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Sample records for monogamous species reflects

  1. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Malika; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs.

  2. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

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    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  3. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9–10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  4. A comparison of scent marking between a monogamous and promiscuous species of peromyscus: pair bonded males do not advertise to novel females.

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    Elizabeth A Becker

    Full Text Available Scent marking can provide behavioral and physiological information including territory ownership and mate advertisement. It is unknown how mating status and pair cohabitation influence marking by males from different social systems. We compared the highly territorial and monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus to the less territorial and promiscuous white-footed mouse (P. leucopus. Single and mated males of both species were assigned to one of the following arenas lined with filter paper: control (unscented arena, male scented (previously scent-marked by a male conspecific, or females present (containing females in small cages. As expected, the territorial P. californicus scent marked and overmarked an unfamiliar male conspecific's scent marks more frequently than P. leucopus. Species differences in responses to novel females were also found based on mating status. The presence of unfamiliar females failed to induce changes in scent marking in pair bonded P. californicus even though virgin males increased marking behavior. Pair bonding appears to reduce male advertisement for novel females. This is in contrast to P. leucopus males that continue to advertise regardless of mating status. Our data suggest that communication through scent-marking can diverge significantly between species based on mating system and that there are physiological mechanisms that can inhibit responsiveness of males to female cues.

  5. A comparison of scent marking between a monogamous and promiscuous species of peromyscus: pair bonded males do not advertise to novel females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Petruno, Sarah; Marler, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Scent marking can provide behavioral and physiological information including territory ownership and mate advertisement. It is unknown how mating status and pair cohabitation influence marking by males from different social systems. We compared the highly territorial and monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) to the less territorial and promiscuous white-footed mouse (P. leucopus). Single and mated males of both species were assigned to one of the following arenas lined with filter paper: control (unscented arena), male scented (previously scent-marked by a male conspecific), or females present (containing females in small cages). As expected, the territorial P. californicus scent marked and overmarked an unfamiliar male conspecific's scent marks more frequently than P. leucopus. Species differences in responses to novel females were also found based on mating status. The presence of unfamiliar females failed to induce changes in scent marking in pair bonded P. californicus even though virgin males increased marking behavior. Pair bonding appears to reduce male advertisement for novel females. This is in contrast to P. leucopus males that continue to advertise regardless of mating status. Our data suggest that communication through scent-marking can diverge significantly between species based on mating system and that there are physiological mechanisms that can inhibit responsiveness of males to female cues.

  6. The puzzle of monogamous marriage

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    Henrich, Joseph; Boyd, Robert; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The anthropological record indicates that approximately 85 per cent of human societies have permitted men to have more than one wife (polygynous marriage), and both empirical and evolutionary considerations suggest that large absolute differences in wealth should favour more polygynous marriages. Yet, monogamous marriage has spread across Europe, and more recently across the globe, even as absolute wealth differences have expanded. Here, we develop and explore the hypothesis that the norms and institutions that compose the modern package of monogamous marriage have been favoured by cultural evolution because of their group-beneficial effects—promoting success in inter-group competition. In suppressing intrasexual competition and reducing the size of the pool of unmarried men, normative monogamy reduces crime rates, including rape, murder, assault, robbery and fraud, as well as decreasing personal abuses. By assuaging the competition for younger brides, normative monogamy decreases (i) the spousal age gap, (ii) fertility, and (iii) gender inequality. By shifting male efforts from seeking wives to paternal investment, normative monogamy increases savings, child investment and economic productivity. By increasing the relatedness within households, normative monogamy reduces intra-household conflict, leading to lower rates of child neglect, abuse, accidental death and homicide. These predictions are tested using converging lines of evidence from across the human sciences. PMID:22271782

  7. The puzzle of monogamous marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Joseph; Boyd, Robert; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    The anthropological record indicates that approximately 85 per cent of human societies have permitted men to have more than one wife (polygynous marriage), and both empirical and evolutionary considerations suggest that large absolute differences in wealth should favour more polygynous marriages. Yet, monogamous marriage has spread across Europe, and more recently across the globe, even as absolute wealth differences have expanded. Here, we develop and explore the hypothesis that the norms and institutions that compose the modern package of monogamous marriage have been favoured by cultural evolution because of their group-beneficial effects-promoting success in inter-group competition. In suppressing intrasexual competition and reducing the size of the pool of unmarried men, normative monogamy reduces crime rates, including rape, murder, assault, robbery and fraud, as well as decreasing personal abuses. By assuaging the competition for younger brides, normative monogamy decreases (i) the spousal age gap, (ii) fertility, and (iii) gender inequality. By shifting male efforts from seeking wives to paternal investment, normative monogamy increases savings, child investment and economic productivity. By increasing the relatedness within households, normative monogamy reduces intra-household conflict, leading to lower rates of child neglect, abuse, accidental death and homicide. These predictions are tested using converging lines of evidence from across the human sciences.

  8. Neural Regulation of Pair Bond Formation in a Monogamous Rodent Species%单配制啮齿动物Pair Bond形成的神经调节机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brandon J.Aragona; J.Thomas Curtis; 刘彦; 汪作新

    2004-01-01

    单配制啮齿动物社会结构的神经生物学原理可以通过实验室研究Social bonding而获得.在本文中,我们探讨了如何利用单配制的草原田鼠(Microtus ochrogaster)作为研究模型揭示pair bond形成的神经调控机制.我们进而探讨了单配制与多配制田鼠之间神经解剖学的差异以及神经化学物质的调节是怎样影响pair bond的.本篇综述还讨论了与pair bond形成有关的神经化学系统之间的相互影响以及pair bond形成过程中的两性差异.最后,我们预测了这一研究领域的未来研究方向以及研究social bonding的神经调控对人类健康的重要性.%The neurobiology of monogamous social organization can be studied by laboratory examination of social bonding. In this review, we discuss how the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) has been used as a model system to provide tremendous insight into the neural regulation of pair bond formation. Neuroanatomical differences between monogamous and non-monogamous voles, as well as how neurochemical manipulations affect pair bond formation are reviewed. In addition, interactions among neurochemical systems that regulate pair bond formation and the extent of sexual dimorphism associated with pair bonding are discussed. Finally, we propose future directions for this line of research and explain why understanding the neural regulation of social bonding is important for human health.

  9. Trading up: the fitness consequences of divorce in monogamous birds.

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    Culina, Antica; Radersma, Reinder; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Social and genetic mating systems play an important role in natural and sexual selection, as well as in the dynamics of populations. In socially monogamous species different genetic mating patterns appear when individuals mate outside the breeding pair within a breeding season (extra-pair mating) or when they change partners between two breeding seasons (widowing or divorce). Divorce can be defined as having occurred when two previously paired individuals are alive during the next breeding season and at least one of them has re-mated with a new partner. In socially monogamous birds divorce is widespread, but it is not clear whether it is a behavioural adaptation to improve the quality of a mating decision or whether, alternatively, it results as a non-selected consequence of other processes: existing studies suggest a heterogeneous set of results with respect to this central question. This heterogeneity could result from a number of factors, ranging from the methodological approaches used, to population- or species-specific characters. In this review we use phylogenetic meta-analyses to assess the evidence that divorce is adaptive (in terms of breeding success) across 64 species of socially monogamous birds. Second, we explore biological and methodological reasons for the heterogeneity in the results of previous studies. Results of our analyses supported the hypothesis that divorce is, in general, an adaptive behavioural strategy as: (1) divorce is triggered by relatively low breeding success; (2) there is a positive change in breeding success as a result of divorce. More specifically, while controlling for methodological moderators, we show that: (i) earlier stages of breeding are better predictors of divorce than later stages (r = 0.231; 95% CI: 0.061-0.391 for clutch size; similar for laying date); (ii) females benefited from divorce more than males in terms of increasing breeding success between successive breeding attempts, with different stages of the

  10. Should Entanglement Measures be Monogamous or Faithful?

    CERN Document Server

    Lancien, Cécilia; Huber, Marcus; Piani, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    "Is entanglement monogamous?" asks the title of a popular article [B. Terhal, IBM J. Res. Dev. 48, 71 (2004)], celebrating C. H. Bennett's legacy on quantum information theory. While the answer is certainly affirmative in the qualitative sense, the situation is far less clear if monogamy is intended as a quantitative limitation on the distribution of bipartite entanglement in a multipartite system, given some particular measure of entanglement. Here, we clarify the most general form of a universal quantitative monogamy relation for a bipartite measure of entanglement. We then go on to show that an important class of entanglement measures fail to be monogamous in this most general sense of the term, with monogamy violations becoming generic with increasing dimension. In particular, we show that entanglement measures cannot satisfy monogamy while at the same time faithfully capturing the entanglement of the fully antisymmetric state in arbitrary dimension. Nevertheless, monogamy can be recovered if one allows f...

  11. Should Entanglement Measures be Monogamous or Faithful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancien, Cécilia; Di Martino, Sara; Huber, Marcus; Piani, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo; Winter, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    "Is entanglement monogamous?" asks the title of a popular article [B. Terhal, IBM J. Res. Dev. 48, 71 (2004)], celebrating C. H. Bennett's legacy on quantum information theory. While the answer is affirmative in the qualitative sense, the situation is less clear if monogamy is intended as a quantitative limitation on the distribution of bipartite entanglement in a multipartite system, given some particular measure of entanglement. Here, we formalize what it takes for a bipartite measure of entanglement to obey a general quantitative monogamy relation on all quantum states. We then prove that an important class of entanglement measures fail to be monogamous in this general sense of the term, with monogamy violations becoming generic with increasing dimension. In particular, we show that every additive and suitably normalized entanglement measure cannot satisfy any nontrivial general monogamy relation while at the same time faithfully capturing the geometric entanglement structure of the fully antisymmetric state in arbitrary dimension. Nevertheless, monogamy of such entanglement measures can be recovered if one allows for dimension-dependent relations, as we show explicitly with relevant examples.

  12. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

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    Mulard, Hervé; Danchin, E.; Talbot, S.L.; Ramey, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.; White, J.F.; Helfenstein, F.; Wagner, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results. Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i) genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii) offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion. These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure. ?? 2009 Mulard et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

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    Ramey Andrew M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure.

  14. Till death (or an intruder do us part: intrasexual-competition in a monogamous primate.

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    Eduardo Fernandez-Duque

    Full Text Available Polygynous animals are often highly dimorphic, and show large sex-differences in the degree of intra-sexual competition and aggression, which is associated with biased operational sex ratios (OSR. For socially monogamous, sexually monomorphic species, this relationship is less clear. Among mammals, pair-living has sometimes been assumed to imply equal OSR and low frequency, low intensity intra-sexual competition; even when high rates of intra-sexual competition and selection, in both sexes, have been theoretically predicted and described for various taxa. Owl monkeys are one of a few socially monogamous primates. Using long-term demographic and morphological data from 18 groups, we show that male and female owl monkeys experience intense intra-sexual competition and aggression from solitary floaters. Pair-mates are regularly replaced by intruding floaters (27 female and 23 male replacements in 149 group-years, with negative effects on the reproductive success of both partners. Individuals with only one partner during their life produced 25% more offspring per decade of tenure than those with two or more partners. The termination of the pair-bond is initiated by the floater, and sometimes has fatal consequences for the expelled adult. The existence of floaters and the sporadic, but intense aggression between them and residents suggest that it can be misleading to assume an equal OSR in socially monogamous species based solely on group composition. Instead, we suggest that sexual selection models must assume not equal, but flexible, context-specific, OSR in monogamous species.

  15. Mate replacement entails a fitness cost for a socially monogamous seabird

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    Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Daniel, Claire; Stephenson, Brent M.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the selective advantages of divorce in socially monogamous bird species have unravelled extensive variation among different lineages with diverse ecologies. We quantified the reproductive correlates of mate retention, mate loss and divorce in a highly philopatric, colonially breeding biparental seabird, the Australasian gannet Morus serrator. Estimates of annual divorce rates varied between 40-43% for M. serrator and were high in comparison with both the closely related Morus bassanus and the range of divorce rates reported across monogamous avian breeding systems. Mate retention across seasons was related to consistently higher reproductive success compared with mate replacement, while divorce per se contributed significantly to lower reproductive output only in one of two breeding seasons. Prior reproductive success was not predictive of mate replacement overall or divorce in particular. These patterns are in accordance with the musical chairs hypothesis of adaptive divorce theory, which operates in systems characterised by asynchronous territorial establishment.

  16. Multiple paternity in a salamander with socially monogamous behaviour.

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    Liebgold, Eric B; Cabe, Paul R; Jaeger, Robert G; Leberg, Paul L

    2006-11-01

    In the majority of birds and mammals, social monogamy is not congruent with genetic monogamy. No research to date has compared social and genetic monogamy in amphibians. We analysed paternity in clutches of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus), a species in which social monogamy has been demonstrated in the laboratory, and 28% of individuals in the forest are found in male-female pairs in the noncourtship season. We collected 16 clutches of eggs of P. cinereus in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia and collected tail clippings from attending mothers. We genotyped embryos and adults at five microsatellite loci in order to analyse paternity of clutches. Most clutches (84.6%) had multiple sires, with two to three sires per clutch. In this study, 25% of clutches had males in addition to females attending eggs. None of the mothers of these clutches were genetically monogamous. All attending males sired some of the offspring in the clutch that they attended (between 9% and 50%) but never sired a majority in that clutch. We conclude that, at least in this population, social monogamy in P. cinereus is not concomitant with genetic monogamy.

  17. Similar Patterns of Parental Provisioning in a Monogamous and a Polygynous Population of the House Wren

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulo E. Llambías; Katie LaBarbera; Andrea A. Astié

    2012-01-01

    .... We predicted that if patterns of parental care are related to variation in the social mating system, monogamous males should contribute more in the monogamous population than in the polygynous...

  18. Evolution of monogamous marriage by maximization of inclusive fitness.

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    Fortunato, L; Archetti, M

    2010-01-01

    The majority of human societies allow polygynous marriage, and the prevalence of this practice is readily understood in evolutionary terms. Why some societies prescribe monogamous marriage is however not clear: current evolutionary explanations--that social monogamy increases within-group co-operation, giving societies an advantage in competition with other groups--conflict with the historical and ethnographic evidence. We show that, within the framework of inclusive fitness theory, monogamous marriage can be viewed as the outcome of the strategic behaviour of males and females in the allocation of resources to the next generation. Where resources are transferred across generations, social monogamy can be advantageous if partitioning of resources among the offspring of multiple wives causes a depletion of their fitness value, and/or if females grant husbands higher fidelity in exchange for exclusive investment of resources in their offspring. This may explain why monogamous marriage prevailed among the historical societies of Eurasia: here, intensive agriculture led to scarcity of land, with depletion in the value of estates through partitioning among multiple heirs. Norms promoting high paternity were common among ancient societies in the region, and may have further facilitated the establishment of social monogamy. In line with the historical and ethnographic evidence, this suggests that monogamous marriage emerged in Eurasia following the adoption of intensive agriculture, as ownership of land became critical to productive and reproductive success.

  19. Fully nonlocal, monogamous and random genuinely multipartite quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aolita, Leandro; Cabello, Adán; Acín, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Local measurements on bipartite maximally entangled states can yield correlations that are maximally nonlocal, monogamous, and associated to fully random outcomes. This makes these states ideal for bipartite cryptographic tasks. Genuine-multipartite nonlocality constitutes a stronger notion of nonlocality that appears in the multipartite case. Maximal genuine-multipartite nonlocality, monogamy and full random outcomes are thus highly desired properties for multipartite correlations in intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic scenarios. We prove that local measurements on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, for all local dimension and number of parts, can produce correlations that are fully genuine-multipartite nonlocal, monogamous and with fully random outcomes. A key ingredient in our proof is a multipartite chained Bell inequality detecting genuine-multipartite nonlocality, which we introduce. Finally, we discuss the applications of our results for intrinsically genuine-multipartite cryptographic pr...

  20. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys.

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    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-05-07

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy.

  1. Divorce in the socially monogamous zebra finch: Hormonal mechanisms and reproductive consequences.

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    Crino, Ondi L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Fanson, Benjamin G; Hurley, Laura L; Smiley, Kristina O; Griffith, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Up to 80% of all bird species are socially monogamous. Divorce (switching partners) or pair disruption (due to the death of a partner) has been associated with decreased reproductive success, suggesting social monogamy is a strategy that may maximize fitness via coordination between partners. Previous studies have demonstrated the effects of divorce and pair disruption on immediate reproductive success. Here, we used a paired experimental design in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the hormonal mechanisms that modulate parental behavior and reproductive success in response to a partnership change (hereafter divorce). Specifically, we examined the effects of divorce on the avian stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in both parents and nestlings, parental behaviors (incubation and nestling provisioning), prolactin (PRL), and reproductive success. We found that divorce resulted in delayed clutch initiation, reduced clutch mass, and an increase in nestling CORT response to a standardized stressor. These effects on reproductive investment and chick CORT response were not clearly determined by parental endocrine responses. Divorce had no effect on the level of parental CORT. PRL levels were highly correlated within a pair regardless of treatment, were negatively related to the investment that males made in incubation, and increased in experimental males as a result of pair disruption. This study demonstrates the fundamental impact which divorce has not only on reproduction, but also the physiological stress responses of offspring and suggests that in socially monogamous animals the maintenance of a stable partnership over time could be advantageous for long term fitness.

  2. Prevalence of HPV Infection and High Risk HPV Genotypes (16, 18, among Monogamous and Polygamous Women, In Zabol, Iran

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    I Shahramian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to compare the prevalence of HPV infection and high risk HPV genotypes [16, 18] between monogamous and polygamous women, in Zabol, Iran.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Zabol in 2006 - 2007. Two hundred sixty five married women attend­ing the Gynecology Clinic for Cervical Disease Screening entered to this study. One hundred sixty two cases had mo­nogamous, and 103 had polygamous husbands. HPV PCR samples were obtained from scrape of papsmear speci­mens. The biotinylated primers MY09/MY11, GP5+/GP6+, were utilized to enable amplification and detection of posi­tive PCR products. Confirmation of HPV-16 and -18 were done by type-specific PCR primers HPV-16/F, HPV-16/R and HPV-18/F, HPV-18/R.Results: Prevalence of HPV infection in monogamous and polygamous groups was 29% and 37.9%, respectively. The most HPV infection was found in 15-25 years group. The most prevalence of infection in monogamous group was HPV-18 and HPV- non16, 18 in 15-25 years, and HPV-16 in 26-35 years group. In polygamous group the most preva­lent type was HPV-16, 18 in 15-25 years group. The most prevalent HPV-16 was seen in sever inflammation and dys­plasia cytology in both groups.Conclusion: Prevalence of HPV infection in Zabol is high, and in women with polygamous husbands group is slightly more than monogamous. Screening for this infection must be recommended in this region of Iran.

  3. Alternative Life Styles to Monogamous Marriage: Variants of Normal Behavior in Psychotherapy Clients.

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    Peabody, Shelley Ann

    1982-01-01

    Discusses three alternative life styles to monogamous marriage: swinging, open marriage, and group marriage. Includes brief reviews of both the critique of monogamous marriage as not fulfilling intimacy needs, and research on individuals in alternative life styles as displaying potentially normal behavior. (Author)

  4. Spectral reflectance of five hardwood tree species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; J.C. Randolph

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to identify forest species has been ongoing since the launch of Landsat-1 using MSS imagery. The ability to separate hardwoods from conifers was accomplished by the 1980s. However, distinguishing individual hardwood species is more problematic due to similar spectral and phenological characteristics. With the launch of commercial satellites...

  5. Why pair? Evidence of aggregative mating in a socially monogamous marine fish (Siganus doliatus, Siganidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rebecca J; Bellwood, David R; Jennions, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Many species live in stable pairs, usually to breed and raise offspring together, but this cannot be assumed. Establishing whether pairing is based on mating, or an alternative cooperative advantage, can be difficult, especially where species show no obvious sexual dimorphism and where the act of reproduction itself is difficult to observe. In the tropical marine fishes known as rabbitfish (Siganidae), half of extant species live in socially monogamous, territorial pairs. It has been assumed that partnerships are for mating, but the reproductive mode of pairing rabbitfish is currently unconfirmed. Using passive acoustic telemetry to track movements of fishes belonging to one such species (Siganus doliatus), we provide the first evidence that paired adult fish undertake highly synchronized migrations with multiple conspecifics on a monthly cycle. All tagged individuals migrated along the same route in three consecutive months and were absent from home territories for 2-3 days just after the new moon. The timing and directionality of migrations suggest that S. doliatus may form spawning aggregations, offering the potential for exposure to multiple reproductive partners. The finding raises fundamental questions about the basis of pairing, mate choice and partnership longevity in this family.

  6. Chronic social isolation enhances reproduction in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N; Carter, C Sue; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stressors are generally considered to disrupt reproduction and inhibit mating. Here we test the hypothesis that a chronic stressor, specifically social isolation, can facilitate adaptive changes that enhance/accelerate reproductive effort. In general, monogamous species display high levels of prosociality, delayed sexual maturation, and greater parental investment in fewer, higher quality offspring compared with closely related polygynous species. We predicted that chronic social isolation would promote behavioral and neurochemical patterns in prairie voles associated with polygyny. Male and female prairie voles were isolated for four weeks and changes in mating behavior, alloparental care, estrogen receptor (ER) α expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in brain regions regulating sociosexual behavior were examined. In males, isolation accelerated copulation, increased ERα in the medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpm), and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on alloparental behavior. In females, isolation resulted in more rapid estrus induction and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on estradiol sensitivity or ERα expression. The results support the hypothesis that ERα expression in the MEApd and BSTpm is a critical determinant of male copulatory behavior and/or mating system. The lack of change in alloparental behavior suggests that changes in prosocial behavior are selective and regulated by different mechanisms. The results also suggest that TH in the MEApd and BSTpm may play a critical role in determining mating behavior in both sexes.

  7. Seasonal trends in separability of leaf reflectance spectra for Ailanthus altissima and four other tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Aaron

    This project investigated the spectral separability of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, and four other native species. Leaves were collected from Ailanthus and four native tree species from May 13 through August 24, 2008, and spectral reflectance factor measurements were gathered for each tree using an ASD (Boulder, Colorado) FieldSpec Pro full-range spectroradiometer. The original data covered the range from 350-2500 nm, with one reflectance measurement collected per one nm wavelength. To reduce dimensionality, the measurements were resampled to the actual resolution of the spectrometer's sensors, and regions of atmospheric absorption were removed. Continuum removal was performed on the reflectance data, resulting in a second dataset. For both the reflectance and continuum removed datasets, least angle regression (LARS) and random forest classification were used to identify a single set of optimal wavelengths across all sampled dates, a set of optimal wavelengths for each date, and the dates for which Ailanthus is most separable from other species. It was found that classification accuracy varies both with dates and bands used. Contrary to expectations that early spring would provide the best separability, the lowest classification error was observed on July 22 for the reflectance data, and on May 13, July 11 and August 1 for the continuum removed data. This suggests that July and August are also potentially good months for species differentiation. Applying continuum removal in many cases reduced classification error, although not consistently. Band selection seems to be more important for reflectance data in that it results in greater improvement in classification accuracy, and LARS appears to be an effective band selection tool. The optimal spectral bands were selected from across the spectrum, often with bands from the blue (401-431 nm), NIR (1115 nm) and SWIR (1985-1995 nm), suggesting that hyperspectral sensors with

  8. μ and κ opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragen, B J; Freeman, S M; Laredo, S A; Mendoza, S P; Bales, K L

    2015-04-02

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MORs) and κ opioid receptors (KORs) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [(3)H][D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to label MORs and [(3)H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus (CG), striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in "neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen" (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the CG, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function.

  9. Monotonically increasing functions of any quantum correlation can make all multiparty states monogamous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salini, K. [School of Physics, IISER TVM, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 016 (India); Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Monogamy of quantum correlation measures puts restrictions on the sharability of quantum correlations in multiparty quantum states. Multiparty quantum states can satisfy or violate monogamy relations with respect to given quantum correlations. We show that all multiparty quantum states can be made monogamous with respect to all measures. More precisely, given any quantum correlation measure that is non-monogamic for a multiparty quantum state, it is always possible to find a monotonically increasing function of the measure that is monogamous for the same state. The statement holds for all quantum states, whether pure or mixed, in all finite dimensions and for an arbitrary number of parties. The monotonically increasing function of the quantum correlation measure satisfies all the properties that are expected for quantum correlations to follow. We illustrate the concepts by considering a thermodynamic measure of quantum correlation, called the quantum work deficit.

  10. Scholastic Achievement and Family Marital Structure: Bedouin-Arab Adolescents from Monogamous and Polygamous Families in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M.; Hektner, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the scholastic achievement in Arabic, English, Hebrew, and mathematics of 240 Bedouin-Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families in Negev (Israel). Reveals that adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families demonstrate equivalent levels of scholastic achievement, although boys in polygamous families and girls in…

  11. Learning Achievement, Social Adjustment, and Family Conflict among Bedouin-Arab Children from Polygamous and Monogamous Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Ernie S.; Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2000-01-01

    Compares learning achievement, social adjustment, and family conflict among 146 Bedouin-Arab students from polygamous and monogamous families. Reveals that children from monogamous families had higher levels of learning achievement, and they adjusted better to the school framework. The mean conflict rating was higher for children from polygamous…

  12. Multiple deleterious effects of experimentally aged sperm in a monogamous bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J.; Wagner, R.H.; Helfenstein, F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Mulard, Hervé; Naves, L.C.; Danchin, E.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm aging is known to be detrimental to reproductive performance. However, this apparently general phenomenon has seldom been studied in an evolutionary context. The negative impact of sperm aging on parental fitness should constitute a strong selective pressure for adaptations to avoid its effects. We studied the impact of sperm aging on black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a monogamous seabird. Kittiwakes comprise a model system because (i) of evidence that females eject their mates' sperm to prevent fertilization by sperm that would be old and degraded by the time of fertilization and result in reduced reproductive performance and (ii) the lack of extra-pair fertilization in this species makes cryptic female choice an unlikely explanation of postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. We experimentally manipulated the age of the sperm fertilizing kittiwake eggs by fitting males with anti-insemination rings for variable periods of time preceding egg-laying. We found evidence that sperm aging negatively affected four sequential stages of reproduction: fertilization potential, rate of embryonic development, embryonic mortality, and chick condition at hatching. These results may be produced by a continuum of a single process of sperm aging that differentially affects various aspects of development, depending on the degree of damage incurred to the spermatozoa. The marked impact of sperm age on female fitness may thus drive postcopulatory sperm ejection by females. These results provide experimental evidence of deleterious effects of sperm aging on a nondomestic vertebrate, underlining its taxonomic generality and its potential to select for a wide array of adaptations. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  13. Interactions between parents and parents and pups in the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available The California mouse (Peromyscuscalifornicus may be a valuable animal model to study parenting as it is one of the few monogamous and biparental rodent species. By using automated infra-red imaging and video documentation of established pairs spanning two days prior to birth of the litter until d 5 of post natal development (PND, it was possible to follow interactions between parents and between parents and pups. The paired males were attentive to their partners in the form of grooming and sniffing throughout the time period studied. Both these and other activities of the partners, such as eating and drinking, peaked during late light/ mid-dark period. Beginning the day before birth, and most significantly on PND 0, the female made aggressive attempts to exclude the male from nest-attending, acts that were not reciprocated by the male, although he made repeated attempts to mate his partner during that period. By PND 1, males were permitted to return to the nest, where they initiated grooming, licking, and huddling over the litter, although time spent by the male on parental care was still less than that of the female. Male and female pups were of similar size and grew at the same rate. Pups, which are believed to be exothermic for at least the first two weeks post-natally, maintained a body temperature higher than that of their parents until PND 16. Data are consistent with the inference that the male California mouse parent is important in helping retain pup body heat and permit dams increased time to procure food to accommodate her increased energy needs for lactation. These assessments provide indices that may be used to assess the effects of extrinsic factors, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals, on biparental behaviors and offspring development.

  14. More ornamented females produce higher-quality offspring in a socially monogamous bird: an experimental study in the great tit (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, Vladimír; Matysioková, Beata

    2013-03-25

    Animals are often conspicuously colored and explanations range from aposematism and mimicry to sexual selection. Although sexual selection explains vivid coloration in males, functional significance of vivid coloration in females of socially monogamous species remains unclear. The hypothesis of mutual mate choice predicts that more ornamented females produce offspring of higher quality. We tested this prediction in the great tit (Parus major), a small, insectivorous, socially monogamous passerine. In both females and males we quantified three ornaments that have been hypothesized to have signaling role in this species (size of black breast stripe, carotenoid chroma of yellow breast feathers, immaculateness of the white cheek). We swapped broods between nests soon after hatching, thus separating genetic plus pre-hatching vs. post-hatching effects on offspring performance. Body mass of offspring at 14 days of age was positively related to the area of black breast stripe of genetic mothers. Immune response to a novel antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) at 14 days of age was positively related to the immaculateness of the white cheek patch of both genetic and foster mothers. We showed that females with more elaborate ornaments produced higher-quality offspring and we discuss potential proximate mechanisms of these relationships. We conclude that as more elaborate ornaments were reliable signals of offspring quality, direct selection by male mate choice might have been responsible for the evolution and/or maintenance of these signaling traits in females.

  15. Reflectance and fluorescence characterization of maize species using field laboratory measurements and lidar remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Duan, Zheng; Ming, Lian; Li, Yiyun; Chen, Ruipeng; Hu, Jiandong; Svanberg, Sune; Han, Yanlai

    2016-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is an important technique to study photosynthesis and plants. Information on chlorophyll and other pigments can be obtained. We have been using a mobile laboratory in a Chinese experimental farm setting to study maize (Zea mays L.) leaves by reflectance and fluorescence measurements and correlated the spectroscopic signals to the amount of fertilizer supplied. Further, we studied five different species of maize using the remote monitoring of the fluorescence signatures obtained with the same mobile laboratory, but now in a laser radar remote-sensing configuration. The system separation from the target area was 50 m, and 355 nm pulsed excitation using the frequency-tripled output from an Nd:YAG laser was employed. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were combined to identify the different maize species using their fluorescence spectra. Likewise, the spectral signatures in reflectance and fluorescence frequently allowed us to separate different fertilizer levels applied to plants of the same species.

  16. Reproductive preferences and contraceptive use: a comparison of monogamous and polygamous couples in northern Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    BASCHIERI, A.; Cleland, J; Floyd, S; Dube, A; Msona, A; Molesworth, A; Glynn, JR; French, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is now widespread agreement on the importance of men's role in reproductive decision-making. Several studies have argued that fertility preferences and their translation into behaviour differ between polygamous and monogamous unions. Studies investigating the dominance of men's preferences over women's preferences, in cases of couple disagreement, found mixed evidence of the effect of polygamy. However, an often cited limitation of these studies has been the inability to link hu...

  17. Echolocation signals reflect niche differentiation in five sympatric congeneric bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, Björn M; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2004-06-10

    Echolocating bats can be divided into guilds according to their preferred habitat and foraging behaviour, which coincide with distinct adaptations in wing morphology and structure of echolocation signals. Although coarse structuring of niche space between different guilds is generally accepted, it is not clear how niches differ within guilds, or whether there is fine-grained niche differentiation reflected in echolocation signal structure. Using a standardized performance test, here we show clutter-dependent differences in prey-capture success for bats from five species of European Myotis. These species are morphologically similar, sympatric, and all belong to the guild labelled "edge space aerial/trawling foragers". We further demonstrate a strong correlation between the prey-detection ability of the species and the respective search-call bandwidth. Our findings indicate that differences in echolocation signals contribute to within-guild niche differentiation. This is the first study relating sensory abilities of a set of potentially competing animal species to a direct measure of their respective foraging performance, suggesting an important role of sensory ecology in the structuring of animal communities.

  18. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy for the Determination of Asbestos Species in Bulk Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Accardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT spectroscopy is a well-known technique for thin film characterization. Since all asbestos species exhibit intense adsorptions peaks in the 4000–400 cm−1 region of the infrared spectrum, a quantitative analysis of asbestos in bulk samples by DRIFT is possible. In this work, different quantitative analytical procedures have been used to quantify chrysotile content in bulk materials produced by building requalification: partial least squares (PLS chemometrics, the Linear Calibration Curve Method (LCM and the Method of Additions (MoA. Each method has its own pros and cons, but all give affordable results for material characterization: the amount of asbestos (around 10%, weight by weight can be determined with precision and accuracy (errors less than 0.1.

  19. Identification of species' blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistek, Ewelina; Lednev, Igor K

    2015-09-01

    Blood is one of the most common and informative forms of biological evidence found at a crime scene. A very crucial step in forensic investigations is identifying a blood stain's origin. The standard methods currently employed for analyzing blood are destructive to the sample and time-consuming. In this study, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is used as a confirmatory, nondestructive, and rapid method for distinction between human and animal (nonhuman) blood. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built and demonstrated complete separation between human and animal donors, as well as distinction between three separate species: human, cat, and dog. Classification predictions of unknown blood donors were performed by the model, resulting in 100 % accuracy. This study demonstrates ATR FT-IR spectroscopy's great potential for blood stain analysis and species discrimination, both in the lab and at a crime scene since portable ATR FT-IR instrumentation is commercially available.

  20. Effects of developmental bisphenol A exposure on reproductive-related behaviors in California mice (Peromyscus californicus: a monogamous animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Williams

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC, acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus, where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight or ethinyl estradiol (EE (0.1 part per billion to provide a "pure" estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a

  1. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males has been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales...... = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...

  3. Speaking of home truth: (re)productions of dyadic-containment in non-monogamous relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Malson, Helen

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a critical exploration of the discursive and socio-historical practice of 'dyadic-containment' as a principle index for how we know, experience, and authenticate romantic relationships. Making intelligible an 'authentic' relationship as something which is fixed, enclosed and exclusive, the pervasive principle of dyadic-containment has considerable implications for what it means to live out 'authentic' but ostensibly liberated relationships. Using post-structuralist discourse analysis to explore ways in which people can account for their consensual non-monogamous relationships (same and cross-sex, dyadic and non-dyadic), we critique the liberal-humanist framework from which such relationships can be played out. In that dyadic-containment as an aspect of an ontology of interiorized and contained 'realness' can be viewed as serving to characterize and authorize monogamous relationships (as we illustrate), practices of consensual non-monogamy that reproduce dyadic-containment as an organizing and authenticating principle are problematized. Limits to understandings and practices of some 'alternative' romantic relationships are therefore expounded and consideration is given to how relational difference might be otherwise premised.

  4. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2017-04-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s(-1)) and high (6 m s(-1)) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  5. Exploring the diversity of Gardnerella vaginalis in the genitourinary tract microbiota of monogamous couples through subtle nucleotide variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Murat Eren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is an enigmatic disease of unknown origin that affects a large percentage of women. The vaginal microbiota of women with BV is associated with serious sequelae, including abnormal pregnancies. The etiology of BV is not fully understood, however, it has been suggested that it is transmissible, and that G. vaginalis may be an etiological agent. Studies using enzymatic assays to define G. vaginalis biotypes, as well as more recent genomic comparisons of G. vaginalis isolates from symptomatic and asymptomatic women, suggest that particular G. vaginalis strains may play a key role in the pathogenesis of BV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore G. vaginalis diversity, distribution and sexual transmission, we developed a Shannon entropy-based method to analyze low-level sequence variation in 65,710 G. vaginalis 16S rRNA gene segments that were PCR-amplified from vaginal samples of 53 monogamous women and from urethral and penile skin samples of their male partners. We observed a high degree of low-level diversity among G. vaginalis sequences with a total of 46 unique sequence variants (oligotypes, and also found strong correlations of these oligotypes between sexual partners. Even though Gram stain-defined normal and some Gram stain-defined intermediate oligotype profiles clustered together in UniFrac analysis, no single G. vaginalis oligotype was found to be specific to BV or normal vaginal samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a novel method for investigating G. vaginalis diversity at a low level of taxonomic discrimination. The findings support cultivation-based studies that indicate sexual partners harbor the same strains of G. vaginalis. This study also highlights the fact that a few, reproducible nucleotide variations within the 16S rRNA gene can reveal clinical or epidemiological associations that would be missed by genus-level or species-level categorization of 16S rRNA data.

  6. Hyperspectral reflectance of leaves and flowers of an outbreak species discriminates season and successional stage of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Schlerf, Martin; van der Putten, Wim H.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral reflectance can be used to assess large-scale performances of plants in the field based on plant nutrient balance as well as composition of defence compounds. However, plant chemical composition is known to vary with season - due to its phenology - and it may even depend on the succession stage of its habitat. Here we investigate (i) how spectral reflectance could be used to discriminate successional and phenological stages of Jacobaea vulgaris in both leaf and flower organs and (ii) if chemical content estimation by reflectance is flower or leaf dependent. We used J. vulgaris, which is a natural outbreak plant species on abandoned arable fields in north-western Europe and studied this species in a chronosequence representing successional development during time since abandonment. The chemical content and reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths of flowers and leaves were measured throughout the season in fields of different successional ages. The data were analyzed with multivariate statistics for temporal discrimination and estimation of chemical contents in both leaf and flower organs. Two main effects were revealed by spectral reflectance measurements: (i) both flower and leaf spectra show successional and seasonal changes, but the pattern is complex and organ specific (ii) flower head pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are involved in plant defence against herbivores, can be detected through hyperspectral reflectance.We conclude that spectral reflectance of both leaves and flowers can provide information on plant performance during season and successional stages. As a result, remote sensing studies of plant performance in complex field situations will benefit from considering hyperspectral reflectance of different plant organs. This approach may enable more detailed studies on the link between spectral information and plant defence dynamics both aboveground and belowground.

  7. A Comparison of Sexual Function, Psychological Status, and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Turkish Men within Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerbiçer, Hasan Çetin; Resim, Sefa; Efe, Erkan; Bahar, Mustafa Remzi; Altunören, Özlem; Küçükdurmaz, Faruk; Benlioğlu, Can

    2016-01-01

    Background: A limited number of studies within the literature have entailed objective evaluations of psychological, sexual, and emotional features of women within polygamous marriages. However, there is a lack of studies reporting these features among polygamous and monogamous men. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, sexual function, and psychological status of polygamously and monogamously married men. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study sample comprised two groups: 35 polygamous and 45 monogamous men in Kahramanmaraş Province, Turkey. Door-to-door surveys covered sociodemographic factors and adopted Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and International Index of Erectile Function – Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EFD) scales. Results: Polygamous men showed considerably higher IIEF-EFD scores (p0.05). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of monogamous men for erectile dysfunction and depression were 14.4 (95% CI: 3.1–67.5) and 7.4 (95% CI: 0.9–61.9), respectively. The main reasons for multiple marriages reported by polygamous men, in descending order, were: 1) decreased satisfaction of sexual desires by a wife (37.1%); 2) falling in love with the second wife (22.8%); and 3) incompatibility with the first wife (17.1%). However, 62.9% of them responded negatively to the question: “Would you recommend polygamous marriage to other men?” Conclusion: Our results showed that polygamous men had higher erectile function and lower depression scores than monogamous men. Further studies investigating the effects of polygamy on men’s psychosexual function are warranted. Additionally, studies that address the perspectives of offspring and women’s expectations within polygamous marriages should be conducted. PMID:27606132

  8. Quantifying Foliar Pigment Concentrations of Temperate Forest Species Using Digital Photography and Hyperspectral Reflectance Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M. T.; Rock, B. N.; Jahnke, L. S.; Lee, T. D.

    2008-12-01

    Determination of leaf chlorophyll content is a common and important procedure for plant scientists. There are many multispectral techniques for non destructive in-vivo, estimation of chlorophyll in foliage. Although much has been done to explore the estimation of foliar pigments using remote sensing, very little work has been done exploring the potential that basic, affordable, digital cameras may have for such analysis. This study utilizes a combination of digital photography, hyperspectral laboratory remote sensing, and chlorophyll extractions to determine if digital photographs can be used to accurately predict foliar chlorophyll concentrations as well to compare this digital approach with several common spectral indices used for estimating foliar chlorophyll content. Foliar materials for this study come from three sources. A large collection of samples were collected (60) from 9 common temperate forest species in July and late September over a 1 kilometer area at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in northern New Hampshire. Secondly, 15 trees were selected in a forested setting near the University of New Hampshire for more intensive phenological analysis. These samples consist of 5 white pine (Pinus strobus), 5 black oak (Quercus velutina) and 5 sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Finally, dozens of samples of white pine utilized in Forest Watch, a successful K-12 science outreach which assesses the impact of tropospheric ozone on forest health in New England, were also analyzed for this study. For all samples in this study, chlorophyll extractions were conducted to determine chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll concentrations. Laboratory spectral analysis was performed using a GER 2600 Spectroradiometer to determine hyperspectral estimates of chlorophyll content using a Red Edge Inflection Point (REIP) approach, as well as a Transformed Chlorophyll Absorption Reflectance Index/Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TCARI/OSAVI) approach. These

  9. Individual heterogeneity determines sex differences in mortality in a monogamous bird with reversed sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colchero, Fernando; Aliaga, Alix; Jones, Owen;

    2017-01-01

    . Although we found that variables that relate to the cost of reproduction and sexual dimorphism are at least partially involved in determing these sex differences, it is through their effect on the level of frailty that they affect age patterns of mortality. Therefore, our results raise the possibility...... in shaping demographic trajectories in wild populations. The link between these two processes has seldom been explored. 2. We used Bayesian survival trajectory analysis to study age-specific mortality trajectories in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), a monogamous raptor with reversed sexual size...... dimorphism. We tested the effect of individual heterogeneity on age-specific mortality, and the extent by which this heterogeneity was determined by average reproductive output and wing length as measures of an individual’s frailty. 3. We found that sex differences in age-specific mortality were primarily...

  10. Mental health aspects of Arab-Israeli adolescents from polygamous versus monogamous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Slonim-Nevo, Vered

    2002-08-01

    The authors considered the mental health consequences of polygamy in a sample of 101 Arab Muslim adolescents (19 from polygamous and 82 from monogamous families) at Juarish (Ramla), Israel. The respondents completed the Self-Esteem Scale (SE; M. Rosenberg, 1979), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; L. Derogatis & N. Melsavados, 1983; L. Derogatis & P. Spencer, 1982), and the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; N. B. Epstein, M. N. Baldwin, & D. S. Bishop, 1983). The respondents from polygamous families had lower SE scores, statistically significant higher scores in 2 BSI dimensions, higher scores in all other BSI dimensions, and higher levels of self-reported family dysfunction. The respondents from polygamous families reported lower levels of socioeconomic status, academic achievement, and parental academic attainment. Those variables may have had a more direct impact on mental health than did parental marital status. The data also indicated that perceived family functioning was the best predictor of mental health.

  11. Extraordinarily long sperm in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Kullmann, Harald

    2007-06-01

    The main function of the spermatozoon is the transfer of the male haploid genome during fertilisation. In animals in general and in fishes in particular, there is huge variation in sperm size. In fishes, sperm size ranges from 13 μm in Mugil cephlus to nearly 100 μm in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. We examined intra-specific variation in sperm morphometry in the socially monogamous cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus using scanning electron microscopy. The mean total sperm length of nearly 70 μm was extraordinarily large for cichlids. Furthermore, within-male variation was remarkably high. To our knowledge, P. taeniatus produces the longest cichlid sperm ever documented. Several hypotheses concerning the adaptive significance of these results are presented.

  12. Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nanci J

    2011-01-01

    Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya tree-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of tree species used for daily household needs, on the modern tree species composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of species useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that species composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. Species composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" species still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the species composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans.

  13. A comparison study of psychological, family function marital and life satisfactions of polygamous and monogamous women in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-10-01

    This study surveyed a 2009 convenience sampling of 199 women, 93 of whom were first (or senior) wives in polygamous marriages and 106 were wives in monogamous marriages. We deployed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), ENRICH marital satisfaction questionnaire, SCL-90 mental health symptoms checklist, Rosenberg self-esteem (SE) scale, and Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin life satisfaction scale, a basic sociodemographic scale, including attitudes towards polygamy. Women from polygamous families experienced more problems in family functioning, marital relations, and reported low self-esteem, less satisfaction with life, and more somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoid ideation, psychoticism and their general severity index was higher (GSI). More women in polygamous marriages agreed with the practice of polygamy, as compared to their monogamous counterparts. The conclusion considers implications for mental health practice, policy, and further research.

  14. Intelligence and family marital structure: the case of adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families among Bedouin Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Bart, William M; Hektner, Joel

    2003-02-01

    The levels of intelligence among Bedouin Arab adolescents from monogamous and polygamous families living in the Negev region of Israel were examined. A shortened version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test (S. Elbedour, T. J. Bouchard, & Y. Hur, 1997; J. Raven, J. C. Raven, & J. H. Court, 1998) was used to assess intelligence. There were no significant test score differences between adolescents from monogamous families and adolescents from polygamous families. In addition, participants with 2 mothers tended to have lower RPM scores than those with 3 or 4 mothers, and participants with related parents tended to have lower RPM scores than participants with unrelated parents. One major finding of this study is that polygamous family marital structures tended not to have deleterious effects on the Bedouin Arab adolescents' RPM test scores.

  15. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  16. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R Fernando

    Full Text Available Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg, sulphur (S and calcium (Ca distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress.

  17. A study of psychological symptoms, family function, marital and life satisfactions of polygamous and monogamous women: the Palestinian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2012-01-01

    Polygamy is defined as a marriage in which a spouse of either gender has more than one mate at the same time. Polygamy is considered a valid form of marriage in many countries and communities around the globe. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychological symptoms, family function, marital satisfaction, life satisfaction and the degree of agreement with the practice of polygamy among 'senior wives' - the first wife in the polygamous marriage - and women in monogamous marriages in the West Bank, Palestine. A convenience sample of 309 women, 187 from polygamous and 122 from monogamous families, participated in this study. All women from polygamous families were senior wives. The following instruments were deployed: the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the ENRICH marital satisfaction questionnaire, the SCL-90 mental health symptoms checklist, the Rosenberg self-esteem (SE) scale, the Diener et al. (1985), a life satisfaction scale, and a basic socio-demographic scale, including the degree of agreement of the practice of polygamy. The findings revealed significant differences between senior wives in polygamous marriages and wives in monogamous marriages with regard to family functioning, marital satisfaction, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Likewise, many of the mental health symptoms were different. Particularly noteworthy were somatization, depression, hostility psychotism and the General Severity Index (a global index of distress). More women in polygamous marriages agreed with the practice of polygamy than their monogamous counterparts. Practitioners and policy makers need to be aware of the consequences of polygamy on first wives and on society as whole.

  18. The role of monogamous bivalency and Fc interactions in the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Nancy A; Pisetsky, David S

    2016-05-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus. These antibodies can bind DNA avidly by monogamous bivalency, a mechanism which requires the interaction of both Fab combining regions with antigenic determinants on the same polynucleotide. To explore further this mechanism, we tested Fab and F(ab')2 fragments prepared from IgG from patient plasmas in an ELISA with native DNA antigen, detecting antibody with a peroxidase conjugated anti-Fab reagent. These studies showed that Fab fragments, which can only bind monovalently, had negligible activity. Although bivalent F(ab')2 fragments would be predicted to bind DNA, these fragments also showed poor anti-DNA activity. Control studies showed that the fragments retained antibody activity to tetanus toxoid and an EBV antigen preparation. Together, these findings suggest that anti-DNA avidity depends on monogamous bivalency, with the antibody Fc portion also influencing DNA binding, in a mechanism which can be termed Fc-dependent monogamous bivalency.

  19. Shifts in Campylobacter species abundance may reflect general microbial community shifts in periodontitis progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral Campylobacter species have been found to be associated with periodontitis progression. While the etiological significance of Campylobacter rectus is quite established, the association of C. gracilis, C. concisus, and C. curvus with health or disease remains contradictory. Objectives: This study hypothesizes that the proportion of species within the Campylobacter genus rather than the absolute abundance of a single species is a suitable indicator for periodontitis progression. Design: Subgingival plaque from 90 periodontitis patients and gingival sulcus fluid of 32 healthy individuals were subjected to a newly developed nested PCR approach, in which all Campylobacter spp. were amplified simultaneously. The resulting mixture of 16S-rRNA-gene-amplicons were separated by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing and identification of excised bands and relative quantification of band intensities. In all samples, the abundance of selected periodontitis marker species was determined based on DNA hybridization on a microarray. Results: The highly prevalent Campylobacter community was composed of varying proportions of C. rectus, C. gracilis, C. concisus, and C. curvus. Cluster analysis based on SSCP-banding pattern resulted in distinct groups which in turn coincided with significant differences in abundance of established periodontitis marker species (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum and progression. Conclusions: The shift in the Campylobacter community composition seems to display the general microbial community shift during clinical progression in a simplified manner. The focus on members of the Campylobacter in this study suggests that this genus can be an indicator of ecological changes in the subgingival oral microflora.

  20. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  1. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae) was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  2. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  3. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna V Klenova

    2015-01-01

    Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous sp...

  4. The relationship between monogamous/polygamous family structure and the mental health of bedouin Arab adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, S; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second study involved 182 Bedouin Arab adolescents in which the student participants completed a single instrument about themselves and in which the teachers of the students completed the Teachers' Report Form of the Child Behaviour Checklist by Achenbach. The Bedouin Arab adolescents fell into two groups: (a) adolescents in monogamous family structures and (b) adolescents in polygamous family structures. The findings of the first study suggest that the two groups did not differ significantly in the majority of the assessed variables, even though there were significant differences obtained between groups for 4 of the 13 assessed variables. The two groups did not differ significantly in the second study. Results were discussed in terms of their cultural and developmental significance.

  5. Evidence of polygamy in the socially monogamous Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes, Arapaimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izeni Pires Farias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Arapaima gigas is one of the largest freshwater fishes of the world. It is socially monogamous, forming pairs, constructing a nest and providing parental care. We performed a paternity analysis under three scenarios in captive, semi-natural and natural areas using 10 microsatellite markers. As a positive control, we analyzed three pairs and their offspring isolated individually in artificial breeding ponds (a priori very high probability of monogamy. We then analyzed two samples of offspring from large artificial ponds with multiple adults but only one reproductive pair (a priori high probability of monogamy, two samples from semi-natural breeding station with multiple adults but only one reproductive pair (a priori high probability of monogamy, and a sample from a natural lake with multiple adults, some potentially breeding (a priori medium probability of monogamy. Analysis of patterns of Mendelian heredity suggested an extra-pair contribution for all broods except the positive controls. Similarly, results based on multilocus analysis estimated at least two sib-groups per nest. These results reject monogamy as a system of breeding in Arapaima gigas. From a management perspective, this behavior may be exploited to maintain genetic diversity in captive and as well in wild populations of Arapaima gigas.

  6. Tackling intraspecific genetic structure in distribution models better reflects species geographical range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcer, Arnald; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Picó, F Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Genetic diversity provides insight into heterogeneous demographic and adaptive history across organisms' distribution ranges. For this reason, decomposing single species into genetic units may represent a powerful tool to better understand biogeographical patterns as well as improve predictions of the effects of GCC (global climate change) on biodiversity loss. Using 279 georeferenced Iberian accessions, we used classes of three intraspecific genetic units of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana obtained from the genetic analyses of nuclear SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), chloroplast SNPs, and the vernalization requirement for flowering. We used SDM (species distribution models), including climate, vegetation, and soil data, at the whole-species and genetic-unit levels. We compared model outputs for present environmental conditions and with a particularly severe GCC scenario. SDM accuracy was high for genetic units with smaller distribution ranges. Kernel density plots identified the environmental variables underpinning potential distribution ranges of genetic units. Combinations of environmental variables accounted for potential distribution ranges of genetic units, which shrank dramatically with GCC at almost all levels. Only two genetic clusters increased their potential distribution ranges with GCC. The application of SDM to intraspecific genetic units provides a detailed picture on the biogeographical patterns of distinct genetic groups based on different genetic criteria. Our approach also allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes, in terms of genetic background and physiological requirements for flowering, that Iberian A. thaliana may experience with a GCC scenario applying SDM to intraspecific genetic units.

  7. Semiochemical compounds of preen secretion reflect genetic make-up in a seabird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, S.; Merkling, T.; Raynaud, C.; Mulard, Hervé; Bessiere, J.-M.; Lhuillier, E.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2012-01-01

    Several vertebrates choose their mate according to genetic heterozygosity and relatedness, and use odour cues to assess their conspecifics' genetic make-up. In birds, although several species (including the blacklegged kittiwake) exhibit non-random mating according to genetic traits, the cues used to assess genetic characteristics remain unknown. The importance of olfaction in birds' social behaviour is gaining attention among researchers, and it has been suggested that, as in other vertebrates, bird body scent may convey information about genetic traits. Here, we combined gas chromatography data and genetic analyses at microsatellite loci to test whether semiochemical messages in preen secretion of kittiwakes carried information about genetic heterozygosity and relatedness. Semiochemical profile was correlated with heterozygosity in males and females, while semiochemical distance was correlated with genetic distance only in male-male dyads. Our study is the first to demonstrate a link between odour and genetics in birds, which sets the stage for the existence of sophisticated odour-based mechanisms of mate choice also in birds. ?? 2011 The Royal Society.

  8. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-06-19

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  9. Semiochemical compounds of preen secretion reflect genetic make-up in a seabird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Merkling, Thomas; Raynaud, Christine; Mulard, Hervé; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Lhuillier, Emeline; Hatch, Scott A; Danchin, Etienne

    2012-03-22

    Several vertebrates choose their mate according to genetic heterozygosity and relatedness, and use odour cues to assess their conspecifics' genetic make-up. In birds, although several species (including the black-legged kittiwake) exhibit non-random mating according to genetic traits, the cues used to assess genetic characteristics remain unknown. The importance of olfaction in birds' social behaviour is gaining attention among researchers, and it has been suggested that, as in other vertebrates, bird body scent may convey information about genetic traits. Here, we combined gas chromatography data and genetic analyses at microsatellite loci to test whether semiochemical messages in preen secretion of kittiwakes carried information about genetic heterozygosity and relatedness. Semiochemical profile was correlated with heterozygosity in males and females, while semiochemical distance was correlated with genetic distance only in male-male dyads. Our study is the first to demonstrate a link between odour and genetics in birds, which sets the stage for the existence of sophisticated odour-based mechanisms of mate choice also in birds.

  10. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  11. Ribosomal DNA sequence heterogeneity reflects intraspecies phylogenies and predicts genome structure in two contrasting yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Claire; James, Stephen A; Davey, Robert P; Dicks, Jo; Roberts, Ian N

    2014-07-01

    The ribosomal RNA encapsulates a wealth of evolutionary information, including genetic variation that can be used to discriminate between organisms at a wide range of taxonomic levels. For example, the prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequence is very widely used both in phylogenetic studies and as a marker in metagenomic surveys and the internal transcribed spacer region, frequently used in plant phylogenetics, is now recognized as a fungal DNA barcode. However, this widespread use does not escape criticism, principally due to issues such as difficulties in classification of paralogous versus orthologous rDNA units and intragenomic variation, both of which may be significant barriers to accurate phylogenetic inference. We recently analyzed data sets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, characterizing rDNA sequence variation within multiple strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its nearest wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus in unprecedented detail. Notably, both species possess single locus rDNA systems. Here, we use these new variation datasets to assess whether a more detailed characterization of the rDNA locus can alleviate the second of these phylogenetic issues, sequence heterogeneity, while controlling for the first. We demonstrate that a strong phylogenetic signal exists within both datasets and illustrate how they can be used, with existing methodology, to estimate intraspecies phylogenies of yeast strains consistent with those derived from whole-genome approaches. We also describe the use of partial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, a type of sequence variation found only in repetitive genomic regions, in identifying key evolutionary features such as genome hybridization events and show their consistency with whole-genome Structure analyses. We conclude that our approach can transform rDNA sequence heterogeneity from a problem to a useful source of evolutionary information, enabling the estimation of highly accurate phylogenies of

  12. Monogamous nature of symmetric N-qubit states of the W class:Concurrence and negativity tangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. J. Geetha; K. O. Yashodamma; Sudha

    2015-01-01

    Using Majorana representation of symmetric N-qubit pure states, we have examined the monogamous nature of the family of states with two-distinct spinors, the W class of states. We have evaluated the N-concurrence tangle and showed that all the states in this family have vanishing concurrence tangle. The negativity tangle for the W class of states is shown to be non-zero, illustrating the fact that the concurrence tangle is always lesser than or equal to the negativity tangle in a pure N-qubit state.

  13. Conceptual shifts in animal systematics as reflected in the taxonomic history of a common aquatic snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea stagnalis (L., 1758 is among the most widespread and well-studied species of freshwater Mollusca of the northern hemisphere. It is also notoriously known for its huge conchological variability. The history of scientific exploration of this species may be traced back to the end of the 16th century (Ulisse Aldrovandi in Renaissance Italy and, thus, L. stagnalis has been chosen as a proper model taxon to demonstrate how changes in theoretical foundations and methodology of animal taxonomy have been reflected in the practice of classification of a particular taxon, especially on the intraspecific level. In this paper, I depict the long story of recognition of L. stagnalis by naturalists and biologists since the 16th century up to the present day. It is shown that different taxonomic philosophies (essentialism, population thinking, tree thinking led to different views on the species’ internal structure and its systematic position itself. The problem of how to deal with intraspecific variability in the taxonomic arrangement of L. stagnalis has been a central problem that made systematists change their opinion following conceptual shifts in taxonomic theory.

  14. Parent-Adolescent Conflict and Its Resolution in Monogamous and Polygamous Bedouin Arab Families in Southern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Elbedour

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (1 to compare whether children from polygamous family structures significantly differ from children from monogamous family structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict, and (2 whether children from these two structures employ different patterns of family conflict resolution.To address these questions, a random sample of 212 high school students (60.8% monogamous completed a self-administered survey. The results of MANOVA show no significant differences (p > 0.05 between these two structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict. The results also show similar conflict management styles between these two family structures within each of the following five domains (privacy, school and career, money spending, going out and leisure, and physical appearance.This study is unique in that it is the first empirical research to be conducted in the field of conflict resolution among youth and adolescents in polygamous marital structures and therefore, further investigation is needed to replicate these results utilizing different cross-cultural populations practicing polygamy.

  15. Parent-adolescent conflict and its resolution in monogamous and polygamous Bedouin Arab families in southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Hektner, Joel M; Morad, Mohammed; Abu-Bader, Soleman H

    2003-12-05

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to compare whether children from polygamous family structures significantly differ from children from monogamous family structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict, and (2) whether children from these two structures employ different patterns of family conflict resolution. To address these questions, a random sample of 212 high school students (60.8% monogamous) completed a self-administered survey. The results of MANOVA show no significant differences (p > 0.05) between these two structures with regard to the frequency of parent-child conflict. The results also show similar conflict management styles between these two family structures within each of the following five domains (privacy, school and career, money spending, going out and leisure, and physical appearance). This study is unique in that it is the first empirical research to be conducted in the field of conflict resolution among youth and adolescents in polygamous marital structures and therefore, further investigation is needed to replicate these results utilizing different cross-cultural populations practicing polygamy.

  16. Predicting leaf gravimetric water content from foliar reflectance across a range of plant species using continuous wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Rivard, Benoit; Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo G; Féret, Jean-Baptiste; Jacquemoud, Stephane; Ustin, Susan L

    2012-08-15

    Leaf water content is an important variable for understanding plant physiological properties. This study evaluates a spectral analysis approach, continuous wavelet analysis (CWA), for the spectroscopic estimation of leaf gravimetric water content (GWC, %) and determines robust spectral indicators of GWC across a wide range of plant species from different ecosystems. CWA is both applied to the Leaf Optical Properties Experiment (LOPEX) data set and a synthetic data set consisting of leaf reflectance spectra simulated using the leaf optical properties spectra (PROSPECT) model. The results for the two data sets, including wavelet feature selection and GWC prediction derived using those features, are compared to the results obtained from a previous study for leaf samples collected in the Republic of Panamá (PANAMA), to assess the predictive capabilities and robustness of CWA across species. Furthermore, predictive models of GWC using wavelet features derived from PROSPECT simulations are examined to assess their applicability to measured data. The two measured data sets (LOPEX and PANAMA) reveal five common wavelet feature regions that correlate well with leaf GWC. All three data sets display common wavelet features in three wavelength regions that span 1732-1736 nm at scale 4, 1874-1878 nm at scale 6, and 1338-1341 nm at scale 7 and produce accurate estimates of leaf GWC. This confirms the applicability of the wavelet-based methodology for estimating leaf GWC for leaves representative of various ecosystems. The PROSPECT-derived predictive models perform well on the LOPEX data set but are less successful on the PANAMA data set. The selection of high-scale and low-scale features emphasizes significant changes in both overall amplitude over broad spectral regions and local spectral shape over narrower regions in response to changes in leaf GWC. The wavelet-based spectral analysis tool adds a new dimension to the modeling of plant physiological properties with

  17. Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy affording time-resolved simultaneous detection of surface and liquid phase species at catalytic solid-liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Daniel M; Urakawa, Atsushi; Baiker, Alfons

    2009-09-01

    Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) combined with concentration modulation allows simultaneous monitoring of dynamic evolutions of surface and liquid phase species during reactions at catalytic interfaces as demonstrated for the Pt-catalysed oxidation of CO by O2 in cyclohexane.

  18. Selection on male longevity in a monogamous human population: late-life survival brings no additional grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, M; Lummaa, V; Russell, A F

    2011-05-01

    Humans are exceptionally long-lived for mammals of their size. In men, lifespan is hypothesized to evolve from benefits of reproduction throughout adult life. We use multi-generational data from pre-industrial Finland, where remarriage was possible only after spousal death, to test selection pressures on male longevity in four monogamous populations. Men showed several behaviours consistent with attempting to accrue direct fitness throughout adult life and sired more children in their lifetimes if they lost their first wife and remarried. However, remarriage did not increase grandchild production because it compromised the success of motherless first-marriage offspring. Overall, grandchild production was not improved by living beyond 51 years and was reduced by living beyond 65. Our results highlight the importance of using grandchild production to understand selection on human life-history traits. We conclude that selection for (or enforcement of) lifetime monogamy will select for earlier reproductive investment and against increased lifespan in men.

  19. Use of a Remote Sensing Method to Estimate the Influence of Anthropogenic Factors on the Spectral Reflectance of Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezhova, Dora D.; Yanev, Tony K.

    2007-04-01

    Results from a remote sensing study of the influence of stress factors on the leaf spectral reflectance of wheat and tomato plants contaminated by viruses and pea plants treated with herbicides are presented and discussed. The changes arising in the spectral reflectance characteristics of control and treated plants are estimated through statistical methods as well as through derivative analysis to determine specific reflectance features in the red edge region.

  20. The regional species richness and genetic diversity of Arctic vegetation reflect both past glaciations and current climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, L.; Alsos, Inger G.; Bay, Christian

    2016-01-01

    species richness of the vascular plant flora of 21 floristic provinces and examined local species richness in 6215 vegetation plots distributed across the Arctic. We assessed levels of genetic diversity inferred from amplified fragment length polymorphism variation across populations of 23 common Arctic......, it will most probably also exhibit lags in response to current and future climate change. Our results also suggest that local species richness at the plot scale is more determined by local habitat factors...

  1. Challenges to the pair bond: neural and hormonal effects of separation and reunion in a monogamous primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hinde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus, a socially monogamous New World primate. Males underwent a baseline scan, a short separation (48 hours, a long separation (app. two weeks, a reunion with the female pair mate, and an encounter with a female stranger (with nine males completing all five conditions. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured via positron emission tomography (PET imaging using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG co-registered with structural MRI, and region of interest analysis was carried out. In addition, plasma was collected and assayed for cortisol, oxytocin (OT, vasopressin (AVP, glucose, and insulin concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected and assayed for OT and AVP. We used generalized estimating equations to examine significant changes from baseline. Short separations were characterized by decreases in FDG uptake, in comparison to baseline, in the lateral septum (LS, ventral pallidum (VP, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN, periaqueductal gray (PAG, and cerebellum, as well as increases in CSF OT, and plasma cortisol and insulin. Long separations differed from baseline in reduced FDG uptake in the central amygdala (CeA, reduced whole brain FDG uptake, increased CSF OT and increased plasma insulin. The response on encounter with a stranger female depended on whether or not the male had previously reproduced with his pair mate, suggesting that transitions to fatherhood contribute to the neurobiology underlying response to a novel female. Reunion with the partner

  2. Challenges to the Pair Bond: Neural and Hormonal Effects of Separation and Reunion in a Monogamous Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Katie; Muth, Chelsea; Maninger, Nicole; Ragen, Benjamin J.; Larke, Rebecca H.; Jarcho, Michael R.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Mason, William A.; Ferrer, Emilio; Cherry, Simon R.; Fisher-Phelps, Marina L.; Bales, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Social monogamy at its most basic is a group structure in which two adults form a unit and share a territory. However, many socially monogamous pairs display attachment relationships known as pair bonds, in which there is a mutual preference for the partner and distress upon separation. The neural and hormonal basis of this response to separation from the adult pair mate is under-studied. In this project, we examined this response in male titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), a socially monogamous New World primate. Males underwent a baseline scan, a short separation (48 h), a long separation (approximately 2 weeks), a reunion with the female pair mate and an encounter with a female stranger (with nine males completing all five conditions). Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured via positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and region of interest (ROI) analysis was carried out. In addition, plasma was collected and assayed for cortisol, oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (AVP), glucose and insulin concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected and assayed for OT and AVP. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine significant changes from baseline. Short separations were characterized by decreases in FDG uptake, in comparison to baseline, in the lateral septum (LS), ventral pallidum (VP), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and cerebellum, as well as increases in CSF OT, and plasma cortisol and insulin. Long separations differed from baseline in reduced FDG uptake in the central amygdala (CeA), reduced whole brain FDG uptake, increased CSF OT and increased plasma insulin. The response on encounter with a stranger female depended on whether or not the male had previously reproduced with his pair mate, suggesting that transitions to fatherhood contribute to the neurobiology underlying response to a

  3. Delta15N values of tropical savanna and monsoon forest species reflect root specialisations and soil nitrogen status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Stewart, G R

    2003-03-01

    A large number of herbaceous and woody plants from tropical woodland, savanna, and monsoon forest were analysed to determine the impact of environmental factors (nutrient and water availability, fire) and biological factors (microbial associations, systematics) on plant delta(15)N values. Foliar delta(15)N values of herbaceous and woody species were not related to growth form or phenology, but a strong relationship existed between mycorrhizal status and plant delta(15)N. In woodland and savanna, woody species with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations and putative N(2)-fixing species with ECM/arbuscular (AM) associations had lowest foliar delta(15)N values (1.0-0.6 per thousand ), AM species had mostly intermediate delta(15)N values (average +0.6 per thousand ), while non-mycorrhizal Proteaceae had highest delta(15)N values (+2.9 to +4.1 per thousand ). Similar differences in foliar delta(15)N were observed between AM (average 0.1 and 0.2 per thousand ) and non-mycorrhizal (average +0.8 and +0.3 per thousand ) herbaceous species in woodland and savanna. Leguminous savanna species had significantly higher leaf N contents (1.8-2.5% N) than non-fixing species (0.9-1.2% N) indicating substantial N acquisition via N(2) fixation. Monsoon forest species had similar leaf N contents (average 2.4% N) and positive delta(15)N values (+0.9 to +2.4 per thousand ). Soil nitrification and plant NO(3)(-) use was substantially higher in monsoon forest than in woodland or savanna. In the studied communities, higher soil N content and nitrification rates were associated with more positive soil delta(15)N and plant delta(15)N. In support of this notion, Ficus, a high NO(3)(-) using taxa associated with NO(3)(-) rich sites in the savanna, had the highest delta(15)N values of all AM species in the savanna. delta(15)N of xylem sap was examined as a tool for studying plant delta(15)N relations. delta(15)N of xylem sap varied seasonally and between differently aged Acacia and other savanna

  4. Classification of pumpkin seed oils according to their species and genetic variety by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Jorge-Rodríguez, Elisa; Simí-Alfonso, Ernesto F

    2011-04-27

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), followed by multivariate treatment of the spectral data, was used to classify seed oils of the genus Cucurbita (pumpkins) according to their species as C. maxima, C. pepo, and C. moschata. Also, C. moschata seed oils were classified according to their genetic variety as RG, Inivit C-88, and Inivit C-2000. Up to 23 wavelength regions were selected on the spectra, each region corresponding to a peak or shoulder. The normalized absorbance peak areas within these regions were used as predictors. Using linear discriminant analysis (LDA), an excellent resolution among all categories concerning both Cucurbita species and C. moschata varieties was achieved. The proposed method was straightforward and quick and can be easily implemented. Quality control of pumpkin seed oils is important because Cucurbita species and genetic variety are both related to the pharmaceutical properties of the oils.

  5. Photosynthesis and reflectance indices for rainforest species in ecosystems undergoing progression and retrogression along a soil fertility chronosequence in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, David; Boelman, Natalie T; Turnbull, Matthew H; Griffin, Kevin L; Tissue, David T; Barbour, Margaret M; Hunt, John E; Richardson, Sarah J; Peltzer, Duane A

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of photosynthesis at saturating irradiance and CO2 partial pressure, Amax, "adjusted" normalised difference vegetation index, RaNDVI, and photochemical reflectance index, RPRI, were made on trees sampled along a soil chronosequence to investigate the relationship between carbon uptake and ecosystem development in relation to nutrient availability. Measurements were made on the three most dominant species at six sites along the sequence in South Westland, New Zealand with soil age ranging from < 6 to 120,000 years resulting from the retreat of the Franz Josef glacier. The decrease in soil phosphorus availability with increasing soil age and high soil nitrogen availability at the two youngest sites, due to the presence of a nitrogen-fixing species, provided marked differences in nutrient availability. Mean Amax was high at the two youngest sites, then decreased markedly with increasing site age. Analysis of the data for individual species within sites revealed separation of groups of species in the response of Amax to Nm and Pm, suggesting complex interactions between the two nutrients. There were strong linear relationships for leaf-level RaNDVI and RPRI with Amax, at high irradiance, showing that measurements of reflectance indices can be used to estimate Amax for foliage with a range in morphology and nutrient concentrations. Notwithstanding the change in species composition from angiosperms to conifers with increasing site age, the presence of nitrogen-fixing species, the variability in foliage morphology from flat leaves to imbricate scales and a wide range in foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, there were strong positive linear relationships between site average Amax and foliage nitrogen, Nm, and phosphorus, Pm, concentrations on a foliage mass basis. The results provide insights to interpret the regulation of photosynthesis across natural ecosystems with marked gradients in nitrogen and phosphorus availability.

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of mental health problems among monogamous Chinese female patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) increases risk of HIV infection and has profound psychological consequences. The present study examined the mental health problems (poor emotional well-being, insomnia, probable depression) and their associated factors among monogamous Chinese female STD patients. A total of 537 Chinese female STD patients who self-reported having had only one male sex partner in the last 12 months were recruited from a STD clinic in Hong Kong. They completed a survey including measures of mental health, STD-related history, perceptions, feelings related to STD infection, and perceptions toward condom use. Results showed that 22% had poor emotional well-being, 25.7% had insomnia, and 43% were probable cases of depression. Unemployment, worsened relationship with partners after STD diagnosis, STD history in last three months, finding STD examinations embarrassing, and feelings of helplessness were significant risk factors for poor emotional well-being and insomnia. Also, unemployment, worsened relationships with partners after STD diagnosis, and perceived high chance of STD in the coming six months were significant risk factors for probable depression. Perceived efficacy of condom use for STD prevention was a significant protective factor against poor emotional well-being and probable depression. Findings suggest that interventions are warranted to improve the mental health among this population.

  7. Body attributes of both parents jointly affect offspring sex allocation in a socially monogamous, size-monomorphic passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Xianhai ZENG; Bo DU

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that because males are more variable in reproductive success than females,a mother should produce more sons to maximize fitness return from the sex allocation if she is of high-quality (the female quality hypothesis) or mates with a high-quality male (the male quality hypothesis).While most previous studies have looked at each hypothesis,we tested both of them simultaneously in the white-rumped snowfinch Montifringilla taczanowskii,a socially monogamous,sexually monomorphic passerine where body size is a potential indicator of individual quality in intrasexual competition and territory defense.Brood sex ratios at the population level did not deviate from random expectation.Among individual broods,the proportion of sons did not depend on body size of either male or female parent,but on interaction of this trait of both parents.Further analyses revealed that brood sex ratios were independent of body size of male or female parents when their mates were smaller,but positively related with body size of male or female parents when their mates were larger.These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the two hypotheses may act jointly on offspring sex allocation.The mechanisms are expected to evolve through size-assortative mating which is often reached by sexual selection.

  8. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  9. Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Taylor

    Full Text Available Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens. Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe. A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya. Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2, these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2 at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz represents the

  10. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Juárez, Cecilia Paola; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) are small, territorial, socially monogamous primates that show intense infant care by the adult male in the group. It has been hypothesized that male care may be adaptive because it increases offspring survival and/or reduces the metabolic costs to the female of raising the offspring. Alternatively, males may provide care even when they are not related to the infants to increase future reproductive opportunities. We describe changes in infant care patterns that took place after the eviction of the resident male by a solitary male in an owl monkey population in the Argentinean Chaco. The resident male and mother provided all infant care during the first month of life of the infant, until the male was evicted. During the three-day male replacement event, care of the infant was shared among the mother, a four-year-old sister, and a one-year-old brother. The new male began contributing to infant care soon after entering the group, carrying, and interacting socially with the infant in much the same way as any male regularly does. However, despite receiving biparental care from both the original and new resident males, the infant disappeared at the age of four months and was presumed dead. These are the first reports of care by sibling and by non-putative fathers in wild owl monkeys. Given the significant amount of time that new pairs of owl monkeys spend before reproducing, it is possible that male care in owl monkeys functions as mating effort as much as or more than parenting effort.

  11. Stress response to handling is short lived but may reflect personalities in a wild, Critically Endangered tortoise species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Edward E.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the acute stress response associated with animal personalities by measuring plasma glucocorticoids throughout handling and collected ~2 years of movement and behavioural data in a wild, Critically Endangered animal, Astrochelys radiata (radiated tortoise). To determine whether our standard, brief conscientious handling procedures induce a stress response in our target species, we applied a stressor by way of initial animal processing and deployment of telemetry equipment. During surveys and processing, we sampled animals immediately upon detection, again after completing transmitter attachment and processing, and a final time the following day. We then used radiotelemetry to follow a subset of the animals for 22 months while collecting behavioural, climatic and location data. We found that brief and conscientious handling did not illicit consistent changes in plasma concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) but did reveal tremendous individual variation in response. The CORT concentration ranged more than 200-fold after imposing the stressor and returned to near-baseline values by the following day. When we accounted for the wide variation by calculating the degree of each individual's stress response relative to its baseline over its processing time, we discovered two non-overlapping physiological response types; those in which CORT concentrations increased dramatically in response to handling (219 ± 89.8 pg/ml/min) and those in which CORT varied only slightly (5.3 ± 8.9 pg/ml/min). The response types (strong vs. mild) also predicted body condition, home range size, activity, and behavioural tendencies. The degree of the individual's stress response in this species may be one component of correlated physiological and behavioural traits (animal personalities), which have previously been obscured in other chelonian studies by the use of mean values and should be considered in future conservation management applications

  12. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  13. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...

  14. Fertility intentions and use of contraception among monogamous couples in northern Malawi in the context of HIV testing: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L N Dube

    Full Text Available Knowledge of HIV status may influence fertility desires of married men and women. There is little knowledge about the importance of this influence among monogamously married couples and how knowledge of HIV status influences use of contraception among these couples.We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of interview data collected between October 2008 and September 2009 on men aged 15-59 years and women aged 15-49 years who formed 1766 monogamously married couples within the Karonga Prevention Study demographic surveillance study in northern Malawi.5% of men and 4% of women knew that they were HIV positive at the time of interview and 81% of men and 89% of women knew that they were HIV negative. 73% of men and 83% of women who knew that they were HIV positive stated that they did not want more children, compared to 35% of men and 38% of women who knew they were HIV negative. Concordant HIV positive couples were more likely than concordant negative couples to desire to stop child bearing (odds ratio 11.5, 95%CI 4.3-30.7, after adjusting for other factors but only slightly more likely to use contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio 1.5 (95%CI 0.8-3.3.Knowledge of HIV positive status is associated with an increase in the reported desire to cease childbearing but there was limited evidence that this desire led to higher use of contraception. More efforts directed towards assisting HIV positive couples to access and use reproductive health services and limit HIV transmission among couples are recommended.

  15. Reflective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  16. The susceptibility of Asian, European and North American Fraxinus species to the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus reflects their phylogenetic history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene R.; McKinney, Lea V.; Hietala, Ari M.;

    2016-01-01

    that there is species-specific variation in disease susceptibility among European and North American Fraxinus species, but a wider comparison at the genus level has been missing so far. We assessed disease symptoms and pathogen apothecium development in 17 Fraxinus species from Asia, Europe and North America exposed...... susceptibility where closely related Asian, European and North American species in section Fraxinus had relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA in the leaves and supported high production of apothecia. Leaves from some North American species also contained relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA, supported...

  17. ‘It is not expected for married couples’: a qualitative study on challenges to safer sex communication among polygamous and monogamous partners in southeastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtenga, Sally Mmanyi; Geubbels, Eveline; Tanner, Marcel; Merten, Sonja; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    Background Behavioral change approaches for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in Tanzania encourage married partners to observe safe sex practices (condom use, avoidance of, or safe sex with multiple partners). To implement this advice, partners need to communicate with each other about safer sex, which is often challenging. Although social-structural factors are crucial in understanding sexual behavior, only a few studies focus on understanding safer sex dialogue in a broader social context. Design Drawing on the WHO-Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (WHO-CSDH) framework, this study explored key social-structural constructs for studying health in the context of improving safer sex dialogue between polygamous and monogamous partners. Twenty-four in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus group discussions (FGDs) with 38 men and women aged 18–60 years were conducted in Ifakara town located in Kilombero district, Tanzania. The study was nested within the community health surveillance project MZIMA (Kiswahili: ‘being healthy’). Partners’ experiences of safer sex dialogue in polygamous and monogamous relations were investigated and the challenges to safer sex dialogue explored. Results The study revealed that open safer sex dialogue in marriage is limited and challenged by social norms about marriage (a view that safer sex dialogue imply that partners are ‘not really’ married); marital status (a belief that safer sex dialogue is not practical in polygamous marriages, the elder wife should be exempted from the dialogue since she is at lower risk of engaging in extramarital affairs); relationship quality (marital conflicts, extramarital affairs, trust, and sexual dissatisfaction); and gender power relations (the notion that females’ initiative to discuss condom use and HIV couple counseling and testing may lead to conflict or divorce). Conclusions Implementing safer sex practices requires interventions beyond promotion messages. HIV

  18. ‘It is not expected for married couples’: a qualitative study on challenges to safer sex communication among polygamous and monogamous partners in southeastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Mmanyi Mtenga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behavioral change approaches for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention in Tanzania encourage married partners to observe safe sex practices (condom use, avoidance of, or safe sex with multiple partners. To implement this advice, partners need to communicate with each other about safer sex, which is often challenging. Although social-structural factors are crucial in understanding sexual behavior, only a few studies focus on understanding safer sex dialogue in a broader social context. Design: Drawing on the WHO-Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (WHO-CSDH framework, this study explored key social-structural constructs for studying health in the context of improving safer sex dialogue between polygamous and monogamous partners. Twenty-four in-depth interviews (IDIs and six focus group discussions (FGDs with 38 men and women aged 18–60 years were conducted in Ifakara town located in Kilombero district, Tanzania. The study was nested within the community health surveillance project MZIMA (Kiswahili: ‘being healthy’. Partners’ experiences of safer sex dialogue in polygamous and monogamous relations were investigated and the challenges to safer sex dialogue explored. Results: The study revealed that open safer sex dialogue in marriage is limited and challenged by social norms about marriage (a view that safer sex dialogue imply that partners are ‘not really’ married; marital status (a belief that safer sex dialogue is not practical in polygamous marriages, the elder wife should be exempted from the dialogue since she is at lower risk of engaging in extramarital affairs; relationship quality (marital conflicts, extramarital affairs, trust, and sexual dissatisfaction; and gender power relations (the notion that females’ initiative to discuss condom use and HIV couple counseling and testing may lead to conflict or divorce. Conclusions: Implementing safer sex practices requires interventions beyond promotion

  19. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  20. The species concept in a marine diatom: LSU rDNA–based phylogenetic differentiation in Skeletonema marinoi/dohrnii (Bacillariophyceae) is not reflected in morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Godhe, Anna; Härnström, Karolina;

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous marine diatom genus Skeletonema includes several newly described species. This paper presents a study of morphology and LSU sequence diversity of one of these new species, Skeletonema marinoi. The 15 monoclonal strains (from the Swedish west coast, the Swedish east coast, Portugal...... dohrnii. In the original description of these two species, they were differentiated by the structure of the girdle bands. However, the girdle band types of both species were found within single samples of almost all clones of S. marinoi in this study. The LSU-based phylogeny is consistent with the split...... and Canada) included in the study showed differences in LSU rDNA sequence within the morphospecies, with differences seen even among clones established from a single plankton net sample. Morphologically, all clones were indistinguishable from each other and from the closely related species Skeletonema...

  1. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...... a contribution to the discussions about the role of reflection in design work and in learning situations at large. By engaging with the dialogic reflection, which is one of the four essential types of reflection, (the three others being descriptive writing, descriptive reflection and critical reflection...

  2. The impact of early life family structure on adult social attachment, alloparental behavior, and the neuropeptide systems regulating affiliative behaviors in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Ahern

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Early social attachments lie at the heart of emotional and social development in many mammals, including humans. In nature, monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster experience considerable natural variation in early social attachment opportunities due to differences in family structure (e.g., single-mothers, solitary breeding pairs, and communal groups. We exploited some of this natural variation in family structure to examine the influence of early social environment on the development of adult social behavior. First, we characterized the parental care received by pups reared biparentally (BP or by a single-mother (SM in the laboratory. Second, we examined whether BP- and SM-reared offspring differed in adult nurturing, bonding, and emotional behaviors. Finally, we investigated the effects of rearing condition on neuropeptide systems that regulate adult social behavior (oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing factor [CRF]. Observations revealed that SM-reared pups were exposed more frequently (P<0.01, licked and groomed less (P<0.01, and matured more slowly (P<0.01 than BP-reared pups. In adulthood, there were striking socio-behavioral differences: SM-reared females showed low spontaneous, pup-directed alloparental behavior (P<0.01 and both males and females from the SM-reared condition showed delayed partner preference formation. While rearing did not impact neuropeptide receptor densities in the ventral forebrain as we predicted, SM-reared animals, particularly females, had increased OT content (P<0.01 and greater dorsal raphe CRF2 densities (P<0.05 and both measures correlated with licking and grooming experienced during the first 10 days of life. These results suggest that naturalistic variation in social rearing conditions can introduce diversity into adult nurturing and attachment behaviors.

  3. Capturing species-level drought responses in a temperate deciduous forest using ratios of photochemical reflectance indices between sunlit and shaded canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taehee Hwang; Hamed Gholizadeh; Daniel A. Sims; Kimberly A. Novick; Edward R. Brzostek; Richard P. Phillips; Daniel T. Roman; Scott M. Robeson; Abdullah F. Rahman

    2017-01-01

    To classify trees along a spectrum of isohydric to anisohydric behavior is a promising new framework for identifying tree species' sensitivities to drought stress, directly related to the vulnerability of carbon uptake of terrestrial ecosystems with increased hydroclimate variability. Trees with isohydric strategies regulate stomatal conductance to maintain...

  4. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning...

  5. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July, all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August, suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests

  6. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Karg, Jerzy; Karg, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease) of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July), all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August), suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests, especially the

  7. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...... and analyze the security properties of different families of coupling permutations. Finally, we concentrate on the case of reflection block ciphers and, as an illustration, we provide concrete examples of key schedules corresponding to several coupling permutations, which lead to new variants of the block...

  8. Holographic Mutual Information is Monogamous

    CERN Document Server

    Hayden, Patrick; Maloney, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We identify a special information-theoretic property of quantum field theories with holographic duals: the mutual informations among arbitrary disjoint spatial regions A,B,C obey the inequality I(A:BC) >= I(A:B)+I(A:C), provided entanglement entropies are given by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. Inequalities of this type are known as monogamy relations and are characteristic of measures of quantum entanglement. This suggests that correlations in holographic theories arise primarily from entanglement rather than classical correlations. We also show that the Ryu-Takayanagi formula is consistent with all known general inequalities obeyed by the entanglement entropy, including an infinite set recently discovered by Cadney, Linden, and Winter; this constitutes strong evidence in favour of its validity.

  9. Holographic mutual information is monogamous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Patrick; Headrick, Matthew; Maloney, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    We identify a special information-theoretic property of quantum field theories with holographic duals: the mutual informations among arbitrary disjoint spatial regions A, B, C obey the inequality I(A∶B∪C)≥I(A∶B)+I(A∶C), provided entanglement entropies are given by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. Inequalities of this type are known as monogamy relations and are characteristic of measures of quantum entanglement. This suggests that correlations in holographic theories arise primarily from entanglement rather than classical correlations. We also show that the Ryu-Takayanagi formula is consistent with all known general inequalities obeyed by the entanglement entropy, including an infinite set recently discovered by Cadney et al.; this constitutes strong evidence in favor of its validity.

  10. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  11. Reflective equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, W.; van Willigenburg, T.

    1998-01-01

    The basic idea of reflective equilibrium, as a method for theory construction and decision making in ethics, is that we should bring together a broad variety of moral and non-moral beliefs and, through a process of critical scrutiny and mutual adjustment, combine these into one coherent belief syste

  12. Reflective equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, W.; van Willigenburg, T.

    1998-01-01

    The basic idea of reflective equilibrium, as a method for theory construction and decision making in ethics, is that we should bring together a broad variety of moral and non-moral beliefs and, through a process of critical scrutiny and mutual adjustment, combine these into one coherent belief syste

  13. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how the concept of reflexivity is used in intercultural education. Reflexivity is often presented as a key learning goal in acquiring intercultural competence (ICC). Yet, reflexivity can be defined in different ways, and take different forms across time and space, depending...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...... in designing learning objectives in intercultural education and in devising ways to attain them. Greater attention is also needed in intercultural education to the ways in which selfhood, and hence also reflexivity and constructions of difference, differ across space and time....

  14. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    contributions have been put together. There are a number of ways to continue Chris Freeman's legacy on innovation research. The first is to build in a critical tradition in the economics of innovation research by introducing fearlessly emancipatory epistemology. Second the economic system that dominates social......A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  15. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  16. Reflection as an Applied Problem in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilev V.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some of the procedures and the results of a detailed study on reflection: analysis of the previous philosophical ideas and views, basic psychological concepts for reflection, classification of its types and species. Through specially selected and developed methodological procedures for the theoretical analysis the author has synthesized a thorough understanding of the nature of reflection as a complex phenomenon manifested in different modes — types and species. Proposed is a comprehensive classification scheme of reflection in which are divided it’s four types. Specifically addressed are the opportunities, the approaches and some achievements in converting theoretical ideas into practical application-programs, methodologies and technologies based on our knowledge of reflection. Analysis of the theoretical basis for the formation of a new, independent type of reflection — praxeological and its peculiarities. The author presents the basic guidelines and some results from the study of this fascinating human phenomenon — reflection.

  17. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  18. Reflectable bases for affine reflection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, Saeid; Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2011-01-01

    The notion of a "root base" together with its geometry plays a crucial role in the theory of finite and affine Lie theory. However, it is known that such a notion does not exist for the recent generalizations of finite and affine root systems such as extended affine root systems and affine reflection systems. As an alternative, we introduce the notion of a "reflectable base", a minimal subset $\\Pi$ of roots such that the non-isotropic part of the root system can be recovered by reflecting roots of $\\Pi$ relative to the hyperplanes determined by $\\Pi$. We give a full characterization of reflectable bases for tame irreducible affine reflection systems of reduced types, excluding types $E_{6,7,8}$. As a byproduct of our results, we show that if the root system under consideration is locally finite then any reflectable base is an integral base.

  19. Monogamy in a new species of wild guinea pigs (Galea sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohoff, Christa; Solmsdorff, Katrin; Löttker, Petra; Kemme, Kristina; Epplen, Jörg; Cooper, Trevor; Sachser, Norbert

    2002-08-01

    A new species of wild guinea pigs from Bolivia was recently discovered: Galea sp. So far no data are available concerning its social and mating systems. We therefore investigated behavioural compatibility, sexual dimorphism, paternity in a male-competing situation, testicular and epididymal size, and sperm morphology and motility. The results showed a complete intrasexual and moderate intersexual behavioural incompatibility between unfamiliar animals, a reversed sexual dimorphism with females larger than males, and litters always fathered by single males. Furthermore, both the reproductive organ weights and the percentage of motile sperm and sperm with intact acrosomes were significantly lower compared with the promiscuous congeneric Galea musteloides. In summary, these data strongly suggest a monogamous social and mating system for the recently discovered Galea sp.

  20. Shock wave reflection phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-dor, Gabi

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive state-of-the-knowledge description of the shock wave reflection phenomena from a phenomenological point of view. The first part is a thorough introduction to oblique shock wave reflections, presenting the two major well-known reflection wave configurations, namely, regular (RR) and Mach (MR) reflections, the corresponding two- and three-shock theories, their analytical and graphical solution and the proposed transition boundaries between these two reflection-wave configurations. The second, third and fourth parts describe the reflection phenomena in steady, pseudo-steady and unsteady flows, respectively. Here, the possible specific types of reflection wave configurations are described, criteria for their formation and termination are presented and their governing equations are solved analytically and graphically and compared with experimental results. The resolution of the well-known von Neumann paradox and a detailed description of two new reflection-wave configurations - t...

  1. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  2. Knowledge-Level Reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Bredeweg, Bert; Schreiber, G.; Karbach, Werner; Reinders, Martin; Voss, A.; Akkermans, H.; Bartsch-Spoerl, Brigitte; Vinkhuyzen, Erik

    This paper presents an overview of the REFLECT project. It defines the notion of knowledge level reflection that has been central to the project, it compares this notion with existing approaches to reflection in related fields, and investigates some of the consequences of the concept of knowledge le

  3. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  4. Imaging seismic reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op 't Root, Timotheus Johannes Petrus Maria

    2011-01-01

    The goal of reflection seismic imaging is making images of the Earth subsurface using surface measurements of reflected seismic waves. Besides the position and orientation of subsurface reflecting interfaces it is a challenge to recover the size or amplitude of the discontinuities. We investigate tw

  5. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  6. Sigma: A computer RPG using Monogame framework

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz Morales, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This Final Degree Project (”Trabajo Fin de Grado”) involves the creation of a multiplatform prototype of a videogame from the very beginning, from the perspective of game and character designer and programmer. Videogames are complex, multidisciplinary software products involving a well defined and balanced team, where programming is the means of expressing emotions through the plot, characters, art and/or music. Being like this, a programmer could be considered as the conductor...

  7. Reflection Positive Doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in terms of coupling constants, making it easy to check in concrete situations. We illustrate our methods with numerous examples.

  8. Wave Reflection Coefficient Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞聿修; 邵利民; 柳淑学

    2003-01-01

    The wave reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and directional spectrum for concrete face slope breakwaters and rubble mound breakwaters are investigated through physical model tests in the present study. The reflection coefficients of oblique irregular waves are analyzed by the Modified Two-Point Method (MTPM) proposed by the authors. The results show that the wave reflection coefficient decreases with increasing wave frequency and incident angle or decreasing structure slope. The reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and its variation with Iribarren number are given in this paper. The paper also suggests an empirical 3-dimensional reflection coefficient spectrum, i.e. reflection coefficient directional spectrum, which can be used to illustrate quantitatively the variation of reflection coefficient with the incident angle and the Iribarren number for oblique irregular waves.

  9. Habitat Impact on Ultraviolet Reflectance in Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletalová, L; Zapletal, M; Konvička, M

    2016-10-01

    A comparison of 95 species of Central European moths, representing 11 families and inhabiting various habitats, was carried out in order to detect the potential impact of biotope on the ultraviolet (UV) light reflectance of their wings. Based on digitized photographs taken under UV light conditions, a phylogeny-controlled redundancy analysis relating UV reflectance to preferred habitat type (xerophilous, mesophilous, and hygrophilous) and habitat openness (open, semiopen, and closed) was carried out. Species preferring hygrophilous habitats displayed significantly higher UV wing reflectance than species inhabiting xerothermic and mesic habitats, and this pattern remained significant even after controlling for phyletic relationships. In contrast, UV wing reflectance displayed no pattern related to habitat openness. Given the higher UV reflectance of water and humid surfaces, we interpret these results, which are based on the first comprehensive sampling of UV reflectance in Central European moths, in terms of predator avoidance under habitat-specific light conditions. We conclude that the moisture content of the environment may markedly contribute to the variation of appearance of moth wings for better imitation habitat characteristics and therefore to increase protection. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  11. Reflection in professional practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzner, Stefanie Bianca

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the research on professional learning through reflective practice. The main goal is to examine—against the backdrop of workplace changes and errors—individual and contextual factors that are theoretically assumed to influence reflection in the context of professional work. Reflective practice is defined as a retrospective but future- and goal-oriented cognitive-affective process that basically involves (a) the awareness and review of incident...

  12. Unanticipated Partial Behavioral Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Roethlisberger, David; Denker, Marcus; Tanter, Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems is of interest in a variety of situations, ranging from functional upgrades to on-the-fly debugging or monitoring of critical applications. In this paper we study a particular form of computational reflection, called unanticipated partial behavioral reflection, which is particularly well-suited for unanticipated adaptation of real-world systems. Our proposal combines the dynamicity of unanticipated reflection, i.e., ...

  13. X-ray Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Material irradiated by X-rays produces backscattered radiation which is commonly known as the Reflection Spectrum. It consists of a structured continuum, due at high energies to the competition between photoelectric absorption and electron scattering enhanced at low energies by emission from the material itself, together with a complex line spectrum. We briefly review the history of X-ray reflection in astronomy and discuss various methods for computing the reflection spectrum from cold and ionized gas, illustrated with results from our own work reflionx. We discuss how the reflection spectrum can be used to obtain the geometry of the accretion flow, particularly the inner regions around black holes and neutron stars.

  14. Species concepts and species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.

  15. Meiofaunal cryptic species challenge species delimitation: the case of the Monocelis lineata (Platyhelminthes: Proseriata) species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, F.; Cossu, P.; Lai, T.; Sanna, D.; Curini-Galletti, M.; Casu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Given the pending biodiversity crisis, species delimitation is a critically important task in conservation biology, but its efficacy based on single lines of evidence has been questioned as it may not accurately reflect species limits and relationships. Hence, the use of multiple lines of evidence

  16. Transparencies and Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  17. Reflective Practitioner Account

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干青

    2009-01-01

    This article focus on the reflective account of an English teacher learning and teaching in higher education with the British post-graduate certificate program of the Yunnan Agdculture University.As n practitioner for smny years in English learning and teaching for many years,it reflects in four fields.

  18. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech);…

  19. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  20. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The act of reflection has been analysed and abstracted from goal, content, context, means, and moment of reflecting. Reflection was operationalised as answering reflective questions. Bloom’s taxonomy ...

  1. Reflectivity in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigina Mortari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article grounds on the assumption that researchers, in order to be not mere technicians but competent practitioners of research, should be able to reflect in a deep way. That means they should reflect not only on the practical acts of research but also on the mental experience which constructs the meaning about practice. Reflection is a very important mental activity, both in private and professional life. Learning the practice of reflection is fundamental because it allows people to engage into a thoughtful relationship with the world-life and thus gain an awake stance about one’s lived experience. Reflection is a crucial cognitive practice in the research field. Reflexivity is largely practiced in qualitative research, where it is used to legitimate and validate research procedures. This study introduces different perspectives of analysis by focusing the discourse on the main philosophical approaches to reflection: pragmatistic, critical, hermeneutic, and finally phenomenological. The thesis of this study is that the phenomenological theory makes possible to analyze in depth the reflective activity and just by that to support an adequate process of training of the researcher.

  2. Review of Teacher's Teaching Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽爽

    2015-01-01

    Teacher's teaching reflection has become the core focus in school.However,there are different understandings of the concept of teacher's teaching reflection.The paper introduces and compares different understandings of the concept of teachers' teaching reflection.Based on the summarizing of the concept on reflection and teaching reflection,this paper tries to provide reference for the teacher's teaching reflection.

  3. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  4. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain....... As another but short viewpoint telepresence, Skype, will be discussed, where new screen types, presence and reflections are established. In a perspective, I debate my term sore-society in relation to my topic and especially the dark selfies....

  5. Encouraging Counsellor Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, David; Asch, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Describes the evolution and testing of an "attributes checklist" tool for assisting counselor development. These attributes relate to characteristics of case notes that indicate evidence of counselor reflection and consideration of the counseling process. (Author/GCP)

  6. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  7. A climatology of visible surface reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, Peter; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly; Sun, Qingsong; Schaaf, Crystal; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a high spectral resolution climatology of visible surface reflectance as a function of wavelength for use in satellite measurements of ozone and other atmospheric species. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument is planned to measure backscattered solar radiation in the 290-740 nm range, including the ultraviolet and visible Chappuis ozone bands. Observation in the weak Chappuis band takes advantage of the relative transparency of the atmosphere in the visible to achieve sensitivity to near-surface ozone. However, due to the weakness of the ozone absorption features this measurement is more sensitive to errors in visible surface reflectance, which is highly variable. We utilize reflectance measurements of individual plant, man-made, and other surface types to calculate the primary modes of variability of visible surface reflectance at a high spectral resolution, comparable to that of TEMPO (0.6 nm). Using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirection Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/albedo product and our derived primary modes we construct a high spatial resolution climatology of wavelength-dependent surface reflectance over all viewing scenes and geometries. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) Lambertian Equivalent Reflectance (LER) product provides complementary information over water and snow scenes. Preliminary results using this approach in multispectral ultraviolet+visible ozone retrievals from the GOME-2 instrument show significant improvement to the fitting residuals over vegetated scenes.

  8. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  9. Invisibility via reflecting coating

    CERN Document Server

    Burdzy, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    We construct a subset $A$ of the unit disc with the following properties. (i) The set $A$ is the finite union of disjoint line segments. (ii) The shadow of $A$ is arbitrarily close to the shadow of the unit disc in "most" directions. (iii) If the line segments are considered to be mirrors reflecting light according to the classical law of specular reflection then most light rays hitting the set emerge on the other side of the disc moving along a parallel line and shifted by an arbitrarily small amount. We also construct a set which reflects almost all light rays coming from one direction to another direction but its shadow is arbitrarily small in other directions, except for an arbitrarily small family of directions.

  10. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  11. Reflections on trend analyses for ledge-nesting species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Given the time constraints (good weather and less down time than originally envisioned), the bulk of my observations pertain to the TBMU data. I started with that...

  12. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  13. Acoustic Bottom Reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Calculates the reflection loss as function of frequency. ---PLOTV/ PLOTF ---Plots loss and phase as function of angle or frequency. ---QUIT--- ENTER YOUR...34Y" if you want to leave PLOTV or PLOTF and return to the HELP MENU. A similar procedure to plot results as a function of frequency is contained in... PLOTF and works in the same way. Figures A-1 and A-2 show the results for an 18-layer sample input file, FLOOR18.DAT, giving the reflection loss as a

  14. Reflecting on a room of one reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppertsberg, Alexa I; Bloj, Marina

    2007-10-30

    We present a numerical analysis of rendered pairs of rooms, in which the spectral power distribution of the illuminant in one room matched the surface reflectance function in the other room, and vice versa. We ask whether distinction between the rooms is possible and on what cues this discrimination is based. Using accurately rendered three-dimensional (3D) scenes, we found that room pairs can be distinguished based on indirect illumination, as suggested by A. L. Gilchrist and A. Jacobsen (1984). In a simulated color constancy scenario, we show that indirect illumination plays a pivotal role as areas of indirect illumination undergo a smaller appearance change than areas of direct illumination. Our study confirms that indirect illumination can play a critical role in surface color recovery and shows how computer rendering programs, which model the light-object interaction according to the laws of physics, are valuable tools that can be used to analyze and explore what image information is available to the visual system from 3D scenes.

  15. Integral representation of Skorokhod reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Anantharam, Venkat

    2010-01-01

    We show that a certain integral representation of the one-sided Skorokhod reflection of a continuous bounded variation function characterizes the reflection in that it possesses a unique maximal solution which solves the Skorokhod reflection problem.

  16. Reflection in learning at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steen Høyrup

    2006-01-01

    Three domains and approaches of learning - adult learning, problem-solving and cirtical reflection theory are used as different lenses through which the question: what is reflection and how is reflection related to learning, - are interpreted....

  17. Sexual conflict predicts morphology and behavior in two species of penduline tits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komdeur Jan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary interests of males and females rarely coincide (sexual conflict, and these conflicting interests influence morphology, behavior and speciation in various organisms. We examined consequences of variation in sexual conflict in two closely-related passerine birds with contrasting breeding systems: the Eurasian penduline tit Remiz pendulinus (EPT exhibiting a highly polygamous breeding system with sexually antagonistic interests over parental care, and the socially monogamous Cape penduline tit Anthoscopus minutus (CPT. We derived four a priori predictions from sexual conflict theory and tested these using data collected in Central Europe (EPT and South Africa (CPT. Firstly, we predicted that EPTs exhibit more sexually dimorphic plumage than CPTs due to more intense sexual selection. Secondly, we expected brighter EPT males to provide less care than duller males. Thirdly, since song is a sexually selected trait in many birds, male EPTs were expected to exhibit more complex songs than CPT males. Finally, intense sexual conflict in EPT was expected to lead to low nest attendance as an indication of sexually antagonistic interests, whereas we expected more cooperation between parents in CPT consistent with their socially monogamous breeding system. Results Consistent with our predictions EPTs exhibited greater sexual dimorphism in plumage and more complex song than CPTs, and brighter EPT males provided less care than duller ones. EPT parents attended the nest less frequently and less simultaneously than CPT parents. Conclusions These results are consistent with sexual conflict theory: species in which sexual conflict is more manifested (EPT exhibited a stronger sexual dimorphism and more elaborated sexually selected traits than species with less intense sexual conflict (CPT. Our results are also consistent with the notion that EPTs attempt to force their partner to work harder as expected under sexual conflict: each

  18. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  19. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  20. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  1. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  2. Changes Brought by Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Feng: A number of changes have taken place in Europe after reflection, such as specific anti-terrorist measures, progress in the construction of integration, changes in the structure of political forces and adjustments in the EU foreign policy. Would you make some comments first, Dr. Sun?

  3. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  4. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  5. Reflections: Children and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Cianciolo, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Six educational leaders--Patricia J. Cianciolo, Lee Bennett Hopkins, Nancy Larrick, Alan C. Purves, Morton Schindel, and James R. Squire--offer reflections on signficiant developments in children's literature during the 1970s, their hopes for the 1980s, and references that constitute required reading for elementary language arts teachers. (ET)

  6. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  7. Reflecting on Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  8. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  9. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  10. Invasive species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  11. Reflective Inverse Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Burgi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase front modulation was previously used to refocus light after transmission through scattering media. This process has been adapted here to work in reflection. A liquid crystal spatial light modulator is used to conjugate the phase scattering properties of diffuse reflectors to produce a converging phase front just after reflection. The resultant focused spot had intensity enhancement values between 13 and 122 depending on the type of reflector. The intensity enhancement of more specular materials was greater in the specular region, while diffuse reflector materials achieved a greater enhancement in non-specular regions, facilitating non-mechanical steering of the focused spot. Scalar wave optics modeling corroborates the experimental results.

  12. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  13. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Drucilla Cornell; Karin van Marle

    2015-01-01

    The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of femi...

  14. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide...... of guidelines; it is an anthology of explanations based on theory. And it is an anthology written by Freedom Writer Teachers – who else could do it?...

  15. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The

  16. Bioinspired ultraviolet reflective photonic structures derived from butterfly wings (Euploea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fang; Su, Huilan; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Di; Moon, Won-Jin

    2011-10-01

    Butterfly wings have been demonstrated to have potential applications in various optical devices. For complementarily, we extend them to ultraviolet (UV) reflectors, inspired by the UV reflective photonic structures that have been evolved to satisfy UV communication systems of butterflies. UV reflective photonic structures of butterfly wings were replicated in multiscale, and thus endowed the resultant SnO2 materials with enhanced UV reflection. This biomimetic strategy provides us a universal way towards UV reflectors without changing the chemical compositions. Furthermore, the UV reflection could be potentially tuned by choosing different photonic structures of butterfly wings and other bio-species.

  17. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection.

  18. Reflective writing in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Philip; Stewart, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of reflection and the use of reflective writing assignments is commonplace in medical school education. There is a preponderance of research in medical education, which appraises and discusses new ways of teaching reflection. Students often complain about having to write about their experience with that patient. This work explores some of the reasoning between the variability of student acceptance of reflection in medical education. The method is based on available literature as well as a personal perspective regarding reflective writing in medical education. Reflection is a skill that requires teaching and practice. It is within the explicit process of teaching reflection in medical education that reflective learners can be developed. Reflection includes the take-home lesson from patient encounters. Its use can help learners become better physicians in terms of medical and humanistic effectiveness and support personal growth.

  19. Fostering and evaluating reflective capacity in medical education: developing the REFLECT rubric for assessing reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Julie Scott; Anthony, David; Reis, Shmuel P

    2012-01-01

    Reflective writing (RW) curriculum initiatives to promote reflective capacity are proliferating within medical education. The authors developed a new evaluative tool that can be effectively applied to assess students' reflective levels and assist with the process of providing individualized written feedback to guide reflective capacity promotion. Following a comprehensive search and analysis of the literature, the authors developed an analytic rubric through repeated iterative cycles of development, including empiric testing and determination of interrater reliability, reevaluation and refinement, and redesign. Rubric iterations were applied in successive development phases to Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University students' 2009 and 2010 RW narratives with determination of intraclass correlations (ICCs). The final rubric, the Reflection Evaluation for Learners' Enhanced Competencies Tool (REFLECT), consisted of four reflective capacity levels ranging from habitual action to critical reflection, with focused criteria for each level. The rubric also evaluated RW for transformative reflection and learning and confirmatory learning. ICC ranged from 0.376 to 0.748 for datasets and rater combinations and was 0.632 for the final REFLECT iteration analysis. The REFLECT is a rigorously developed, theory-informed analytic rubric, demonstrating adequate interrater reliability, face validity, feasibility, and acceptability. The REFLECT rubric is a reflective analysis innovation supporting development of a reflective clinician via formative assessment and enhanced crafting of faculty feedback to reflective narratives.

  20. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  1. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyungrok; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions $\\Delta_0$ of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite $\\Delta_0$ as well as for large $\\Delta_0$. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.

  2. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...

  3. Reflections on love's spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Gerard

    2011-06-01

    This article seeks to explore how the experience of love and its expression might inform and guide reflection and inquiry into love. Despite the importance of love in our personal and professional lives, it remains a topic that has further scope for inquiry within nursing circles. The article takes as its catalyst an encounter that emerged out of a piece of research that was exploring individuals' experiences of becoming healers and the journey they undertook. One participant spoke deeply and profoundly of his experience of love, which generated for me a personal, experiential, and intellectual process of inquiry. The article seeks to try and create a synthesis between rational inquiry and subjective experience. It explores W. B. Yeats's notion of a gyre, a spiral, as an image and metaphor for integrating different conceptions and understandings of love. It seeks to illustrate how a more integrated understanding of love may open up spaces of inquiry that are more flexible, creative, and spontaneous.

  4. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  5. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted A.G. Steemers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  6. Action Research and Reflective Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阿莉

    2008-01-01

    Reflection is an impontant core of professional development and action research in which the teachers reflect through the Systematic collection and analym of data is a form of srrucured reflection.The teachers can be provided with powerful means of professional development.

  7. Reflective writing and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Melissa

    2005-02-01

    Reflective writing is a valued tool for teaching nursing students and for documentation, support, and generation of nursing knowledge among experienced nurses. Expressive or reflective writing is becoming widely accepted in both professional and lay publications as a mechanism for coping with critical incidents. This article explores reflective writing as a tool for nursing education.

  8. Teacher Reflection: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the reflective practices of middle school teachers. Based on Dewey's theory of reflective practice and Schon's types of reflection, this experience is one of student learning, relationships, curriculum planning, and lesson delivery. This is a qualitative study using the research method of phenomenology through…

  9. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  10. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp, Birgitta; Jouventin, Pierre; Langley, Keith

    2005-09-22

    King and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus and Aptenodytes forsteri) are the only species of marine birds so far known to reflect ultraviolet (UV) light from their beaks. Unlike humans, most birds perceive UV light and several species communicate using the near UV spectrum. Indeed, UV reflectance in addition to the colour of songbird feathers has been recognized as an important signal when choosing a mate. The king penguin is endowed with several highly coloured ornaments, notably its beak horn and breast and auricular plumage, but only its beak reflects UV, a property considered to influence its sexual attraction. Because no avian UV-reflecting pigments have yet been identified, the origin of such reflections is probably structural. In an attempt to identify the structures that give rise to UV reflectance, we combined reflectance spectrophotometry and morphological analysis by both light and electron microscopy, after experimental removal of surface layers of the beak horn. Here, we characterize for the first time a multilayer reflector photonic microstructure that produces the UV reflections in the king penguin beak.

  11. Bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine original and useful information about the bidirection reflectance of zinc oxide. The bidirectional reflectance will be studied for the spectra between .25-2.5 microns and the hemisphere above the specimen. The following factors will be considered: (1) surface conditions; (2) specimen preparation; (3) specimen substrate, (4) polarization; (5) depolarization; (6) wavelength; and (7) angles of incident and reflection. The bidirectional reflectance will be checked by experimentally determined angular hemispherical measurements or hemispherical measurements will be used to obtain absolute bidirectional reflectance.

  12. Managing livestock using animal behavior: Mixed-species stocking and flerds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed-species stocking can foster sound landscape management while offering economic and ecological advantages compared to mono-species stocking. Producers contemplating a mixed-species enterprise should reflect on several considerations before implementing this animal management strategy. Factors...

  13. Reflective Fourier ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Shaun; Zheng, Guoan; Liang, Rongguang

    2016-02-01

    The Fourier ptychography technique in reflection mode has great potential applications in tissue imaging and optical inspection, but the current configuration either has a limitation on cut-off frequency or is not practical. By placing the imaging aperture stop outside the illumination path, the illumination numerical aperture (NA) can be greater than the imaging NA of the objective lens. Thus, the cut-off frequency achieved in the proposed optical system is greater than twice the objective's NA divided by the wavelength (2NAobj/λ ), which is the diffraction limit for the cut-off frequency in an incoherent epi-illumination configuration. We experimentally demonstrated that the synthesized NA is increased by a factor of 4.5 using the proposed optical concept. The key advantage of the proposed system is that it can achieve high-resolution imaging over a large field of view with a simple objective. It will have a great potential for applications in endoscopy, biomedical imaging, surface metrology, and industrial inspection.

  14. Organizations & development: epistemological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Batista Bandeira Fontoura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical test consists of an epistemic study on the nature and limits of relations between subject and society, from a historical context considering the pre-industrial and industrial macroperíodos and expanding post-industrial contexts. It emphasizes the conceptual and theoretical aspects of these macroperíodos highlighting the year 1970 as a symbol of the Taylor system crisis / Fordist contextualized by the automotive industry, which migrated from one-dimensional industrialization processes for multidimensional processes and customized beyond the advent of globalization and dispossession within a multimarket vision. Conclusively, the development models are still characterized by periods whose social concepts are linked to forms of perception of reality by man and their accumulation processes are entitled to this epistemic reflection on organizations and development and its social impacts, as well as the thesis crisis in still homogenizing mentality in economic and organizational terms in terms of environmental uncertainties macro and micro economic historically impacted the society and organizations.

  15. Venus Highland Anomalous Reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. L.; Häusler, B.; Mattei, R.; Patzold, M.

    2009-09-01

    Maxwell Montes was one of several unusually bright areas identified from early Venus radar backscatter observations. Pioneer Venus' orbiting radar associated low emissivity with the bright areas and established a correlation between reflectivity and altitude. Magellan, using an oblique bistatic geometry, showed that the bright surface dielectric constant was not only large but also imaginary -- i.e., the material was conducting, at least near Cleopatra Patera (Pettengill et al., Science, 272, 1996). Venus Express (VEX) repeated Magellan's bistatic observations over Maxwell, using the more conventional circular polarization carried by most spacecraft. Although VEX signal-to-noise ratio was lower than Magellan's, echoes were sufficiently strong to verify the Magellan conclusions near Cleopatra (see J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00B41, doi:10.1029/2008JE003156). Only about 40% of the surface at Cleopatra scatters specularly, opening the Fresnel (specular) interpretation model to question. Elsewhere in Maxwell, the specular percentage may be even lower. Nonetheless, the echo polarization is reversed throughout Maxwell, a result that is consistent with large dielectric constants and difficult to explain without resorting qualitatively (if not quantitatively) to specular models. VEX was scheduled to explore other high altitude regions when its S-Band (13-cm wavelength) radio system failed in late 2006, so further probing of high altitude targets awaits arrival of a new spacecraft.

  16. Confronting species distribution model predictions with species functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Barnes, Matthew A; Jerde, Christopher L; Jones, Lisa A; Lodge, David M

    2016-02-01

    Species distribution models are valuable tools in studies of biogeography, ecology, and climate change and have been used to inform conservation and ecosystem management. However, species distribution models typically incorporate only climatic variables and species presence data. Model development or validation rarely considers functional components of species traits or other types of biological data. We implemented a species distribution model (Maxent) to predict global climate habitat suitability for Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We then tested the relationship between the degree of climate habitat suitability predicted by Maxent and the individual growth rates of both wild (N = 17) and stocked (N = 51) Grass Carp populations using correlation analysis. The Grass Carp Maxent model accurately reflected the global occurrence data (AUC = 0.904). Observations of Grass Carp growth rate covered six continents and ranged from 0.19 to 20.1 g day(-1). Species distribution model predictions were correlated (r = 0.5, 95% CI (0.03, 0.79)) with observed growth rates for wild Grass Carp populations but were not correlated (r = -0.26, 95% CI (-0.5, 0.012)) with stocked populations. Further, a review of the literature indicates that the few studies for other species that have previously assessed the relationship between the degree of predicted climate habitat suitability and species functional traits have also discovered significant relationships. Thus, species distribution models may provide inferences beyond just where a species may occur, providing a useful tool to understand the linkage between species distributions and underlying biological mechanisms.

  17. Radial Reflection Diffraction Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K; Norton, S J

    2003-10-10

    We develop a wave-based tomographic imaging algorithm based upon a single rotating radially outward oriented transducer. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, the transducer launches a primary field and collects the backscattered field in a ''pitch/catch'' operation. The hardware configuration, operating mode, and data collection method is identical to that of most medical intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) systems. IVUS systems form images of the medium surrounding the probe based upon ultrasonic B-scans, using a straight-ray model of sound propagation. Our goal is to develop a wave-based imaging algorithm using diffraction tomography techniques. Given the hardware configuration and the imaging method, we refer to this system as ''radial reflection diffraction tomography.'' We consider two hardware configurations: a multimonostatic mode using a single transducer as described above, and a multistatic mode consisting of a single transmitter and an aperture formed by multiple receivers. In this latter case, the entire source/receiver aperture rotates about the fixed radius. Practically, such a probe is mounted at the end of a catheter or snaking tube that can be inserted into a part or medium with the goal of forming images of the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. We derive an analytic expression for the multimonostatic inverse but ultimately use the new Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm to construct images using both operating modes. Applications include improved IVUS imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts with existing access holes.

  18. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  19. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  20. Nonlocal reflection by photonic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, R. -M.; A. Haibel; Nimtz, G.

    2001-01-01

    The time behaviour of microwaves undergoing partial reflection by photonic barriers was measured in the time and in the frequency domain. It was observed that unlike the duration of partial reflection by dielectric layers, the measured reflection duration of barriers is independent of their length. The experimental results point to a nonlocal behaviour of evanescent modes at least over a distance of some ten wavelengths. Evanescent modes correspond to photonic tunnelling in quantum mechanics.

  1. Polarimetric Control of Reflective Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Artiga, Xavier; Legay, Hervé; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    This letter addresses the synthesis of reflective cells approaching a given desired Floquet's scattering matrix. This work is motivated by the need to obtain much finer control of reflective metasurfaces by controlling not only their co-polarized reflection but also their cross-coupling behavior. The demonstrated capability will enable more powerful design approaches -involving all field components in phase and magnitude- and consequently better performance in applications involving reflective metasurfaces. We first expose some fundamental theoretical constraints on the cell scattering parameters. Then, a successful procedure for controlling all four scattering parameters by applying parallelogram and trapezoid transformations to square patches is presented, considering both normal and oblique incidence.

  2. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  3. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  4. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  5. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...

  6. Reflecting on the History, Ethics, and Application of Teacher Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankes, Judith Elaine

    Three social factors are related to the evolution of the discourse on teacher reflection: the role of educational researchers and teacher educators; the social and economic crisis and its impact on education; and the shift from behaviorism to cognitivism. By relating the discourse of teacher change through reflection to these social factors, it…

  7. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  8. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  9. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  10. Reflection algebra and functional equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galleas, W.; Lamers, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate the possibility of using the reflection algebra as a source of functional equations. More precisely, we obtain functional relations determining the partition function of the six-vertex model with domain-wall boundary conditions and one reflecting end. The model's partitio

  11. A Review of Reflective Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2013-01-01

      This thesis aims at exploring theoretical basis of reflective learning in learning experience and providing the learners from all walks of life with an effective way of learning by observing and explaining how the learning as well as practice is promoted effectively and consciously through reflective activities.

  12. Why Reflection in Teacher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBoskey, Vicki Kubler

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on preservice teacher education by considering teacher reflectivity as an end rather than a means. The article provides a rationale for reflective teacher education in arguing the need to have teachers who are thoughtful, passionate, and principled educational decision makers. (GLR)

  13. A reflection polarizations zoom metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fulong; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Based on generalized Snell's law, we propose a dual-polarity zoom metasurfaces operating electromagnetic wave in the reflection geometry. The metasurfaces is constructed by two identical ultrathin metal-backed dielectric slabs with metallic Jerusalem cross patterns on the other sides to form a triangular region. The normally incident waves are totally reflected, but the reflection phases of both x- and y-polarized waves are controlled independently. According to the classical theory of optical imaging, the reflection electromagnetic wave phases were obtained in the different polarizations and focus. Each subwavelength units size were determined with the reflection coefficient of the basic unit, the polarizations zoom metasurfaces was designed in the way. The full-wave simulations are in good agreement with theoretical analysis in microwave lengths.

  14. Non-specular Reflective Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Timir; Wang, Yunjin; Wescott, Michael; Foster, Richard; Bowers, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Geometrically decorated two-dimensional (2D) discrete surfaces can be more effective than conventional smooth reflectors in managing wave radiation. Constructive non-specular wave scattering permits the scattering angle to be other than twice that of incidence and can result in gross violations of the law of reflection. Hence significant fraction of the phase space becomes accessible. A wide range of novel reflective behaviors ensues; including the phenomenon of negative reflection were energy transport remains on the same side of the normal. Also, at a critical incidence coherent superposition can force both the transmitted and reflected waves to graze the scattering surface thus synergistically reinforcing the diffractive process in a behavior reminiscent of critical internal reflection of ray optics. We experimentally demonstrate the concept with measurements on a one-dimensionally periodic system (grating) where the scattering angle is shown to be an inverse circular function of a function that depends on...

  15. [Relationship between simulated acid rain stress and leaf reflectance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-dong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhou, Guo-mo; Jiang, Zi-shan

    2010-01-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental problem. Serious acid rain pollution in subtropical China has constituted a potential threat to the health of the local forest. In the present paper, the changing properties of the chlorophyll concentration and spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for the six subtropical broad-leaved tree species leaves under simulated acid rain (SAR) treatment with different pH levels were studied. With the increasing strength of the SAR, the chlorophyll concentrations of the experimental species under pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 treatment were higher than that under pH 5.6; the spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths for pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 were lower than that for pH 5.6 in general; while there weren't significant differences between pH 2.5 and pH 4.0. After the treatment with different levels of SAR, the differences in spectral reflectance at the visible wavelengths mainly focused around the green peak and red edge on the reflectance curve. The subtropical broad-leaved tree species studied were relatively not sensitive to acid rain stresses; some stronger acid rain may accelerate the growth of the tree species used here to some extent.

  16. Temporal versus spatial variation in leaf reflectance under changing water stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Warren B.

    1991-01-01

    Leaf reflectance changes associated with changes in water stress were analyzed in two separate experiments. Results indicate that the variation in reflectance among collections of leaves of a given species all at the same level of water stress is at least as great as the variation in reflectance associated with changes in water stress for a given leaf collection of that species. The implications is that results from leaf reflectance-water stress studies have only limited applicability to the remote sensing of plant canopy water stress.

  17. Intergenerational transmission of reflective functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Rosso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether, and to what extent, reflective functioning (RF during preadolescence is associated with maternal attachment security and reflective functioning, and with the child’s attachment security. Thirty-nine mother-preadolescent child dyads from a non clinical population participated in the study. Maternal and child RF were assessed by applying the Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS to the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI and to the Child Attachment Interview (CAI transcripts. Children of mothers who showed a secure attachment model regarding the relationship with their parents during childhood reported higher levels of RF than the children of mothers who were classified as insecure on the AAI. Child RF was positively associated with maternal Coherence of the Mind on the AAI and negatively associated with maternal derogation of attachment.A strong, significant association was also found between child attachment security and child reflective functioning. Children who were rated as being more emotionally open, more able to balance positive and negative descriptions of their parents, more prone to support their assertions through examples, and more able to positively resolve conflicts with their parents showed higher reflective functioning. On the contrary, children who resorted to a higher extent to idealization and dismissal towards their parents showed a lesser degree of reflective functioning. Notably, a very strong association was found between the score on the Overall coherence subscale and the child’s ability to mentalise mixed-ambivalent mental states in the context of their family relationships.As expected, child and maternal reflective functioning resulted significantly positively correlated with each other. In particular, only maternal reflective functioning (and not maternal attachment security predicted child reflective functioning, and only maternal ability to mentalise mixed-ambivalent mental states

  18. Terahertz wide aperture reflection tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jeremy; Choi, Hyeokho; Mittleman, Daniel M.; White, Jeff; Zimdars, David

    2005-07-01

    We describe a powerful imaging modality for terahertz (THz) radiation, THz wide aperture reflection tomography (WART). Edge maps of an object's cross section are reconstructed from a series of time-domain reflection measurements at different viewing angles. Each measurement corresponds to a parallel line projection of the object's cross section. The filtered backprojection algorithm is applied to recover the image from the projection data. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a reflection computed tomography technique using electromagnetic waves. We demonstrate the capabilities of THz WART by imaging the cross sections of two test objects.

  19. LEARNER REFLECTION IN PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The traditional English teaching method makes students feeltoo serious,nervous and formal.Learner reflection in portfolioassessment can increase opportunities for dialogues betweenteachers and students about curriculum goals and learnerprogress,which is very important to provide a healthy,harmonious and democratic situation in English teaching forstudents.This paper analyses some benefits of learner reflectionin portfolios and focuses on how to design reflective tasks for theportfolio.It is obvious that learner reflection is good for bothteachers and students to improve their teaching and studyingmethods as well as to enhance the teaching quality.

  20. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years) are a...

  1. Exports reflect "safety of products"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the made-in-China products are absolutely safe, and the steady increase in exports despite the recent widespread criticism reflects their safety standards, a Ministry of Commerce official said Thursday.

  2. Specular Andreev reflection in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, C W J

    2006-08-11

    By combining the Dirac equation of relativistic quantum mechanics with the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation of superconductivity we investigate the electron-hole conversion at a normal-metal-superconductor interface in graphene. We find that the Andreev reflection of Dirac fermions has several unusual features: (1) the electron and hole occupy different valleys of the band structure; (2) at normal incidence the electron-hole conversion happens with unit efficiency in spite of the large mismatch in Fermi wavelengths at the two sides of the interface; and, most fundamentally: (3) away from normal incidence the reflection angle may be the same as the angle of incidence (retroreflection) or it may be inverted (specular reflection). Specular Andreev reflection dominates in weakly doped graphene, when the Fermi wavelength in the normal region is large compared to the superconducting coherence length.

  3. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  4. Reflections on intuition and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M A

    2000-01-01

    Reflective practice now appears firmly established in the English speaking world of professional nursing practice and development. Outside this linguistic context, however, the concept seems less well-known. This paper describes an experience drawn from clinical practice and education in French-speaking Switzerland followed by explicit reflection grounded in questions generated by Johns' model for structured reflection. Thus, a concept well-described in the English-language literature underpins an innovative approach to a French-language clinical teaching situation. The professional implications of this situation are explored through meaningful reflection providing new insight into familiar circumstances as they relate to the nurse tutor's role. This exploration is followed by a critical approach to the experience and the subsequent structured reflection in order to address relationships between intuition and expertise and self-awareness through reflection. A hermeneutic perspective provides additional insight into the nurse-patient relationship where both come to the situation with their own 'pre-understandings'. Individual horizons thus endorse a new understanding going beyond taken-for-granted meanings.

  5. Fisheries oceanography of northern pelagic fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula

    of the species they consume now and increased availability of new species. In addition, there will likely be economic impacts on the local fishing communities. How species respond to climate change is a field of research that receives great attention because the responses will affect the management of fisheries...... range that maximizes survival among different species, but the sensitivity of egg development rate in a degree of temperature increase is similar among the 32 species and populations I analysed. I also found that adults spawn at temperature conditions that are generally close to the egg preferences...... seasons, at lower latitudes, are able to produce 10 times more eggs during their life time than species than have a limited spawning season. This may reflect the more un-predictable environmental conditions at lower latitudes. People are also familiar with the words "climate change" and "warming...

  6. Monitoring Stand Level Photosynthesis from Spectral Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, T.; Coops, N. C.; Hall, F. G.; Black, A. T.; Krishnan, P.; Chen, B.; Wulder, M. A.; Nesic, Z.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E. M.; Margolis, H. A.; Drolet, G.; Cheng, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global determination and monitoring of gross primary production (GPP) is a critical component of climate change research. On local scales, GPP can be assessed from measuring CO2 exchange above the plant canopy using tower-based eddy covariance (EC) systems. The limited footprint inherent to this method however, restricts observations to relatively few discrete areas making continuous predictions of global CO2 fluxes challenging. Recently, the advent of high resolution optical remote sensing devices has offered new possibilities to address some of the scaling issues related to GPP using approaches based on spectral reflectance. One key component for inferring GPP from remote sensing is the efficiency (e) with which plants can convert absorbed photosynthetically active radiation into biomass. Whilst recent years have seen progress determining e at the leaf level using the photochemical reflectance index PRI, little is known about the temporal and spatial requirements for upscaling PRI. For instance, satellite observations of canopy reflectance are subject to view and illumination geometry effects induced by the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of canopies that can confound the desired signal; however little is known about interactions between these effects and PRI. Further areas of research include dependencies of PRI on canopy structure, understorey and species composition. One potential way to investigate these requirements is using automated tower-based remote sensing platforms, facilitating spectral observations of the canopy with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. The experimental setup presented herein features an automated spectral radiometer (AMSPEC) with a motor-driven probe allowing observations in a nearly full circle around the tower. Year round data are sampled every 5 sec., a full rotation is completed within 15 min. The spatial similarity to the flux-footprint allows direct comparisons with EC and micro

  7. Lichtheimia species exhibit differences in virulence potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker U Schwartze

    Full Text Available Although the number of mucormycosis cases has increased during the last decades, little is known about the pathogenic potential of most mucoralean fungi. Lichtheimia species represent the second and third most common cause of mucormycosis in Europe and worldwide, respectively. To date only three of the five species of the genus have been found to be involved in mucormycosis, namely L. corymbifera, L. ramosa and L. ornata. However, it is not clear whether the clinical situation reflects differences in virulence between the species of Lichtheimia or whether other factors are responsible. In this study the virulence of 46 strains of all five species of Lichtheimia was investigated in chicken embryos. Additionally, strains of the closest-related genus Dichotomocladium were tested. Full virulence was restricted to the clinically relevant species while all strains of L. hyalospora, L. sphaerocystis and Dichotomocladium species were attenuated. Although virulence differences were present in the clinically relevant species, no connection between origin (environmental vs clinical or phylogenetic position within the species was observed. Physiological studies revealed no clear connection of stress resistance and carbon source utilization with the virulence of the strains. Slower growth at 37°C might explain low virulence of L. hyalospora, L. spaherocystis and Dichotomocladium; however, similarly slow growing strains of L. ornata were fully virulent. Thus, additional factors or a complex interplay of factors determines the virulence of strains. Our data suggest that the clinical situation in fact reflects different virulence potentials in the Lichtheimiaceae.

  8. Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Mary B

    2008-01-01

    In the two decades after the founding of Neuron, we witnessed the unfolding of the “molecular biology revolution” and its culmination in the sequencing of individual genomes. Cloning of cDNAs and rapid nucleotide sequencing were invented in the early 1970s. By the mid-1980s, “cDNA-cloning” was all the rage. A new breed of “molecular neuroscientists” began cloning and sequencing transcripts encoding neuronal receptors, ion channels, and signaling enzymes. The wealth of molecular data they gene...

  9. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    -readings of two classic, but partially forgotten contributions within organization theory – the work of Wilfred R. Bion on group assumptions and the work of Elliott Jaques on ‘requisite organisation’ – we suggest that contemporary discussion of organizational change could benefit considerably from regaining...

  10. Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This symposium was very special. It was topical: Some of the most outstanding problems in Nuclear Physics were discussed: Superheavy elements; extremely neutron rich elements, as well as nuclei with strangeness and their possible creation in the cosmos and on earth; the nuclear equation of state has to be identified within strongly compressed and hot nuclear matter as it appears in nucleus-nucleus encounters; giant nuclear systems which are short lived (˜ 10-19 - 10-20 seconds) and extremely important for identifying the vacuum decay in overcritical electric fields (this is a very fundamental process - the most fundamental one in Quantum Electrodynamics!); astrophysical centers of extreme high density around which magnificent sun-like objects are Kepler-orbiting are discovered in our Galaxy by R. Genzel and colleagues (these centers are no black holes those don't exist at all because repulsive gravitational forces may play an important role - the pseudocomplex general relativity eliminates the Schwarzschild singularity); network physics for distributing energy (nuclear, wind, sun, tides,...) all over Europe (and over the world) is basic for energy consumption now and even more so in future. We heard wonderful talks and I am grateful to all the friends and speakers (from Russia, America, Europe and India) for coming to Goa. It was a great symposium! Particular thanks go to Professor Bikash Sinha and especially to Professor Debades Bandyopadhyay from Calcutta who had the idea for and organized this Goa-symposium....

  11. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  12. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  13. Person-centred reflective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenny, Bob; Duffy, Kathleen

    Person-centred health and person-centred care have gained prominence across the UK following the publication of reports on public inquiries exploring failings in care. Self-awareness and participation in reflective practice are recognised as vital to supporting the person-centred agenda. This article presents an education framework for reflective practice, developed and used in one NHS board in Scotland, and based on the tenets of the clinical pastoral education movement. Providing an insight into the usefulness of a spiritual component in the reflective process, the framework provides an opportunity for nurses and other healthcare professionals to examine the spiritual dimensions of patient encounters, their own values and beliefs, and the effect these may have on their practice.

  14. Reflecting on Reflection as a Critical Component in Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of service learning, it is sometimes criticized for its lack of academic rigor. This piece provides a counterpoint to that argument by describing a LIS service-learning course from the student's perspective. I focus particularly on the role of reflection, a key component in service-learning courses that helps to…

  15. Is There Spectral Variation in the Polarized Reflectance of Leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  16. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  17. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  18. Paradoxical reflection in quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro L. Garrido; Goldstein, Sheldon; Lukkarinen, Jani; Tumulka, Roderich

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns a phenomenon of elementary quantum mechanics that is quite counter-intuitive, very non-classical, and apparently not widely known: a quantum particle can get reflected at a downward potential step. In contrast, classical particles get reflected only at upward steps. The conditions for this effect are that the wave length is much greater than the width of the potential step and the kinetic energy of the particle is much smaller than the depth of the potential step. This p...

  19. Reflection algebra and functional equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galleas, W., E-mail: w.galleas@uu.nl; Lamers, J., E-mail: j.lamers@uu.nl

    2014-09-15

    In this work we investigate the possibility of using the reflection algebra as a source of functional equations. More precisely, we obtain functional relations determining the partition function of the six-vertex model with domain-wall boundary conditions and one reflecting end. The model's partition function is expressed as a multiple-contour integral that allows the homogeneous limit to be obtained straightforwardly. Our functional equations are also shown to give rise to a consistent set of partial differential equations satisfied by the partition function.

  20. Species-specific associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies ("understory individuals" within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa. These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non-random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought.

  1. From Reflective Practice to Holistic Reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Examines Schon's idea of "reflective practice" in higher education through analysis of "reflectivity" -- its history, possible forms, interpretations, and underpinning values. Notes four underpinning epistemologies for reflective practice: technical rational, humanistic emancipatory, postmodern deconstructive, and radical phenomenological.…

  2. Acoustic signalling in a small, socially monogamous canid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Animals that actively defend all or part of their home range for the exclusive use of members of their social group are considered territorial. Defended areas may contain resources such as dens or nests, key foraging sites, or sexual partners that vary in value by season. We investigated territor......Animals that actively defend all or part of their home range for the exclusive use of members of their social group are considered territorial. Defended areas may contain resources such as dens or nests, key foraging sites, or sexual partners that vary in value by season. We investigated...... to the boundary of the pair's home range core (50% kernel contour isoline of estimated home range). Similarly, male resident foxes responded more intensely with barking if a playback simulating intrusion by a rival occurred inside of the core compared to outside of it. However, it was common for home range cores...

  3. Review of Teacher’s Teaching Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽爽

    2015-01-01

    Teacher’s teaching reflection has become the core focus in school.However,there are different understandings of the concept of teacher’s teaching reflection.The paper introduces and compares different understandings of the concept of teachers’teaching reflection.Based on the summarizing of the concept on reflection and teaching reflection,this paper tries to provide reference for the teacher’s teaching reflection.

  4. Species discrimination of African savannah trees at leaf level using hyperspectral remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majeke, B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available . This study was carried out to assess the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing in discriminating the dominant species in the southern part of the park. The spectral reflectances of seven common tree species (Combretum apiculatum, Combretum hereroense...

  5. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  6. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice.

  7. Critical Reflection as Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers how doctoral education, particularly in applied settings such as education, social work, counseling, and health care, could be reimagined if it was organized around the idea and process of critical reflection: of helping students to better understand how power operates in educational environments and how students' sense of…

  8. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  9. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice. Th

  10. Reflectivity of metallodielectric photonic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.; Vos, W.L.; Moroz, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical properties of metallodielectric photonic glasses of colloidal silver spheres with a radius ranging from 200 to 420 nm and volume fractions around 60%. Strong modulations (∼25%) in the optical reflectivity were observed in the visible range for these structure

  11. Reflectivity of metallodielectric photonic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.P.; Vos, W.L.; Moroz, A.; Blaaderen, van A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical properties of metallodielectric photonic glasses of colloidal silver spheres with a radius ranging from 200 to 420 nm and volume fractions around 60%. Strong modulations (~25%) in the optical reflectivity were observed in the visible range for these structure

  12. Creative reflection in industrial design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation is a reflection of the writer on his career as an industrial designer of Demand-Driven Design for a period of approximately 25 years. This period is exposed with a discussion of five designs. The projects are introduced by developments in the surrounding design landscape, such as Dr

  13. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  14. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  15. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei

    2017-05-01

    We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.

  16. A Critically Reflective Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marge

    1990-01-01

    Examines social studies in the twenty-first century from a critical theory perspective. Traces critical reflection's origins from Marxist educational theories to Jurgen Habermas's critical theory. Highlights Fred Newmann's curricular model, "Education for Citizen Action," for developing competent action in public affairs. Advocates infusing…

  17. A Critically Reflective Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marge

    1990-01-01

    Examines social studies in the twenty-first century from a critical theory perspective. Traces critical reflection's origins from Marxist educational theories to Jurgen Habermas's critical theory. Highlights Fred Newmann's curricular model, "Education for Citizen Action," for developing competent action in public affairs. Advocates…

  18. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  19. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  20. Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the apparent vegetation reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.K. Entcheva [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, UMBC, Baltimore, MD 21228 (United States); Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail: pcampbel@pop900.gsfc.nasa.gov; Middleton, E.M. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corp, L.A. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Kim, M.S. [Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance data, which provide estimates of vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements offer a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, technology based on ChlF may allow more accurate carbon sequestration estimates and earlier stress detection than is possible when using reflectance data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contributions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the relative contributions of reflectance and ChlF fractions to Ra in the red to near-infrared region (650-800 nm) of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate the relationship between ChlF and reflectance at the foliar level for corn, soybean and maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established for healthy vegetation changes under nitrogen (N) deficiency. To obtain generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (corn, soybean and maple) under controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization levels. Optical reflectance spectra and actively induced ChlF emissions were collected on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of photosynthetic function, pigment levels, and carbon (C) and N content. The spectral trends were examined for similarities. On average, 10-20% of Ra at 685 nm was actually due to ChlF. The spectral trends in steady state and maximum fluorescence varied significantly, with steady state fluorescence (especially red, 685 nm) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChlF to Ra varied significantly among species, with maple

  1. Commentary on "Goodacre R, Timmins ÉM, Rooney PJ, Rowland JJ, Kell DB: Rapid identification of Streptococcus and Enterococcus species using diffuse reflectance-absorbance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and artificial neural networks. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1996; 140:233-239", the most cited paper in the Journal for that year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Royston; Kell, Douglas B

    2017-01-26

    This is an invited review/commentary by the first and last authors of a paper that was the most cited in FEMS Microbiology Letters for 1996, presently showing in excess of 150 citations at Web of Science, and over 200 at Google Scholar. It was the first paper in which diffuse-reflectance-absorbance FT-IR spectroscopy was used with a supervised learning method in the form of artificial neural networks, and showed that this combination could succeed in discriminating a series of closely related, clinically relevant, Gram-positive bacterial strains.

  2. Near infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigs, D. E.; Freelin, J. M.; Hieftje, G. M.

    1983-02-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

  3. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-01-01

    The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetr...

  4. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics with reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Sarah; Vinet, Luc [Centre de Recherches Mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal CP6128 (QC) H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei, E-mail: post@crm.umontreal.ca, E-mail: luc.vinet@umontreal.ca, E-mail: zhedanov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2011-10-28

    We consider a realization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics where supercharges are differential-difference operators with reflections. A supersymmetric system with an extended Scarf I potential is presented and analyzed. Its eigenfunctions are given in terms of little -1 Jacobi polynomials which obey an eigenvalue equation of Dunkl type and arise as a q {yields} -1 limit of the little q-Jacobi polynomials. Intertwining operators connecting the wavefunctions of extended Scarf I potentials with different parameters are presented. (paper)

  5. Evaluation of teaching: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Canós Darós

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some reflections about the process of evaluation of teaching as a starting point for an improvement. Without information there cannot be change. Any improvement in the classroom requires dealing with information coming from, first, the students as counterpart in the university learning teaching process; second, other colleagues who give their professional opinion and; third, of ourselves as lecturers, so that a complete evaluation is made from all points of view.

  6. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We define the notion of a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of $\\Z_{N}$ para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects, that are invariant under isotopy. For each $\\Z_{N}$, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras which play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra. Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras which one can use in the study of quantum information. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivi...

  7. Electrochromic Mirrors With Variable Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucke, Friedrich G. K.

    1986-09-01

    Unstructured electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance have been developed on the basis of hydrogen tungsten bronzes. The characteristic compounds of these devices are (1) solid ion-conducting layers ("electrolytes") resulting in only few micrometer thick all-solid-state systems, which can be enclosed between the substrate and a second glass plate and are thus protected from the environment, (2) integrated reflecting metal layers, and (3) hydrogen-storing electrochromic layers. Two basically different constructions are feasible. In "diffusion-driven" devices the bronze is formed (decomposed) by the chemical reaction x/2 H2+ W03⇔HxW03, in "field-driven" systems an electrochemical bronze formation (decomposition), x H + W03+ x e HxW03, takes place. The modes of construction are presented and compared, the electrochemistry of the thin layer cells involved is discussed, the prop-erties of devices according to the state of development are reported, and possible applications, e.g. as glare-free, inside and outside, automotive rear view mirrors with adjustable reflectance, are briefly described.

  8. Developing mathematical practices through reflection cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on reflection in learning mathematical practices. While there is a long history of research on reflection in mathematics, it has focused primarily on the development of conceptual understanding. Building on notion of learning as participation in social practices, this paper broadens the theory of reflection in mathematics learning. To do so, it introduces the concept of reflection cycles. Each cycle begins with prospective reflection, which guides one's actions during an experience, and ends with retrospective reflection, which consolidates the experience and informs the next reflection cycle. Using reflection cycles as an organizing framework, this paper synthesizes the literature on reflective practices at a variety of levels: (1) metacognition, (2) self-assessment, (3) noticing, and (4) lifelong learning. These practices represent a spectrum of reflection, ranging from the micro level (1) to macro level (4).

  9. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  10. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  11. Species diversity and area-relationships in Danish beech forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawesson, J.E.; Blust, de G.; Grashof, C.; Firbanks, L.; Honnay, O.; Hermy, M.; Hobitz, P.; Jensen, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The vascular flora of 62 Danish beech forests of eastern Jutland ranging in size from 1-445 ha, was investigated for species-area relations. Species richness reflecting total diversity, forest diversity, and of different habitat groups, were corrected for non-linearity by means of a log-log power fu

  12. Reflective Practice on Effective Teaching Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-chao

    2014-01-01

    Reflective practice is a vital parts of teaching process. The essay mainly states the theory of reflection, its functions, characteristics, and teachers’reflective practice. After obtaining data from the questionnaire collected from 30 college English teachers’reflective practice, the writer analyzes the data and concludes that:reflection is a useful and necessary tool for successful teaching performance and the development of teachers.

  13. Sub-method Structural and Behavioral Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Denker, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Computational reflection is a fundamental mechanism in object oriented languages. Reflection has proved useful in many contexts, such as in the design of development environments, language extension, and the dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems We identify three problems with the current approach to reflection in object oriented languages: partial behavioral reflection needs to be anticipated, structural reflection is limited to the granularity of a method, and behavioral refl...

  14. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  15. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  16. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    ) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...... ‘insider outsider’, facilitating authenticity and voice of the participants in order to reduce the asymmetry between the researcher and the subjects. These ways contribute to productive research with psychopolitical validity, thus avoiding unfair, even exploitative research.  ...

  17. Reflections on strategic nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jean

    2012-10-01

    This paper sets out some personal reflections by the Chief Nursing Officer for Wales on the challenges facing nurses and midwives as they undertake strategic leadership roles in NHS organisations. The paper looks at the national approach taken in Wales where behavioural competencies for executive nurse directors have been implemented. It considers the implications of the breadth of responsibilities executive nurse directors have and the importance of developing and supporting middle grade nurse managers and clinical directors. It concludes by looking at who is responsible for care within an organisation.

  18. An Algorithm for Successive Identification of Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Vejlby; Larsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm for successive identification of seismic reflections is proposed. Generally, the algorithm can be viewed as a curve matching method for images with specific structure. However, in the paper, the algorithm works on seismic signals assembled to constitute an image in which...... the investigated reflections produce curves. In numerical examples, the authors work on signals assembled in CMP gathers. The key idea of the algorithm is to estimate the reflection curve parameters and the reflection coefficients along these curves by combining the multipulse technique and the generalized Radon...... stops the reflection estimation when the actual estimated reflection is insignificant. The reflection validation procedure ensures that the estimated reflections follow the shape of the investigated reflection curves. The algorithm is successfully used in two numerical examples. One is based...

  19. Reflection Quasilattices and the Maximal Quasilattice

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Latham

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a {\\it reflection quasilattice}, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e. Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we prove that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. We further show that, unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. W...

  20. Multivariate analisys of species from Cucurbitaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species from Cucurbitaceae family are not widely present in Serbia, although because of their morphological and decorative features deserve more attention. The aim of this paper was to study the morphological variability and usage of ten species of the Cucurbiataceae family. Based on genetic variability, species were grouped into 8 clusters. Fruit characteristics of most investigated species showed great similarity and the greatest differences were attained for flower and fruit characteristics. The longest was the fruit of Trichosanthes cucumerina (46.2 cm, while the shortest of Cucumis myriocarpus (3.4 cm which had the smallest circumference as well (4.4 cm. The largest circumference of fruit was recorded for the species Cucumis aculeatus (16.4 cm. In terms of fruit color Momordica balsamina had a red fruit, allocated from other species whose fruits were in various shades of green. Variability is reflected in large variations in size, shape and color of fruit. Considerating that usages of these species are multiple (food for humans and animals, ornamental studyed species deserve special attention in their further propagation and use.

  1. Remotely sensing the photochemical reflectance index, PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2015-09-01

    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside leaves in a plant stand. Developed by1,2, PRI evolved from laboratory reflectance measurements of individual leaves. Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We compared values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. Our results show the polarized leaf surface reflection should be removed when calculating PRI and that the leaf physiology information is in leaf interior reflectance, not leaf transmittance.

  2. Reflectance signature on sunlit crown of conifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦地; 李小文; 项月琴

    1997-01-01

    Based on the field measurements of the reflected radiation distribution on sunlit crown surface and crown structure, the analytical approximation model of path-scattering of light in a homogeneous layer is applied to the calculation of the reflectance signature of sunlit crown. The reflectance on the sunlit crown surface is considered as the weighted sum of the direct-to-hemisphere reflectance and the hemisphere-to-hemisphere reflectance. The validation results show that the calculated reflectance signature fits the field measurement very well This paper presents details of the validation and the feasibility of the model application to nonuniform medium, such as tree crown canopies.

  3. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  4. Reflective Equilibrium: Epistemological or Political?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lister

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for ongoing interest in the work of political philosopher John Rawls is that he developed novel methods for thinking systematically about the nature of justice. This paper examines the moral and epistemological motivations for Rawls’s method of “reflective equilibrium,” and the tension between them in Kai Nielsen’s use of “wide reflective equilibrium” in the service of critical and emancipatory social theory. Une des raisons de l’intérêt soutenu pour l’oeuvre du philosophe politique John Rawls est qu’il a développé de nouvelles méthodes de réflexion systématique au sujet de la nature de la justice. Cet article étudie les motifs moraux et épistémologiques soutenant la méthode d’ «équilibre réflectif» de Rawls, et les tensions entre eux dans l’utilisation par Kai Nielsen d’ «équilibre réflectif étendu» au service de la théorie sociale critique et émancipatrice.

  5. Partial internal reflections on total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sanford M

    2009-11-01

    Microscopy, especially fluorescence microscopy, has proven to be a powerful method for studying biological processes. Unfortunately, some of the same features that make biological membranes powerful (for example, all of the action taking place across a narrow 4nm film) also make it difficult to visualize by fluorescence. Over the past 30 years, numerous tricks have been developed to narrow the plane over which data is collected. One approach, total internal reflection (TIR) fluorescence microscopy, is particularly well suited for studying membrane events. A key issue to address when using TIR to tackle a new biological problem is: how can one judge whether the signals being observed are actually the biological phenomena that one wishes to study?

  6. A Theory of Island Biogeography for Exotic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin C

    2015-10-01

    The theory of island biogeography has played a pivotal role in the way ecologists view communities. However, it does not account for exotic species explicitly, which limits its use as a conservation tool. Here, I present the results of a long-term study of plant communities inhabiting an archipelago of small islands off the coast of New Zealand and derive a modified version of the theory of island biogeography to predict differences in the turnover and diversity of native and exotic species. Empirical results showed that, although species richness of both native and exotic plant species increased with island area, native species consistently outnumbered exotic species. Species turnover increased with species richness in both groups. However, opposite to species-area patterns, turnover increased more rapidly with species richness in exotic species. Empirical results were consistent with the modified version of the theory of island biogeography, which distinguishes exotic species from native species by decoupling extinction rates of exotic species from island area, because they are represented by only small populations at the initial stages of invasion. Overall results illustrate how the theory of island biogeography can be modified to reflect the dynamics of exotic species as they invade archipelagos, expanding its use as a conservation tool.

  7. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  8. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice.

  9. BGP reflection functors in root categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jie; ZHANG Guanglian; ZHU Bin

    2005-01-01

    We define the BGP-reflection functors in the derived categories and the root categories. By Ringel's Hall algebra approach, the BGP-reflection functor is applicable to obtain the classical Weyl group action on the Lie algebra.

  10. Reflective Properties of a Parabolic Mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    1991-01-01

    An incident light ray parallel to the optical axis of a parabolic mirror will be reflected at the focal point and vice versa. Presents a mathematical proof that uses calculus, algebra, and geometry to prove this reflective property. (MDH)

  11. Reflective Reconstruction of Visual Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    of visuals. A case of a New Zealand year 7/8 primary science class studying the water cycle is presented. It is argued that teaching science concepts like the water cycle through visualizations cannot be an abstract endeavor because even when abstract ideas are presented, they are visualized as concrete......This paper presents an argument about the cultural construction of visual products. Based on data from video observations, interviews and the collection of student-produced (visual) artifacts, a material ethnography approach is presented. Applying reflexivity with the use of visuals, the following...... argument is made. Instead of revealing insights through just one approach, a reflective methodology should consider: (a) the context in which the visual was produced; (b) the content of the visual; (c) the contexts in, and subjectivities through, which visuals are viewed; and (d) the materiality and agency...

  12. Specular neutron reflectivity and beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saibal Basu

    2008-10-01

    A polarized neutron reflectometer for vertical samples is available at Dhruva reactor guide hall, Trombay. The reflectometer has been designed for horizontal scattering vector. It uses a position-sensitive detector for obtaining the reflectivity pattern. This arrangement allows one to obtain diffuse or off-specular intensity around any specular peak at one go. We have used this instrument for studying the structure of various metal-metal and metal-semiconductor multilayers by specular reflectometry. We have also been successful in understanding interface morphology of several films through diffuse neutron reflectometry (DNR) on this reflectometer. Some of the recent results are presented in this paper to demonstrate the strength of these two techniques.

  13. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...... shall draw on our extensive experience of design research and design teaching, and on the recent book The Future of Design Methodology, edited by Professor Herbert Birkhofer. We shall also refer to a model that links the Results, Practices, Methods, and Sciences of designing. Some initial conclusions...

  14. Reflections of an Indian scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Debabar

    2003-01-01

    In India, health programs have often been imposed on the deprived poor by a syndicate of foreign agencies and the local ruling class. During the first two decades after Independence, the political setting was somewhat conducive to scientific debates on the development of health services for India's people. The scenario changed radically during the next three and a half decades, when the country's ruling class became more oppressive and foreign agencies exerted increasing pressure to impose a prefabricated and scientifically suspect agenda of health services that were even more unequal and iniquitous to the interests of the deprived. With the help of themes from some of his major works, the author reflects on his experiences of the last half-century to make a case for using scientific critiques as an instrument for resisting foreign domination.

  15. Invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  16. Reflective Teaching in English New Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建华

    2009-01-01

    In recent years,reflective teaching has become the core focus in English new curriculum.This paper,by inlroducing and discussing the concept as well as the characteristics of reflective teaching.analyses the interactive relationship between teachers and gudents.It then discusses the role of reflective teaching in teachers'professional development.Finally,it presents a few ways on how reflective teaching Call be done.

  17. Effectuation And Reflection-In-Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Lervang, Johan-Ulrik; Maack, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics.......Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics....

  18. Reflective Questioning in the Program Evaluation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This paper explains how to use reflective questioning in adult English-as-a-Second-Language classes, describing how one teacher spends about 30 minutes at the end of every 3-month session asking learners to reflect on the work they and their teachers have been doing. Tips for reflecting with adult ESL students include the following: give the…

  19. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  20. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  1. Reflective Teaching in English New Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建华

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, reflective teaching has become the core focus in English new curriculum. This paper, by introducingand discussing the concept as well as the characteristics of reflective teaching, analyses the interactive relationship between teachers andstudents. It then discusses the role of reflective teaching in teachers’professional development. Finally, it presents a few ways on howreflective teaching can be done.

  2. Partial symmetry, reflection monoids and Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent; Fountain, John

    2008-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers in which we initiate and develop the theory of reflection monoids, motivated by the theory of reflection groups. The main results identify a number of important inverse semigroups as reflection monoids, introduce new examples, and determine their orders.

  3. Partial mirror symmetry I: reflection monoids

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent; Fountain, John

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers in which we initiate and develop the theory of reflection monoids, motivated by the theory of reflection groups. The main results identify a number of important inverse semigroups as reflection monoids, introduce new examples, and determine their orders.

  4. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  5. Omnidirectional reflection from generalized Fibonacci quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, Alberto G; Monzón, Juan J; Yonte, Teresa; Felipe, Angel; Sánchez-Soto, Luis L

    2013-12-02

    We determine the optimal thicknesses for which omnidirectional reflection from generalized Fibonacci quasicrystals occurs. By capitalizing on the idea of wavelength- and angle-averaged reflectance, we assess in a consistent way the performance of the different systems. Our results indicate that some of these aperiodic arrangements can largely over-perform the conventional photonic crystals as omnidirectional reflection is concerned.

  6. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  7. Development of English Language Teaching Reflection Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ramin; Behzadpoor, Foad; Dadvand, Babak

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to develop and validate an L2 teacher reflection instrument. For this purpose, a six component model of second language (L2) teacher reflection, encompassing practical, cognitive, meta-cognitive, affective, critical and moral reflection, was developed using experts' opinion and a comprehensive review of the…

  8. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  9. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  10. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  11. Do writing and storytelling skill influence assessment of reflective ability in medical students' written reflections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Louise; Niehaus, Brian; DeVries, Charlie D; Siegel, Jennifer R; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2010-10-01

    Increasingly, students are asked to write reflections as part of their medical education, but some question the influence of other factors on the evaluation of these reflections. In this pilot study, the investigators determined whether scores from a validated rubric to measure reflective ability were affected by irrelevant variance resulting from writing or storytelling ability. Students in clerkships wrote reflections on professionalism. All were given identical prompts, with half receiving additional structured guidelines on reflection. Sixty reflections, 30 from each group, were randomly chosen and scored for reflection, writing, and storytelling by trained raters using validated rubrics. There was no correlation between reflection and either writing (r = 0.049, P = .35) or storytelling (r = 0.14, P = .13). The guidelines increased reflection, but not writing or storytelling scores. Reflection is a distinct construct unaffected by learners' writing or storytelling skills. These findings support reflective ability as a distinct skill.

  12. Beyond the margins: reflective writing and development of reflective capacity in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; Reis, Shmuel P

    2010-07-01

    Reflective capacity has been described as an essential characteristic of professionally competent clinical practice, core to ACGME competencies. Reflection has been recently linked to promoting effective use of feedback in medical education and associated with improved diagnostic accuracy, suggesting promising outcomes. There has been a proliferation of reflective writing pedagogy within medical education to foster development of reflective capacity, extend empathy with deepened understanding of patients' experience of illness, and promote practitioner well-being. At Alpert Med, "interactive" reflective writing with guided individualized feedback from interdisciplinary faculty to students' reflective writing has been implemented in a Doctoring course and Family Medicine clerkship as an educational method to achieve these aims. Such initiatives, however, raise fundamental questions of reflection definition, program design, efficacy of methods, and outcomes assessment. Within this article, we consider opportunities and challenges associated with implementation of reflective writing curricula for promotion of reflective capacity within medical education. We reflect upon reflection.

  13. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  14. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  15. Reflective State Pattern with Dynamic Constructiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After discussing the reflective method of structure and behaviorin th e State design pattern based on Role Object pattern and the Reflective pattern o f software architecture, this paper proposes a reflective state pattern with dyn amic constructiveness. This paper explains the meta level and the base level, wh ich are two levels of this pattern, and specifies the relation of two levels by using Meta Object Protocol (MOP). Then it discusses mechanism of interception an d reification for reflecting base object from Meta object. Finally this paper g ives an example of network server for applying the Reflective State pattern

  16. Remotely Sensing the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern

    2015-01-01

    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside the leaves in a stand of plants. Developed by Gamon et al., (1990 and 1992), PRI evolved from laboratory measurements of the reflectance of individual leaves (Bilger et al.,1989). Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We conducted laboratory experiments comparing values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. We illuminated single detached leaves using a current controlled light source (Oriel model 66881) and measured the leaf weight using an analytical balance (Mettler model AE 260) and the light reflected and transmitted by the leaf during dry down using two Analytical Spectral Devices spectroradiometers. Polarizers on the incident and reflected light beams allowed us to divide the leaf reflectance into two parts: a polarized surface reflectance and a non-polarized 'leaf interior' reflectance. Our results underscore the importance when calculating PRI of removing the leaf surface reflection, which contains no information about physiological processes ongoing in the leaf interior. The results show that the leaf physiology information is in the leaf interior reflectance, not the leaf transmittance. Applied to a plant stand, these results suggest use of polarization measurements in sun-view directions that minimize the number of sunlit transmitting leaves in the sensor field of view.

  17. Understanding the processes of writing papers reflectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna; Naidoo, Jennie

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the writing of research papers using reflective frameworks. Reflective practice is integral to professional education and development. However, healthcare students, academics and practitioners have given limited attention to how to write reflectively. In addition, there are limited resources on the practical aspects of writing papers reflectively. The following major databases were searched: PubMed, Medline, King's Library, Excerpta Medica Database, Department of Health database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The searches were conducted using 'free text' and 'index' terms. Only relevant papers published in English were reviewed and scrutinised. Unpublished reports, internal publications, snowballing from the reference lists and personal contacts were also included in the search. This is a review paper that critiques the frameworks used for reflective practice. Writing papers reflectively is a complex task. Healthcare professionals and researchers need to understand the meaning of reflection and make appropriate use of reflective frameworks. Demystifying the process of reflectively writing papers will help professionals develop skills and competencies. IMPLICATION FOR RESEARCH/PRACTICE: This article provides a practical guide to reflection and how nursing and allied healthcare students, academics and practitioners can practise it. The paper identifies four generic stages in frameworks: description, assessment, evaluation and action, which are illustrated by annotated 'skeletal' examples. It is hoped that this will assist the process of reflective practice, writing and learning.

  18. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  19. Beyond Globalization: Reflections on Glocalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Dallmayr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The old adage states that humankind moves “one step forward” before it moves “two steps backward”, suggesting that there is no such thing as a linear evolution. This is particularly true when applied to our present time, the “age of globalization”. In the case of globalism, “two steps back” are needed in order to assess more soberly the present historical trajectory, and capture the “internal dialectic” of globalism. In fact, what we are witnessing today in many parts of the world is a backlash to globalism, manifest in an upsurge of traditional nationalism, if not chauvinism and ethnocentrism. The core issue is a difficult relation between nearness and distance, between the concretely singular and the general/universal which the term “globalism” seeks to capture but, of course, cannot explain. My reflections in the following seek to explore and shed some light on this relation. In a first step, I venture into philosophical (and theological terrain in an effort to discern the meaning of human situatedness in a place, a space, or a “world”. Next, I discuss the inevitable tensions or conflicts between nearness and distance, that is, the inner “dialectic” between the local and the global. Finally, I translate the local/global syndrome into the correlation of “earth and world”, “roots and routes”, familiar loyalties and unfamiliar peregrinations.

  20. Reflectance Spectroscopy Characteristics of Turquoise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ting Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the reflectance spectra of four types of turquoise with different hardness (porcelain, hard turquoise, soft turquoise, and loose turquoise using an ASDTM TerraSpec spectrometer (spectral range 350–2500 nm, Visible-Near Infrared, and Short-wave Infrared. Several absorption features, including six narrow absorption peaks at 425 nm, 1480 nm, 2160 nm, 2218 nm, 2253 nm, and 2347 nm, and three wide peaks between 625–756 nm, 756–915 nm, and 1885–2133 nm have been identified. The strength of the absorption of turquoise increased with decreasing hardness. The absorption peaks at 2160 nm, 2218 nm, 2253 nm, 2347 nm, and 1885–2133 nm on some turquoise spectra (porcelain spectra, for example were relatively weak, while those at 425 nm, 1480 nm, 625–756 nm, and 756–915 nm were always observed on all turquoise spectra, which could be the diagnostic absorption features for turquoise. Additionally, the hyper-spectral imaging (spectral range 1000–2500 nm, Short-wave Infrared of the four types of turquoise were obtained using a HySpexTM imager. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM method was successfully used to recognize turquoises, suggesting that hyper-spectral imaging may serve as a useful tool for fast turquoise identification and separation, especially for massive turquoise samples.

  1. A partial least squares model for non-volatile residue quantification using diffuse reflectance infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Amylynn; Moision, Robert M.

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, quantification of non-volatile residue (NVR) on surfaces relevant to space systems has been performed using solvent wipes for NVR removal followed by gravimetric analysis. In this approach the detectable levels of NVR are ultimately determined by the mass sensitivity of the analytical balance employed. Unfortunately, for routine samples, gravimetric measurement requires large sampling areas, on the order of a square foot, in order to clearly distinguish sample and background levels. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is one possible alternative to gravimetric analysis for NVR measurement. DRIFTS is an analytical technique used for the identification and quantification of organic compounds that has two primary advantages relative to gravimetric based methods: increased sensitivity and the ability to identify classes of organic species present. However, the use of DRIFTS is not without drawbacks, most notably repeatability of sample preparation and the additive quantification uncertainty arising from overlapping infrared signatures. This can result in traditional calibration methods greatly overestimating the concentration of species in mixtures. In this work, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is shown to be an effective method for removing the over prediction error of a three component mixture of common contaminant species.

  2. Human tool-making capacities reflect increased information-processing capacities: continuity resides in the eyes of the beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kathleen R

    2012-08-01

    Chimpanzee/human technological differences are vast, reflect multiple interacting behavioral processes, and may result from the increased information-processing and hierarchical mental constructional capacities of the human brain. Therefore, advanced social, technical, and communicative capacities probably evolved together in concert with increasing brain size. Interpretations of these evolutionary and species differences as continuities or discontinuities reflect differing scientific perspectives.

  3. Designing a Reflective Teacher Education Course and Its Contribution to ELT Teachers' Reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Leila; Pakzad, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in the present study planned a reflective teacher education course and documented the contribution of such a course to improving teachers' reflectivity. Five English teachers took part in the reflective teacher education course designed by the researchers. To record how the course could help improve reflective teaching, researchers…

  4. Reflection quasilattices and the maximal quasilattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce the concept of a reflection quasilattice, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e., Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we explain that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three, and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. Unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. We tabulate the complete set of scale factors for all reflection quasilattices in dimension d >2 , and for all those with quadratic irrational scale factors in d =2 .

  5. An Access Control Framework for Reflective Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Huang; Lian-Shan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Reflective middleware opens up the implementation details of middleware platform and applications at runtime for improving the adaptability of middleware-based systems. However, such openness brings new challenges to access control of the middleware-based systems.Some users can access the system via reflective entities, which sometimes cannot be protected by access control mechanisms of traditional middleware. To deliver high adaptability securely, reflective middleware should be equipped with proper access control mechanisms for potential access control holes induced by reflection. One reason of integrating these mechanisms in reflective middleware is that one goal of reflective middleware is to equip applications with reflection capabilities as transparent as possible. This paper studies how to design a reflective J2EE middlewarePKUAS with access control in mind. At first, a computation model of reflective system is built to identify all possible access control points induced by reflection. Then a set of access control mechanisms, including the wrapper of MBeans and a hierarchy of Java class loaders, are equipped for controlling the identified access control points. These mechanisms together with J2EE access control mechanism form the access control framework for PKUAS. The paper evaluates the security and the performance overheads of the framework in quality and quantity.

  6. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  7. Reflectivity-modulated grating-mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to vertical cavity lasers (VCL) incorporating a reflectivity-modulated grating mirror (1) for modulating the laser output. A cavity is formed by a bottom mirror (4), an active region (3), and an outcoupling top grating mirror (1) formed by a periodic refractive index grating...... to the oscillation axis. A modulated voltage (91) is applied in reverse bias between the n- and p-doped layers to modulate the refractive index of the electrooptic material layer (12) and thereby the reflectivity spectrum of the grating mirror (1). The reflectivity of the grating mirror (1) can be modulated between...... a reflectivity with little or no out coupling and a reflectivity with normal out coupling, wherein lasing in the VCL is supported at both the first and the second reflectivity. As the out coupling mirror modulates the output, the lasing does not need to be modulated, and the invention provides the advantage...

  8. Developing reflective writing as effective pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennison, Monica

    2012-01-01

    While reflective writing about practice experiences is frequently used in nursing curricula to foster critical thinking, faculty members may be unaware of how to help students reflect, what kinds of feedback are helpful, and how to deal with students' concerns. This article describes faculty best practices in mentoring the student to effectively think critically through structured reflective writing. Models of structured reflection, Baker's four-step model and John's revision of Carper's patterns of knowing, are discussed as effective guides at graduate and undergraduate levels. The article addresses potentially problematic issues with the implementation and evaluation of reflective writing assignments in clinical courses. With foresight and planning, reflective writing may be an empowering strategy for facilitating students' thinking skills.

  9. PRM: A database of planetary reflection matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, D. M.; Batista, S. F. A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the PRM database with reflection matrices of various types of planets. With the matrices, users can calculate the total, and the linearly and circularly polarized fluxes of incident unpolarized light that is reflected by a planet for arbitrary illumination and viewing geometries. To allow for flexibility in these geometries, the database does not contain the elements of reflection matrices, but the coefficients of their Fourier series expansion. We describe how to sum these coefficients for given illumination and viewing geometries to obtain the local reflection matrix. The coefficients in the database can also be used to calculate flux and polarization signals of exoplanets, by integrating, for a given planetary phase angle, locally reflected fluxes across the visible part of the planetary disk. Algorithms for evaluating the summation for locally reflected fluxes, as applicable to spatially resolved observations of planets, and the subsequent integration for the disk-integrated fluxes, as applicable to spatially unresolved exoplanets are also in the database

  10. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  11. INTRODUCING REFLECTIVE TEACHING TO SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article takes a close look at Towards Reflective Teach-ing, by Jack C. Richards. His article first explains what reflec-tive teaching is, and then presents the various reflective ap-proaches such as peer observation, self-reports, auto-biographies, journals and collaborative diary keeping. This arti-cle then goes on and draws from actual teaching experience toconclude that these approaches are extremely useful for the im-provement of foreign language teaching.

  12. The playful and reflective game designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2014-01-01

    . The aim was for students to reflect on games in order to promote explicit knowledge. Based on the theory, we consider retrospective reflective discussions in the classroom and their programming experiences reinforced the learning process. In summary, we present the students' first progression from native...... consumers in the game world to becoming reflective designers. Along their journey, they developed a reflective practice and an understanding of the profession they were entering. The article also throws light on the very dynamic and fruitful relationship that exists between playing games and designing games....

  13. Novel Techniques for Enhanced Reflectivity Infrared Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    photodissociation display good reflectivity. Chemical vapor deposition of ZnSe layers has been used to explore the crystalline structures possible with different substrates and growth parameters. (Author)

  14. Layered magnets: polarized neutron reflection studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabel, H.; Schreyer, A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik/Festkoerperphysik, Bochum (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectivity measurements from extended surfaces, thin films and superlattices provide information on the chemical profile parallel to the film normal, including film thicknesses, average composition and interfacial roughness parameters. Reflectivity measurements with polarized neutrons are particularly powerful for analyzing the magnetic density profiles in thin films and superlattices in addition to chemical profiles. The basic theory of polarized neutron reflectivity is provided, followed by some examples and more recent applications concerning polarized neutron reflectivity studies from exchange coupled Fe/Cr superlattices. (author) 5 figs., 13 refs.

  15. The Importance of Reflective Practice in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Caldwell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection is an essential attribute for the development of autonomous, critical, and advanced practitioners (Mantzoukas & Jasper, 2004. According to Chong (2009, “Reflective practice should be a continuous cycle in which experience and reflection on experiences are inter-related” (p. 112. Studies have shown that nurses who take the time to reflect on their daily experiences provide enhanced nursing care, have a better understanding of theiractions, which in return develops their professional skills (Hansebo & Kihlgren, 2001. Reflective practice is the ability to examine ones actions and experiences with the outcome of developing their practice and enhancing clinicalknowledge. Reflective practice affects all levels of nursing, from students, to advanced practice nursing students, aswell as practicing nurses. Reflective practice is an important component of the nursing curriculum. Research has shown the relationship between student nurses and their mentors is vital. In order for reflection to be effective open-mindedness, courage, and a willingness to accept, and act on, criticism must be present (Bulmam, Lathlean, & Gobbi, 2012. This paper will explore the current literature and implications related to reflective practice in nursing.

  16. Reflectance Transfer for Material Editing and Relighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Hilton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to diffuse reflectance estimation for dynamic scenes. Non-parametric image statistics are used to transfer reflectance properties from a static example set to a dynamic image sequence. The approach allows diffuse reflectance estimation for surface materials with inhomogeneous appearance, such as those which commonly occur with patterned or textured clothing. Material editing is also possible by transferring edited reflectance properties. Material reflectance properties are initially estimated from static images of the subject under multiple directional illuminations using photometric stereo. The estimated reflectance together with the corresponding image under uniform ambient illumination form a prior set of reference material observations. Material reflectance properties are then estimated for video sequences of a moving person captured under uniform ambient illumination by matching the observed local image statistics to the reference observations. Results demonstrate that the transfer of reflectance properties enables estimation of the dynamic surface normals and subsequent relighting combined with material editing. This approach overcomes limitations of previous work on material transfer and relighting of dynamic scenes which was limited to surfaces with regions of homogeneous reflectance. We evaluate our approach for relighting 3D model sequences reconstructed from multiple view video. Comparison to previous model relighting demonstrates improved reproduction of detailed texture and shape dynamics.

  17. What makes a good reflective paper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Anne; Shapiro, Johanna; Ast, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Reflective papers are increasingly recognized as potentially important contributors to clinical education and practice; however, few quality guidelines are available for potential authors or reviewers. We sought to identify key characteristics of effective reflective papers and to clarify factors that increased or reduced the probability of acceptance for publication. A 10-item survey addressing the definition, purpose, and quality characteristics of reflective papers was developed based on a literature review and analysis of the author instructions of 14 journals that regularly publish reflective papers and are likely to be read by primary care physicians. The survey was sent electronically to the editor or associate editor responsible for reflective papers at each journal. Seven completed surveys were returned. The essential element defining a reflective paper was identified as narration of a specific professional experience that resonated with readers and conveyed deeper meaning. All respondents rated emotional engagement as very important, followed by stimulating reflection in the reader, providing a lesson applicable to patient care, and stimulating discussion with colleagues and/or learners. Reasons for acceptance or rejection of reflective submissions to journals were identified in issues related to writing style, topic selection, and reader reaction. Writing and reviewing reflective papers is strongly dependent on context, personal values, experience, and emotional reaction; nevertheless, core quality features can be identified to guide both writers and editors/reviewers without destroying the unique nature of these papers.

  18. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  19. Reflect: a practical approach to web semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, S.I.; Horn, Heiko; Pafilisa, E.

    2010-01-01

    : Reflect uses augmented browsing to allow end-users to add systematic semantic annotations to any web-page in real-time, typically within seconds. In this paper we describe the tagging process in detail and show how further entity types can be added to Reflect; we also describe how publishers and content...... providers can access Reflect programmatically using SOAP, REST (HTTP post), and JavaScript. Usage of Reflect has grown rapidly within the life sciences, and while currently only genes, protein and small molecule names are tagged, we plan to soon expand the scope to include a much broader range of terms (e...

  20. Support your local species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stärk, Johanna

    Nearly a quarter of all animal species within the European Union are threatened with extinction. Protecting many of these species will require the full spectrum of conservation actions from in-situ to ex-situ management. Holding an estimated 44% of EU Red Listed terrestrial vertebrates, zoos hereby...

  1. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  2. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  3. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  4. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  5. Biofilms of Clostridium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaléon, Véronique; Bouttier, Sylvie; Soavelomandroso, Anna Philibertine; Janoir, Claire; Candela, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The biofilm is a microbial community embedded in a synthesized matrix and is the main bacterial way of life. A biofilm adheres on surfaces or is found on interfaces. It protects bacteria from the environment, toxic molecules and may have a role in virulence. Clostridium species are spread throughout both environments and hosts, but their biofilms have not been extensively described in comparison with other bacterial species. In this review we describe all biofilms formed by Clostridium species during both industrial processes and in mammals where biofilms may be formed either during infections or associated to microbiota in the gut. We have specifically focussed on Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens biofilms, which have been studied in vitro. Regulatory processes including sporulation and germination highlight how these Clostridium species live in biofilms. Furthermore, biofilms may have a role in the survival and spreading of Clostridium species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The current status of species recognition and identification in Aspergillus

    OpenAIRE

    Geiser, D.M.; Klich, M A; Frisvad, J.C.; Peterson, S.W.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The species recognition and identification of aspergilli and their teleomorphs is discussed. A historical overview of the taxonomic concepts starting with the monograph of Raper & Fennell (1965) is given. A list of taxa described since 2000 is provided. Physiological characters, particularly growth rates and the production of extrolites, often show differences that reflect phylogenetic species boundaries and greater emphasis should be placed on extrolite profiles and growth characteristics in...

  7. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano; Brumm, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  8. A descending hierarchy of reflection principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper can best be viewed as a portrait in miniature of a fascinating structure: a. descending hierarchy of reflection principles. Ascending hierarchies of reflection principles are amply studied, e.g. in Feferman's great paper Transfinite Recursive Progressions of Axiomatic Theories (Feferman[l

  9. Reflections on the 1988 Education Reform Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    For this 50th anniversary edition, "FORUM" invited a group of readers, many of whom were teaching 20 years ago, to reflect on the implications of the 1988 Education Reform Act from a personal viewpoint. The resulting symposium brings together a rich, unique and often candid collection of thoughts and reflections written from a wide variety of…

  10. Focus on Learning: Reflective Learners & Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting simply put is the act of thinking about something while seeking a deeper level of understanding. Reflective practice is applying this thinking systematically by making questions, collecting data, and analysing it in order, not to prove something, but to comprehend and act upon reality. It is also an ongoing process that involves…

  11. Reflective Communication: Cultivating Mindsight through Nurturing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel J.; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates ideas about mindsight, developed by Daniel Siegel, with those of reflective supervision in the zero-to-three field. The authors explore how the flow of energy and information in the context of nurturing relationships through reflective supervision supports the capacity to develop mindsight. Mindsight is the ability to have…

  12. A Reflective Approach to Teaching Practicum Debriefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the teaching profession has embraced the notion of the teacher as reflective practitioner, which has led to an increased emphasis on teacher education programs offering learning experiences that model and encourage reflective practice. This qualitative instrumental case study research explored the usefulness, benefits, and…

  13. Spectral reflecting characteristics of dinas refractory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapechnikov, V.N.; Pushkin, V.T.; Zen' kovskii, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    This article outlines a nondestructive testing format which uses spectral reflectance to assess the remaining service life, the thermal degradation, and the insulating effectiveness of refractories used as insulating liners in glass melters. Thermal as well as mechanical influences on the reflectance behavior of several refractories are discussed.

  14. Collaborative Reflection activities with DynaLearn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Or-Bach, R.; Bredeweg, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of collaborative reflection. The reflection is anchored in a specially designed task related to several earlier students' assignments that dealt with the construction of scientific qualitative models using DynaLearn. Video analysis was used to explore the

  15. Laser reflectance: hazard in the dental operatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J; Miserendino, L

    1988-12-01

    Reflected CO2 laser light (10 W) is a hazard to oral and surrounding tissues at distances up to 7.0 cm from the focal point. We advise the use of low-reflective instruments and protective shielding during laser treatment.

  16. Reflection of light from an anisotropic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatovich, Filipp V

    2010-01-01

    We present here a general approach to treat reflection and refraction of light of arbitrary polarization from single axis anisotropic plates. We show that reflection from interface inside the anisotropic medium is accompanied by beam splitting and can create surface waves.

  17. Promoting Inquiry through Science Reflective Journal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towndrow, Phillip Alexander; Ling, Tan Aik; Venthan, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to detail how reflective journal writing can be used to facilitate science students' curiosity and engagement in laboratory work. This study advocates reflective journal writing as an instructional tool and a student-created learning resource that can serve additional formative assessment purposes. The…

  18. Reflective Writing's Synecdochic Imperative: Process Descriptions Redescribed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and teachers within the field of composition have long heralded the merits of reflective writing. Whether written intermittently throughout a course or near the end (typically in the genre of portfolio cover letter), reflective writing assignments are thought to promote cognitive development by helping students become more aware of their…

  19. Reflective writing: a user-friendly guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen

    2016-09-08

    Stephen Hamilton, Nurse Education Consultant, Business Services Organisation. In this piece, he outlines the nature of the process of reflection to allay concerns that registered nurses may have about the process, as well as dispel any myths surrounding the purpose of reflection.

  20. Fairness and Using Reflective Journals in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkeburn, Henriikka; Kettula, Kirsi

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at the fairness of assessing learning journals both as the fairness in creating a valid and robust marking process as well as how different student groups may have unfair disadvantages in performing well in reflective assessment tasks. The fairness of a marking process is discussed through reflecting on the practical process and…

  1. Self-reflection in nursing teacher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino-Kilpi, H

    1990-02-01

    The reality of health care is continuously changing. Therefore, nursing teachers have to encourage and promote a critical, inquiry-oriented approach to work. This demands self-reflection during the teacher education. Teaching training crystallizes the objectives of teacher education; the process of self-reflection should be seen especially there.

  2. Does learning to reflect make better modelers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slinger, J.H.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Van der Niet, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we address the role of reflective skills in the development and training of new System Dynamics modelers at the tertiary education level. Over the last two years students at the Delft University of Technology have written a reflective essay on their experiences with the conceptualizati

  3. Re-thinking reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    , and practitioners and students are expected to document this, typically in some sort of written record or portfolio. Thus, reflection is often limited to assessment issues, and the original idea of reflection as a modus of critical praxis is reversed and turned into a tool for control and orthodoxy (Kilminster et...

  4. Supporting reflective web searching in elementary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Bregje; Meij, van der Hans; Lazonder, Ard W.

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, two design experiments are presented in which reflective web searching is implemented in six elementary classrooms. Reflective web searching is viewed to comprise three steps: (1) develop ownership over search questions, (2) interpret and personalize web content, and (3) adapt

  5. Written Reflection: Creating Better Thinkers, Better Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber-Putnam, Dawn

    2000-01-01

    Describes three types of reflective writing assignments the author uses in her high school writing classes to create better writers who are actively involved in their own learning. Draws distinctions among the three (a writer's log, a draft letter, and a portfolio letter) and discusses the methods she uses to promote quality written reflections.…

  6. Stimulating reflection through engagement in social relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Verjans, Steven; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Rajagopal, K., Verjans, S., Van Bruggen, J., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Stimulating reflection through engagement in social relationships. In W. Reinhardt, T. D. Ullmann, P. Scott, V. Pammer, O. Conlan, & A. J. Berlanga (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in

  7. Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuenca, Bernardo; Verpoorten, Dominique; Stefaan, Ternier; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Tabuenca, B., Verpoorten, D., Stefaan, T., Westera, W., & Specht, M. (2012, September). Fostering reflective practice with mobile technologies. Presentation held at the 2nd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning (ARTEL)/EC-TEL 2012, Saarbrücken, Germany.

  8. A Reflective Conversation with James H. Borland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy-Lynne; Borland, James H.

    2014-01-01

    James H. Borland, Ph.D. is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York City. In this reflective conversation, he reflects on his experiences in an urban environment and the current challenges in gifted education. He argues for ongoing diagnosis of learners' needs without…

  9. On Reflective Teaching in Distance English Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yonghua

    2009-01-01

    Reflective teaching is the process in which the teacher keeps reflecting his teaching behavior so that he can put theory into practice and improve his teaching ability and it is also the process to which, more and more learners, researchers and teachers attach high importance.

  10. Reflections on Teaching Financial Statement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In her 2011 article "Towards a 'scholarship of teaching and learning': The individual and the communal journey," Ursula Lucas calls for more critical reflection on individual teaching experiences and encourages sharing such experiences with the wider academy. In this spirit Gary Entwistle reflects upon his experiences teaching financial…

  11. Stimulating reflection through engagement in social relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Verjans, Steven; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Rajagopal, K., Verjans, S., Van Bruggen, J., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Stimulating reflection through engagement in social relationships. In W. Reinhardt, T. D. Ullmann, P. Scott, V. Pammer, O. Conlan, & A. J. Berlanga (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Lear

  12. Methods and Strategies: The Reflective Assessment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cathleen; Long, Kathy; Camins, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often rely on student questions, their observations of students at work, and their own intuition to monitor how well students are learning. However, the authors found that teachers learn more about their students when they use the four-step Reflective Assessment Technique that draws on guided teacher reflections to inform classroom…

  13. Reflective Writing's Synecdochic Imperative: Process Descriptions Redescribed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and teachers within the field of composition have long heralded the merits of reflective writing. Whether written intermittently throughout a course or near the end (typically in the genre of portfolio cover letter), reflective writing assignments are thought to promote cognitive development by helping students become more aware of their…

  14. Reflective color STN-LCD technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Hisanori; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Ohtani, Toshiya; Sekime, Tomoaki; Hatanaka, Takayuki; Ogawa, Tetsu

    1998-04-01

    Reflective color STN-LCDs should be one of the most promising devices for mobile business tools (MBT), because the demand such as low cost, low power consumption, light weight and compact size is especially strong for this application. A reflective color STN-LCD with a single polarizer and double retardation films has been investigated. The double retardation films arranged in front of LC-layer enabled the LCD to contain reflective electrodes inside the panel. This configuration achieves the bright image with no parallax. A new construction of a reflective STN-LCD with a single polarizer has been decided by means of our own method in which the color difference (Delta) E* as the optimizing parameter has been used. Further, RGB color filters has been newly designed for our reflective LCD, and the aluminum (Al) layer has been introduced as reflective electrodes. As a result, we have realized 7.8-in.-diagonal refractive color STN-LCD(640 by 480) which has 15% reflectance, 1:14 contrast ratio, 4096 color capability and the sufficient color gamut. It has been confirmed that the single polarizer reflective color STN-LCD has sufficient enough performance for MBT use. We believe that it will be a key device for this application.

  15. Do cephalopods communicate using polarized light reflections from their skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Shashar, Nadav; Hanlon, Roger T

    2009-07-01

    Cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish and octopus) are probably best known for their ability to change color and pattern for camouflage and communication. This is made possible by their complex skin, which contains pigmented chromatophore organs and structural light reflectors (iridophores and leucophores). Iridophores create colorful and linearly polarized reflective patterns. Equally interesting, the photoreceptors of cephalopod eyes are arranged in a way to give these animals the ability to detect the linear polarization of incoming light. The capacity to detect polarized light may have a variety of functions, such as prey detection, navigation, orientation and contrast enhancement. Because the skin of cephalopods can produce polarized reflective patterns, it has been postulated that cephalopods could communicate intraspecifically through this visual system. The term 'hidden' or 'private' communication channel has been given to this concept because many cephalopod predators may not be able to see their polarized reflective patterns. We review the evidence for polarization vision as well as polarization signaling in some cephalopod species and provide examples that tend to support the notion--currently unproven--that some cephalopods communicate using polarized light signals.

  16. Extragastric Helicobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Hynes, S.; Wadstrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Helicobacter has expanded at a rapid pace and no fewer than 31 species have been named since the proposal of the genus in 1989. Of these 31 species, 22 are principally associated with extragastric niches and there is increasing interest in the role of these taxa in diseases of humans...... and animals. Substantial evidence attests to certain species playing a role in the pathogenesis of enteric, hepatic and biliary disorders and some taxa demonstrate zoonotic potential. The importance of extragastric Helicobacters is likely to be an important topic for research in the near future. Here...

  17. Reflection tomography in laterally varying media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, Phillip M.; Boehm, Gualtiero; Vesnaver, Aldo

    1993-12-31

    In this paper, we will discuss a separate reconstruction of lateral velocity gradients and reflection interfaces using the method of reflection tomography. We will be limited by inversion of traveltimes. As it is known such inversion may suffer from a significant drawback: ambiguity. This ambiguity is referred to as depth/velocity ambiguity which is especially notable in the case of non-vertical angles of propagation. In tomographic experiments this ambiguity is suppressed by finite angular aperture. The next problem is non-uniqueness. It will be shown that the lateral gradients of velocity and the depths to the reflection points can be uniquely recovered from surface seismic data in the reflection tomography experiments. Reflection data inversion is done via an optimization process which can be formulated either in the physical space of seismic velocities or in the dual space of Lagrangian multipliers. We compare both methods and show the advantages of the dual transform. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs

  18. Theoretical model and quantification of reflectance photometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua Huang; Youbao Zhang; Chengke Xie; Jianfeng Qu; Huijie Huang; Xiangzhao Wang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The surface morphology of lateral flow (LF) strip is examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the diffuse reflection of porous strip with or without nanogold particles is investigated.Based on the scattering and absorption of nanogold particles, a reflectance photometer is developed for quantification of LF strip with nanogold particles as reporter.The integration of reflection optical density is to indicate the signals of test line and control line.As an example, serial dilutions of microalbunminuria (MAU) solution are used to calibrate the performance of the reflectance photometer.The dose response curve is fitted with a four-parameter logistic mathematical model for the determination of an unknown MAU concentration.The response curve spans a dynamic range of 5 to 200 μg/ml.The developed reflectance photometer can realize simple and quantitative detection of analyte on nanogold-labeled LF strip.

  19. A Declarative Approach to Architectural Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2005-01-01

    Recent research shows runtime architectural reflection is instrumental in, for instance, building adaptive and flexible systems or checking correspondence between design and implementation. Moreover, experience with computational reflection in various branches of computer science shows that the i......Recent research shows runtime architectural reflection is instrumental in, for instance, building adaptive and flexible systems or checking correspondence between design and implementation. Moreover, experience with computational reflection in various branches of computer science shows...... is described. Specifically, our contributions are: (1) a presentation of the general idea of a query-based approach to architectural reflection, (2) a definition of an Architectural Query Language (AQL) in which perspectives on an architectural model can be expressed as queries, (3) a prototype of a system...

  20. Quasi-specular reflection from particulate media

    CERN Document Server

    Penttilä, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Specular reflection is known to play an important role in many fields of scattering applications, e.g., in remote sensing, computer graphics, optimization of visual appearance of industrial products. Usually it can be assumed that the object has a solid surface and that the properties of the surface will dictate the behavior of the specular component. In this study I will show that media consisting of wavelength-sized particles can also have a quasi-specular reflection in cases where there is ordered structure in the media. I will also show that the quasi-specular reflection in particulate media is more than just a surface effect, and planar particle arrangement below the very surface can give arise to quasi-specular reflection. This study shows that the quasi-specular reflection may contribute in some cases in the backscattering direction, together with coherent backscattering and shadow-hiding effects.

  1. Contribution of Chlorophyll Fluorescence to the Apparent Reflectance of Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Middleton, E. M.; Kim, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance (R) measurements, whi ch provide estimates of relative vegetation vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Vegetation chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) offers a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, monitoring of vegetation vigor based on CF may allow earlier stress detection and more accurate carbon sequestra tion estimates, than is possible using R data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contrib utions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of t his study is to determine the relative R and CF fractions contributing to Ra from the vegetation in the red to near-infrared region of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate t he relationship between CF and R at the foliar level for corn, soybean, maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established f or healthy (optimal N) vegetation changes under N defiiency. To obtai n generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (maple, soybean and corn), unde r controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization l evels. Optical R spectra and actively induced CF emissions were obtained on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of p hotosynthetic function, pigment levels, and C and N content. The comm on spectral trends or similarities were examined. On average, 10-20% of apparent R at 685 nm was actually due to CF. The spectral trends in steady and maximum F varied significantly, with Fs (especially red) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChF to R varied significantly among species, with maple emitting much higher F amounts, as

  2. Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Penney

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiders (Araneae are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant. Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa were compiled from current taxonomic catalogues. Data for extant taxa showed a steady linear increase of approximately 500 new species per year over the last decade, reflecting a rather constant research activity in this area by a large number of scientists, which can be expected to continue. The results for fossil species were very different, with peaks of new species descriptions followed by long troughs, indicating minimal new published research activity for most years. This pattern is indicative of short bursts of research by a limited number of authors. Given the frequent discovery of new fossil deposits containing spiders, a wealth of new material coming to light from previously worked deposits, and the application of new imaging techniques in palaeoarachnology that allow us to extract additional data from historical specimens, e.g. X-ray computed tomography, it is important not only to ensure a sustained research activity on fossil spiders (and other arachnids through training and enthusing the next generation of palaeoarachnologists, but preferably to promote increased research and expertise in this field.

  3. Mobility and Navigation among the Yucatec Maya: Sex Differences Reflect Parental Investment, Not Mating Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Kramer, Karen L; Davis, Helen E; Padilla, Lace; Greaves, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in range size and navigation are widely reported, with males traveling farther than females, being less spatially anxious, and in many studies navigating more effectively. One explanation holds that these differences are the result of sexual selection, with larger ranges conferring mating benefits on males, while another explanation focuses on greater parenting costs that large ranges impose on reproductive-aged females. We evaluated these arguments with data from a community of highly monogamous Maya farmers. Maya men and women do not differ in distance traveled over the region during the mate-seeking years, suggesting that mating competition does not affect range size in this monogamous population. However, men's regional and daily travel increases after marriage, apparently in pursuit of resources that benefit families, whereas women reduce their daily travel after marriage. This suggests that parental effort is more important than mating effort in this population. Despite the relatively modest overall sex difference in mobility, Maya men were less spatially anxious than women, thought themselves to be better navigators, and pointed more accurately to distant locations. A structural equation model showed that the sex by marital status interaction had a direct effect on mobility, with a weaker indirect effect of sex on mobility mediated by navigational ability.

  4. Geography, topography, and history affect realized-to-potential tree species richness patterns in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Normand, Signe

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions and biotic interactions are generally thought to influence local species richness. However, immigration and the evolutionary and historical factors that shape regional species pools should also contribute to determining local species richness because local communities arise...... a large proportion of the potential richness held in the regional species pool, partially reflecting their geographical, historical, and environmental circumstances. The dispersal-related effects of geographic fragmentation and accessibility exemplify regional controls that combine with local ecological...

  5. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  6. DENTURE WEARER: ALCALIGENES SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with Alcaligenes species infection in a patient using an upper single ... patient was HIV negative and VDRL screening for syphilis was also negative. ... status of denture and the underlying oral mucosal, to prevent opportunistic.

  7. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking...... the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... Zackenberg Basic, a newly initiated project is focusing on how the changes and variability in the physical environment affects the species phenology and composition, population dynamics and how species specific responses at different trophic levels are carried on to the inter-trophic dynamics of consumers...

  8. Fire Management Species Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  9. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore enviro

  10. Transport of larvae and detritus across the surf zone of a steep reflective pocket beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shanks, A.L.; MacMahan, J.; Morgan, S.G.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Jarvis, M.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.; Griesemer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Larvae of many intertidal species develop offshore and must cross the surf zone to complete their onshore migration to adult habitats. Depending on hydrodynamics, the surf zone may limit this migration, especially on reflective rocky shores. As a logistically tractable analog of a rocky shore

  11. Sub specie aeternitatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioeni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Per delineare il rapporto tra etica ed estetica nell'architettura e rispondere alla domanda principale «che cosa è o dovrebbe essere un buon architetto?», il saggio discute la tesi di Wittgenstein secondo cui «l'opera d'arte è l'oggetto visto sub specie aeternitatis e la vita buona è il mondo visto sub specie aeternitatis. Questa è la connessione tra arte ed etica».

  12. Developing a Reflective Practitioner through the Connection between Educational Research and Reflective Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Hinkhouse, Holly; Isbell, Leah

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the connection between qualitative research methods in education and teacher reflective practices as they relate to Valli's ("Reflective teacher education: cases and critiques." State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992; "Peabody J Educ" 72(1): 67-88, 1997) model of reflection. Using the authors' own experiences in…

  13. Joint loads in marsupial ankles reflect habitual bipedalism versus quadrupedalism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian J Carlson

    Full Text Available Joint surfaces of limb bones are loaded in compression by reaction forces generated from body weight and musculotendon complexes bridging them. In general, joints of eutherian mammals have regions of high radiodensity subchondral bone that are better at resisting compressive forces than low radiodensity subchondral bone. Identifying similar form-function relationships between subchondral radiodensity distribution and joint load distribution within the marsupial postcranium, in addition to providing a richer understanding of marsupial functional morphology, can serve as a phylogenetic control in evaluating analogous relationships within eutherian mammals. Where commonalities are established across phylogenetic borders, unifying principles in mammalian physiology, morphology, and behavior can be identified. Here, we assess subchondral radiodensity patterns in distal tibiae of several marsupial taxa characterized by different habitual activities (e.g., locomotion. Computed tomography scanning, maximum intensity projection maps, and pixel counting were used to quantify radiodensity in 41 distal tibiae of bipedal (5 species, arboreal quadrupedal (4 species, and terrestrial quadrupedal (5 species marsupials. Bipeds (Macropus and Wallabia exhibit more expansive areas of high radiodensity in the distal tibia than arboreal (Dendrolagus, Phascolarctos, and Trichosurus or terrestrial quadrupeds (Sarcophilus, Thylacinus, Lasiorhinus, and Vombatus, which may reflect the former carrying body weight only through the hind limbs. Arboreal quadrupeds exhibit smallest areas of high radiodensity, though they differ non-significantly from terrestrial quadrupeds. This could indicate slightly more compliant gaits by arboreal quadrupeds compared to terrestrial quadrupeds. The observed radiodensity patterns in marsupial tibiae, though their statistical differences disappear when controlling for phylogeny, corroborate previously documented patterns in primates and

  14. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Karoliina A.; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Fontanier, Christophe; Toyofuku, Takashi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-06-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific). The local bottom water oxygen (BWO) gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  15. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Koho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific. The local bottom water oxygen (BWO gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS, allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  16. The reflectance characteristics of snow covered surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data analysis techniques were developed to most efficiently use available satellite measurements to determine and understand components of the surface energy budget for ice and snow-covered areas. The emphasis is placed on identifying the important components of the heat budget related to snow surfaces, specifically the albedo and the energy consumed in the melting process. Ice and snow charts are prepared by NOAA from satellite observations which map areas into three relative reflectivity zones. Field measurements are analyzed of the reflectivity of an open snow field to assist in the interpretation of the NOAA reflectivity zones.

  17. Observation of reflectance fluctuations in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Takahisa; Aoki, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    Through the study of the power spectra of a monochromatic light beam reflected by metallic mirrors, fluctuations in their reflectance are observed. The power spectra were obtained down to a factor 10-6 below the standard quantum limit, with a dynamic range of 105 in frequency and power, using methods we developed. The properties of the spectra are investigated, and their dependence on the material is analyzed. The physics underlying the phenomenon is also discussed. These fluctuations provide a window into the degrees of freedom responsible for the reflection process in metals.

  18. Personal Professional Reflection as Interdisciplinary Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Oksana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of professional reflection as interdisciplinary problem is the necessary condition of quality analysis for personal professional becoming. Personal becoming in a profession is related to forming the necessary professional skills of a person, behaviour stereotypes which is the area of pedagogics. Reflection processes are inalienable part of self-knowledge of a person which result must lead to his self-perfection (including professional one and studying within the psychology increasingly. Thus the aim of the article is to ground the determination of professional reflection as an interdisciplinary problem in pedagogics and psychology.

  19. Spectral Reflectance of Palauan Reef-Building Coral with Different Symbionts in Response to Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Russell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectral reflectance patterns of corals are driven largely by the pigments of photosynthetic symbionts within the host cnidarian. The warm inshore bays and cooler offshore reefs of Palau share a variety of coral species with differing endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus: Symbiodinium, with the thermally tolerant Symbiodinium trenchii (S. trenchii (= type D1a or D1-4 predominating under the elevated temperature regimes inshore, and primarily Clade C types in the cooler reefs offshore. Spectral reflectance of two species of stony coral, Cyphastrea serailia (C. serailia and Pachyseris rugosa (P. rugosa, from both inshore and offshore locations shared multiple features both between sites and to similar global data from other studies. No clear reflectance features were evident which might serve as markers of thermally tolerant S. trenchii symbionts compared to the same species of coral with different symbionts. Reflectance from C. serailia colonies from inshore had a fluorescence peak at approximately 500 nm which was absent from offshore animals. Integrated reflectance across visible wavelengths had an inverse correlation to symbiont cell density and could be used as a relative indicator of the symbiont abundance for each type of coral. As hypothesized, coral colonies from offshore with Clade C symbionts showed a greater response to experimental heating, manifested as decreased symbiont density and increased reflectance or “bleaching” than their inshore counterparts with S. trenchii. Although no unique spectral features were found to distinguish species of symbiont, spectral differences related to the abundance of symbionts could prove useful in field and remote sensing studies.

  20. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  1. Observe-reflect-act: The cycle of reflective practice on questioning in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, Erica

    Countless studies have been conducted on questioning techniques in education. However, little research has been focused on the use of reflective practice in relation to teachers' questioning techniques in STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math education. Within this action research study of my own teaching, six lessons were taught, observed, and reflected upon. The main focus was on whether and how reflective practice influences questioning. Through the analysis of video footage, conversation transcriptions, reflective journal entries, pre-service teacher survey, and student work, the importance of different questioning techniques became apparent. They demonstrated that reflective practice has an impact on improving questioning skills and, thus, better engaging students in the learning process.

  2. Detection of temporal changes in insect body reflectance in response to killing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    Full Text Available Computer vision and reflectance-based analyses are becoming increasingly important methods to quantify and characterize phenotypic responses by whole organisms to environmental factors. Here, we present the first study of how a non-destructive and completely non-invasive method, body reflectance profiling, can be used to detect and time stress responses in adult beetles. Based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging, we acquired time series of average reflectance profiles (70 spectral bands from 434-876 nm from adults in two beetle species, maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais and larger black flour beetles (Cynaus angustus. For each species, we acquired reflectance data from untreated controls and from individuals exposed continuously to killing agents (an insecticidal plant extract applied to maize kernels or entomopathogenic nematodes applied to soil applied at levels leading to ≈100% mortality. In maize weevils (exposed to hexanic plant extract, there was no significant effect of the on reflectance profiles acquired from adult beetles after 0 and 12 hours of exposure, but a significant treatment response in spectral bands from 434 to 550 nm was detected after 36 to 144 hours of exposure. In larger black flour beetles, there was no significant effect of exposure to entomopathogenic nematodes after 0 to 26 hours of exposure, but a significant response in spectral bands from 434-480 nm was detected after 45 and 69 hours of exposure. Spectral bands were used to develop reflectance-based classification models for each species, and independent validation of classification algorithms showed sensitivity (ability to positively detect terminal stress in beetles and specificity (ability to positively detect healthy beetles of about 90%. Significant changes in body reflectance occurred at exposure times, which coincided with published exposure times and known physiological responses to each killing agent. The results from this study underscore the

  3. First reflections: third-year dentistry students' introduction to reflective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas-Dwyer, D R D; Abbott, P V; Boyd, N

    2013-02-01

    To develop both professionally and personally, health professionals need to build essential skills in reflective practice. Educators generally agree that these skills should be developed as part of curricula for health professional students. The aims were to introduce reflective practice to third-year dentistry students and to evaluate the students' self-perceived reflective skills before and after their reflective activities. Using a written questionnaire, third-year dentistry students' perceptions of reflective practice were gathered before and after their first clinic placement. Students also completed two reflective writing pieces about their clinical placements. The students' reflective writing pieces were allocated into one of the three categories: non-reflector, reflector and critical reflector. Content analysis of students' perceptions of reflective practice revealed nine themes. Eight main themes emerged from students' suggestions for improving their reflective abilities. Issues around the assessment of reflective writing are discussed, and students' suggestions for improving their reflective abilities are presented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. TITAN's multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Moritz Pascal; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    At the ISAC facility located at TRIUMF exotic nuclei are produced by the ISOL method. Exotic nuclei are separated by a magnetic separator and transported to TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). TITAN is a system of multiple ion traps for high precision mass measurements and in-trap decay spectroscopy. Although ISAC can deliver some of the highest yields for even many of the most exotic species many measurements suffer from a strong isobaric background. This background often prevents the high precision measurement of the species of interest. To overcome this limitation an additional isobar separator based on the Multiple-Reflection Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MR-TOF-MS) technique has been developed for TITAN. Mass selection is achieved using dynamic re-trapping of the species of interest after a time-of-flight analysis in an electrostatic isochronous reflector system. Additionally the MR-TOF-MS will, on its own, enable mass measurements of very short-lived nuclides that are weakly produced. Being able to measure all isobars of a given mass number at the same time the MR-TOF-MS can be used for beam diagnostics or determination of beam compositions. Results from the offline commissioning showing mass resolving power and separation power will be presented.

  5. Robust markers reflecting phylogeny and taxonomy of rhizobia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available Genomic ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity has been found to be able to replace DNA-DNA hybridization in prokaryote taxonomy. The ANI of each of the core genes that has a phylogeny congruent with the reference species tree of rhizobia was compared to the genomic ANI. This allowed us to identify three housekeeping genes (SMc00019-truA-thrA whose ANI reflected the intraspecies and interspecies genomic ANI among rhizobial strains, revealing an ANI gap (≥2% between the inter- and intra-species comparisons. The intraspecies (96% and interspecies (94% ANI boundaries calculated from three genes (SMc00019-truA-thrA provided a criterion for bacterial species definition and confirmed 621/629 of known interspecies relationships within Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium. Some widely studied strains should be renamed. The SMc00019-truA-thrA ANI also correlates well with the genomic ANI of strains in Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ralstonia, Rhodopseudomonas, Cupriavidus and Burkholderia, suggesting their wide applicability in other bacteria.

  6. Measurement of Refractive Index for High Reflectance Materials with Terahertz Time Domain Reflection Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wen-Feng; WANG Xin-Ke; ZHANG Yan

    2009-01-01

    A method to measure the refractive index for high reflectance materials in the terahertz range with terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy is proposed. In this method, the THz waveforms reflected by a silicon wafer and high reflectance sample are measured respectively. The refractive index of the silicon wafer, measured with the THz time domain transmission spectroscopy, is used as a reference in the THz time domain reflective spectroscopy. Therefore, the complex refractive index of the sample can be obtained by resorting to the known reflective index of the silicon and the Fresnel law. To improve the accuracy of the phase shift, the Kramers-Kronig transform is adopted. This method is also verified by the index of the silicon in THz reflection spectroscopy. The bulk metal plates have been taken as the sample, and the experimentally obtained metallic refractive indexes are compared with the simple Drude model.

  7. Putting the biological species concept to the test: using mating networks to delimit species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lélia Lagache

    Full Text Available Although interfertility is the key criterion upon which Mayr's biological species concept is based, it has never been applied directly to delimit species under natural conditions. Our study fills this gap. We used the interfertility criterion to delimit two closely related oak species in a forest stand by analyzing the network of natural mating events between individuals. The results reveal two groups of interfertile individuals connected by only few mating events. These two groups were largely congruent with those determined using other criteria (morphological similarity, genotypic similarity and individual relatedness. Our study, therefore, shows that the analysis of mating networks is an effective method to delimit species based on the interfertility criterion, provided that adequate network data can be assembled. Our study also shows that although species boundaries are highly congruent across methods of species delimitation, they are not exactly the same. Most of the differences stem from assignment of individuals to an intermediate category. The discrepancies between methods may reflect a biological reality. Indeed, the interfertility criterion is an environment-dependant criterion as species abundances typically affect rates of hybridization under natural conditions. Thus, the methods of species delimitation based on the interfertility criterion are expected to give results slightly different from those based on environment-independent criteria (such as the genotypic similarity criteria. However, whatever the criterion chosen, the challenge we face when delimiting species is to summarize continuous but non-uniform variations in biological diversity. The grade of membership model that we use in this study appears as an appropriate tool.

  8. Species Delimitation and Lineage Separation History of a Species Complex of Aspens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Honglei; Fan, Liqiang; Milne, Richard I; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yaling; Mao, Kangshan

    2017-01-01

    Species delimitation in tree species is notoriously challenging due to shared polymorphisms among species. An integrative survey that considers multiple operational criteria is a possible solution, and we aimed to test it in a species complex of aspens in China. Genetic [four chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments and 14 nuclear microsatellite loci (nSSR)] and morphological variations were collected for 76 populations and 53 populations, respectively, covering the major geographic distribution of the Populus davidiana-rotundifolia complex. Bayesian clustering, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA), ecological niche modeling (ENM), and gene flow (migrants per generation), were employed to detect and test genetic clustering, morphological and habitat differentiation, and gene flow between/among putative species. The nSSR data and ENM suggested that there are two separately evolving meta-population lineages that correspond to P. davidiana (pd) and P. rotundifolia (pr). Furthermore, several lines of evidence supported a subdivision of P. davidiana into Northeastern (NEC) and Central-North (CNC) groups, yet they are still functioning as one species. CpDNA data revealed that five haplotype clades formed a pattern of [pdNEC, ((pdCNC, pr), (pdCNC, pr))], but most haplotypes are species-specific. Meanwhile, PCA based on morphology suggested a closer relationship between the CNC group (P. davidiana) and P. rontundifolia. Discrepancy of nSSR and ENM vs. cpDNA and morphology could have reflected a complex lineage divergence and convergence history. P. davidiana and P. rotundifolia can be regarded as a recently diverged species pair that experienced parapatric speciation due to ecological differentiation in the face of gene flow. Our findings highlight the importance of integrative surveys at population level, as we have undertaken, is an important approach to detect the boundary of a group of species that have experienced complex evolutionary

  9. Reflectance Spectral Characteristics of Lunar Surface Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Liao Zou; Jian-Zhong Liu; Jian-Jun Liu; Tao Xu

    2004-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive analysis of the mineral composition of major lunar rocks (highland anorthosite, lunar mare basalt and KREEP rock), we investigate the reflectance spectral characteristics of the lunar rock-forming minerals, including feldspar, pyroxene and olivine. The affecting factors, the variation of the intensity of solar radiation with wavelength and the reflectance spectra of the lunar rocks are studied. We also calculate the reflectivity of lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite at 300 nm, 415 nm, 750 nm, 900 nm, 950 nm and 1000 nm.It is considered that the difference in composition between lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite is so large that separate analyses are needed in the study of the reflectivity of lunar surface materials in the two regions covered by mare basalt and highland anorthosite, and especially in the region with high Th contents, which may be the KREEP-distributed region.

  10. A spectral invariant representation of spectral reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelhameed; Tominaga, Shoji; Horiuchi, Takahiko

    2011-03-01

    Spectral image acquisition as well as color image is affected by several illumination factors such as shading, gloss, and specular highlight. Spectral invariant representations for these factors were proposed for the standard dichromatic reflection model of inhomogeneous dielectric materials. However, these representations are inadequate for other characteristic materials like metal. This paper proposes a more general spectral invariant representation for obtaining reliable spectral reflectance images. Our invariant representation is derived from the standard dichromatic reflection model for dielectric materials and the extended dichromatic reflection model for metals. We proof that the invariant formulas for spectral images of natural objects preserve spectral information and are invariant to highlights, shading, surface geometry, and illumination intensity. It is proved that the conventional spectral invariant technique can be applied to metals in addition to dielectric objects. Experimental results show that the proposed spectral invariant representation is effective for image segmentation.

  11. Contemplative interaction: alternating between immersion and reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2005-01-01

    the user alternate between reflection and immersion. By analysing two interactive artefacts, an artwork and a design proposal, this paper investigates how contemplation appears in and can be transferred to interactive artefacts aimed at providing seductive, fun and interesting experiences....

  12. Reflections on our Model Validation editorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    2012-01-01

    This reprinted editorial from 1993 helps to celebrate the legacy of ideas that have influenced generations of hydrogeologists. Drs. Bredehoeft and Konikow kindly provided the following reflections on their editorial.

  13. SAW reflection and scattering by electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-biao; HAN Tao; ZHANG Xiao-dong; WU Hao-dong; SHUI Yong-an

    2005-01-01

    A rigorous analysis of surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflection and scattering by electrodes is of paramount importance in the design of SAW identification tags and sensors. In this paper, a new method based on Green's function concept is used to study reflection and scattering coefficients. By this method the reflection coefficient with its phase angle, transmission coefficient, and bulk wave scattering coefficient, can be obtained rapidly and accurately. To get precise result, the influence of static charge must be taken into account. In the work, we successfully cancelled out the effect of static charge and the validity of the results was checked. As an example, the reflection, transmission and scattering coefficients ora single grounded electrode on 128°YX LiNbO3 is shown.

  14. Anti-Secession Law Reflects Common Will

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏远

    2005-01-01

    @@ Chinese top legislator Wu Bangguo on Dec.29, 2004 promised that the 10th National People's Congress (NPC) would do its best to fully reflect the common will of all Chinese people in making the anti-secession law.

  15. Trained to Be Reflective Interpreter Trainees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2015-01-01

    The thesis aims to provide the interpreter trainees with an effective way of learning during and after their training process by observing and explaining how the learning as well as practice is promoted effectively and consciously through reflective activities.

  16. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  17. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  18. Reflective portfolios support learning, personal growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflective portfolios support learning, personal growth and competency achievement ... However, their value in postgraduate education is uncertain. ... Two major themes were explored – the benefit of the portfolio to the student and to faculty.

  19. Half a Century: Reflections and Reaffirmations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersand, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Relates personal experiences in teaching English, provides an overview of the articles in this journal issue, and reflects on the importance of television and the mass media as aids in English instruction. (GT)

  20. Asymptotic theory for spiral wave reflections

    CERN Document Server

    Langham, Jacob; Barkley, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Resonantly forced spiral waves in excitable media drift in straight-line paths, their rotation centers behaving as point-like objects moving along trajectories with a constant velocity. Interaction with medium boundaries alters this velocity and may often result in a reflection of the drift trajectory. Such reflections have diverse characteristics and are known to be highly non-specular in general. In this context we apply the theory of response functions, which via numerically computable integrals, reduces the reaction-diffusion equations governing the whole excitable medium to the dynamics of just the rotation center and rotation phase of a spiral wave. Spiral reflection trajectories are computed by this method for both small and large-core spiral waves. Such calculations provide insight into the process of reflection as well as explanations for differences in trajectories across parameters, including the effects of incidence angle and forcing amplitude. Qualitative aspects of these results are preserved fa...

  1. Reflective Assessment Materials for ELT Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cecilia W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of reflective analysis by English-as-a-Foreign-Language teachers in training. Describes an assessment instrument devised to develop participants' self awareness during their training. (Author/VWL)

  2. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, José A; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Hook, Simon J; Baldridge, Alice; Ibañez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 microm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  3. Reflecting on Research Practices and Indigenous Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflecting on Research Practices and Indigenous Community Benefits for Poverty ... of various research projects within indigenous communities that brought forth ... Best research practices as well as practices that do not yield much success ...

  4. Lamont Doherty Seismic Reflection Scanned Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains single channel seismic reflection profiles as provided to NGDC by Lamont Doherty Earh Observatory (LDEO). The profiles were originally...

  5. Students’ Reflections on Writing in ESP

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Kavaliauskienė; Jelena Suchanova; Deimantė Veličkienė

    2012-01-01

    Active participation of students in the self-evaluation of their learning and the development of reflective thinking are the key features of successful learning. This research is aimed at investigating influence of students’ self-assessment on writing in English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The study employed a survey on the usefulness of different written tasks and students‘ reflections on their benefits to language mastery. The assignments included various contributions to portfolios such a...

  6. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian; Kipling, Kent

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  7. Philosophical reflections on diversity and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach-Viadas, C

    1997-01-01

    Caring reflections on diversity and universality originate "in that time so new and so unlike any other before...", of the Discovery of America, where an exceptional encounter with difference brought together two unknown halves of humanity and the commencement of modernity. A reflective comparison describes Diversity and Universality as previous models of Other and Self inducing a philosophical way of considering caring while associating two fundamental principles: the equality of cultures and the recognition of their cultural differences.

  8. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  9. Conflicting values in reflection on professional practice

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Sabina; Costley, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of reflection as a tool of enquiry within the context of higher education work based learning. The aim of the study is to investigate how reflection on professional practice brings about a review of the values underpinning that practice. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected from a group of undergraduate students undertaking their studies by work based learning in the area of management in a Scottish University. ...

  10. Comparison of specularly reflecting mirrors for GRANIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38042 (France)]. E-mail: nesvizhevsky@ill.eu; Pignol, G. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourrier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (France); Protasov, K.V. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourrier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (France); Quemener, G. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourrier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (France); Forest, D. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Ganau, P. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Mackowski, J.M. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Michel, Ch. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Montorio, J.L. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Morgado, N. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Pinard, L. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Remillieux, A. [LMA, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France)

    2007-08-01

    The specularity of ultracold neutron reflection was compared for different 'promising' surfaces, including sapphire, silica, silica with carbon (diamond-like), and copper coatings with very small roughness. The probability of total losses of ultracold neutrons (UCN) from a specular trajectory was dominated by diffusive (non-specular) elastic scattering of UCN. In all the cases considered the quality of reflection was sufficiently high for storage of UCN at specular trajectories for the first stage of GRANIT experiment.

  11. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity. Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic featur...

  12. A Reflected Terahertz-Emission Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-Ping; YAN Wei; WANG Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ A novel reflected terahertz-emission microscopy is proposed and developed for improving the spatial resolution of THz imaging. When attaching a bow-tie antenna directly onto a thin generation crystal, the reflected THz waves can be collected and detected by a photoconductive antenna, and the spatial resolution is decided by the diameter of focused pump beam. In this way, the detected resolution can be largely improved and tunable. The configuration and characteristics of this microscopy are described in detail.

  13. Tunability of Nonuniform Reflection Holographic Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanhong You(游善红); Xinwan Li(李新碗); Jianhong Wu(吴建宏); Zongmin Yin(殷宗敏); Minxue Tang(唐敏学)

    2003-01-01

    The tunability of nonuniform reflection holographic filter is investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the reflection holographic filter has not only high optical density and narrow bandwidth, but also good tunability. The coupled wave theoretical model for uniform medium is compared with the model for nonuniform medium. It is identified that the coincidence of the theoretical results of the nonuniform model with the experimental results are better than that of the uniform model.

  14. Experiential reflective learning and comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nehyba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of experiential reflective learning. Firstlyit aims to discuss the concept of comfort zone in this area. It goes beyond the usualdefinition of the domestic comfort zone and it reflects in terms of experiential reflectivelearning in the world. The conclusions point to possible parallels with the concept ofcomfort zones and K. Lewin theory. Overall, the article focuses on topics that help toexpand the view on the issue of comfort zone.

  15. Concepts of keystone species and species importance in ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discussed the keystone species concept and introduced the typical characteristics of keystone species and their identification in communities or ecosystems. Based on the research of the keystone species, the concept of species importance (SI) was first advanced in this paper. The species importance can be simply understood as the important value of species in the ecosystem, which consists of three indexes: species structural important value (SIV), functional important value (FIV) and dynamical important value (DIV). With the indexes, the evaluation was also made on species importance of arbor trees in the Three-Hardwood forests (Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, and Phellodendron amurense) ecosystem.

  16. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  17. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...

  18. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  19. Reflection a neglected art in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Evaluation and quality assurance have, over time, become the bedrock of health promotion practice in ensuring effectiveness and efficiency of programme planning and delivery. There has been less emphasis, however, on formal recognition of the contribution of the personal characteristics and perspectives of those who plan and deliver programmes and to the more subtle underlying effects of prevailing societal and professional norms. This paper seeks to highlight the neglect of formal reflection as a key professional skill in professional health promotion practice. It outlines key theories underpinning the development of the concepts of reflection and reflective practice. The role of reflection in critical health education as it contributes to critical consciousness raising is highlighted through its contribution to the empowerment of change agents in a societal change context. A conceptual typology of reflective practice is described which provides a flexible structure with which professionals can reflect on the role of self, the context and the process of health promotion programme planning. Its use is illustrated from the author's published work in health promotion which is related to prevention of workplace violence.

  20. Students’ Reflections on Writing in ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Active participation of students in the self-evaluation of their learning and the development of reflective thinking are the key features of successful learning. This research is aimed at investigating influence of students’ self-assessment on writing in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study employed a survey on the usefulness of different written tasks and students‘ reflections on their benefits to language mastery. The assignments included various contributions to portfolios such as essays, summaries of professional texts, outlines of oral presentations, creative computer tasks as well as students‘ written self-assessment notes, i.e. their reflections on various classroom activities. The research involved the students who study Social Sciences at Mykolas Romeris University. The results demonstrated that self-assessment was beneficial to students’ linguistic development. The reflections reveal the attitudes to various assignments and judgments of their usefulness in learning. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with specific difficulties and improve the quality of teaching. Training learners to reflect on learning outcomes is beneficial from the perspective of lifelong learning.

  1. Reflection processing of crosshole GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Tronicke, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Crosshole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are frequently used for obtaining a detailed understanding of the subsurface as it is required in many hydrological and engineering applications. Such surveys are typically evaluated based on various tomographic approaches resulting in smoothed models of the governing subsurface physical parameters. On the contrary, reflection-based imaging methods provide information on subsurface structures by interpreting distinct reflection events originating from subsurface interfaces. Therefore, both methods provide complementary information for subsurface characterization. However, the additional information originating from reflected events is rarely used to improve the interpretation of crosshole GPR data sets. We present a processing approach for crosshole GPR data that provides a subsurface image of the reflected energy between two boreholes. Our approach is largely based on concepts known from crosshole seismic imaging at the reservoir scale. Our major processing steps include the application of fk-based wavefield separation of up- and down going events and the application of a generalized form of the Kirchhoff integral to migrate the reflected energy back to its origin. We evaluate our processing approach using synthetic examples of varying complexity and demonstrate its applicability to a field data example recorded at a well known geophysical testing site. Furthermore, we compare our reflection processing result with the results of a travel-time tomography.

  2. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-08-01

    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3deg, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 10 5:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirrorreg, Melinexreg and Tyvekreg. Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

  3. Reflective and refractive objects for mixed reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Martin; Traxler, Christoph; Winklhofer, Christoph; Wimmer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel rendering method which integrates reflective or refractive objects into a differential instant radiosity (DIR) framework usable for mixed-reality (MR) applications. This kind of objects are very special from the light interaction point of view, as they reflect and refract incident rays. Therefore they may cause high-frequency lighting effects known as caustics. Using instant-radiosity (IR) methods to approximate these high-frequency lighting effects would require a large amount of virtual point lights (VPLs) and is therefore not desirable due to real-time constraints. Instead, our approach combines differential instant radiosity with three other methods. One method handles more accurate reflections compared to simple cubemaps by using impostors. Another method is able to calculate two refractions in real-time, and the third method uses small quads to create caustic effects. Our proposed method replaces parts in light paths that belong to reflective or refractive objects using these three methods and thus tightly integrates into DIR. In contrast to previous methods which introduce reflective or refractive objects into MR scenarios, our method produces caustics that also emit additional indirect light. The method runs at real-time frame rates, and the results show that reflective and refractive objects with caustics improve the overall impression for MR scenarios.

  4. Investigations of boreal forest bidirectional reflectance factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H. Peter

    To monitor the Earth's biosphere using satellites, remote sensing science must develop robust forest reflectance models with which to extract canopy properties such as leaf area index, biomass, and percentage canopy cover from observed canopy reflectance values. At present such algorithms are generally based on regression equations which have been derived and evaluated at localized areas of solar zenith and view angles, and incorporate a priori knowledge of the scene. Of particular interest here is the treatment of the understorey which has distinct spectral reflectance properties. Recent studies suggest this layer in the boreal ecosphere has a significant influence on the CO2 budget during the northern growing season. Previous treatments of this layer in canopy reflectance models have been limited, often treating the layer as either non-reflecting, or isotropic with the same average reflectance as the overstorey. In-field observations demonstrate that this isn't the case. The recently developed Four-Scale Model [Chen and Leblanc, 1997] provides a new description of canopy reflectance that considers four levels of canopy architecture, the distributions of tree crowns, branches, shoots, and leaves. In doing so, the four proportions of sunlit and shaded overstorey and understorey are determined and treated as relevant contributors to the overall canopy reflectance. One purpose of this study is to examine the potential of further developing this model into a linear kernel form suitable for inversion, providing both the ability to extrapolate from observed reflectance values at certain view/illumination geometries to canopy BRF at other geometries and to allow extraction of information about the canopy based on observed BRF values. The FLAIR model (F_our- Scale L_inear Kernel Model for A_ni_sotropic R_eflectance) is the result of this development, following the philosophy that the model must remain applicable to a wide range of canopy types, understorey conditions, and

  5. A new species of Curvularia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der H.A.

    1967-01-01

    Curvularia papendorfii, isolated from South African soil, is described as a new species. This species is characterized by greater overall dimensions than in any of the known species, and a hilum to the spore that is not protuberant at all.

  6. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance....... Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  7. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...

  8. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  9. Contrasting phenotypic plasticity in the photoprotective strategies of the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis and the coexisting native species Crithmum maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, Erola; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Photoprotective strategies vary greatly within the plant kingdom and reflect a plant's physiological status and capacity to cope with environment variations. The plasticity and intensity of these responses may determine plant success. Invasive species are reported to show increased vigor to displace native species. Describing the mechanisms that confer such vigor is essential to understanding the success of invasive species. We performed an experiment whereby two species were monitored: Carpobrotus edulis, an aggressive invasive species in the Mediterranean basin, and Crithmum maritimum, a coexisting native species in the Cap de Creus Natural Park (NE Spain). We analyzed their photoprotective responses to seasonal environmental dynamics by comparing the capacity of the invader to respond to the local environmental stresses throughout the year. Our study analyses ecophysiological markers and photoprotective strategies to gain an insight into the success of invaders. We found that both species showed completely different but effective photoprotective strategies: in summer, C. edulis took special advantage of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the success of C. maritimum in summer stemmed from morphological changes and alterations on β-carotene content. Winter also presented differences between the species, as the native showed reduced Fv /Fm ratios. Our experimental design allowed us to introduce a new approach to compare phenotypic plasticity: the integrated phenotypic plasticity index (PPint ), defined as the maximum Euclidian distance between phenotypes, using a combination of different variables to describe them. This index revealed significantly greater phenotypic plasticity in the invasive species compared to the native species. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. How Gaussian competition leads to lumpy or uniform species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Lopez, Cristóbal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    A central model in theoretical ecology considers the competition of a range of species for a broad spectrum of resources. Recent studies have shown that essentially two different outcomes are possible. Either the species surviving competition are more or less uniformly distributed over the resource...... uniform or lumped species distributions. Here, we illustrate the non-robustness of the Gaussian assumption by simulating different implementations of the standard competition model with constant carrying capacity. In this scenario, lumped species distributions can come about by secondary ecological...... spectrum, or their distribution is “lumped” (or “clumped”), consisting of clusters of species with similar resource use that are separated by gaps in resource space. Which of these outcomes will occur crucially depends on the competition kernel, which reflects the shape of the resource utilization pattern...

  11. Coevolution of Symbiotic Species

    CERN Document Server

    Leok, B T M

    1996-01-01

    This paper will consider the coevolution of species which are symbiotic in their interaction. In particular, we shall analyse the interaction of squirrels and oak trees, and develop a mathematical framework for determining the coevolutionary equilibrium for consumption and production patterns.

  12. Reflecting optics in the diverticular eye of a deep-sea barreleye fish (Rhynchohyalus natalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, J C; Douglas, R H; Marshall, N J; Chung, W-S; Jordan, T M; Wagner, H-J

    2014-05-01

    We describe the bi-directed eyes of a mesopelagic teleost fish, Rhynchohyalus natalensis, that possesses an extensive lateral diverticulum to each tubular eye. Each diverticulum contains a mirror that focuses light from the ventro-lateral visual field. This species can thereby visualize both downwelling sunlight and bioluminescence over a wide field of view. Modelling shows that the mirror is very likely to be capable of producing a bright, well focused image. After Dolichopteryx longipes, this is only the second description of an eye in a vertebrate having both reflective and refractive optics. Although superficially similar, the optics of the diverticular eyes of these two species of fish differ in some important respects. Firstly, the reflective crystals in the D. longipes mirror are derived from a tapetum within the retinal pigment epithelium, whereas in R. natalensis they develop from the choroidal argentea. Secondly, in D. longipes the angle of the reflective crystals varies depending on their position within the mirror, forming a Fresnel-type reflector, but in R. natalensis the crystals are orientated almost parallel to the mirror's surface and image formation is dependent on the gross morphology of the diverticular mirror. Two remarkably different developmental solutions have thus evolved in these two closely related species of opisthoproctid teleosts to extend the restricted visual field of a tubular eye and provide a well-focused image with reflective optics.

  13. Dispersal, edaphic fidelity and speciation in species-rich Western Australian shrublands : evaluating a neutral model of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry, G. L. W.; Enright, N. J.; Miller, B. P.; Lamont, B. B.; Etienne, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, the number of species in a community reflects the balance between the rate of speciation and the rate of extinction. Over shorter time-scales local species richness is also affected by how often species move into and out of the local community. These processes are at the hear

  14. Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, E; Perrot, J L; Labeille, B; Cambazard, F

    2016-05-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution emerging imaging technique that allows non-invasive diagnosis of several cutaneous disorders. A systematic review of the literature on the use of RCM for the study of infections and infestations has been performed to evaluate the current use of this technique and its possible future applications in this field. RCM is particularly suitable for the identification of Sarcoptes scabies, Demodex folliculorum, Ixodes, Dermatophytes and Candida species in the clinical practice and for the follow-up after treatment. The cytopathic effect of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and molluscipoxvirus is also detectable by this imaging technique even in a pre-vesicular stage. In addition, thanks to its non-invasiveness, RCM allows pathophysiological studies.

  15. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-04-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surface heights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection zone the measurements may derive parameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading. The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS on the International Space Station, are focusing on GNSS ocean reflection measurements. Thus, simulation studies highlighting the assumptions for the data retrievals and the precision and the accuracy of such measurements are of interest for assessing the observational method. The theory of propagation of microwaves in the atmosphere is well established, and methods for propagation modeling range from ray tracing to numerical solutions to the wave equation. Besides ray tracing there are propagation methods that use mode theory and a finite difference solution to the parabolic equation. The presented propagator is based on the solution of the parabolic equation. The parabolic equation in our simulator is solved using the split-step sine transformation. The Earth's surface is modeled with the use of an impedance model. The value of the Earth impedance is given as a function of the range along the surface of the Earth. This impedance concept gives an accurate lower boundary condition in the determination of the electromagnetic field, and makes it possible to simulate reflections and the effects of transitions between different mediums. A semi-isotropic Philips spectrum is used to represent the air-sea interaction. Simulated GPS ocean surface reflections will be presented and discussed based on different ocean characteristics. The spectra of the simulated surface reflections will be analyzed

  16. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  17. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2016-08-01

    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.

  18. Metaphor-reflection in my healthcare experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA K. SCHWIND

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By exploring personal narratives through metaphoric images, students and nurses increase their understanding of who they are as persons and how that self-knowledge impacts their professional relationships with those in their care. In this article I share how I use metaphor-reflection in various aspects of my healthcare involvement. As a patient many years ago, metaphors helped me apprehend the meaning of cancer in my life. Today, as a nurse-teacher and researcher, I guide students through professional self-discovery using narrative reflective process that incorporates metaphors. In clinical practice I work with nurses as they explore how narrative reflection informs their caregiver-carereceiver interactions. With expanded self-awareness nurses have the potential to further assist their patients in exploring the meaning of their illness events through metaphors, thus enhancing the integration of that traumatic event into their respective lives. By working reflectively with metaphoric images, my hope for this writing is that my own engagement in narrative metaphor-reflection encourages the readers to story their own world in a more meaningful way.

  19. Matrix methods for reflective inverse diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgi, Kenneth W.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Nauyoks, Stephen E.; Oxley, Mark E.

    2016-09-01

    Reflective inverse diffusion is a method of refocusing light scattered by a rough surface. An SLM is used to shape the wavefront of a HeNe laser at 632.8-nm wavelength to produce a converging phase front after reflection. Iterative methods previously demonstrated intensity enhancements of the focused spot over 100 times greater than the surrounding background speckle. This proof-of-concept method was very time consuming and the algorithm started over each time the desired location of the focus spot in the observation plane was moved. Transmission matrices have been developed to control light scattered by transmission through a turbid media. Time varying phase maps are applied to an SLM and used to interrogate the phase scattering properties of the material. For each phase map, the resultant speckle intensity pattern is recorded less than 1 mm from the material surface and represents an observation plane of less than 0.02 mm2. Fourier transforms are used to extract the phase scattering properties of the material from the intensity measurements. We investigate the effectiveness this method for constructing the reflection matrix (RM) of a diffuse reflecting medium where the propagation distances and observation plane are almost 1,000 times greater than the previous work based on transmissive scatter. The RM performance is based on its ability to refocus reflectively scattered light to a single focused spot or multiple foci in the observation plane. Diffraction-based simulations are used to corroborate experimental results.

  20. Cognitive Reflection Versus Calculation in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr eSinayev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scores on the three-item Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT have been linked with dual-system theory and normative decision making (Frederick, 2005. In particular, the CRT is thought to measure monitoring of System 1 intuitions such that, if cognitive reflection is high enough, intuitive errors will be detected and the problem will be solved. However, CRT items also require numeric ability to be answered correctly and it is unclear how much numeric ability vs. cognitive reflection contributes to better decision making. In two studies, CRT responses were used to calculate Cognitive Reflection and numeric ability; a numeracy scale was also administered. Numeric ability, measured on the CRT or the numeracy scale, accounted for the CRT’s ability to predict more normative decisions (a subscale of decision-making competence, incentivized measures of impatient and risk-averse choice, and self-reported financial outcomes; Cognitive Reflection contributed no independent predictive power. Results were similar whether the two abilities were modeled (Study 1 or calculated using proportions (Studies 1 and 2. These findings demonstrate numeric ability as a robust predictor of superior decision making across multiple tasks and outcomes. They also indicate that correlations of decision performance with the CRT are insufficient evidence to implicate overriding intuitions in the decision-making biases and outcomes we examined. Numeric ability appears to be the key mechanism instead.

  1. A three-step method of self-reflection using reflective journal writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Doucet, C; Wilson, S

    1997-05-01

    Fiscal and financial constraints present a challenge for nurse educators to broaden the diversity and scope of teaching/learning methodologies. One method designed to promote autonomy and self-direction of nursing students is self-reflection combined with reflective journal writing. This paper describes a three-step process of self-reflection encompassing critical appraisal, peer group discussion and self-awareness. This process of self-reflection was initiated with one group of clinical nursing students. Using student and teacher feedback, implications for employing this teaching/learning strategy in clinical practice are suggested.

  2. Improving reflectance reconstruction from tristimulus values by adaptively combining colorimetric and reflectance similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Yasheng; Cheng, Haobo

    2017-05-01

    The use of spectral reflectance as fundamental color information finds application in diverse fields related to imaging. Many approaches use training sets to train the algorithm used for color classification. In this context, we note that the modification of training sets obviously impacts the accuracy of reflectance reconstruction based on classical reflectance reconstruction methods. Different modifying criteria are not always consistent with each other, since they have different emphases; spectral reflectance similarity focuses on the deviation of reconstructed reflectance, whereas colorimetric similarity emphasizes human perception. We present a method to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed spectral reflectance by adaptively combining colorimetric and spectral reflectance similarities. The different exponential factors of the weighting coefficients were investigated. The spectral reflectance reconstructed by the proposed method exhibits considerable improvements in terms of the root-mean-square error and goodness-of-fit coefficient of the spectral reflectance errors as well as color differences under different illuminants. Our method is applicable to diverse areas such as textiles, printing, art, and other industries.

  3. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Nemeth

    Full Text Available The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia. In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  4. Changes in brain morphology in albinism reflect reduced visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Holly; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; Davies, George; Chambers, Claire; Gouws, Andre; Hoffmann, Michael; Morland, Antony B

    2014-07-01

    Albinism, in humans and many animal species, has a major impact on the visual system, leading to reduced acuity, lack of binocular function and nystagmus. In addition to the lack of a foveal pit, there is a disruption to the routing of the nerve fibers crossing at the optic chiasm, resulting in excessive crossing of fibers to the contralateral hemisphere. However, very little is known about the effect of this misrouting on the structure of the post-chiasmatic visual pathway, and the occipital lobes in particular. Whole-brain analyses of cortical thickness in a large cohort of subjects with albinism showed an increase in cortical thickness, relative to control subjects, particularly in posterior V1, corresponding to the foveal representation. Furthermore, mean cortical thickness across entire V1 was significantly greater in these subjects compared to controls and negatively correlated with visual acuity in albinism. Additionally, the group with albinism showed decreased gyrification in the left ventral occipital lobe. While the increase in cortical thickness in V1, also found in congenitally blind subjects, has been interpreted to reflect a lack of pruning, the decreased gyrification in the ventral extrastriate cortex may reflect the reduced input to the foveal regions of the ventral visual stream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body sway reflects leadership in joint music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew; Livingstone, Steven R; Bosnyak, Dan J; Trainor, Laurel J

    2017-05-23

    The cultural and technological achievements of the human species depend on complex social interactions. Nonverbal interpersonal coordination, or joint action, is a crucial element of social interaction, but the dynamics of nonverbal information flow among people are not well understood. We used joint music making in string quartets, a complex, naturalistic nonverbal behavior, as a model system. Using motion capture, we recorded body sway simultaneously in four musicians, which reflected real-time interpersonal information sharing. We used Granger causality to analyze predictive relationships among the motion time series of the players to determine the magnitude and direction of information flow among the players. We experimentally manipulated which musician was the leader (followers were not informed who was leading) and whether they could see each other, to investigate how these variables affect information flow. We found that assigned leaders exerted significantly greater influence on others and were less influenced by others compared with followers. This effect was present, whether or not they could see each other, but was enhanced with visual information, indicating that visual as well as auditory information is used in musical coordination. Importantly, performers' ratings of the "goodness" of their performances were positively correlated with the overall degree of body sway coupling, indicating that communication through body sway reflects perceived performance success. These results confirm that information sharing in a nonverbal joint action task occurs through both auditory and visual cues and that the dynamics of information flow are affected by changing group relationships.

  6. Modelling biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanling; Burrage, Kevin; Chen, Luonan

    2016-05-07

    In this paper, we gave a new framework for modelling and simulating biochemical reaction systems by stochastic differential equations with reflection not in a heuristic way but in a mathematical way. The model is computationally efficient compared with the discrete-state Markov chain approach, and it ensures that both analytic and numerical solutions remain in a biologically plausible region. Specifically, our model mathematically ensures that species numbers lie in the domain D, which is a physical constraint for biochemical reactions, in contrast to the previous models. The domain D is actually obtained according to the structure of the corresponding chemical Langevin equations, i.e., the boundary is inherent in the biochemical reaction system. A variant of projection method was employed to solve the reflected stochastic differential equation model, and it includes three simple steps, i.e., Euler-Maruyama method was applied to the equations first, and then check whether or not the point lies within the domain D, and if not perform an orthogonal projection. It is found that the projection onto the closure D¯ is the solution to a convex quadratic programming problem. Thus, existing methods for the convex quadratic programming problem can be employed for the orthogonal projection map. Numerical tests on several important problems in biological systems confirmed the efficiency and accuracy of this approach.

  7. Reflective article having a sacrificial cathodic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Buchanan, Michael J.; Scott, Matthew S.; Rearick, Brian K.; Medwick, Paul A.; McCamy, James W.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention relates to reflective articles, such as solar mirrors, that include a sacrificial cathodic layer. The reflective article, more particularly includes a substrate, such as glass, having a multi-layered coating thereon that includes a lead-free sacrificial cathodic layer. The sacrificial cathodic layer includes at least one transition metal, such as a particulate transition metal, which can be in the form of flakes (e.g., zinc flakes). The sacrificial cathodic layer can include an inorganic matrix formed from one or more organo-titanates. Alternatively, the sacrificial cathodic layer can include an organic polymer matrix (e.g., a crosslinked organic polymer matrix formed from an organic polymer and an aminoplast crosslinking agent). The reflective article also includes an outer organic polymer coating, that can be electrodeposited over the sacrificial cathodic layer.

  8. D5-brane boundary reflection factors

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Diego H

    2013-01-01

    We compute the strong coupling limit of the boundary reflection factor for excitations on open strings attached to various kinds of D5-branes that probe AdS5 x S5. We study the crossing equation, which constrains the boundary reflection factor, and propose that some solutions will give the boundary reflection factors for all values of the coupling. Our proposal passes various checks in the strong coupling limit by comparison with diverse explicit string theory computations. In some of the cases we consider, the D5-branes correspond to 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in the k-th rank antisymmetric representation of the dual field theory. In the other cases they correspond in the dual field theory to the addition of a fundamental hypermultiplet in a defect.

  9. Attenuated partial internal reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenfeng; Ewing, George E

    2002-06-01

    A new method for the spectroscopic study of absorbing films is proposed. In contrast to the well-established methods that take advantage of the attenuation of total internal reflection (ATR) to obtain spectra, we intentionally arrange the optics to permit partial internal reflection from the sampling prism face. Attenuated partial internal reflection (APR) spectroscopy is introduced through theoretical calculations and experimental demonstrations. The calculated APR spectra in the infrared region were generated from the Fresnel and Airy equations. Experimentally, APR spectra of water films on a NaCl prism were obtained. APR is more sensitive than ATR, and can easily distinguish water films at the monolayer level (310 pm). The determination of film thickness from interference fringes in APR spectra is also illustrated. It is shown that APR can be used for film thickness measurements that can span 6 orders of magnitude. The limitations of APR are also discussed.

  10. Multilayered models for electromagnetic reflection amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    The remote sensing of snowpack characteristics with surface installations or with an airborne system could have important applications in water resource management and flood prediction. To derive some insight into such applications, the electromagnetic response of multilayer snow models is analyzed. Normally incident plane waves are assumed at frequencies ranging from 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 10th power Hz, and amplitude reflection coefficients are calculated for models having various snow-layer combinations, including ice sheets. Layers are defined by a thickness, permittivity, and conductivity; the electrical parameters are constant or prescribed functions of frequency. To illustrate the effect of various layering combinations, results are given in the form of curves of amplitude reflection coefficients, versus frequency for a variety of models. Under simplifying assumptions, the snow thickness and effective dielectric constant can be estimated from the reflection coefficient variations as a function of frequency.

  11. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  12. Constructing Extended Formulations from Reflection Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaibel, Volker

    2010-01-01

    There are many examples of optimization problems whose associated polyhedra can be described much nicer, and with way less inequalities, by projections of higher dimensional polyhedra than this would be possible in the original space. However, currently not many general tools to construct such extended formulations are available. In this paper, we develop a framework of polyhedral relations that generalizes inductive constructions of extended formulations via projections, and we particularly elaborate on the special case of reflection relations. The latter ones provide polynomial size extended formulations for several polytopes that can be constructed as convex hulls of the unions of (exponentially) many copies of an input polytope obtained via sequences of reflections at hyperplanes. We demonstrate the use of the framework by deriving small extended formulations for the G-permutahedra of all finite reflection groups G (generalizing both Goeman's extended formulation of the permutahedron of size O(n log n) an...

  13. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Durbin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity. Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4, a semiconductor (gallium arsenide, GaAs, and a metal (gold, Au, obtained with ∼100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  14. Ray-Based Reflectance Model for Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Cuypers, Tom; Haber, Tom; Bekaert, Philippe; Raskar, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method of simulating wave effects in graphics using ray--based renderers with a new function: the Wave BSDF (Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Function). Reflections from neighboring surface patches represented by local BSDFs are mutually independent. However, in many surfaces with wavelength-scale microstructures, interference and diffraction requires a joint analysis of reflected wavefronts from neighboring patches. We demonstrate a simple method to compute the BSDF for the entire microstructure, which can be used independently for each patch. This allows us to use traditional ray--based rendering pipelines to synthesize wave effects of light and sound. We exploit the Wigner Distribution Function (WDF) to create transmissive, reflective, and emissive BSDFs for various diffraction phenomena in a physically accurate way. In contrast to previous methods for computing interference, we circumvent the need to explicitly keep track of the phase of the wave by using BSDFs that include positiv...

  15. Total internal reflection ellipsometry: principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arwin, Hans; Poksinski, Michal; Johansen, Knut

    2004-05-20

    A concept for a measurement technique based on ellipsometry in conditions of total internal reflection is presented. When combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effects, this technique becomes powerful for monitoring and analyzing adsorption and desorption on thin semitransparent metal films as well as for analyzing the semitransparent films themselves. We call this technique total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The theory of ellipsometry under total internal reflection combined with SPR is discussed for some simple cases. For more advanced cases and to prove the concept, simulations are performed with the Fresnel formalism. The use of TIRE is exemplified by applications in protein adsorption, corrosion monitoring, and adsorption from opaque liquids on metal surfaces. Simulations and experiments show greatly enhanced thin-film sensitivity compared with ordinary ellipsometry.

  16. Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Egido, Alejandro; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which incurs in signals that reflect from the Earth surface with higher peak power. Previous investigations have demonstrated the capability of GPS bistatic scatterometers to obtain high enough signal to noise ratios in order to sense small changes in surface reflectivity. Furthermore, these systems present some advantages with respect to others currently used to retrieve soil moisture. Upcoming satellite navigation systems, such as the European Galileo, will represent an excellent source of opportunity for soil moisture remote sensing for vario...

  17. Reflective Optical Limiter Based on Resonant Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Makri, Eleana; Vitebskiy, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Optical limiters transmit low-level radiation while blocking electromagnetic pulses with excessively high energy (energy limiters) or with excessively high peak intensity (power limiters). A typical optical limiter absorbs most of the high-level radiation which can cause its destruction via overheating. Here we introduce the novel concept of a reflective energy limiter which blocks electromagnetic pulses with excessively high total energy by reflecting them back to space, rather than absorbing them. The idea is to use a defect layer with temperature dependent loss tangent embedded in a low-loss photonic structure. The low energy pulses with central frequency close to that of the localized defect mode will pass through. But if the cumulative energy carried by the pulse exceeds certain level, the entire photonic structure reflects the incident light (and does not absorb it!) for a broad frequency window. The underlying physical mechanism is based on self-regulated impedance mismatch which increases dramatically...

  18. Positive feedback in species communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes the eventual population densities in a species community depend on the initial densities or the arrival times of species. If arrival times determine species composition, a priority effect has occurred. Priority effects may occur if the species community exhibits alternative stable states (

  19. The functional biogeography of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, D.W.; Dalsgaard, B.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    between species traits and large-scale species distribution patterns in archipelagos, we use a network approach to classify birds as one of four biogeographical species roles: peripherals, connectors, module hubs, and network hubs. These roles are based upon the position of species within the modular...

  20. Can nutrient status of four woody plant species be predicted using field spectrometry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.G.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing to predict the chemical composition (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium) of three tree species (i.e., willow, mopane and olive) and one shrub species (i.e., heather). Reflectance spectra, deriva

  1. A seismic reflection experiment near Runanga, Westland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, M.; Jenkins, R.

    1982-08-01

    An experiment was performed between Runanga and Rapahoe, a few kilometres north of Greymouth, to determine whether seismic waves reflected from Tertiary and Mesozoic sediments associated with coal seams could be recorded and identified. Reflections were observed at both sites occupied during the experiment, which were centred on National Yard Grid coordinates S44/770 964 and S44/776 957. Reflections observed at the western site have been tentatively associated with boundaries in or at the base of the Island Sandstone (about 180 metres below the ground surface), and within or at the bounds of the Rewanui Coal Measures (at about 400 metres depth). At the eastern site, reflections have been attributed to a boundary at about 170 metres depth. Reflections were generated using explosions 10 metres below the ground surface, and also by using groups of shallower, smaller simultaneous explosions at distances of more than 100 metres from the geophones where the reflections were detected. Average velocity estimates derived from the seismic measurements alone were 2.6 and 3.0 km/s for Rapahoe and Mawheranui Group sediments respectively. Sonic log measurements yield an average velocity of 3.3 km/s fro the Mawheranui Group. The areal coverage of the experiment was restricted by the difficulty of gaining access to locations off roads and the vulnerability of local access routes, services, and structures to vibration induced damage. The scope of the experimentation was further restricted by difficulties encountered in drilling shot holes and by recording equipment limitations. (4 refs.)

  2. Identification of Malassezia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindo, A J; Sophia, S K C; Kalyani, J; Anandan, S

    2004-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic unipolar yeasts recognized as commensals of skin that may be pathogenic under certain conditions. The genus Malassezia now comprises of seven species. This study was aimed at using a simple practical approach to speciate Malassezia yeasts from clinical material. Seventy skin scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor infection, positive in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH), were cultured onto modified Dixon's agar (mDixon's agar) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and incubated at 32 degrees C. Speciation was done on the basis of Gram stain morphology, catalase test, and utilization of Tweens. Out of 70 scrapings 48 (68.75%) showed growth on mDixon's agar. The commonest isolate was M. sympodialis (28, 58%) followed by M. globosa (19, 40%) and one isolate was (2%) of M. restricta. M. sympodialis was the commonest species affecting our population and there was no isolation of M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis and M. furfur.

  3. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking......The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures...... the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...

  4. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  5. Wide reflected angle DBR red light LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The coupled DBR LED with one DBR for reflecting normal incidence light and the other for reflecting inclined incidence light has been grown by MOCVD. For improving the conventional DBR which was used to increase light extraction efficiency in A1GaInP red light LED is analyzed. At 20 mA Dc injection current, the LED peak wave length is 630 nm, and the light intensity of on axis is 137 mcd. The output light power is 2.32 mW. The light intensity and output light power have been improved compared with the conventional LEDs.

  6. Temporal processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    reflection delays and enhances the test reflection for large delays. Employing a 200-ms-long broadband noise burst as input signal, the critical delay separating these two binaural phenomena was found to be 7–10 ms. It was suggested that the critical delay refers to a temporal window that is employed......, resulting in a critical delay of about 2–3 ms for 20-ms-long stimuli. Hence, for very short stimuli the temporal window or critical delay exhibits values similar to the auditory temporal resolution as, for instance, observed in gap-detection tasks. It is suggested that the larger critical delay observed...

  7. Reflections on 25 Years of Journal Editorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    These reflections range over some distinctive features of the journal Science & Education, they acknowledge in a limited way the many individuals who over the past 25 years have contributed to the success and reputation of the journal, they chart the beginnings of the journal, and they dwell on a few central concerns—clear writing and the contribution of HPS to teacher education. The reflections also revisit the much-debated and written-upon philosophical and pedagogical arguments occasioned by the rise and possible demise of constructivism in science education.

  8. Generalization as creative and reflective act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2013-01-01

    It is argued that generalization in psychology is a creative, interpretative, and reflective act of thought, by accessing a higher level of abstraction from meaningful events. In the context of clarification of this claim, a fresh look at Lewin’s argumentation about the “Aristotelian” and “Galile......It is argued that generalization in psychology is a creative, interpretative, and reflective act of thought, by accessing a higher level of abstraction from meaningful events. In the context of clarification of this claim, a fresh look at Lewin’s argumentation about the “Aristotelian...

  9. Stability of Reflection Symmetric Collapsing Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore instability regions of non-static axial reflection symmetric spacetime with anisotropic source in the interior. We impose linear perturbation on the Einstein field equations and dynamical equations to establish the collapse equation. The effects of different physical factors like energy density and anisotropic stresses on the instability regions are studied under Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that stiffness parameter has a significant role in this analysis while the reflection terms increase instability ranges of non-static axial collapse.

  10. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mincigrucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  11. Infrared Reflective Filter and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kiyokazu; Ishizaki, Ariyoshi; Yuge, Youji; Saitoh, Tokuyoshi

    1983-12-01

    A thin film, which reflects infra-red ray while transmits visible light, is discussed in a background of energy saving incandescent lamps. The film which consists of multi-layer Ti02-Si02 film reflects infra-red ray effectively and has a high heat resistance. This film is formed from organometallic solutions by dipping method. In order to carry out multi-layer coatings, the organometallic solutions are improved. A film on a substrate turns into a metalic oxide film having desired optical thickness and refractive index. The optical properties of this film and its application to tubular tungsten halogen lamps are discussed in this paper.

  12. Water Pollution Detection by Reflectance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the intensity of light reflected from various planar liquid surfaces has been performed. The results of this brief study show that the presence of a film of foreign material floating on a reference substrate is easily detected by reflectance measurement if the two liquids possess significantly different refractive indices, for example, oil (n = 1.40) and water (n = 1.33). Additional study of various optical configurations, and the building and testing of a prototype monitoring device revealed that the method is sufficiently practical for application to continuous water quality monitoring.

  13. [Around biological evolution. Reflections of a physicist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Palencia, Evariste

    2016-01-01

    This text is the written version of a talk at the Société de Biologie on February 17, 2016. It contains reflections of a non-biologist scientist on general problems of biological evolution, including the kind of causality involved, the ideas emerging from it, in particular the constructive and structuring character of phenomena such as predation, the role of stability and attractors. This leads to a larger reflection on dialectics, the general framework of evolving processes, which overpasses formal logic and instantaneousness. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  14. Multiple View Stereo by Reflectance Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sujung; Kim, Seong Dae; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    2012-01-01

    we argue that a visual metric based on a surface reflectance model should be founded on more observations than the degrees of freedom (dof) of the reflectance model. If (partly) specular surfaces are to be handled, this implies a model with at least two dof. In this paper, we propose to construct...... visual metrics of more than one dof using the DAISY methodology, which compares favorably to the state of the art in the experiments carried out. These experiments are based on a novel data set of eight scenes with diffuse and specular surfaces and accompanying ground truth. The performance of six...

  15. Reflective modular forms in algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, Valery

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the existence of a strongly reflective modular form of a large weight implies that the Kodaira dimension of the corresponding modular variety is negative or, in some special case, it is equal to zero. Using the Jacobi lifting we construct three towers of strongly reflective modular forms with the simplest possible divisor. In particular we obtain a Jacobi lifting construction of the Borcherds-Enriques modular form Phi_4 and Jacobi liftings of automorphic discriminants of the K\\"ahler moduli of Del Pezzo surfaces constructed recently by Yoshikawa. We obtain also three modular varieties of dimension 4, 6 and 7 of Kodaira dimension 0.

  16. Afro-descendant Trajectories: A Methodological Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Matos Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a reflection about how we think of Afro-descendant people as objectsor subjects of study. To do this, it reflects on the question: How does the study of Afrodescendantpeoples change when the so-called “unit of analysis” is not a slave, but anenslaved ancestor who is part of your contemporary cosmology? The way of arriving atthis question, and the analysis presented henceforth attempts to highlight key aspects foradvancing Afro-descendant scholarship: specifically the role of black feminist thought andpractices on ancestral consciousness; and its subsequent impact on the interpretation andproduction of historical and socio-political sources.

  17. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  18. Reflective writing in case summary assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiravan Chinniah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcome and competency-basedundergraduate and graduate medical education isthe desired standard embraced by many medicaleducationists worldwide. Reflective capacity is anintegral component of that strategy and reflective writinghas shown tremendous potential as a delivery tool. Butthere are various challenges in the implementation ofthe initiative. Efficacy as a delivery tool, achievementof pedagogical outcomes, reliability issues, challenges inassessment outcomes/tools, and whether it can be taughtand learnt, need to be addressed. Many questions are stillnot satisfactorily answered, and this review attempts tooffer some perspective on the issues.

  19. The Atomic Origin of the Reflection Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytz, Kjell

    2016-12-01

    It will be demonstrated how the reflection law may be derived on an atomic basis using the plane wave approximation together with Huygens' principle. The model utilized is based on the electric dipole character of matter originating from its molecular constituents. This approach is not new but has, since it was first introduced by Ewald and Oseen in 1915, been applied and analyzed many times before. Here we develop the Ewald-Oseen model of reflection adapted for high school and early undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of microscopic material structure.

  20. Account of Nuclear Scattering at Volume Reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenco, M V

    2011-01-01

    For a particle traversing a bent crystal in the regime of volume reflection we evaluate the probability of interaction with atomic nuclei. Regardless of the continuous potential shape, this probability is found to differ from the corresponding value in an amorphous target by an amount proportional to the crystal bending radius, and the particle deflection angle. Based on this result, we evaluate the rate of inelastic nuclear interactions, and the final beam angular dispersion due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experiments. The impact of multiple Coulomb scattering on the mean volume reflection angle is also discussed.