dilution, gas ratios are not changed for O(2), CO(2), Ar, and N(2). The measurement of lower concentrations (parts per million and below) is easy using mass spectrometry with a secondary electron multiplier. With this new method an excellent accuracy and sufficient speed of analysis were obtained. All these on-line methods for OUR measurement were tested during the cultivation of animal cells. The new method allowed better study of the kinetics of animal cell cultures as was shown with a hybridoma cell line (HFN 7.1, ATCC CRL 1606) producing monoclonal antibodies against human fibronectin. With the aid of these methods it was possible to find a correlation between a rapid decrease in oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and glutamine concentration. The sudden decrease in OUR can be attributed to glutamine depletion. This provided a basis for the controlled addition of glutamine to reduce the formation of ammonia produced by hydrolysis. This control method based on OUR measurement resulted in

  11. Influence of Feeding Pooled Colostrum or Colostrum Replacement on IgG Levels and Evaluation of Animal Plasma as a Milk Replacer Protein Source

    OpenAIRE

    Mowrey, Coleen Marie

    2001-01-01

    Newborn Holstein (n = 48) and Jersey (n = 30) calves were studied to compare the absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from maternal colostrum (n = 39) or a colostrum replacement product derived from bovine serum (n = 39). Calves were also fed milk replacer with (n = 38) or without (n = 40) animal plasma to 29 d of age to determine the effect of plasma protein on IgG status, health, and growth. Colostrum or colostrum replacement was fed at 1.05 and 13.5 h of age and provided a total of 250, 18...

  12. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2017-06-08

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  13. Possible employment of food industry residues in animal feeding: first report on the chemical and bromatological composition of coffee grounds and suggestions for their use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarra, C.

    1976-01-01

    The relatively low levels of tannins and caffeine (average 0.36% and 0.191 mg/g, respecitvely) in coffee grounds suggest their possible use as feed. The proximate analysis of 8 samples (average and range given) was: moisture 61.07, 53.91 to 65.25; crude fat 17.78, 14.64 to 23.51; ash 1.66, 1.43 to 1.89; crude fiber 16.62, 14.98 to 17.45; and non-N ext. 51.31, 44.67 to 56.71%. The ash contained an average of 0.14% of both Ca and P. The amino acid component is tabulated; only traces of methionine were found. The major fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic, average 43.89 and 30.99%, respectively, and values for other fatty acids C/sub 12:0/-C/sub 22:0/ are tabulated.

  14. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  15. Effect on vitality of Flaveria bidentis seeds after feeding through draining by animals%动物过腹对黄顶菊种子活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕忠才; 李瑞军; 陆秀君; 刘廷辉; 王付民; 胡国律; 沈佐锐

    2011-01-01

    To realize the possibility of seeds dispersed by animals, a study was carried out by adding the seeds of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze into feeds of five animals such as cows, sheep, donkeys, rabbits and chickens,then analyzing the ability of sprouting and germination of the seeds contained in feces of the animals. Results showed that many of the seeds in the feces were whole and the draining of the seeds would last for 4 days, 6 days,5 days, 2 days and 1 day, respectively, in turn for the five animals. While the seeds were found to reduce as time elapsed during the draining. Sprouting ratios of the seeds isolated from feces on the first day were 25.3%,31.3%, 19.3%, 10% and 11.7%, respectively, in turn for the five animals. The results indicate that the F.bidentis seeds may be dispersed by animals, and long -distance travel of animals should be an important approach to disperse the weeds.%为了明确黄顶菊种子动物传播的可能性,利用添加黄顶菊种子的饲料饲喂牛、羊、驴、兔和鸡等动物,研究了黄顶菊种子过腹后的种子活力和田间出苗能力.结果表明,黄顶菊种子经上述5种动物取食后,粪便中均有完整种子存在,5种动物取食种子后排空时间分别为4d、6d、5d、2d和1d,且粪便中种子量随时间延长呈减少趋势;黄顶菊种子经5种动物过腹后(第1天收集)的发芽率分别为25.3%、31.3%、19.3%、10%和11.7%.说明5种动物均具有传播黄顶菊种子的可能性,黄顶菊发生区动物的长途贩运是黄顶菊人为传播的重要途径.

  16. Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Silva e Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel.The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as

  17. Métodos de determinação dos teores de amido e pectina em alimentos para animais (Determination methods of starch and pectin levels in animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A separação dos carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF em frações nutricionalmente mais relevantes, por meio de análises de seus componentes, tais como ácidos orgânicos, mono e oligossacarídeos, amido e fibra solúvel contribuem para avanços na formulação de dietas. A pectina, embora seja um carboidrato associado à parede celular, não é covalentemente unida às porções lignificadas e é completamente digerida no rúmen (90 a 100%. Com a importância destes compostos na alimentação de ruminantes, esta revisão tem por objetivo descrever alguns métodos de avaliação de amido e pectina em alimentos para animais. The separation of non fiber carbohydrates (NFC in nutritionally more relevant fractions, by analysis of its components, such as organic acids, mono and oligosaccharides, starch and soluble fiber contribute to advances in diet formulation. Pectin, although an cellular wall associated carbohydrate, is not covalent linked to lignified portions and is completely digested in the rumen (90 and 100%. With the importance of these components in ruminant feeding, this revision has the objective of describe some starch and pectin evaluation methods in animal feeds

  18. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  19. PROGRAMACIÓN DE OPERACIONES PARA EL LLENADO DE TOLVAS DOSIFICADORAS EN UNA EMPRESA DE CONCENTRADOS SCHEDULING HOPPERS FILLING OPERATIONS IN THE ANIMAL CONCENTRATED FEEDING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Ramírez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo de investigación se desarrolla una propuesta de programación de operaciones que garantiza la toma eficiente de decisiones en el mediano y corto plazo de las industrias fabricantes de alimento concentrado. La metodología planteada parte de la generación de la explosión de materiales bajo el enfoque del MRP y posteriormente continúa con el desarrollo de un modelo de programación lineal entera mixta que coordina las operaciones de llenado de tolvas dosificadoras de manera que se cuente oportunamente con las materias primas requeridas en el proceso de dosificación y se minimicen los costos relevantes en el sistema. La propuesta se aplicó a un caso de estudio con datos reales y presentó mejores resultados que los obtenidos en la práctica por esta industria.This research paper develops a scheduling operations propose to ensure efficient decision making in the short and medium term of concentrated feeding industry. The proposed methodology part of generating the explosion of materials under the MRP approach and then continues whit the development of a mixed integer linear programming that coordinates the hopper filling operations so that the raw materials are opportunely in the dosing process and minimize the relevant costs in the system. The proposal was applied to a case study whit real data and showed better results than those obtained in practice by this industry.

  20. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  1. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows...

  2. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  3. Características y potencialidades de Moringa oleifera, Lamark: Una alternativa para la alimentación animal Characteristics and potential of Moringa oleifera, Lamark: An alternative for animal feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera es la especie más conocida del género Moringa. Es un árbol originario del sur del Himalaya, el nordeste de la India, Bangladesh, Afganistán y Pakistán. Se encuentra diseminado en una gran parte del planeta y en América Central; se conoce con diversos nombres comunes: palo jeringa, acacia y jazmín francés, entre otros. El presente artículo trata diferentes aspectos de esta especie, tales como: su origen y distribución, los factores agronómicos y la producción de biomasa, la composición química y su utilización. Es una planta que se destaca por sus múltiples usos y adaptación a diferentes condiciones edafoclimáticas, por lo que constituye una opción para la alimentación, sobre todo en los países tropicales. Se concluye que la arbustiva M. oleifera tiene una gran plasticidad ecológica, ya que es capaz de adaptarse a las más diversas condiciones de suelo y clima. Su valor nutricional y los elevados rendimientos de biomasa, la hacen un recurso fitogenético de importancia en los sistemas de producción. Además es una planta que se puede emplear como cerca viva, cortina rompevientos, abono verde y para la producción de etanol y goma, entre otros; de ahí que sea una especie interesante para el trópico.Moringa oleifera is the most widely known species of the Moringa genus. It is a tree which originated in the south of the Himalayas, northeast India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is distributed over a large part of the planet and in Central America; it is known with different common names: drumstick tree, acacia and French jasmine, among others. This paper addresses different aspects of this species, such as: its origin and distribution, agronomic factors and biomass production, chemical composition and utilization. It is a plant which stands out for its multiple usages and adaptation to different edaphoclimatic conditions, for which it constitutes a choice for feeding, especially in tropical

  4. IAG ring test animal proteins 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J.; Prins, T.W.; Vliege, J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the IAG - International Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy. The organizer of the the ring study was to provide the

  5. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate) as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with c...

  7. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  8. Models of 'obesity' in large animals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Iain J

    2008-01-01

    Most laboratory-based research on obesity is carried out in rodents, but there are a number of other interesting models in the animal kingdom that are instructive. This includes domesticated animal species such as pigs and sheep, as well as wild, migrating and hibernating species. Larger animals allow particular experimental manipulations that are not possible in smaller animals and especially useful models have been developed to address issues such as manipulation of fetal development. Although some of the most well-studied models are ruminants, with metabolic control that differs from monogastrics, the general principles of metabolic regulation still pertain. It is possible to obtain much more accurate endocrine profiles in larger animals and this has provided important data in relation to leptin and ghrelin physiology. Genetic models have been created in domesticated animals through selection and these complement those of the laboratory rodent. This short review highlights particular areas of research in domesticated and wild species that expand our knowledge of systems that are important for our understanding of obesity and metabolism.

  9. Comportamento ingestivo de equinos e a relação com o aproveitamento das forragens e bem-estar dos animais Equine feeding behavior and its relation with forage use and animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Dittrich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade está em novo direcionamento no qual se busca maior respeito nas relações com os animais, tanto na criação e utilização como alimento quanto para outras finalidades, como companhia, esportes, trabalho, entre outros. A domesticação e utilização dos equinos pelo homem proporcionaram a esta espécie inadequado manejo alimentar, principalmente pelo restrito conhecimento do comportamento ingestivo. As pastagens são, reconhecidamente, o ambiente adequado para a alimentação dos cavalos, mas é um sistema complexo que influencia as decisões dos animais em pastejo. O entendimento dos padrões comportamentais dos eqüinos é uma importante ferramenta para o manejo alimentar adequado. O dossel forrageiro é heterogêneo e a estrutura das plantas, como altura, densidade e componentes como folha, colmo e inflorescência, é explorada pelos cavalos por meio da seletividade, a qual permite ao cavalo a ingestão de nutrientes necessários à manutenção e desenvolvimento. Os dois principais fatores limitantes à seletividade são, na maioria das vezes, a oferta de forragem e o tempo de pastejo, resultantes do modelo utilizado na criação e manutenção dos equinos para diversas finalidades. As forragens, além de fontes de nutrientes, são importantes também na prevenção dos problemas clínicos e de desvios comportamentais. O incremento das pesquisas na utilização das pastagens, certamente, mostrará a importante relação entre os cavalos e o meio ambiente e direcionará para práticas de manejo mais adequadas à utilização e melhor qualidade de vida dos cavalos.The society has taken a new direction towards a respectable relationship with the animals and a more conscious breeding, use for food, sports and company. The domestication and the use of horses by people have caused wrong feeding management, which is mainly due to reduced knowledge on feeding behavior. The pastures are the appropriate environment to horses feeding

  10. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  11. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by DSM Nutritional Products Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and its calcium and sodium salts, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers. Sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate is not an irritant to skin and eyes and is unlikely to be a skin sensitiser. This conclusion is extrapolated to sodium ascorbyl phosphate. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid, sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking. Since ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate and ascorbyl palmitate are authorised for use as antioxidants in food and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is considered necessary.

  13. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella control in animal feed is important in order to protect animal and public health. Organic acids is one of the control measures used for treatment of Salmonella contaminated feed or feed ingredients. In the present study, the efficacy of formic acid (FA) and different blends...

  14. Mechanisms for Nitrogen Oxide Formation during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...

  15. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  16. Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals; Aplicacao da radiacao gama na desinfestacao de racoes a base de graos para alimentacao de animais domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

  17. 生物活性肽的生理功能及在动物生产中的应用%Research advances in application of urease inhibitor in monogastric animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓霞; 叶均安; 刘建新

    2004-01-01

    生物活性肽(Biologically active peptides,BAP)指的是一类分子量小于6000Da,在构象上较松散,具有多种生物学功能的多肽和不到10个氨基酸组成的小肽,是对生物机体的生命活动有益或具有特定生理作用的肽类物质。BAP分布很广,动物机体及许多食物中均含有。依据来源可将

  18. Effects of processing on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Poel, van der, A.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    In animal production, feeding has an important impact on productivity and health of animals and feed composition is known to influence protein and energy metabolism directly. For monogastric animals complete diets are manufactured in which feed ingredients are used to supply the energy yielding and other nutrients. The common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is such an ingredient.In common beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) the supply of nutrients is often lower than is expected from its chemical an...

  19. Feeding behavior and stress response explain individual differences in feed efficiency in juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Feed efficiency is a trait of enormous importance in any animal production sector including aquaculture. Individuals that are more feed efficient need to use less feed to achieve similar growth rates as compared to less efficient individuals. Considering that feed represents the largest cost of prod

  20. Feeding behavior and stress response explain individual differences in feed efficiency in juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Feed efficiency is a trait of enormous importance in any animal production sector including aquaculture. Individuals that are more feed efficient need to use less feed to achieve similar growth rates as compared to less efficient individuals. Considering that feed represents the largest cost of