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Sample records for monoclinic se nanoparticles

  1. Seismic transpressive basement faults and monocline development in a foreland basin (Eastern Guadalquivir, SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, A.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Marín-Lechado, C.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; González, A.; Peláez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We examine the late Tortonian to present-day deformation of an active seismic sector of the eastern Iberian foreland basement of the Betic Cordillera, in southern Spain. Transpressive faults affecting Paleozoic basement offset up to Triassic rocks. Late Triassic clays and evaporites constitute a décollement level decoupling the basement rocks and a ~100 m thick cover of Jurassic carbonates. Monoclines trending NE-SW to ENE-WSW deform the Jurassic cover driven by the propagation of high-angle transpressive right-lateral basement faults. They favor the migration of clays and evaporites toward the propagated fault tip, i.e., the core of the anticline, resulting in fluid overpressure, fluid flow, and precipitation of fibrous gypsum parallel to a vertical σ3. The overall geometry of the studied monoclines, as well as the intense deformation within the clays and evaporites, reproduces three-layer discrete element models entailing a weak middle unit sandwiched between strong layers. Late Tortonian syn-folding sediments recorded the initial stages of the fault-propagation folding. Equivalent unexposed transpressive structures and associated monoclines reactivated under the present-day NW-SE convergence are recognized and analyzed in the Sabiote-Torreperogil region, using seismic reflection, gravity, and borehole data. A seismic series of more than 2100 low-magnitude earthquakes was recorded within a very limited area of the basement of this sector from October 2012 to May 2013. Seismic activity within a major NE-SW trending transpressive basement fault plane stimulated rupture along a subsidiary E-W (~N95°E) strike-slip relay fault. The biggest event (mbLg 3.9, MW 3.7) occurred at the junction between them in a transpressive relay sector.

  2. Cubic or monoclinic Y 2O 3:Eu 3+ nanoparticles by one step flame spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, Adrian; Strobel, Reto; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2005-11-01

    Continuous, single-step synthesis of monocrystalline Y 2O 3:Eu 3+ nanophosphor particles (10-25 nm in diameter and 5 wt% Eu) was achieved by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). The effect of FSP process parameters on materials properties was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (BET) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Photoluminescence (PL) emission were measured as well as the time-resolved PL-intensity decay. Controlled synthesis of monoclinic or cubic Y 2O 3:Eu 3+ nanoparticles was achieved without post-treatment by controlling the high temperature residence time of these particles. The cubic nanoparticles exhibited longer decay times but lower maximum PL intensity than commercial micron-sized bulk Y 2O 3:Eu 3+ phosphor powder.

  3. Intraband Spectroscopy of GaSe Nanoparticles and InSe/GaSe Nanoparticle Heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David F.; Tu, Haohua; Chen, Xiang-Bai

    The spectroscopic and dynamical characteristics of electron and hole intraband transitions in several sizes of GaSe nanoparticles have been studied using polarized femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Assignments of the observed absorptions are made in terms of the known GaSe band structure and a model in which the electron and hole states are described by particle-in-a-cylinder states. The results indicate that the transient absorption spectrum is due to a size-independent, z-polarized hole intraband transition, and in the smaller particles, an x,y-polarized electron transition. In InSe/GaSe mixed aggregates, direct electron transfer from InSe to GaSe nanoparticles occurs upon photoexcitation of a charge transfer band. An exciton on GaSe nanoparticles can undergo diffusion and charge separation the an InSe/GaSe heterojunction.

  4. Surface, optical characteristics and photocatalytic ability of Scheelite-type monoclinic Bi3FeMo2O12 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xinming; Wulayin, Wumitijiang; Song, Tingting; Wu, Minxiao; Qiao, Xuebin

    2016-11-01

    Bi3FeMo2O12 nanoparticles with the Scheelite-type monoclinic structure were prepared by the Pechini synthesis. The Bi3FeMo2O12 nanoparticle has a size of about 50 nm. The phase formation and structural characteristic were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Rietveld refinements. The Scheelite framework is characterized by a superstructure constructed by the ordered arrangement of Fe/Mo tetrahedral on the B sites. The surface characteristics of Bi3FeMo2O12 nanoparticles were studied by the measurements such as the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the N2-adsorption-desorption isotherm. Bi3FeMo2O12 nanoparticles present an efficient optical absorption in a wide wavelength region from UV to 540 nm. The band gap energy was decided to be 2.3 eV and characterized by a direct allowed electronic optical transition. The photocatalytic activity of Bi3FeMo2O12 nanoparticles was confirmed by the photodegradation of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution. The experiments indicate that the Scheelite-type molybdate could be a potential candidate of a visible-light-driven photocatalyst.

  5. Photophysics of GaSe/InSe nanoparticle heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Bai; Kelley, David F

    2006-12-21

    The photophysics of mixed aggregates of GaSe/InSe nanoparticles have been studied using static and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. The results indicate that the GaSe/InSe interfaces form heterojunctions and exhibit photoinduced direct charge transfer from the GaSe valence band to the InSe conduction band. This results in the electrons and holes being localized separately in these two types of nanoparticles. The energy diagram of the nanoparticle heterojunction can be constructed from the static spectra, known bulk band offsets, and quantum confinement effects. These considerations accurately predict the energy of the observed charge-transfer band. Photoexcitation also produces excitons in the aggregates, away from the heterojunctions. These excitons can undergo diffusion and quench upon reaching a heterojunction. Time-resolved fluorescence kinetics can be modeled to extract an exciton diffusion coefficient. A value of 2.0 nm2/ns is obtained, which is in good agreement with values obtained from previous fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements.

  6. Orthorhombic-to-monoclinic phase transition of Ta2NiSe5 induced by the Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T.; Toriyama, T.; Konishi, T.; Ohta, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using the band structure calculation and mean-field analysis of the derived three-chain Hubbard model with phonon degrees of freedom, we discuss the origin of the orthorhombic-to-monoclinic phase transition of the layered chalcogenide Ta2NiSe5. We show that the Bose-Einstein condensation of excitonic electron-hole pairs cooperatively induces the instability of the phonon mode at momentum q→0 in the quasi-one-dimensional Ta-NiSe-Ta chain, resulting in the structural phase transition of the system. The calculated single-particle spectra reproduce the deformation of the band structure observed in the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiment.

  7. Electron and hole dynamics in GaSe nanoparticles and GaSe-InSe nanoparticle heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David F.; Tu, Haohua; Mogyorosi, Karoly; Chen, Xiang-Bai

    2006-08-01

    Femtosecond polarized transient absorption results are obtained for InSe and GaSe nanoparticles. The results indicate that the transient absorption spectrum of large GaSe particles is dominated by a size-independent, z-polarized hole intraband transition. The small particle spectra exhibit the same z-polarized hole transition and a much more intense x,y-polarized absorption that is assigned to a charge transfer transition from the conduction band to particle surface (edge) states. The intensity of this transition depends on the momentum state (Γ or M) of the electron, and Γ to M electron momentum relaxation results in a 15 ps absorption decay. These results are used to interpret analogous results obtained for mixed GaSe-InSe nanoparticle aggregates, also in the solution phase. The static absorption spectrum of the mixed aggregates exhibits a strong interparticle charge transfer absorption band at an energy slightly higher than the InSe bandgap. Photoexcitation of this band results in a polarized transient absorption spectrum and transient absorption kinetics characteristic of InSe valence band holes and GaSe conduction band electrons. This result indicates that with small GaSe particles, direct InSe to GaSe electron transfer occurs upon photoexcitation.

  8. Surface, optical characteristics and photocatalytic ability of Scheelite-type monoclinic Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Xinming, E-mail: nxinming@jsnu.edu.cn; Wulayin, Wumitijiang; Song, Tingting; Wu, Minxiao; Qiao, Xuebin, E-mail: qiaoxb@jsnu.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Scheelite-type photocatalyst Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} with B-superstructure was developed. • Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} has high efficient optical absorption in visible wavelength region. • The narrow band energy 2.3 eV was characterized by direct allowed type. • It presents efficient photodegradation on RhB dye solution driven by visible-light. - Abstract: Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} nanoparticles with the Scheelite-type monoclinic structure were prepared by the Pechini synthesis. The Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} nanoparticle has a size of about 50 nm. The phase formation and structural characteristic were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Rietveld refinements. The Scheelite framework is characterized by a superstructure constructed by the ordered arrangement of Fe/Mo tetrahedral on the B sites. The surface characteristics of Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} nanoparticles were studied by the measurements such as the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the N{sub 2}-adsorption–desorption isotherm. Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} nanoparticles present an efficient optical absorption in a wide wavelength region from UV to 540 nm. The band gap energy was decided to be 2.3 eV and characterized by a direct allowed electronic optical transition. The photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 3}FeMo{sub 2}O{sub 12} nanoparticles was confirmed by the photodegradation of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye solution. The experiments indicate that the Scheelite-type molybdate could be a potential candidate of a visible-light-driven photocatalyst.

  9. Ag nanoparticle effects on the thermoluminescent properties of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} exposed to ultraviolet and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Sanchez, G [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52750 (Mexico); Mendoza-Anaya, D [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52750 (Mexico); Gutierrez-Wing, C [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52750 (Mexico); Perez-Hernandez, R [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52750 (Mexico); Gonzalez-MartInez, P R [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, CP 52750 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, DF 07730 (Mexico)

    2007-07-04

    The goal of this work was to analyse ZrO{sub 2} in the pure state and when doped with Ag nanoparticles, by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and thermoluminescence methods. According to the results obtained, Ag nanoparticles did not modify the morphology or the crystalline structure of the ZrO{sub 2}. The thermoluminescent (TL) response of pure ZrO{sub 2} showed two peaks, one at 334 K and the other at 417 K, when it was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and at 342 and 397 K when gamma radiation was used. For ZrO{sub 2} impregnated with Ag nanoparticles a diminished TL intensity due to nanoparticle shielding was observed, but the glow curve shape was similar. However, when Ag nanoparticles were added during the ZrO{sub 2} synthesis, a shift of the TL peaks towards higher temperature values with reference to pure ZrO{sub 2} was observed. A linear dependence of the integrated TL signal as a function of the irradiation dose was observed in all analysed samples. It was possible to determine some kinetic parameters, such as activation energy, kinetic order and frequency factor, using the sequential quadratic programming glow curve deconvolution; it was found that these values are highly dependent on the type of radiation used. Ag nanoparticles present in ZrO{sub 2} also modified the kinetic parameters, mainly when they were added during the synthesis of ZrO{sub 2}. Our results reinforce the possibilities of using pure and doped ZrO{sub 2} as an appropriate dosimetric material in radiation physics.

  10. Solvent effect in monoclinic to hexagonal phase transformation in LaPO{sub 4}:RE (RE=Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) nanoparticles: Photoluminescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaomei, Ganngam [Department of Chemistry, Manipur University, Manipur 795003 (India); Rameshwor Singh, W., E-mail: dr.rmsingh@yahoo.co.i [Department of Chemistry, Manipur University, Manipur 795003 (India); Ningthoujam, R.S., E-mail: rsn@barc.gov.i [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Nanosized phosphor materials, LaPO{sub 4}:RE (RE=Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) have been synthesized using water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) and mixed solvents at a relatively low temperature of 150 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals that as-prepared nanoparticles prepared in DMSO and EG are well crystalline and correspond to monoclinic phase. In the mixed water-DMSO or water-EG solvents, XRD patterns are in good agreement with hexagonal phase, but transformed to monoclinic phase at higher temperature of 900 {sup o}C. TEM images show well-dispersed and rice-shaped nanoparticles of diameter 5-10 nm, length of 13-37 nm for Dy{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4} and diameter of 25-35 nm, length of 73-82 nm for Sm{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4}. Dy{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4} shows two prominent emission peaks at 480 and 572 nm corresponding to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} (magnetic dipole) and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} (electric dipole) transitions, respectively. Similarly, for Sm{sup 3+}-doped LaPO{sub 4}, three prominent emission peaks at 561, 597 and 641 nm were observed corresponding to {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} (magnetic dipole) and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 9/2} (electric dipole) transitions, respectively. The luminescence intensity of the sample prepared in EG is more than that of DMSO or mixed solvents. Enhancement of luminescence is also observed after heat-treatment at 900 {sup o}C due to removal of quencher such as water, organic moiety and surface defects/dangling bonds. The samples are re-dispersible in polar solvent and can be incorporated in polymer film. - Research highlights: Nanomaterials. Optical properties. Luminescence materials.

  11. Preparation and applications of ZnSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranadh, K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Rao, M. C.

    2013-06-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have been attracting widespread scientific and technological interest due to their unique size-tunable optical and electronic properties. The ZnSe nanoparticles have wide-ranging applications in laser, optical instruments, etc. because it has a wide band gap and transmittance range, high luminescence efficiency, low absorption coefficient, and excellent transparency to infrared. ZnSe nanoparticles have been prepared at room temperature. Zinc chloride 99 mM of 4 mL is added to 2.2g PVA. Volume of the solution is made up to 50 mL by bidistilled water. The Solution is left for 24 h at room temperature to swell. After that the solution is warmed up to 60°C and stirred for 4 h until viscous transparent solution was obtained. One milliliter of Sodium Hydrogen Selenide was dropped into the solution with gentle stirring. Solution is casted on flat glass plate dishes. After the solvent evaporation, a thin film containing ZnSe nanoparticles are obtained. The film is washed with de-ionized water to remove other soluble salts before measurements.

  12. One-pot synthesis of hollow NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles with improved performance for hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Fan, Meiqiang; Li, Chao; Tian, Guanglei; Lv, Chunju; Chen, Da; Shu, Kangying; Jiang, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    Hollow NiSe-CoSe samples have been synthesized for the first time via a one-pot solvothermal approach. The strategy is robust enough to synthesize NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles with different NiSe to CoSe ratios but with a similar hollow structure. Co ions in the NiSe-CoSe nanoparticles play decisive role for formation of the hollow structure; otherwise, the nanoparticles become solid for the NiSe sample. When used as the positive electroactive materials for energy storage, the NiSe-CoSe samples show excellent electrochemical activity in alkaline electrolyte. Using the synergistic effect between NiSe and CoSe, the electrochemical performance of NiSe-CoSe can be tuned by varying the NiSe to CoSe ratios. The NiSe-CoSe sample with a NiSe to CoSe ratio of 4:2 shows the best electrochemical performance in terms of superior specific capacity, improved rate capability and excellent cycling stability. In addition, the electrochemical performance of NiSe-CoSe sample with a NiSe to CoSe ratio of 4:2 is also evaluated via assembling hybrid supercapacitors with RGO, and the hybrid supercapacitor delivers both high power and energy densities (41.8 Wh kg-1 at 750 W kg-1 and 20.3 Wh kg-1 at 30 kW kg-1).

  13. Synthesis and applications of CdSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. C.; Ravindranadh, K.; Shekhawat, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    Polymer nanoparticle composite materials have attracted the interest of a number of researchers, due to their synergistic and hybrid properties derived from several components. Whether in solution or in bulk, these materials offer unique mechanical, electrical, optical and thermal properties. CdSe nanoparticles have been prepared at room temperature. Cadmium chloride 99 mM of 4 mL is added to 2.2g Poly vinyl alcohol. The volume of solution is made up to 50 mL by bi-distilled water and the solution is left for 24 hours at room temperature to swell. After that the solution is warmed up to 60°C and stirred for 4 hours until viscous transparent solution is obtained. One milliliter of Sodium Hydrogen Selenide is dropped into the solution with gentle stirring. Solution is casted on flat glass plate dishes. After the solvent evaporation, a thin film containing CdSe nanoparticles are obtained. The film is washed with de-ionized water to remove other soluble salts before measurements.

  14. Timely resolved measurements on CdSe nanoparticles; Zeitaufgeloeste Messungen an CdSe Nanopartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, B.E. von

    2006-06-06

    By means of infrared spectroscopy the influence of the organic cover on structure and dynamics of CdSe nanoparticles was studied. First a procedure was developed, which allows to get from the static infrared spectrum informations on the quality of the organic cover and the binding behaviour of the ligands. On qualitatively high-grade and well characterized samples thereafter the dynamics of the lowest-energy electron level 1S{sub e} was time-resolvedly meausred in thew visible range. As reference served CdSe TOPO, which was supplemented by samples with the ligands octanthiole, octanic acid, octylamine, naphthoquinone, benzoquinone, and pyridine. The studied nanoparticles had a diameter of 4.86 nm. By means of the excitation-scanning or pump=probe procedure first measurements in the picosecond range were performed. The excitation wavelengths were thereby spectrally confined and so chosen that selectively the transitions 1S{sub 3/2}-1S-e and 1P{sub 3/2}-1P{sub e} but not the intermediately lyingt transition 2S{sub 3/2}-1S{sub e} were excited. The excitation energies were kept so low that the excitation of several excitons in one crystal could be avoided. The scanning wavelength in the infrared corresponded to the energy difference between the electron levels 1S{sub e} and 1P{sub e}. The transients in the picosecond range are marked by a steep increasement of the signal, on which a multi-exponential decay follows. The increasement, which reproduces the popiulation of the excited state, isa inependent on the choice of the ligands. The influence of the organic cover is first visible in the different decay times of the excited electron levels. the decay of the measurement signal of CdSe TOPO can be approximatively described by three time constants: a decay constant in the early picosecond region, a time constant around hundert picoseconds, and a time constant of some nanoseconds. At increasing scanning wavelength the decay constants become longer. By directed excitation

  15. Surfactant-free (CdSe and CdSe-CdTe) semiconducting nanoparticle mixed MEH-PPV thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepak; Dutta, V.

    2017-08-01

    Hybrid absorbing layers of poly (2-methoxy, 5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenyl vinylene) (MEH-PPV)) having surfactant-free CdSe and CdTe-CdSe nanoparticles that have been spin coated on glass substrates. The absorbance and photoluminescence spectra on these hybrid thin films have shown the role of the dispersion science of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. 1HNMR spectra of the polymer mixed nanoparticle solutions have established the chemical interaction between MEH-PPV and nanoparticles. It confirms the relative shift and broadening in the peak located at δ  =  3.96 ppm, known as the alkoxy site for MEH-PPV. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these hybrid thin films have shown the proper charge transfer compatibility between the MEH-PPV and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO)-free nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of the CdTe and CdSe mixed MEH-PPV hybrid layer confirm the better charge transfer in comparison to CdTe—MEH-PPV thin films. The study will help in establishing the parameters required to prepare hybrid absorber thin films for solar cell application.

  16. Femtosecond Laser-Induced Formation of Wurtzite Phase ZnSe Nanoparticles in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan I Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an effective method to prepare wurtzite phase ZnSe nanoparticles from zincblende ZnSe single crystal using femtosecond pulse laser ablation. The fabricated ZnSe nanoparticles are in spherical shape and uncontaminated while synthesized under ambient environment. By controlling the laser fluences, the average size of ZnSe nanoparticles can be varied from ~16 nm to ~22 nm in diameter. In Raman spectra, the surface phonon mode becomes dominant in the smaller average particle size with uniform size distribution. The interesting phase transition from the zinc blende structure of ZnSe single crystal to wurtzite structure of ZnSe nanoparticles may have been induced by the ultrahigh ablation pressure at the local area due to the sudden injection of high energy leading to solid-solid transition.

  17. Linear and NLO spectroscopy of GaSe and InSe nanoparticles formed via laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayev, A.; Tunaboylu, B.; Allahverdiyev, K.; Salayev, E.; Tagiyev, B.

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles of layered GaSe, InSe were fabricated by laser ablation (LA) method (KrF laser, λ = 248 nm, 50 Hz, maximum energy 200 mJ, τ = 4 ns) and characterized by: •XRF •GDOES •SEM and TEM; •UV-, VIS-, and IRabsorption; •Raman and PL spectroscopy (also in confocal geometry). Results are discussed in relation to the particle size. Absorption spectra of particles with diameter 20 nm and less turned out to be blue shifted and is consisted with a weak confinement effect on Wannier-Mott type excitons. It is shown, that with decreasing the particle size the energy position of the low-frequency Raman active phonons in both compounds are shifted to lower frequencies (21 and 18 cm-1 in bulk GaSe and InSe and 8 and 7 cm-1 in particles with sizes 5 and 7 nm, respectively). From the low frequency Raman data, decrease of the force constants ca. 25 % (for GaSe) due to the formation of the nanoparticles are estimated, and the origin is suggested. Second harmonic generation (SHG) with 1064 nm line of a mode locked Nd : YAG laser was observed for nanoparticles ablated on different substrates. Potential for using these structures for laser light visualizators are discussed.

  18. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of CdSe/CdS nanoparticles in aqueous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of unique structural characteristics of α-cyclodextrin,α-cyclodextrin modified CdSe/CdS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized in aqueous media.Techniques of AFM,TEM,EDS,FTIR,UV-vis absorbance and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the morphology,composition and optical characteristics of the synthesized nanoparticles.The results showed that the as-synthesized nanoparticles were elliptical and composed of several small particles.Their average length and diameter were about 20 nm and 15 nm.CdSe/CdS nanoparticles had single well-crystallized hexagonal structure.Packaged with a shell of CdS on the surface,α-CD/CdSe-CdS nanoparticles exhibited a red shift in the absorption spectrum,intensity growth in the emission spectrum and a substantial increase in Quantum yields.The size distribution could be adjusted by precursor ratios in the presence of α-cyclodextrins.

  19. Assemblies composed of oligothiophene–ruthenium complexes bound to CdSe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Nathan; Hancock, Jared M.; Simonson, Cameron J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Thalman, Scott W.; Colton, John S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Asplund, Matthew C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Harrison, Roger G., E-mail: roger_harrison@byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Molecular conjugates are important to link light sensitized materials to electron acceptors. We have synthesized oligothiophenes and oligothiophene–ruthenium complexes and bound them to CdSe nanoparticles. The absorption and fluorescence properties of the oligothiophenes bound to CdSe were measured. Steady-state luminescence and time correlated single photon counting were used to observe the effects on fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes before and after binding. It was found that fluorescence of CdSe nanoparticles was quenched when they were bound to the oligothiophenes, and that the fluorescence of the oligothiophenes was also quenched. The fluorescence lifetimes of the quenched species were shortened and suggest electron transfer from oligothiophene to nanoparticle is on the order of one nanosecond. Orbital energy calculations predict that the Ru bound oligothiophenes have HOMO–LUMO energies of correct energy to allow electron and hole transfer. These experiments show that the oligothiophenes efficiently transfer optical energy between CdSe nanoparticles and could potentially be used as charge transfer junctions. - Highlights: • Ru bound thiophenes attached to CdSe nanoparticles. • Luminescence quenching of CdSe nanoparticles. • Molecular conjugates for photosensitized materials.

  20. Synthesis of PVP-Capped Au-CdSe Hybrid Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chili, M. M.; V. S. R. Rajasekhar Pullabhotla; N. Revaprasadu

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of PVP-capped Au-CdSe hybrid nanostructures synthesized using the UV-irradiation method. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirm the presence of the hybrid gold and CdSe nanoparticles.

  1. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhen Li; Chao Wu; Yanyan Liu; Tiebing Liu; Zheng Jiao; Minghong Wu

    2008-11-01

    A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure and morphology of prepared PbSe nanoparticles were analysed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The results indicated that the obtained materials were cubic nanocrystalline PbSe with an average grain size of 30 nm. The optical properties of prepared PbSe nanocrystalline were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The possible mechanism of the PbSe grain growth by electron beam irradiation method is proposed.

  2. Chemical welding of binary nanoparticles: room temperature sintering of CuSe and In2S3 nanoparticles for solution-processed CuInS(x)Se(1-x) solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Lim, Hui; Batabyal, Sudip K; Pramana, Stevin S; Wong, L H; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mhaisalkar, S G

    2013-06-14

    Chemical welding of oppositely charged dissimilar metal chalcogenide nanomaterials is reported to produce a quaternary metal chalcogenide. CuSe and In2S3 nanoparticles were synthesized with opposite surface charges by stabilizing with polyacrylic acid and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Upon mixing these nanoparticles at room temperature, the electrostatic attraction induced coalescence of these nanoparticles and led to the formation of CuInSxSe1-x nanoparticles.

  3. Yb-doped ZnSe nanoparticles: synthesis, physical properties and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, A R; Hosseini, M; Hanifehpour, Y; Safarpour, M; Joo, S W

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Yb-doped ZnSe nanoparticles were synthesized by co-reduction method at 150 degrees C and pH = 12 for 24 h. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Powder XRD patterns indicated that the Yb(x)Zn(1-x)Se crystals (x = 0.00-0.10) are isostructural with ZnSe. SEM and TEM images confirmed doping of Yb3+ into the lattice of ZnSe nanoparticles. The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance characteristics of the Yb-doped ZnSe samples were quite similar to that of the undoped sample and showed a strong photoabsorption at visible light range. The electrical conductivity of Yb-doped ZnSe nanomaterials was higher than pure ZnSe at room temperature, and increased with temperature. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles was investigated by the degradation of Orange II solution under visible light irradiation. It was observed that the color removal efficiency of Yb-doped ZnSe catalyst was much higher than that of pure ZnSe (26.28 and 77.10% after 120 min of treatment for ZnSe and Yb(0.06)Zn(0.94)Se, respectively). The results demonstrated the good photocatalytic ability of synthesized nanoparticles under visible light. Also, it was revealed that the decolorization efficiency of Orange II over Yb-doped ZnSe increased with increasing Yb loading up to 6 mol% and then decreased.

  4. Study on Nanoparticles of ZnSe Synthesized by Chemical Method and Their Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The properties of semiconductor nanoparticles depend mainly on their shape and size due to high surface-to-volume ratio. The II – VI semiconductors have many applications such as, LED, acousto-optical effects and biological sensors. The ZnSe nanoparticles have wide-ranging applications in laser, optical instruments etc. because it has wide band gap and transmittance range, high luminescence efficiency, low absorption coefficient. In recent years, much attention was paid on the preparation met...

  5. Size and morphology controlled NiSe nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for the reduction reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Udumula; Marakatti, Vijaykumar S.; Amshumali, Mungalimane K.; Loukya, B.; Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Datta, Ranjan; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-12-01

    Facile and efficient ball milling and polyol methods were employed for the synthesis of nickel selenide (NiSe) nanoparticle. The particle size of the NiSe nanoparticle has been controlled mechanically by varying the ball size in the milling process. The role of the surfactants in the formation of various morphologies was studied. The compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The efficiency of the NiSe nanoparticle as a catalyst was tested for the reduction of para-nitroaniline (PNA) to para-phenyldiamine (PPD) and para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP) using NaBH4 as the reducing agent. Particle size, morphology and the presence of surfactant played a crucial role in the reduction process.

  6. Mechanism of strong visible light photocatalysis by Ag2O-nanoparticle-decorated monoclinic TiO2(B) porous nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kamal Kumar; Ghosh, Ramesh; Giri, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the ultra-high rate of photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light illumination on Ag2O-nanoparticle-decorated (NP) porous pure B-phase TiO2 (TiO2(B)) nanorods (NRs) grown by a solvothermal route. The as-grown TiO2(B) NRs are found to be nanoporous in nature and the Ag2O NPs are uniformly decorated over its surface, since most of the pores work as nucleation sites for the growth of Ag2O NPs. The effective band gap of the TiO2(B)/Ag2O heterostructure (HS), with a weight ratio of 1:1, has been significantly reduced to 1.68 eV from the pure TiO2(B) band gap of 2.8 eV. Steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies show the reduced intensity of visible PL and slower recombination dynamics in the HS samples. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS has been investigated using aqueous methyl orange and methylene blue as reference dyes under visible light (390-800 nm) irradiation. It is found that photodegradation by the TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS is about one order of magnitude higher than that of bare TiO2(B) NRs and Ag2O NPs. The optimized TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS exhibited the highest photocatalytic efficiency, with 88.2% degradation for 30 min irradiation. The corresponding first order degradation rate constant is 0.071 min-1, which is four times higher than the reported values. Furthermore, cyclic stability studies show the high stability of the HS photocatalyst for up to four cycles of use. The major improvement in photocatalytic efficiency has been explained on the basis of enhanced visible light absorption and band-bending-induced efficient charge separation in the HS. Our results demonstrate the long-term stability and superiority of the TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS over the bare TiO2(B) NRs and other TiO2-based photocatalysts for its cutting edge application in hydrogen production and environmental cleaning driven by solar light photocatalysis.

  7. Mechanism of strong visible light photocatalysis by Ag2O-nanoparticle-decorated monoclinic TiO2(B) porous nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kamal Kumar; Ghosh, Ramesh; Giri, P K

    2016-08-05

    We report on the ultra-high rate of photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light illumination on Ag2O-nanoparticle-decorated (NP) porous pure B-phase TiO2 (TiO2(B)) nanorods (NRs) grown by a solvothermal route. The as-grown TiO2(B) NRs are found to be nanoporous in nature and the Ag2O NPs are uniformly decorated over its surface, since most of the pores work as nucleation sites for the growth of Ag2O NPs. The effective band gap of the TiO2(B)/Ag2O heterostructure (HS), with a weight ratio of 1:1, has been significantly reduced to 1.68 eV from the pure TiO2(B) band gap of 2.8 eV. Steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) studies show the reduced intensity of visible PL and slower recombination dynamics in the HS samples. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS has been investigated using aqueous methyl orange and methylene blue as reference dyes under visible light (390-800 nm) irradiation. It is found that photodegradation by the TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS is about one order of magnitude higher than that of bare TiO2(B) NRs and Ag2O NPs. The optimized TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS exhibited the highest photocatalytic efficiency, with 88.2% degradation for 30 min irradiation. The corresponding first order degradation rate constant is 0.071 min(-1), which is four times higher than the reported values. Furthermore, cyclic stability studies show the high stability of the HS photocatalyst for up to four cycles of use. The major improvement in photocatalytic efficiency has been explained on the basis of enhanced visible light absorption and band-bending-induced efficient charge separation in the HS. Our results demonstrate the long-term stability and superiority of the TiO2(B)/Ag2O HS over the bare TiO2(B) NRs and other TiO2-based photocatalysts for its cutting edge application in hydrogen production and environmental cleaning driven by solar light photocatalysis.

  8. Quantum Dots Sensitized Solar Cell: Effect of CdSe Nanoparticles Purification Procedure of QD Sensitized Photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, K. A.; Ishak, M. N.; Alias, N. N.

    2013-04-01

    In this research the effect of purification of CdSe nanoparticles for application in quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) photoanodes are studied. The CdSe nanoparticles are attached to the titanium dioxide surface using a linker based approached (CdSe nanoparticles disperse in toluene) and direct mode attachment (CdSe re-disperse in dichloromethane (DCM)). Colloidal CdSe nanoparticles with estimated size of 3.0 nm were synthesized by hot injection method in trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as stabilizing solvent. Prior to the sensitization, the CdSe nanoparticles were purified using a common purification step involving the alternate cycles of precipitation / redispersion in non-polar solvent and polar solvent. With increasing the number of purification, the concentrations of CdSe nanoparticles attached to the titanium dioxide were also increased; from 2.47 × 1015 dots/cc for 3 × wash CdSe nanoparticles to 3.70 × 1015 dots/cc for 4 × wash CdSe nanoparticles. Polysulfide electrolyte and Cu2S counterelectrodes were used to assemble a complete QDSSC. The highest efficiency of 0.05% was obtained from 4 × wash CdSe nanoparticles; Voc = 0.2V, Jsc = 0.34 mA/cm2 and FF = 0.07).

  9. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped CdSe nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaspal Singh; N K Verma

    2014-05-01

    Pure and Co-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Visible), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), at room temperature. From XRD analysis, pure and cobalt-doped CdSe nanoparticles have been found to be polycrystalline in nature and possess zinc blende phase having cubic structure. In addition to this, some peaks related to secondary phase or impurities such as cobalt diselenide (CoSe2) have also been observed. The calculated average crystallite size of the nanoparticles lies in the range, 3–21 nm, which is consistent with the results obtained from TEM analysis. The decrease in average crystallite size and blue shift in the band gap has been observed with Co-doping into the host CdSe nanoparticles. The magnetic analysis shows the ferromagnetic behaviour up to 10% of Co-doping concentration. The increase of Co content beyond 10% doping concentration leads to antiferromagnetic interactions between the Co ions, which suppress the ferromagnetism.

  10. Obtaining and characterization of ZnSe nanoparticles from aqueous colloidal dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, R.; Rosendo, E.; García, G.; M. Pacio; T. Díaz; H. Juárez; Galeazzi, R; R. Romano-Trujillo; G. Nieto

    2014-01-01

    Structural, morphological and compositional characterizations of zinc selenide (ZnSe) nanoparticles (NPs) are presented. ZnSe NPs have been obtained by colloidal synthe sis in aqueous solution using zinc nitrate (Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ) and elemental selenium (Se) as precursors, sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) as reducing agent, a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and pentasodium trip olyphosphate (Na 5 P 3 O 10 ) named Extran was used as surfactant. The pH was varied from 8 to 11 and the Zn:Se molar co...

  11. In situ aggregation of ZnSe nanoparticles into supraparticles: shape control and doping effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gaoling; Zhong, Haizheng; Liu, Ruibin; Li, Yongfang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2013-02-12

    The ability to tune the size, shape, and properties of supraparticles is of great importance for fundamental study as well as their promising applications. We previously developed a method to synthesize monodisperse ZnSe supraparticles via "in situ aggregation" of ZnSe nanoparticles through a simple hot-injection method. In the present work, we show that the "in situ aggregation" strategy can be extended to tune the shapes of ZnSe supraparticles, and introduce novel functional magnetic and luminescence properties. Shape control is manipulated with oleic acid as ligands, which balances the attractive interparticles van der Waals forces and steric repulsive forces from the ligands. With the increase of oleic acid concentration, a morphology change from microspheres to asymmetrical multimer and three-dimensional nanoflowers was observed. "Doping" preformed Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles into ZnSe supraparticles endow them with magnetic properties. The magnetism of these Fe(3)O(4)@ZnSe supraparticles depends on the dosage of dopant. Doping of preformed CdS nanocrystals was also studied, resulting in emissive hybrid CdS@ZnSe supraparticles with diameters of 50-100 nm. It is noted that the doping of Fe(3)O(4) and CdS nanoparticles show differing morphologies. The differences can be explained by variance in the lattice mismatches which leads to differing potentials for crystal growth.

  12. Synthesis and analysis of ZnO and CdSe nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shriwas S Ashtaputre; Aparna Deshpande; Sonali Marathe; M E Wankhede; Jayashree Chimanpure; Renu Pasricha; J Urban; S K Haram; S W Gosavi; S K Kulkarne

    2005-10-01

    Zinc oxide and cadmium selenide particles in the nanometer size regime have been synthesized using chemical routes. The particles were capped using thioglycerol in case of ZnO and 2-mercaptoethanol in case of CdSe to achieve the stability and avoid the coalescence. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were doped with europium to study their optical properties. A variety of techniques like UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to carry out structural and spectroscopic characterizations of the nanoparticles.

  13. Effects of heat treatments on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, SeJin; Kim, ChaeWoong; Yun, JaeHo; Lee, JeongChul; Yoon, KyungHoon [Solar Cells Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2007-11-23

    Effects of heat treatment in nitrogen or Se atmosphere on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) nanoparticles were investigated to extract optimum sintering conditions for fabrication of solar cell applicable CIGS absorber films. In nitrogen atmosphere, as the temperature increases from 100 to 400 C the intensity of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks corresponding to the (1 1 2), (2 2 0) and (3 1 2) planes of the chalcopyrite CIGS increases, and the peak positions shift to lower angle regions without any particle growth in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, which is in consistent with the significant In and Ga loss in the EDS data. When the temperature further goes up to 500 C, parts of CIGS are decomposed and Cu and CuSe{sub 2} phases are observed. From these results, the heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere is found to have no beneficial effect on the sintering of the particles and only induces loss of In and Ga. On the other hand, heat treatment in Se atmosphere at a substrate temperature of 550 C with Se vapor evaporated at 250 and 450 C provided much enhanced growth of the particles, specially up to 500 nm at 450 C, and increased crystallinity without In or Ga loss, reflecting that Se supply played a critical role in the growth of the CIGS nanoparticles. (author)

  14. Colloidal-chemistry based synthesis of quantized CuInS2/Se2 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazović Nadica D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ternary chalcogenide nanoparticles, CuInS2 and CuInSe2, were synthesized in high- temperature boiling organic non-polar solvent. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both materials have tetragonal (chalcopyrite crystal structure. Morphology of the obtained materials was revealed by using transmission electron microscopy. Agglomerated spherical CuInS2 nanoparticles with broad size distribution in the range from 2 to 20 nm were obtained. In the case of CuInSe2, isolated particles with spherical or prismatic shape in the size range from 10 to 25 nm were obtained, as well as agglomerates consisting of much smaller particles with diameter of about 2-5 nm. The particles with the smallest diameters of both materials exhibit quantum size effect.

  15. Molten-droplet synthesis of composite CdSe hollow nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Gullapalli, Sravani

    2012-11-16

    Many colloidal synthesis routes are not scalable to high production rates, especially for nanoparticles of complex shape or composition, due to precursor expense and hazards, low yields, and the large number of processing steps. The present work describes a strategy to synthesize hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) out of metal chalcogenides, based on the slow heating of a low-melting-point metal salt, an elemental chalcogen, and an alkylammonium surfactant in octadecene solvent. The synthesis and characterization of CdSe HNPs with an outer diameter of 15.6 ± 3.5 nm and a shell thickness of 5.4 ± 0.9 nm are specifically detailed here. The HNP synthesis is proposed to proceed with the formation of alkylammonium-stabilized nano-sized droplets of molten cadmium salt, which then come into contact with dissolved selenium species to form a CdSe shell at the droplet surface. In a reaction-diffusion mechanism similar to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect it is speculated that the cadmium migrates outwardly through this shell to react with more selenium, causing the CdSe shell to thicken. The proposed CdSe HNP structure comprises a polycrystalline CdSe shell coated with a thin layer of amorphous selenium. Photovoltaic device characterization indicates that HNPs have improved electron transport characteristics compared to standard CdSe quantum dots, possibly due to this selenium layer. The HNPs are colloidally stable in organic solvents even though carboxylate, phosphine, and amine ligands are absent; stability is attributed to octadecene-selenide species bound to the particle surface. This scalable synthesis method presents opportunities to generate hollow nanoparticles with increased structural and compositional variety. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. A simple and facile synthesis of MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukanya, D.; Sagayaraj, P., E-mail: psagayaraj@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai-600034 (India)

    2015-06-24

    II-VI semiconductor nanostructures, in particular, CdSe quantum dots have drawn a lot of attention because of their promising potential applications in biological tagging, photovoltaic, display devices etc. due to their excellent optical properties, high emission quantum yield, size dependent emission wavelength and high photostability. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and properties of mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles through a simple and efficient co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The growth process, characterization and the optical absorption as a function of wavelength for the synthesized MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles have been determined using X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM)

  17. A simple and facile synthesis of MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukanya, D.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-06-01

    II-VI semiconductor nanostructures, in particular, CdSe quantum dots have drawn a lot of attention because of their promising potential applications in biological tagging, photovoltaic, display devices etc. due to their excellent optical properties, high emission quantum yield, size dependent emission wavelength and high photostability. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and properties of mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles through a simple and efficient co-precipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment. The growth process, characterization and the optical absorption as a function of wavelength for the synthesized MPA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanoparticles have been determined using X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM).

  18. In vivo formation of natural HgSe nanoparticles in the liver and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the biochemistry of methylmercury (MeHg) that leads to the formation of mercury-selenium (Hg-Se) clusters is a long outstanding challenge that promises to deepen our knowledge of MeHg detoxification and the role SE plays in this process. Here, we show that mercury selenide (HgSe) nanoparticles in the liver and brain of long-finned pilot whales are attached to Se-rich structures and possibly act as a nucleation point for the formation of large Se-Hg clusters, which can grow with age to over 5 µm in size. The detoxification mechanism is fully developed from the early age of the animals, with particulate Hg found already in juvenile tissues. As a consequence of MeHg detoxification, Se-methionine, the selenium pool in the system is depleted in the efforts to maintain essential levels of Se-cysteine. This study provides evidence of so far unreported depletion of bioavailable Se pool, a plausible driving mechanism of demonstrated neurotoxic effects of MeHg in the organism affected by its high dietary intake. We investigated in vivo formation of natural HgSe particles in a pod of stranded long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), with age of the animal and the potency of the environmentally relevant dose of dietary MeHg to disrupt the Se-proteins synthesis. This has been previously investigated despite the substantial indications of the interaction between Hg and Se, and therefore we conducted a multi-method analytical approach on brain and liv

  19. Femtosecond time-resolved energy transfer from CdSe nanoparticles to phthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, S.; Królicki, R.; Lou, Y.; Qiu, X.; Berlin, J. C.; Kenney, M. E.; Burda, C.

    2006-07-01

    The first real-time observation of the early events during energy transfer from a photoexcited CdSe nanoparticle to an attached phthalocyanine molecule are presented in terms of a femtosecond spectroscopic pump-probe study of the energy transfer in conjugates of CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) and silicon phthalocyanines (Pcs) with 120 fs time resolution. Four different silicon phthalocyanines have been conjugated to CdSe NPs. All of these have proven potential for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In such NP-Pc conjugates efficient energy transfer (ET) from CdSe NPs to Pcs occurs upon selective photoexcitation of the NP moiety. Spectral analysis as well as time-resolved fluorescence up-conversion measurements revealed the structure and dynamics of the investigated conjugates. Femtosecond transient differential absorption (TDA) spectroscopy was used for the investigation of the non-radiative carrier and ET dynamics. The formation of excitons, trapped carriers states, as well as stimulated emission was monitored in the TDA spectra and the corresponding lifetimes of these states were recorded. The time component for energy transfer was found to be between 15 and 35 ps. The ET efficiencies are found to be 20-70% for the four Pc conjugates, according to fluorescence quenching experiments. Moreover, as a result of the conjugation between NP and the Pcs the photoluminescence efficiency of the Pc moieties in the conjugates do not strictly follow the quantum yields of the bare phthalocyanines.

  20. A one pot organic/CdSe nanoparticle hybrid material synthesis with in situ π-conjugated ligand functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Katherine A; Okamoto, Ken; Li, Zhi; Gutmann, Sebastian; Strein, Elisabeth; Ginger, David S; Schlaf, Rudy; Luscombe, Christine K

    2013-02-14

    A one pot method for organic/colloidal CdSe nanoparticle hybrid material synthesis is presented. Relative to traditional ligand exchange processes, these materials require smaller amounts of the desired capping ligand, shorter syntheses and fewer processing steps, while maintaining nanoparticle morphology.

  1. Enhancement effect of defect fluorescence of ZnSe quantum dots on a heterojuction of ZnSe quantum dots and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhongchen; Hao, Licai; Huang, Zhaoling; Qin, Shuijie; Zhang, Zhengping

    2017-08-24

    We studied an enhancement effect of defect fluorescence of ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) on a heterojunction of ZnSe quantum dots and gold nanoparticles. The photoluminescence (PL) of Au /ZnSe heterojunction is excited by using a 150 nm diameter ultraviolet laser spot of a scanning near-field optical microscope. Owing to the charge transfer of photon-generated carriers from ZnSe QDs, the enhanced PL effect is observed, which results from the increase of the built-in electric field to hinder the electron transfer to gold nanoparticles and is trapped by the defect states of ZnSe QDs. The broadening of defect fluorescence spectra and the reduction of exctionic fluorescence in multi-heterojunction of ZnSe QDs and gold nanoparticles are also observed which is attributed to increase of their contact areas. We believe that enhanced defect fluorescence method described in this paper have potential applications in forming uniform optoelectronic heterojunction in controlling and boosting fluorescent efficiency of weak PL devices. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Electrochemiluminescent detection of Pb2+ by graphene/gold nanoparticles and CdSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liping; Guo, Linqing; Li, Jiao; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemiluminescent detection method for lead ions (Pb(II)) was fabricated based on the distance-dependent quenching of the electrochemiluminescence from CdSe quantum dots by nanocomposites of graphene and gold nanoparticles. Graphene/gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode through the constant potential method. Thiol-labeled DNA was then assembled on the surface of the electrode via gold-sulfur bonding, following which the amino-labeled terminal of the DNA was linked to carboxylated CdSe quantum dots by the formation of amide bonds. The 27-base aptamer was designed with two different domains: the immobilization and detection sequences. The immobilization sequence was paired with 12 complementary bases and immobilized on the gold electrode; the single-stranded detection sequence, rich in G bases, formed a G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the presence of Pb2+. The formation of G4 shortens the distance between the CdSe quantum dots and the Au electrode, which decreases the electrochemiluminescent intensity in a linear fashion, proportional to the concentration of Pb(II). The linear range of the sensor was 10-10 to 10-8 mol/L (R = 0.9819) with a detection limit of 10-10 mol/L. This sensor detected Pb(II) in real water samples with satisfactory results.

  3. Exploring the Behavior and Metabolic Transformations of SeNPs in Exposed Lactic Acid Bacteria. Effect of Nanoparticles Coating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palomo-Siguero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs. Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to locate SeNPs in the bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on line coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was applied to evaluate SeNP transformation by bacteria. Finally, flow cytometry employing the live/dead test and optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 were used for evaluating the percentages of bacteria viability when supplementing with SeNPs. Negligible damage was detected by flow cytometry when bacteria were exposed to HEC-SeNPs or CS-SeNPs at a level of 10 μg Se mL−1. In contrast, ethoxylated-SeNPs were found to be the most harmful nanoparticles toward bacteria. CS-SeNPs passed through the membrane without causing damage. Once inside, SeNPs were metabolically transformed to organic selenium compounds. Results evidenced the importance of capping agents when establishing the true behavior of NPs.

  4. Raman spectra of ZnSe nanoparticles synthesized by thermal evaporation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui-Zhi; Zhao Qing; Du Wei-Min

    2004-01-01

    ZnSe nanoparticles were synthesized by using a thermal evaporation method for a vapour phase reaction of zinc and selenium sources. The sample was characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra of longitudinal-optical (LO) like mode was analysed by a macroscopic continuum dielectric model. Large broadening of LO-mode is homogeneous and comes from the relaxation of the phonons at the interface and contribution of defects.Surface modes give the main contribution to the asymmetry of the lineshape.

  5. CdSe Nanoparticles with Clean Surfaces: Gas Phase Synthesis and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CdSe nanoparticles (NPs were generated in gas phase with a magnetron plasma gas aggregation cluster beam source. Coagulation-free CdSe nanocrystals with very clean particle surface and interface, as well as a fairly uniform spatial distribution were obtained. The deposited NPs have a good dispersity with a mean diameter of about 4.8nm. A strong photoluminescence band corresponding to the near- band-edge transition of the CdSe NPs was observed. The CdSe NP films show a significant photoconductance induced by laser irradiation. With an applied bias voltage of 10V, the photo- induced current can be as high as 0.4mA under 0.01mW/mm2 405nm laser illumination. Our approach offers an alternative method for CdSe NP synthesis, which has the advantages such as high purity, good process and product control, as well as mass production, as compared to the existing methods.

  6. Optical and vibrational properties of PbSe nanoparticles synthesized in clinoptilolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Valenzuela, J.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Arizpe-Chavez, H.; Román-Zamorano, J. F.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the optical and vibrational properties of composites based on PbSe semiconductor immersed in a zeolite matrix are reported. The natural zeolite, (clinoptilolite) was used as the host material of PbSe nanoparticles. The method for obtaining these particles is also reported here, which is based on ion exchange processes inside the natural zeolite in alkaline aqueous solution that contains the precursor ions Pb2+ and Se2-. The process of synthesis was conducted temperature, volume, concentration and reaction time of the precursors. The samples were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, TEM (transmission electron microscopy), diffuse reflectance and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that with this method, the particles with nanometric PbSe sizes were synthesized in the zeolite matrix. Vibrational Raman bands at low wave numbers were detected in these particles by the presence of a shoulder located at 135 cm-1 and a band at around 149 cm-1. The vibrational calculations for small clusters of PbSe at LSDA (Local Spin Density Approximation) level combined with the basis set LANDL2DZ (Los Alamos National Laboratory 2 double ζ), were considered through DFT (Density Functionl Theory). The "breathing" Raman modes located at 119-152 cm-1 were detected for this level of theory.

  7. A simple synthesis of Ag{sub 2+x}Se nanoparticles and their thin films for electronic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Quy; Dung, Dang Duc; Cho, Sunglae; Kim, Sunwook [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A simple method to synthesize silver selenide nanoparticles has been proposed. By changing the ratio of Se-oleylamine complex and silver acetate in the reacting mixture at different temperatures, both size and stoichiometry of the silver selenide particles could be successfully controlled. The size of the nanoparticles was adjusted by changing reaction temperatures. The synthesized silver selenide nanoparticles showed size changes from 3 to 10 nm when the corresponding reaction temperatures were 40-100 .deg. C, respectively. In addition to the size change, the stoichiometry of the synthesized nanoparticles (Ag{sub 2+x}Se) could be adjusted by simply varying the ratio of Ag to Se precursors. Through XPS analyses the x value in Ag{sub 2+x}Se was determined, and it changed between 0.54 and −0.03 by varying Ag/Se ratio from 2/0.75 to 2/4. The optical property of the nonstoichiometric Ag{sub 2+x}Se nanoparticles was different from that of stoichiometric Ag{sub 2}Se nanoparticles, but showed the plasmon absorption of Ag-Ag network. The plasmon absorption was decreased with the increased concentration of the Se precursor. Finally, the Ag{sub 2+x}Se thin film in this work showed large magnetoresistance and successfully applied to prepare high-performance Schottky diode. The Ag{sub 2.06}Se film exhibited the magnetoresistance effect up to 0.9% at only 0.8 T at room temperature. The voltage drop and breakdown voltage of the Schottky diode were 0.5 V and 9.3 V, respectively.

  8. Formation of Se (0 Nanoparticles by Duganella sp. andAgrobacterium sp. isolated from Se-laden soil of North-East Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajaj Mini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium (Se is an essential trace element, but is toxic at high concentrations. Depending upon the geological background, the land use or on anthropogenic pollution, different amounts of Se may be present in soil. Its toxicity is related to the oxyanions selenate and selenite as they are water soluble and bioavailable. Microorganisms play an important role in Se transformations in soil and its cycling in the environment by transforming water-soluble oxyanions into water insoluble, non-toxic elemental Se (0. For this study, soil samples were collected from selenium-contaminated agricultural soils of Punjab/India to enrich and isolate microbes that interacted with the Se cycle. Results A mixed microbial culture enriched from the arable soil of Punjab could reduce 230 mg/l of water soluble selenite to spherical Se (0 nanoparticles during aerobic growth as confirmed by SEM-EDX. Four pure cultures (C 1, C 4, C 6, C 7 of Gram negative, oxidase and catalase positive, aerobic bacteria were isolated from this mixed microbial consortium and identified by 16 S rDNA gene sequence alignment as two strains of Duganella sp. (C 1, C 4 and two strains of Agrobacterium sp.(C 6, C 7. SEM/TEM-EDX analyses of the culture broth of the four strains revealed excretion of uniformly round sharply contoured Se (0 nanoparticles by all cultures. Their size ranged from 140–200 nm in cultures of strains C 1 and C 4, and from 185–190 nm in cultures of strains C 6 and C 7. Both Duganella sp. revealed better selenite reduction efficiencies than the two Agrobacterium sp. Conclusions This is the first study reporting the capability of newly isolated, aerobically growing Duganella sp. and Agrobacterium sp. from soils of Punjab/India to form spherical, regularly formed Se (0 nanoparticles from water soluble selenite. Among others, the four strains may significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of Se in soil. Bioconversion of toxic

  9. Electric Field Effects on Photoluminescence of CdSe Nanoparticles in a PMMA Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takakazu Nakabayashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External electric field effects on spectra and decay of photoluminescence (PL as well as on absorption spectra were measured for CdSe nanoparticles in a poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA film. Electrophotoluminescence (E-PL spectra as well as electroabsorption spectra show a remarkable Stark shift which depends on the particle size, indicating a large electric dipole moment in the first exciton state. The E-PL spectra also show that PL of CdSe is quenched by application of electric fields, and the magnitude of the field-induced quenching becomes larger with increasing size. The PL decay profiles observed in the absence and presence of electric field show that the field-induced quenching of PL mainly originates from the field-induced decrease in population of the emitting state prepared through the relaxation from the photoexcited state.

  10. The effect of semiconducting CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles on the fluorescence of Sm3+ in lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallur, Saisudha; Fatokun, Stephen; Babu, P. K.

    2015-03-01

    We studied the fluorescence spectra of Sm3+ doped lead borate glasses containing zinc selenide (ZnSe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles with the following compositions (x PbO: 96.5-x B2O3:0.5 Sm2O3:3ZnSe/CdSe, x =36.5 and 56.5 mol%). These glass samples are prepared using the melt-quenching technique. Each sample is annealed just below the glass transition temperature at 400°C for 3 hrs and 6 hrs. We have chosen PbO-B2O3 glasses to incorporate Sm3+ ions because they have large glass forming region, high refractive index, and good physical and thermal stability. Fluorescence spectra of these samples are obtained with the excitation wavelength at 477 nm. Four fluorescence transitions are observed at 563 nm, 598 nm, 646 nm and 708 nm. The transition at 646 nm is found to be a hypersensitive transition that strongly depends on the covalency of the Sm-O bond and the asymmetry of the crystal field at Sm site. The 646 nm/598 nm fluorescence intensity ratio has been studied for different annealing times and PbO concentration for both ZnSe and CdSe samples. The presence of CdSe nanoparticles is seen to produce the greatest influence on the fluorescence intensity ratio. This could be due to the size of the CdSe nanoparticles and covalency of the Sm-O bond.

  11. Probing photoluminescence dynamics of colloidal CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurvir; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in

    2014-11-15

    The paper presents the synthesis of thiol capped CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanoparticles with CdSe core and ZnS shell. The thickness of the ZnS shell has been controlled by the regulating the amount of Zn/S precursors for reaction. The steady and transient photoluminescence properties substantiate the growth of ZnS shell over the CdSe cores. High resolution transmission electron microscope and the X-ray diffraction patterns reveal nanocrystalline particles of an average size 3.4 nm packed in wurtzite lattice. Photoluminescence excitation spectra as well as the excitation–emission matrix of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS evidence the growth of ZnS for Type I hetero-junction without interfering the energy states of core. By this method, ZnS layer of 8.84 Å is optimum for fluorescence enhancement of the core/shell quantum dots. The multiexponential fluorescence decay of the quantum dots represents independent radiative recombinations with overlapped energies. It is revealed that the average fluorescence lifetimes of quantum dots decreased with increase in ZnS shell, which is due to the enhanced contribution from initially populated excitonic recombination and the reduction in the surface trap states with shell growth. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MAA capped CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with different shell thicknesses. • Shell thickness has been controlled by the amount of shell precursors added. • ZnS shell significantly enhanced the fluorescence quantum yield of QDs. • Superposition of quantum confinement energy model employed for shell thickness. • Probed the fluorescence dynamics of QDs by time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

  12. In vivo formation of natural HgSe nanoparticles in the liver and brain of pilot whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdosechova, Z.; Lawan, M. M.; Urgast, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Se) nanoparticles in the liver and brain of long-finned pilot whales are attached to Se-rich structures and possibly act as a nucleation point for the formation of large Se-Hg clusters, which can grow with age to over 5 μm in size. The detoxification mechanism is fully developed from the early age of the animals...... driving mechanism of demonstrated neurotoxic effects of MeHg in the organism affected by its high dietary intake....

  13. Fingerprint detection and using intercalated CdSe nanoparticles on non-porous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarra, Manuel, E-mail: malgarra67@gmail.com [Centro de Geología da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamemto do Territorio do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Radotić, Ksenija; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Mutavdžić, Dragosav; Savić, Aleksandar [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Višeslava 1, 11000 Beograd (Serbia); Jiménez-Jiménez, José; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071Málaga (Spain); Silva, Joaquim C.G. Esteves da [Centro de Investigação em Química (CIQ-UP). Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Guerrero-González, Juan José [Policía Científica, Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, Málaga (Spain)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures. •Characterized by FTIR, XRD and fluorescence spectroscopies. •Deconvolution of the emission spectra was confirmed by using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. •Application for fingerprint detection and analysis on different non-porous surfaces. -- Abstract: A fluorescent nanocomposite based on the inclusion of CdSe quantum dots in porous phosphate heterostructures, functionalized with amino groups (PPH-NH{sub 2}@CdSe), was synthesized, characterized and used for fingerprint detection. The main scopes of this work were first to develop a friendly chemical powder for detecting latent fingerprints, especially in non-porous surfaces; their further intercalation in PPH structure enables not to spread the fluorescent nanoparticles, for that reason very good fluorescent images can be obtained. The fingerprints, obtained on different non-porous surfaces such as iron tweezers, mobile telephone screen and magnetic band of a credit card, treated with this powder emit a pale orange luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. A further image processing consists of contrast enhancement that allows obtaining positive matches according to the information supplied from a police database, and showed to be more effective than that obtained with the non-processed images. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods.

  14. Improvement of Film Quality in CuInSe2 Thin Films Fabricated by a Non-Vacuum, Nanoparticle-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Ito, Manabu; Tamura, Tomoaki; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    To improve the quality of CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films fabricated by a non-vacuum, nanoparticle-based approach, in this study, two categories of nanoparticles, Cu (InGa) Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles and copper selenide (Cu-Se) with indium selenide (In-Se) nanoparticles are investigated. It is found that the Cu-Se with In-Se nanoparticles show a higher crystallization velocity than CIGS nanoparticles. The films obtained from Cu-Se with In-Se nanoparticles exhibit higher crystallinity with a larger grain size. Thiourea is applied as a sintering additive during the selenization process. It is clarified that the addition of thiourea is very effective for grain growth and the fabrication of a dense CIS layer. The cell performance is measured under Air Mass 1.5 irradiation. The efficiency of the solar cell, fabricated using Cu-Se, In-Se nanoparticles with thiourea, is 2.15%, higher than that of the solar cell fabricated using CIGS nanoparticles, which is 0.28%.

  15. Influence of growth and photocatalytic properties of copper selenide (CuSe) nanoparticles using reflux condensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2013-10-01

    Influence of reaction conditions on the synthesis of copper selenide (CuSe) nanoparticles and their photo degradation activity is studied. Nearly monodispersed uniform size (23-44 nm) nanoparticles are synthesized by varying the reaction conditions using reflux condensation method. The obtained nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the sample shows the formation of nanoparticles with hexagonal CuSe structure. The result indicates that on increasing the reaction time from 4 to 12 h, the particle size decreases from 44 to 23 nm, but an increase in the reaction temperature increases the particle size. The calculated band gap Eg is ranging from 2.34 to 3.05 eV which is blue shifted from the bulk CuSe (2.2 eV). The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the CuSe nanoparticles on two organic dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine-B (RhB) in aqueous solution under UV region is calculated as 76 and 87% respectively.

  16. Influence of growth and photocatalytic properties of copper selenide (CuSe) nanoparticles using reflux condensation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonia, S. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Kumar, P. Suresh [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Influence of reaction conditions on the synthesis of copper selenide (CuSe) nanoparticles and their photo degradation activity is studied. Nearly monodispersed uniform size (23–44 nm) nanoparticles are synthesized by varying the reaction conditions using reflux condensation method. The obtained nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the sample shows the formation of nanoparticles with hexagonal CuSe structure. The result indicates that on increasing the reaction time from 4 to 12 h, the particle size decreases from 44 to 23 nm, but an increase in the reaction temperature increases the particle size. The calculated band gap E{sub g} is ranging from 2.34 to 3.05 eV which is blue shifted from the bulk CuSe (2.2 eV). The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the CuSe nanoparticles on two organic dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine-B (RhB) in aqueous solution under UV region is calculated as 76 and 87% respectively.

  17. Colloidal synthesis of Culn0.75Ga0.25Se2 nanoparticles and their photovoltaic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mubiayi Kalenga Pierre; Freitas Jilian; Moloto Makwena Justice; Moloto Nosipho; Sikhwivhilu Lucky Mashudu; Nogueria Ana Flavia

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the possibilities of synthesizing copper indium gallium selenide nanoparticles with properties that are desired in photovoltaics. The use of oleylamine as solvent and capping agent improved the growth and dispersivity of stoichiometric CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 nanoparticles through conventional colloidal synthesis. Relatively small sized CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 nanocrystals were assembled in devices as quantum dot sensitized solar cells and exhibited electrical properties with a fill ...

  18. Colloidal synthesis of Culn0.75Ga0.25Se2 nanoparticles and their photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiayi Kalenga Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the possibilities of synthesizing copper indium gallium selenide nanoparticles with properties that are desired in photovoltaics. The use of oleylamine as solvent and capping agent improved the growth and dispersivity of stoichiometric CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 nanoparticles through conventional colloidal synthesis. Relatively small sized CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 nanocrystals were assembled in devices as quantum dot sensitized solar cells and exhibited electrical properties with a fill factor of 33% which may be improved for any photovoltaic application.

  19. Magnetic and dielectric study of Fe-doped CdSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantani; Banerjee, Sourish; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Sinha, Tripurari Prasad

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (CdSe) and Fe (5% and 10%) doped CdSe have been synthesized by soft chemical route and found to have cubic structure. The magnetic field dependent magnetization measurement of the doped samples indicates the presence of anti-ferromagnetic order. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) measurement under zero field cooled and field cooled conditions has also ruled out the presence of ferromagnetic component in the samples at room temperature as well as low temperature. In order to estimate the anti-ferromagnetic coupling among the doped Fe atoms, an M-T measurement at 500 Oe has been carried out, and the Curie-Weiss temperature θ of the samples has been estimated from the inverse of susceptibility versus temperature plots. The dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the spectra of imaginary part of dielectric constant. The temperature dependent relaxation time is found to obey the Arrhenius law having activation energy 0.4 eV for Fe doped samples. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Synthesis of monoclinic zinc diphosphide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowles, T.A.

    1978-05-01

    Monoclinic zinc diphosphide is a cheap, plentiful, direct-gap semiconductor with an optimum transition energy for solar absorption. Single crystals were grown from the vapor to be evaluated as a new photovoltaic material. Monoclinic and tetragonal crystal formed within evacuated quartz ampules that were charged with zinc and excess phosphorous and heated in a temperature gradient to give phosphorous pressures from 0.07 to 8.5 atmospheres. The monoclinic form melts incongruently near 990/sup 0/C. The tetragonal form is metastable; its growth is enhanced by impurities but retarded by high phosphorous pressures. The mechanism of the synthesis indicates that a tightly-controlled vapor deposition is possible and that high-quality thin films should form at temperatures from 950 to 990/sup 0/C at pressures below 10 atmospheres. By a modification of the technique, sesquizinc phosphide single crystals were grown for comparison.

  1. Effect of ZnSe and CdSe nanoparticles on the fluorescence and optical band gap of Sm3+ doped lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Stephen O.

    For the first part of this work, we prepared a series of Sm-doped lead borate (PbO-B2O3) glasses containing zinc selenide (ZnSe) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles (NPs) and studied the Sm 3+ fluorescence by varying the glass composition and size of the NPs. We have chosen these heavy metal oxide glasses to incorporate Sm3+ ions because they have large glass forming region, high refractive index, and good physical and thermal stability. Lead borate glasses with the following compositions xPbO:(96.5-x)B2O 3:0.5Sm2O3:3ZnSe/CdSe, x=36.5 and 56.5 mol%) are prepared using the melt-quenching method. Transmission electron microscopy characterization was done to confirm both nucleation and growth of the NPs for different annealing times. Fluorescence spectra of these samples are obtained with the excitation wavelengths at 403 and 477nm. Three fluorescence transitions are observed at 563 nm, 598 nm and 646 nm. The transition at 646 nm is a electric dipole (ED) transition that strongly depends on the covalency of the Sm-O bond and the asymmetry of the crystal field at the Sm3+ site. The 646 nm/598 nm fluorescence intensity ratio has been studied for different annealing times and PbO concentration for both ZnSe and CdSe samples. Longer annealing times tend to make the crystal field at the Sm3+ site more symmetric in nature for these glasses. The presence of CdSe NPs is seen to produce the greatest influence on the fluorescence intensity ratio. This is believed to be due to the larger size of the CdSe nanoparticles and its stronger influence on Sm3+ ions. The second part of this work was dedicated to the understanding of the optical band gap of samarium doped lead borate glasses with and without ZnSe/CdSe NPs. Optical absorption spectra for all these glass samples show their absorption edge in the ultraviolet region. Detailed analysis of the absorption edge was carried out using the Mott-Davis model and the optical band gap and the width of the tail in the band gap

  2. Synthesis and characterization of monoclinic TiO2 nanosheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yu; XU Boqing

    2005-01-01

    A novel two-step method for the synthesis of monoclinic titanium oxide (i.e. TiO2(B)) nanosheets is presented in this report. The method is featured by two steps: 1) synthesis of hydrogen titanate nanosheets, followed by 2) calcination of the titanate nanosheets at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen titanate nanosheets were prepared first by autoclaving anatase TiO2 powders, obtained by air calcining an ethanol-gel of Ti(OH)4 at 500℃, in aqueous NaOH (10 mol/L) at 150―200℃, and then by washing with hydrochloric acid under supersonic irradiation. While sizes of the nanosheets were found to increase with increasing the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment, the calcination at 400―500℃ of the hydrogen titanate nanosheets that were synthesized at higher autoclaving temperatures (180―200℃) produced monoclinic TiO2 nanosheets with a uniform morphology. By contrast, the same calcination of the titanate nanosheets synthesized at the autoclaving temperature 180℃ led to anatase TiO2 nanoparticles.

  3. Nonlinear optical properties and Q-switch performance of silica glasses doped with CuxSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Savitski, Vasily G.; Prokoshin, Pavel V.; Yumashev, Konstantin V.; Gurin, Valerij S.; Alexeenko, Alexander A.

    2006-07-01

    Glasses containing copper selenide nanoparticles (CuxSe) reveal an intense absorption band peaking at 1 μm (1.24 eV). The transient bleaching and intensity-dependent transmission of silica glasses with CuxSe nanoparticles of different stoichiometry are studied with 1.08 μm (1.15 eV) picosecond pulses. The bleaching relaxation time decreases with a shift in the absorption band maximum to the lower photon energies. The dependence of absorption on the input energy of the pulses is saturationlike at the beginning of the plateau at ~40 mJ/cm2. Passive Q-switching of the Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser at 1.067 μm is realized with the CuxSe-doped glasses for different x.

  4. The influence of CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles on the optical properties of Sm3+ ions in lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallur, Saisudha B.; Heidorn, William D.; Fatokun, Stephen O.; Joshi, Krishna D.; Bista, Sandip S.; Babu, Panakkattu K.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of glass composition and the presence of CdSe/ZnSe nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption and fluorescence of Sm-doped lead borate glasses are studied. Three sets of glass samples xPbO:(99.5-x) B2O3:0.5Sm2O3, x = 29.5-69.5 mol%, xPbO:(96.5-x) B2O3:0.5Sm2O3: 3CdSe/ZnSe, x = 36.5, and 56.5 mol% are prepared. NPs are grown by annealing these glasses just below the glass transition temperature. Average size of both types of NPs increases with annealing time; however, CdSe NPs grew to a larger size range (2 to 20 nm) compared to ZnSe NPs (1 to 16 nm). We analyzed the hypersensitive transition, intensity parameters, radiative transition probability, stimulated emission cross section (σp), and the area ratio of the electric dipole/magnetic dipole transitions of Sm3+. The intensity parameters show a minimum at 11 h annealing for 36.5 mol% and a maximum for the same annealing duration in 56.5 mol% PbO containing CdSe NPs. The σp for 56.5 mol% of PbO with CdSe NPs is found to be a maximum when the average NP size is around 14 nm. ZnSe NPs containing glasses also show significant changes in σp when the average particle size is 16 nm, for 36.5 mol% PbO. Our results suggest that the optical properties of Sm3+ in lead borate glasses are sensitive to its electronic environment which can be modified by varying the base glass composition and/or incorporating large NPs of CdSe/ZnSe. The large σp values that we observe for some of the glass compositions make them attractive materials for photonic devices and photovoltaic applications.

  5. Electrodeposited Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film: a good electrocatalyst for efficient water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Sun, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    In this communication, we report that a Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film electrodeposited on a conductive Ti plate (Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti) behaves as a robust electrocatalyst for both HER and OER in strongly basic media, with good activity over a NiSe2/Ti counterpart. This Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti catalytic electrode delivers 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 64 mV for HER and 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 320 mV for OER in 1.0 M KOH. A voltage of only 1.62 V is required to drive 10 mA cm-2 for the two-electrode alkaline water electrolyzer using Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti as an anode and cathode.In this communication, we report that a Co-doped NiSe2 nanoparticles film electrodeposited on a conductive Ti plate (Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti) behaves as a robust electrocatalyst for both HER and OER in strongly basic media, with good activity over a NiSe2/Ti counterpart. This Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti catalytic electrode delivers 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 64 mV for HER and 100 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 320 mV for OER in 1.0 M KOH. A voltage of only 1.62 V is required to drive 10 mA cm-2 for the two-electrode alkaline water electrolyzer using Co0.13Ni0.87Se2/Ti as an anode and cathode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07170d

  6. CuInSe{sub 2} low-cost thin-film solar cells made from commercial elemental metallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungelenk, Jan; Haug, Veronika; Quintilla, Aina; Ahlswede, Erik [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    We present a method to prepare low-cost CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) solar cells using commercially available low-grade elemental Cu and In nanoparticles without prior synthesis of CIS nanoparticle precursors. A simple non-vacuum ink deposition method is used where the nanoparticles are dispersed in alcohol and deposited onto a Mo/glass substrate in ambient atmosphere. Depending on the reduction and selenization steps, a compact CIS top layer comprising grains up to a few hundred nano- meters in size was observed to have formed using SEM and XRD. Complete solar cells were prepared by conventional methods, leading to a conversion efficiency well above 3%. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Ligand mediated synthesis of AgInSe{sub 2} nanoparticles with tetragonal/orthorhombic crystal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazovic, Nadica D., E-mail: kiki@vinca.rs; Comor, Mirjana I.; Mitric, Miodrag N. [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia); Piscopiello, Emanuela [ENEA, Department of Advanced Physics Technology and New Materials (FIM) (Italy); Radetic, Tamara [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Jankovic, Ivana A.; Nedeljkovic, Jovan M. [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia)

    2012-03-15

    Nanosized AgInSe{sub 2} particles (d {approx} 7-25 nm) were synthesized using colloidal chemistry method at 270 Degree-Sign C. As solvents/surface ligands 1-octadecene, trioctylphosphine, and oleylamine were used. It was shown that choice of ligand has crucial impact not only on final crystal phase of nanoparticles, but also at mechanism of crystal growth. X-ray diffraction and TEM/HRTEM techniques were used to identify obtained crystal phases and to measure average size and shape of nanoparticles. UV/Vis data were used to estimate band-gap energies of obtained samples. It was shown that presented routes can provide synthesis of nanoparticles with desired crystal phase (tetragonal and/or orthorhombic), with band-gap energies in the range from 1.25 to 1.53 eV.

  8. Effects of selenization conditions on densification of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films prepared by spray deposition of CIGS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SeJin; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yun, Jae Ho; Yoon, Kyung Hoon

    2009-06-01

    Spray deposited porous CIGS nanoparticle-derived thin films were selenized in a two zone rapid thermal annealing furnace and effects of various selenization parameters including Se evaporation temperature, flow rate of carrier gas, and substrate temperature on densification of the CIGS layers were investigated. It was found that higher Se supply to CIGS nanoparticles either by increasing Se evaporation temperature or by increasing the flow rate of carrier gas resulted in larger CIGS grains with higher degree of crystallinity, while it also induced formation of a thicker MoSe2 layer in-between CIGS and Mo which resulted in partial detachment of CIGS/MoSe2/Mo layers from the glass substrate. Densification of CIGS layer by growth of nanoparticles and formation of thick MoSe2 were explained by a liquid Se assisted reaction rather than by a vapor phase Se assisted reaction.

  9. Development of a hydrothermal method to synthesize spherical ZnSe nanoparticles: Appropriate templates for hollow nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gharibe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal method was used to synthesize pure ZnSe nanosphere materials. The effects of the reducing agent amount, the reaction time and temperature were investigated on the purity of ZnSe. Also, the effects of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS (anionic and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB (cationic were studied on the morphology of ZnSe. The prepared nanospheres were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Through these techniques, it was found that the pure ZnSe nanoparticles have a zinc blend structure and in a spherical form with average diameter of 30 nm. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i1.5

  10. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  11. In vivo formation of natural HgSe nanoparticles in the liver and brain of pilot whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosechova, Zuzana; Lawan, Mohammed M.; Urgast, Dagmar S.; Raab, Andrea; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Kopittke, Peter M.; Loeschner, Katrin; Larsen, Erik H.; Woods, Glenn; Brownlow, Andrew; Read, Fiona L.; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the biochemistry of methylmercury (MeHg) that leads to the formation of mercury-selenium (Hg-Se) clusters is a long outstanding challenge that promises to deepen our knowledge of MeHg detoxification and the role Se plays in this process. Here, we show that mercury selenide (HgSe) nanoparticles in the liver and brain of long-finned pilot whales are attached to Se-rich structures and possibly act as a nucleation point for the formation of large Se-Hg clusters, which can grow with age to over 5 μm in size. The detoxification mechanism is fully developed from the early age of the animals, with particulate Hg found already in juvenile tissues. As a consequence of MeHg detoxification, Se-methionine, the selenium pool in the system is depleted in the efforts to maintain essential levels of Se-cysteine. This study provides evidence of so far unreported depletion of the bioavailable Se pool, a plausible driving mechanism of demonstrated neurotoxic effects of MeHg in the organism affected by its high dietary intake. PMID:27678068

  12. In vivo formation of natural HgSe nanoparticles in the liver and brain of pilot whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosechova, Zuzana; Lawan, Mohammed M.; Urgast, Dagmar S.; Raab, Andrea; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Kopittke, Peter M.; Loeschner, Katrin; Larsen, Erik H.; Woods, Glenn; Brownlow, Andrew; Read, Fiona L.; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M.

    2016-09-01

    To understand the biochemistry of methylmercury (MeHg) that leads to the formation of mercury-selenium (Hg-Se) clusters is a long outstanding challenge that promises to deepen our knowledge of MeHg detoxification and the role Se plays in this process. Here, we show that mercury selenide (HgSe) nanoparticles in the liver and brain of long-finned pilot whales are attached to Se-rich structures and possibly act as a nucleation point for the formation of large Se-Hg clusters, which can grow with age to over 5 μm in size. The detoxification mechanism is fully developed from the early age of the animals, with particulate Hg found already in juvenile tissues. As a consequence of MeHg detoxification, Se-methionine, the selenium pool in the system is depleted in the efforts to maintain essential levels of Se-cysteine. This study provides evidence of so far unreported depletion of the bioavailable Se pool, a plausible driving mechanism of demonstrated neurotoxic effects of MeHg in the organism affected by its high dietary intake.

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films of alkane chalcogenice (S, Se, Te) stabilized gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, M.; Stuhr-Hansen, N.; Norgaard, K.

    2001-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles stabilized by alkanethiolates, alkaneselenides, and alkanetellurides have been prepared by analogous methods. Chloroform solutions of thiolate and selenide stabilized particles were spread and evaporated on the water/air interface where the particles formed well-defined Langmuir...

  14. Application of Black Pearl carbon-supported WO 3 nanostructures as hybrid carriers for electrocatalytic RuSe x nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Fiechter, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    RuSe x electrocatalytic nanoparticles were deposited onto hybrid carriers composed of Black Pearl carbon-supported tungsten oxide; and the resulting system's electrochemical activity was investigated during oxygen reduction reaction. The tungsten oxide-utilizing and RuSe x nanoparticle-containing materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical diagnostic techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk voltammetry. Application of Black Pearl carbon carriers modified with ultra-thin films of WO 3 as matrices (supports) for RuSe x catalytic centers results during electroreduction of oxygen in 0.5 mol dm -3 H 2SO 4 (under rotating disk voltammetric conditions) in the potential shift of ca. 70 mV towards more positive values relative to the behavior of the analogous WO 3-free system. Also the percent formation (at ring in the rotating ring-disk voltammetry) of the undesirable hydrogen peroxide has been decreased approximately twice by utilizing WO 3-modified carbon carriers. The results are consistent with the bifunctional mechanism in which oxygen reduction is initiated at RuSe x centers and the hydrogen peroxide intermediate is reductively decomposed at reactive WO 3-modified Black Pearl supports. The electrocatalytic activity of the system utilizing WO 3-modified Black Pearl supports has been basically unchanged upon addition of acetic acid, formic acid or methyl formate to the sulfuric acid supporting electrolyte.

  15. Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Hollow Bi2Se3 Nanoparticles for Timely Supply of Oxygen under Near-Infrared Light to Enhance the Radiotherapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guosheng; Liang, Chao; Yi, Xuan; Zhao, Qi; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-04-13

    Hollow Bi2 Se3 nanoparticles prepared by a cation exchange method are loaded with perfluorocarbon as an oxygen carrier. With these nanoparticles, a promising concept is demonstrated to enhance radiotherapy by not only using their X-ray-absorbing ability to locally concentrate radiation energy in the tumor, but also employing near-infrared light to trigger burst release of oxygen from the nanoparticles to overcome hypoxia-associated radio-resistance.

  16. Study of de-aggregation of mechanochemically synthesized ZnSe nanoparticles by re-milling in the presence of ZnCl2 solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Achimovičová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional mechanochemical synthesis of zinc selenide, ZnSe nanoparticles was performed in a planetary ball mill by high-energy milling of zinc (Zn and selenium (Se powders. Mechanochemically synthesized ZnSe was subsequently re-milled in circulation mill in ZnCl2 solution in order to study de-aggregation, physical-chemical and optical properties of ZnSe nanoparticles. The mechanochemically synthesized and re-milled samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD that confirmed the presence of cubic and hexagonal ZnSe phases. Size of crystallites calculated from XRD patterns has decreased from 50 to 19 nm for cubic ZnSe phase and from 145 to 2.5 nm for hexagonal ZnSe phase after re-milling for 110 min in ZnCl2 solution. Size, phase composition, morphology, and crystallinity of ZnSe nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. UV-Vis optical spectroscopy has provided an evidence of blue shift of the re-milled nanocrystalline ZnSe particles from the direct band gap of 2.67 eV characteristic of bulk ZnSe crystals. Colloidal stability of ZnSe nanoparticles dispersions was studied by ? �potential measurements.

  17. Photocatalysis with CdSe nanoparticles in confined media: mapping charge transfer events in the subpicosecond to second timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clifton; Kamat, Prashant V

    2009-03-24

    Photoinduced charge transfer events between 3 nm diameter CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals and an electron acceptor, MV2+, have been probed in the subpicosecond-microseconds-seconds time scale by confining the reactants in an AOT/heptane reverse micelle. The probe molecule, methyl viologen (MV2+) interacts with the excited CdSe nanoparticle and quenches its emission effectively. The ultrafast electron transfer to MV2+, as monitored from the exciton bleaching recovery of CdSe and the formation of MV+* radical, is completed with an average rate constant of 2.25x10(10) s(-1). Under steady state irradiation (450 nm) the accumulation of MV+* is seen with a net quantum yield of 0.1. Mediation of the electron transfer through TiO2 nanoparticles is achieved by coupling them with the CdSe-MV2+ system within the reverse micelle. This coupling of two semiconductor nanoparticles increases the quantum yield of MV2+ reduction by a factor of 2. The dual roles of TiO2 as an electron shuttle and a rectifier are elucidated by transient absorption spectroscopy and steady state photolysis. The presence of both TiO2 and MV2+ in the reverse micelle creates a synergistic effect to enhance the electron transfer rate constant by an order of magnitude. The time-resolved events that dictate the production and stabilization of electron transfer product provide an insight into the photocatalytic systems that are potentially important in solar hydrogen production and photocatalytic remediation.

  18. Nonlinear optical properties of cobalt and iron doped CdSe nanoparticles using Z-scan technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Poonam, E-mail: poonam.gaur612@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Sonipat 131001, Haryana (India); Malik, B.P. [Department of Physics, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Sonipat 131001, Haryana (India); Gaur, Arun [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonipat 131001, Haryana (India)

    2015-01-15

    The present work aims at the synthesis of pure, Cobalt (Co) and Iron (Fe) doped CdSe nanoparticles by the wet chemical method. The optical properties of synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy to find the optical direct band gap and estimation of particle size by using Debye–Scherrer formula and HRTEM. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear absorption co-efficient, nonlinear refraction co-efficient and third order nonlinear susceptibility χ{sup (3)} are investigated. The calculations have been performed with the help of Z-scan experimental set-up using Nd: YAG laser emitting 532 nm, 5 ns laser pulses with intensity maintained at 2.296 TW/cm{sup 2}. The nanoparticles clearly exhibit a negative value of nonlinear refraction, which is attributed to the two photon absorption and free carrier absorption. Further the optical limiting behavior is determined (figure of merit (FOM)). The presence of RSA in these nanoparticles makes them a potential material for the development of optical limiter.

  19. Synthesis of Culn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 Nanoparticles by Thermal Decomposition Method with Tunable Ga Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, M; Devi, R Aruna; Velumani, S; Oza, Goldie; Reyes-Figueroa, P; Rohini, M; Becerril-Juarez, I G; Yi, Junsin

    2015-11-01

    Chalcopyrite Culn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles were synthesized by mixing copper (I) chloride (CuCl), Indium (III) chloride (InCl3), gallium (III) chloride (GaCl3) and selenium (Se) in oleylamine (OLA) at 260 degrees C for 4 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The Ga/(In+ Ga) ratio was tuned across the entire stoichiometric range from 0 to 1. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) revealed chalcopyrite crystal structure for samples prepared with x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1. The lattice parameters a and c decreased linearly with increasing Ga concentration which is consistent with Vegard's law. Raman spectra exhibited A, optical phonon vibrational mode for synthesized nanoparticles which gradually shifted to higher wavenumber with increasing Ga content. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed irregular as well as hexagonal plate like morphologies in the size range of 100 to 400 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images showed well-defined lattice fringes and d-spacing correspond to (112) plane which gradually decreases with increasing Ga content. The material compositions of synthesized CIGS nanoparticles with x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 were very close to the desired stoichiometry which was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Ultraviolet visible near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) absorption spectra of the synthesized CIGS nanoparticles revealed that the bandgap could be tuned over the range 1 to 1.7 eV by varying the Ga/(In+Ga) ratio.

  20. 2-(4-Fluorobenzylidenepropanedinitrile: monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Agrody

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H5FN2, is a monoclinic (P21/c polymorph of the previously reported triclinic (P-1 form [Antipin et al. (2003. J. Mol. Struct. 650, 1–20]. The 13 non-H atoms in the title polymorph are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.020 Å; a small twist between the fluorobenzene and dinitrile groups [C—C—C—C torsion angle = 175.49 (16°] is evident in the triclinic polymorph. In the crystal, C—H...N interactions lead to supramolecular layers parallel to (-101; these are connected by C—F...π interactions.

  1. Structural, optical, and photoluminescence characterization of electron beam evaporated ZnS/CdSe nanoparticles thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S. H.; Ali, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Structural, optical, and photoluminescence investigations of ZnS capped with CdSe films prepared by electron beam evaporation are presented. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ZnS/CdSe nanoparticles films contain cubic cadmium selenide and hexagonal zinc sulfide crystals and the ZnS grain sizes increased with increasing ZnS thickness. The refractive index was evaluated in terms of envelope method, which has been suggested by Swanepoel in the transparent region. The refractive index values were found to increase with increasing ZnS thickness. However, the optical band gap and the extinction coefficient were decreased with increasing ZnS thickness. Photoluminescence (PL) investigations revealed the presence of two broad emission bands. The ZnS thickness significantly influenced the PL intensities.

  2. Toxicity of CdSe Nanoparticles in Caco-2 Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokmeci Mehmet R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potential routes of nanomaterial exposure include inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion. Toxicology of inhalation of ultra-fine particles has been extensively studied; however, risks of nanomaterial exposure via ingestion are currently almost unknown. Using enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells as a small intestine epithelial model, the possible toxicity of CdSe quantum dot (QD exposure via ingestion was investigated. Effect of simulated gastric fluid treatment on CdSe QD cytotoxicity was also studied. Results Commercially available CdSe QDs, which have a ZnS shell and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG coating, and in-house prepared surfactant coated CdSe QDs were dosed to Caco-2 cells. Cell viability and attachment were studied after 24 hours of incubation. It was found that cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs was modulated by surface coating, as PEG coated CdSe QDs had less of an effect on Caco-2 cell viability and attachment. Acid treatment increased the toxicity of PEG coated QDs, most likely due to damage or removal of the surface coating and exposure of CdSe core material. Incubation with un-dialyzed in-house prepared CdSe QD preparations, which contained an excess amount of free Cd2+, resulted in dramatically reduced cell viability. Conclusion Exposure to CdSe QDs resulted in cultured intestinal cell detachment and death; cytotoxicity depended largely, however, on the QD coating and treatment (e.g. acid treatment, dialysis. Experimental results generally indicated that Caco-2 cell viability correlated with concentration of free Cd2+ ions present in cell culture medium. Exposure to low (gastric pH affected cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs, indicating that route of exposure may be an important factor in QD cytotoxicity.

  3. Monoclinic zirconia distributions in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, M. J.; Haynes, J. A.; Ferber, M. K.; Cannon, W. R.

    2000-03-01

    Phase composition in an air plasma-sprayed Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) top coating of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system was characterized. Both the bulk phase content and localized pockets of monoclinic zirconia were measured with Raman spectroscopy. The starting powder consisted of ˜15 vol.% monoclinic zirconia, which decreased to ˜2 vol.% in the as-sprayed coating. Monoclinic zirconia was concentrated in porous pockets that were evenly distributed throughout the TBC. The pockets resulted from the presence of unmelted granules in the starting powder. The potential effect of the distributed monoclinic pockets on TBC performance is discussed.

  4. Experimental investigation of energy transfer between CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and different-sized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yusheng; Wang, Qilong; Qi, Zhiyang; Li, Chen; Xia, Jun; Li, Xiaohua

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid nanostructures of quantum dots(QDs) and metallic nanostructure are attractive for future use in a variety of optoelectronic devices. For photodetection applications, it is important that the photoluminescence (PL) of QDs is quenched by the metallic nanostructures. Here, the quenching efficiency of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) with different sized gold nanoparticles (NPs) films through energy transfer is investigated by measuring the PL intensity of the hybrid nanostructures. In our research, the gold NPs films are formed by the post-annealing of the deposited Au films on the quartz substrate. We find that the energy transfer from the QDs to the Au NPs strongly depends on the sizes of the Au NPs. For CdSe/ZnS QDs direct contact with the Au NPs films, the largest energy transfer efficiency are detected when the resonance absorption peak of the Au NPs is nearest to the emission peak of the CdSe/ZnS QDs. However, when there is a PMMA spacer between the QDs layer and the Au NPs films, firstly, we find that the energy transfer efficiency is weakened, and the largest energy transfer efficiency is obtained when the resonant absorption peak of the Au NPs is farthest to the emission peak wavelength of CdSe/ZnS QDs. These results will be useful for the potential design of the high efficiency QDs optoelectronic devices.

  5. Langmuir-Blodgett films of alkane chalcogenice (S, Se, Te) stabilized gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, M.; Stuhr-Hansen, N.; Norgaard, K.

    2001-01-01

    films. The films were transferred to solid supports of freshly cleaved mica and were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The particles were found to have an average core diameter of 2 nm. The stability of the particles under ambient conditions increased in the order Te ...Gold nanoparticles stabilized by alkanethiolates, alkaneselenides, and alkanetellurides have been prepared by analogous methods. Chloroform solutions of thiolate and selenide stabilized particles were spread and evaporated on the water/air interface where the particles formed well-defined Langmuir...

  6. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Hui; Liu, Xu-Jun; Guan, Lei-Lei; Li, Yan-Li; Sun, Jian; Ying, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jia-Da; Xu, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit current density is improved from 0.77 to 1.20 mA/cm2. The photoluminescence spectra show that the excitons in the polymer are obviously quenched, suggesting that the charge transfer between the P3HT:PCBM and CIGS occurred. The results reveal that the CIGS nanoparticles may exhibit the localized surface plasmon resonance effect just as metallic nanostructures.

  7. Component analysis of fluorescence spectra of thiol DAB dendrimer/ZnSe-PEA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra, M; Radotić, K; Kalauzi, A; Alonso, B; Casado, C M; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2013-02-15

    The fluorescence spectroscopy technique is an accurate method and has great utility in the interpretation of complex systems based on several emission bands. An interpretation of the system requires determination of the number, positions and intensities of the spectral components. In this work, the emission spectra of the synthesized ZnSe complex coated with O-phosphorylethanolamine (ZnSe-PEA), both with and without thiol DAB dendrimer generation 5 (S-DAB G5), were analyzed using a combination of asymmetric (log-normal) and symmetric (Gaussian) models. The method applied for the deconvolution of fluorescence spectra has proven to be very sensitive for observing the stability of the ZnSe-PEA complex after binding with S-DAB. The ZnSe-PEA emission spectrum contains two components. The positions of the emission maxima of these two components are not significantly affected by the presence of S-DAB G5 in the complex, which revealed the presence of a stable complex at a pH of 7. By applying the spectral deconvolution method, strong evidence was obtained that suggested that the ZnSe-PEA complex is stable after complexation with S-DAB G5. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assembly of SnSe Nanoparticles Confined in Graphene for Enhanced Sodium-Ion Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Rongyu; Chen, Nan; Meng, Xing; Yang, Peilei; Wang, Chunzhong; Zhang, Yaoqing; Wei, Yingjin; Chen, Gang; Du, Fei

    2016-01-22

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted much interest as a low-cost and environmentally benign energy storage system, but more attention is justifiably required to address the major technical issues relating to the anode materials to deliver high reversible capacity, superior rate capability, and stable cyclability. A SnSe/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite has been prepared by a facile ball-milling method, and its structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties have been characterized and compared with those of the bare SnSe material. Although the redox behavior of SnSe remains nearly unchanged upon the incorporation of RGO, its electrochemical performance is significantly enhanced, as reflected by a high specific capacity of 590 mA h g(-1) at 0.050 A g(-1) , a rate capability of 260 mA h g(-1) at 10 A g(-1) , and long-term stability over 120 cycles. This improvement may be attributed to the high electronic conductivity of RGO, which also serves as a matrix to buffer changes in volume and maintain the mechanical integrity of the electrode during (de)sodiation processes. In view of its excellent Na(+) storage performance, this SnSe/RGO nanocomposite has potential as an anode material for SIBs.

  9. A Novel DNA Nanosensor Based on CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots and Synthesized Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Hushiarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although nanoparticle-enhanced biosensors have been extensively researched, few studies have systematically characterized the roles of nanoparticles in enhancing biosensor functionality. This paper describes a successful new method in which DNA binds directly to iron oxide nanoparticles for use in an optical biosensor. A wide variety of nanoparticles with different properties have found broad application in biosensors because their small physical size presents unique chemical, physical, and electronic properties that are different from those of bulk materials. Of all nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles are proving to be a versatile tool, an excellent case in point being in DNA bioassays, where magnetic nanoparticles are often used for optimization of the hybridization and separation of target DNA. A critical step in the successful construction of a DNA biosensor is the efficient attachment of biomolecules to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. To date, most methods of synthesizing these nanoparticles have led to the formation of hydrophobic particles that require additional surface modifications. As a result, the surface to volume ratio decreases and nonspecific bindings may occur so that the sensitivity and efficiency of the device deteriorates. A new method of large-scale synthesis of iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles which results in the magnetite particles being in aqueous phase, was employed in this study. Small modifications were applied to design an optical DNA nanosensor based on sandwich hybridization. Characterization of the synthesized particles was carried out using a variety of techniques and CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots were used as the reporter markers in a spectrofluorophotometer. We showed conclusively that DNA binds to the surface of ironoxide nanoparticles without further surface modifications and that these magnetic nanoparticles can be efficiently utilized as biomolecule carriers in biosensing devices.

  10. Synthesis of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} nanoparticles in organic solvent for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Jae-Sub [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk, 573–701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Ho; Seo, Moon-Soo [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dae-Kyu [School of New Material Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonbuk, 561, 756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440–746 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Joongpyo, E-mail: jpshim@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk, 573–701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Chalcopyrite CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS; x < 0.3) nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting CuCl, InCl{sub 3}, GaCl{sub 3} and Se in oleyl amine over 250 °C. Depending on the reaction temperature and duration, the obtained nanoparticles had sizes of less than 100 nm and different chemical compositions. Because the atomic percentage of Se decreased with increasing reaction time, the proportion of Se and Ga content also changed. Furthermore, the lattice parameters, a and c, changed with increasing reaction temperature and time. Lastly, the bandgap energies of the CIGS films coated on glass plates were ∼ 0.98 eV and did not significantly change with increasing heat-treatment temperature. - Highlights: • CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (x < 0.3) nanoparticles synthesized by solution process in oleyl amine. • Se an Ga content in chalcopyrite particles increased with reaction time. • The nanoparticle lattice parameters changed with reaction temperature and time. • Band gaps remained fairly stable upon change of reaction temperature and time.

  11. Facile preparation of uniform FeSe2 nanoparticles for PA/MR dual-modal imaging and photothermal cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tingting; Chen, Yuyan; Hao, Jiali; Wang, Xiaoyong; Liu, Gang; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang; Cheng, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Recently, magnetic photothermal nanomaterials have emerged as a new class of bio-nanomaterials for application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Hence, we developed a new kind of magnetic nanomaterials, iron diselenide (FeSe2) nanoparticles, for multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. By controlling the reaction time and temperature, FeSe2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution-phase method. After modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained FeSe2-PEG nanoparticles showed high stability under various physiological conditions. FeSe2-PEG could serve as a T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent because of its strong superparamagnetic properties, with its r2 relaxivity determined to be 133.38 mM-1 S-1, a value higher than that of the clinically used Feridex. On the other hand, with high absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region, FeSe2-PEG also appeared to be a useful contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging (PA) as well as an effective photothermal agent for PTT cancer treatment, as demonstrated in our animal tumor model experiments. Moreover, long-term toxicity tests have proven that FeSe2-PEG nanoparticles after systematic administration rendered no appreciable toxicity to the treated animals, and could be gradually excreted from the major organs of mice. Our work indicates that FeSe2-PEG nanoparticles would be a new class of theranostic agents promising for application in bioimaging and cancer therapy.Recently, magnetic photothermal nanomaterials have emerged as a new class of bio-nanomaterials for application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Hence, we developed a new kind of magnetic nanomaterials, iron diselenide (FeSe2) nanoparticles, for multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. By controlling the reaction time and temperature, FeSe2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution-phase method. After

  12. On the role of Pb{sup 0} atoms on the nucleation and growth of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Domingo I., E-mail: domingo.garciagt@uanl.edu.mx; Leon-Covian, Lina M. De; Garcia-Gutierrez, Diana F. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, FIME (Mexico); Trevino-Gonzalez, M. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL (Mexico); Garza-Navarro, M. A.; Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, UANL, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, FIME (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    In this contribution, a nucleation and growth mechanism of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles are proposed. The formation and growth of PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles during their reaction synthesis were studied and followed using transmission electron microscopy, and their related techniques. In the synthesis method, trioctylphosphine-selenide and telluride were used as the chalcogen precursors, while lead oleate was employed as the lead precursor. Different synthesis conditions were tested to assess the effect of varying the reaction time, lead to chalcogen ratio, reaction temperature, and lead oleate concentration. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by means of electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, to obtain information related to their morphology, crystal structure, and composition. The experimental results suggest that the growth of the lead chalcogenide nanoparticles greatly relies on the reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb{sup 0} atoms at early reaction times; this reduction of the lead precursor is evidenced by the formation of Pb nanoparticles with sizes between 1 and 3 nm under certain synthesis conditions. These Pb nanoparticles gradually disappear as the reaction progresses, suggesting that the reduced Pb{sup 0} atoms are able to contribute to the growth of the PbSe and PbTe nanoparticles, reaching sizes between 8 and 18 nm. The current results contribute to a better understanding of the nucleation and growth mechanisms of lead chalcogenide nanoparticles, which will enable the definition of more efficient synthesis routes of these types of nanostructures.

  13. Photoluminescence enhancement of CdSe quantum dots: a case of organogel-nanoparticle symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhavane, Prashant D; Galian, Raquel E; Izquierdo, M Angeles; Aguilera-Sigalat, Jordi; Galindo, Francisco; Schmidt, Luciana; Burguete, M Isabel; Pérez-Prieto, Julia; Luis, Santiago V

    2012-12-19

    Highly fluorescent organogels (QD-organogel), prepared by combining a pseudopeptidic macrocycle and different types of CdSe quantum dots (QDs), have been characterized using a battery of optical and microscopic techniques. The results indicate that the presence of the QDs not only does not disrupt the supramolecular organization of the internal fibrillar network of the organogel to a significant extent, but it also decreases the critical concentration of gelator needed to form stable and thermoreversible organogels. Regarding the photophysical properties of the QDs, different trends were observed depending on the presence of a ZnS inorganic shell around the CdSe core. Thus, while the core-shell QDs preserve their photophysical properties in the organogel medium, a high to moderate increase of the fluorescence intensity (up to 528%) and the average lifetime (up to 1.7), respectively, was observed for the core QDs embedded in the organogel. The results are relevant for the development of luminescent organogels based on quantum dots, which have potential applications as advanced hybrid materials in different fields.

  14. Monoclinic deformation of calcite crystals at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeniosło, R.; Fabrykiewicz, P.; Sosnowska, I.

    2016-09-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation powder diffraction shows that the average crystal structure of calcite at ambient conditions is described with the trigonal space group R 3 bar c but there is a systematic hkl-dependent Bragg peak broadening. A modelling of this anisotropic peak broadening with the microstrain model from Stephens (1999) [15] is presented. The observed lattice parameters' correlations can be described by assuming a monoclinic-type deformation of calcite crystallites. A quantitative model of this monoclinic deformation observed at ambient conditions is described with the space group C 2 / c . The monoclinic unit cell suggested at ambient conditions is related with the monoclinic unit cell reported in calcite at high pressure (Merrill and Bassett (1975) [10]).

  15. A Facile Method for the Synthesis Fluorescent Zinc Chalcogenide (ZnO, ZnS and ZnSe) Nanoparticles in PS and PMMA Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, P S; Subhashini, N; Vasanthalakshmi, J; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-03-01

    A simple method for the synthesis of fluorescent zinc chalcogenide (ZnO, ZnS and ZnSe) nanoparticles directly in the transparent PMMA and PS polymer matrices were reported. Highly dispersed small spherical ZnO nanoparticles (3-5 nm) was obtained by hydrothermal reaction of PMMA/PS-Zn(acac)2H2O in toluene. ZnS and ZnSe nanoparticles were prepared by heterogeneous stirring of PMMA/PS-Zn(acac)2H2O in toluene with aqueous solution of thiourea or NaHSe. Interestingly, ZnO and ZnS-PMMA thin film showed strong fluorescence quenching upon exposure to ammonia.

  16. Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanchao; Steigert, Alexander; Andrae, Patrick; Goebelt, Manuela; Latzel, Michael; Manley, Phillip; Lauermann, Iver; Christiansen, Silke; Schmid, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) solar cells is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that Ag nanoparticles underneath a Sn:In2O3 back contact could not be thermally passivated even at a low substrate temperature of 440 °C during CIGSe deposition. It is shown that a 50 nm thick Al2O3 film prepared by atomic layer deposition is able to block the diffusion of Ag, clearing the thermal obstacle in utilizing Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. Via 3-D finite element optical simulation, it is proved that the Ag nanoparticles show the potential to contribute the effective absorption in CIGSe solar cells.

  17. Ferrocene-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as electroactive nanoparticles hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorokhin, Denis; Vancso, G Julius [Materials Science and Technology of Polymers, Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tomczak, Nikodem [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Reinhoudt, David N; Velders, Aldrik H, E-mail: g.j.vancso@utwente.nl [Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology and MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-07-16

    Electrochemical properties of core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in a non-aqueous solution are presented. Cathodic reduction and anodic oxidation processes involving the QD HOMO and LUMO levels as well as defect states were identified by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical bandgap was estimated from the anodic and cathodic redox peaks and found to match well with the optical bandgap estimated from the absorption spectrum. The trioctylphosphine oxide ligands on the surface of the QDs were exchanged to electroactive ferrocenyl thiols and the resulting material was characterized by NMR and optical spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the redox potentials of the QDs are modified due to the presence of ferrocene on the surface of the QD. The QD oxidation peak decreased and the reduction peak shifted to more negative potentials. The concurrent shift of the ferrocene redox peaks indicates that the system displays features of a 'molecular hybrid', where both the QD and the ligand influence each other.

  18. Effect of CdSe nanoparticles on the fluorescence spectra of conjugate polymer P3HT: An experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastour, Nouha; Bouchriha, Habib

    2016-11-01

    In this work we have investigated the effect of CdSe nanoparticles (Nps) on the fluorescence spectra of conjugate polymer Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). The fluorescence intensity is significantly decreased in both solution and solid films by the incorporation of CdSe Nps. This observed effect in the nanocomposite P3HT-CdSe is analyzed by using the Franck-Condon theory which reproduces correctly the decrease of the fluorescence with the Nps concentration and permits to reach the Huang-Rhys factor and the relaxation energy which are shown efficient to explain the fluorescence quenching.

  19. Photonic sintering of thin film prepared by dodecylamine capped CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} nanoparticles for printed photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manjeet, E-mail: msitbhu@gmail.com; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-08-28

    In this paper, we report solution phase large scale synthesis of monodisperse phase pure CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) nanoparticles by using dodecylamine as solvent and dispersant. Various compositions of CIGS nanoparticles with different Ga content are synthesized by simply adding different amounts of Ga precursors. The band gap of CIGS nanoparticles can be tuned by changing Ga content. Effort is given to understand the formation pathway of CIGS phase so as to make the synthesis easier for the desired product. High intensity pulsed light technique, which provides extreme local heating, is used to sinter the thin film prepared using these nanoparticles on a Mo–glass surface. A uniformly conductive and dense CIGS film can be prepared by adjusting the energy of light and exposure time. The high intensity light irradiation of the CIGS film leads to diffusion of smaller CIGS nanoparticles to form a particle with larger grain size and thus enables sintering of particles without using high temperature processing. - Highlights: • Large scale synthesis of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) is reported. • Dodecylamine is used as surfactant and solvent. • CIGS phase formation mechanism is described. • High intensity pulsed light technique is used to sinter the CIGS film.

  20. Light induced diffusion driven self assembly of Ag nanoparticles in a-Se/Ag bi-layer thin film with ultrafast optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sharma, Rituraj; Barik, A. R.; Khan, Pritam; Ranjan Kumar, Rakesh; Adarsh, K. V.

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate that femtosecond light-induced interdiffusion of Ag driven by the electrostatic attraction between photo-excited Ag+ ions and negatively charged amorphous layer can act as an efficient single step method for hybrid integration of spatially ordered and interconnected nanoparticles on the surface of amorphous films. Such self assembled complex hybrid structures of silver nanoparticles via bottom-up nano-construction method on a-Se thin film show an ultrafast optical response over an unusually broad wavelength range that can be used to construct optical modulators operating at switching speed of ˜5 ps.

  1. Enhancing the light absorbance of polymer solar cells by introducing pulsed laser-deposited CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yu; LI, Hui; Liu, Xu-Jun; Guan, Lei-Lei; Li, Yan-Li; Sun, Jian; Ying, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Jia-Da; Xu,Ning

    2014-01-01

    Evenly separated crystalline CuIn0.8Ga0.2Se2 (CIGS) nanoparticles are deposited on ITO-glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Such CIGS layers are introduced between conjugated polymer layers and ITO-glass substrates for enhancing light absorbance of polymer solar cells. The P3HT:PCBM absorbance between 300 and 650 nm is enhanced obviously due to the introduction of CIGS nanoparticles. The current density-voltage curves of a P3HT:PCBM/CIGS solar cell demonstrate that the short-circuit cu...

  2. Dynamic equilibrium of endogenous selenium nanoparticles in selenite-exposed cancer cells: a deep insight into the interaction between endogenous SeNPs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Chen, Song-Can; Xiao, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Elemental selenium (Se) was recently found to exist as endogenous nanoparticles (i.e., SeNPs) in selenite-exposed cancer cells. By sequestrating critical intracellular proteins, SeNPs appear capable of giving rise to multiple cytotoxicity mechanisms including inhibition of glycolysis, glycolysis-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, microtubule depolymerization and inhibition of autophagy. In this work, we reveal a dynamic equilibrium of endogenous SeNP assembly and disassembly in selenite-exposed H157 cells. Endogenous SeNPs are observed both in the cytoplasm and in organelles. There is an increase in endogenous SeNPs between 24 h and 36 h, and a decrease between 36 h and 72 h according to transmission electron microscopy results and UV-Vis measurements. These observations imply that elemental Se in SeNPs could be oxidized back into selenite by scavenging superoxide radicals and ultimately re-reduced into selenide; then the assembly and disassembly of SeNPs proceed simultaneously with the sequestration and release of SeNP high-affinity proteins. There is also a possibility that the reduction of elemental Se to selenide pathway may lie in selenite-exposed cancer cells, which results in the assembly and disassembly of endogenous SeNPs. Genome-wide expression analysis results show that endogenous SeNPs significantly altered the expression of 504 genes, compared to the control. The endogenous SeNPs induced mitochondrial impairment and decreasing of the annexin A2 level can lead to inhibition of cancer cell invasion and migration. This dynamic flux of endogenous SeNPs amplifies their cytotoxic potential in cancer cells, thus provide a starting point to design more efficient intracellular self-assembling systems for overcoming multidrug resistance.

  3. Influence of acid and alkaline sources on optical, structural and photovoltaic properties of CdSe nanoparticles precipitated from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Monroy, C. Selene; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Hu, Hailin

    2016-06-01

    CdSe is a widely researched material for photovoltaic applications. One of the most important parameters of the synthesis is the pH value, since it determines the kinetics and the mechanism of the reaction and in consequence, the optical and morphological properties of the products. We present the synthesis of CdSe in solution with strict control of pH and the comparison of ammonia and KOH as alkaline sources and diluted HCl as acid medium. CdSe formation was monitored with photoluminescence emission spectra (main peak in 490 nm, bandgap of CdSe nanoparticles). XRD patterns indicated that CdSe nanoparticles are mainly of cubic structure for ammonia and HCl, but the hexagonal planes appear with KOH. Product yield decreases with pH and also decreases with KOH at constant pH value since ammonia has a double function, as complexing agent and alkaline source. Changes in morphology were observed in SEM images as well with the different alkaline source. The effect of alkaline sources on photovoltaic performance of hybrid organic solar cells with CdSe and poly(3-hexylthiophene) as active layers was clearly observed, indicating the importance of synthesis conditions on optoelectronic properties of promising semiconductor nanomaterials for solar cell applications.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles prepared from novel intramolecularly stabilized single-source precursors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karuppasamy Kandasamy; Harkesh B Singh; Shailendra K Kulshreshtha

    2009-05-01

    In this note we describe the synthesis of cadmium sulphide and selenide nanoparticles from the corresponding novel single source precursors, M[E(Ox)]2 [E = S (1), Se (2); M = Cd; Ox = 2-(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)benzene] by thermolysing in tri--octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) at 280°C, and their characterization by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies.

  5. Effect of CdSe nanoparticles on the fluorescence spectra of conjugate polymer P3HT: An experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastour, Nouha, E-mail: mastournouha@yahoo.fr; Bouchriha, Habib

    2016-11-25

    In this work we have investigated the effect of CdSe nanoparticles (Nps) on the fluorescence spectra of conjugate polymer Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). The fluorescence intensity is significantly decreased in both solution and solid films by the incorporation of CdSe Nps. This observed effect in the nanocomposite P3HT-CdSe is analyzed by using the Franck–Condon theory which reproduces correctly the decrease of the fluorescence with the Nps concentration and permits to reach the Huang–Rhys factor and the relaxation energy which are shown efficient to explain the fluorescence quenching. - Highlights: • The effects of CdSe nanoparticles concentration on the fluorescence spectra of conjugate polymer P3HT are investigated. • Theoretical approach based on Franck–Condon analysis is proposed. • The Huang–Rhys factor and the relaxation energy as a function of the CdSe Nps are determined. • The fluorescence quenching has been explained.

  6. Facile synthesis of CuSe nanoparticles and high-quality single-crystal two-dimensional hexagonal nanoplatelets with tunable near-infrared optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yimin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Korolkov, Ilia [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Qiao, Xvsheng [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Xianghua [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Wan, Jun; Fan, Xianping [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A rapid injection approach is used to synthesize the copper selenide nanoparticles and two-dimensional single crystal nanoplates. This technique excludes the use of toxic or expensive materials, increasing the availability of two-dimensional binary chalcogenide semiconductors. The structure of the nanocrystals has been studied and the possible formation mechanism of the nanoplates has been proposed. The optical absorption showed that the nanoplates demonstrated wide and tuneable absorption band in the visible and near infrared region. These nanoplates could be interesting for converting solar energy and for nanophotonic devices operating in the near infrared. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of the copper selenides nanoparticles and nanoplates synthesized at 180 °C for 0 min, 10 min, 60 min. And the growth mechanism of the copper selenide nanoplates via the “oriented attachment”. Display Omitted - Highlights: • CuSe nanoparticles and nanoplates are synthesized by a rapid injection approach. • CuSe band gap can be widely tuned simply by modifying the synthesized time. • Al{sup 3+} ions have a significant impact on the growth rate of the nanoplates. • Growth mechanism of the CuSe nanoplates is based on the “oriented attachment”.

  7. Electrochemical surface characterization and O2 reduction kinetics of Se surface-modified ru nanoparticle-based RuSe(y)/C catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, L; Jusys, Z; Behm, R J

    2006-12-05

    The electrochemical properties of Se surface-modified Ru/C catalysts (RuSey/C with y = 0 to 1) and their O2 reduction characteristics were determined in model studies under well-defined mass transport conditions, combining quantitative differential electrochemical mass spectrometry and double-disk electrode thin-layer flow-cell measurements. Surface characterization of the catalysts including the quantitative evaluation of the active surface area was performed by electrochemical/mass spectrometric (combined H-upd adsorption, preadsorbed CO monolayer oxidation, Cu-upd adsorption/stripping, and RuOx formation) methods. The suitability of these methods for the determination of the active surface area in the high and low Se coverage regime are discussed, and COad stripping is found to be the most relevant method for the present catalysts. The kinetic parameters for the ORR (activity and selectivity) under quasi-steady-state conditions and their variation with Se modification were evaluated in potentiostatic flow-cell measurements. Modification of Ru/C catalyst by Se improves the O2 reduction activity and reduces the tendency for H2O2 formation in the technically relevant potential region of 0.6-0.8 VRHE, but even for the best catalyst compositions a significant ( approximately 0.2 VRHE) overpotential for O2 reduction on the RuSey/C catalysts remains compared to that for the Pt/C catalyst, and we find H2O2 yields of at least 1% at typical cathode operation potentials. Consequences of the relatively high H2O2 yields for membrane/electrode stability in practical applications are discussed.

  8. Green synthesis of Se/Ru alloy nanoparticles using gallic acid and evaluation of theiranti-invasive effects in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanhui; Xu, Meng; Liu, Yanan; Bai, Yan; Deng, Yuqian; Liu, Jie; Chen, Lanmei

    2016-08-01

    Methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications ideally involve the use of nontoxic reducing and capping agents, and more importantly, enable control over the shape and size of the particles. As such, we used gallic acid (GA) as both a reducing and a capping agent in a simple and "green" synthesis of stable Se/Rualloy NPs (GA-Se/RuNPs). The diameter and morphology of the Se/Ru alloy NPs were regulated by GA concentration, and the presence of Ru was found to be a key factor in regulating and controlling the size of GA-Se/RuNPs. Moreover, GA-Se/RuNPs suppressed HeLa cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis at concentrations that were nontoxic in normal cells. Furthermore, GA-Se/RuNPs effectively inhibited migration and invasion in HeLa cells via the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins. Our findings confirm that bimetallic (Se/Ru) NPs prepared via GA-mediated synthesis exhibit enhanced anticancer effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and characterization of CuInSe{sub 2} nanoparticles elaborated by novel solvothermal protocol using DMF as a solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Marai, A., E-mail: Achraf.Benmarai@promes.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES-CNRS, Tecnosud, Rambla de la thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, LaPhyMNE, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Djessas, K. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire, PROMES-CNRS, Tecnosud, Rambla de la thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan (France); Université de Perpignan, Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 68860, Perpignan Cedex9 (France); Ben Ayadi, Z.; Alaya, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux appliquée à l' Environnement, LaPhyMNE, Université de Gabès, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia)

    2015-11-05

    In this study, high purity and near stoichiometric CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized using solvothermal route. The goal of this paper is to improve the crystal quality while reducing production cost and limiting the toxicity of solvothermal reaction, as compared to processes including selenization step. Therefore, the starting solution solvothermal is constituted by the following precursors (CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O, InCl{sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O and Se powder) which were dissolved in N, N Dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. A reasonable possible mechanism for the growth of CIS nanoparticles is proposed. The effect of process parameters on the synthesis and characterization of CIS nanoparticles were examined including reaction temperature (165–240 °C), process time (12–24 h) and the drying route. The as-obtained CIS nanoparticles are analyzed using diverse techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis-IR spectrophotometer. All results demonstrate that the optimal conditions for preparing a single-phase CIS obtained at 220 °C for 24 h and followed by annealing at 400 °C for 30 min under a nitrogen atmosphere. In addition, XRD results showed that the CIS nanoparticles crystallize in the chalcopyrite structure, with grain size in the order of 25 nm, which is also confirmed by TEM images. Raman spectra show the intense peak at 171 cm{sup −1}, which correspond to the chalcopyrite structure, no signature of secondary phases. Optical measurements revealed strong absorption in the entire visible light to near-infrared region and band gap (≈1.04 eV) is very close to those of absorbent materials in thin film solar cells. - Highlights: • Highly dispersed chalcopyrite CuInSe{sub 2} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. • The DMF solvent act as both the solvent and the complexing agent. • Band gap was calculated to be 1

  10. Formation of CuInGaSe2 thin film photovoltaic absorber by using rapid thermal sintering of binary nanoparticle precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung Ping; Chang, Ming Wei; Chuang, Chuan Lung

    2013-12-01

    It was known that properties of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) thin films were evidently affected by precursor nanoparticle-ink and sintering technology. The nanoparticles were fabricated by using a rotary ball-milling (RBM) technique. After RBM, the particle size of the agglomerated CIGS powder was smaller than 100 nm. The nanoparticle ink was printed onto a Mo/soda lime glass substrate and baked at a low temperature to remove solvents and to form a dry precursor. Crystallographic, morphological, and stoichiometric properties of films were then obtained by using the precursor CIGS samples sintered at various heating rates in a non-vacuum environment without selenization. Analytical results revealed that the 2-theta data of the sample sintered at a heating rate of 15 °C/s were the closest to the data on the JCPDS card for Cu(Ga0.3In0.7)Se2.0 because their angles were 26.8°, 44.5°, and 52.7°, respectively. In addition, analytical results indicated that the CIGS absorption layer prepared at a heating rate of 15 °C/s had a chalcopyrite structure and favorable compositions. For this sample, the mole ratio of Cu:In:Ga:Se was equal to 0.98:0.81:0.28:1.93, and related ratios of Ga/(In+Ga) and Cu/(In+Ga) were 0.26 and 0.90, respectively.

  11. Real-time observation of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorber layer formation from nanoparticle precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Roland; Walker, Bryce C; Schmidt, Sebastian S; Zander, Ole; Weber, Alfons; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Humberto; Just, Justus; Klaus, Manuela; Agrawal, Rakesh; Unold, Thomas

    2013-11-07

    The selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanocrystals is a promising route for the fabrication of low-cost thin film solar cells. However, the reaction pathway of this process is not completely understood. Here, the evolution of phase formation, grain size, and elemental distributions is investigated during the selenization of Cu-Zn-Sn-S nanoparticle precursor thin films by synchrotron-based in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis as well as by ex situ electron microscopy. The precursor films are heated in a closed volume inside a vacuum chamber in the presence of selenium vapor while diffraction and fluorescence signals are recorded. The presented results reveal that during the selenization the cations diffuse to the surface to form large grains on top of the nanoparticle layer and the selenization of the film takes place through two simultaneous reactions: (1) a direct and fast formation of large grained selenides, starting with copper selenide which is subsequently transformed into Cu2ZnSnSe4; and (2) a slower selenization of the remaining nanoparticles. As a consequence of the initial formation of copper selenides at the surface, the subsequent formation of CZTSe starts under Cu-rich conditions despite an overall Cu-poor composition of the film. The implications of this process path for the film quality are discussed. Additionally, the proposed growth model provides an explanation for the previously observed accumulation of carbon from the nanoparticle precursor beneath the large grained layer.

  12. A simple and low-cost combustion method to prepare monoclinic VO2 with superior thermochromic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ziyi; Xiao, Xiudi; Lu, Xuanming; Zhan, Yongjun; Cheng, Haoliang; Xu, Gang

    2016-12-01

    In this approach, the VO2 nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated via combusting the low-cost precursor solution consisted of NH4VO3, C2H6O2 and C2H5OH. By the XRD, TEM and XPS analysis, it can be found that the synthetic monoclinic VO2 is single crystal and no impurity is defined. After dispersing the VO2 nanoparticles into the polymer, the solar modulation of VO2-based composite film is up to 12.5% with luminous transmission and haze around 62.2% and 0.5%, respectively. In other words, the composite films show high performance of thermochromic properties. This could open an efficient way to fabricate low-cost and large-scale VO2 (M) nanoparticles and thermochromic films.

  13. Synthesis of the nickel selenophosphinates [Ni(Se(2)PR(2))(2)] (R = (i)Pr, (t)Bu and Ph) and their use as single source precursors for the deposition of nickel phosphide or nickel selenide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneeprakorn, Weerakanya; Nguyen, Chinh Q; Malik, Mohammad A; O'Brien, Paul; Raftery, James

    2009-03-28

    Nickel phosphide (Ni(2)P and Ni(12)P(5)) or nickel selenide (NiSe) nanoparticles were prepared from the single molecule precursor, dialkyldiselenophosphinato nickel(II), [Ni(Se(2)PR(2))(2)] (R = (i)Pr, (t)Bu and Ph) by thermolysis in trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or hexadecylamine (HDA). The chemical composition of these nanoparticles depends on the precursors, capping agents, and reaction temperature.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of PbSe nanoparticles obtained by a colloidal route using Extran as a surfactant at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Trujillo, R.; Rosendo, E.; Ortega, M.; Morales-Sánchez, A.; Gracia, J. M.; Díaz, T.; Nieto, G.; García, G.; Luna-López, J. A.; Pacio, M.

    2012-05-01

    Lead selenide nanoparticles (PbSe NPs) have been obtained through an easy and low cost route using colloidal synthesis in aqueous solution. The synthesis was carried out at room temperature using Extran (Na5P3O10, NaOH and H2O) as surfactant. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used to eliminate the generated by-products. The size of PbSe NPs was varied by changing the Pb:Se molar concentration. The PbSe NPs were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD measurements showed that the PbSe NPs have the face-centered cubic phase structure. The crystal size was found to be between 14 and 20 nm as calculated from the XRD patterns and these values were corroborated with SEM and TEM. Additionally, HRTEM micrographs showed crystalline planes at (200), (220) and (111) of the PbSe NPs, in agreement with the XRD results.

  15. Non-laminate Microstructures in Monoclinic-I Martensite

    CERN Document Server

    Chenchiah, Isaac Vikram

    2012-01-01

    We study the symmetrised rank-one convex hull of monoclinic-I martensite (a twelve-variant material) in the context of geometrically-linear elasticity. We show that this hull is strictly larger than the symmetrised lamination convex hull by constructing sets of T3s, which are (non-trivial) symmetrised rank-one convex hulls of 3-tuples of pairwise incompatible strains. Moreover we construct a five-dimensional continuum of T3s and show that its intersection with the boundary of the symmetrised rank-one convex hull is four-dimensional. Along the way we show that there is another kind of monoclinic-I martensite with qualitatively different semi-convex hulls which, so far as we know, has not been experimentally observed. Our strategy is to combine understanding of the algebraic structure of symmetrised rank-one convex cones with knowledge of the faceting structure of the convex polytope formed by the strains.

  16. Non-Laminate Microstructures in Monoclinic-I Martensite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenchiah, Isaac Vikram; Schlömerkemper, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We study the symmetrised rank-one convex hull of monoclinic-I martensite (a twelve-variant material) in the context of geometrically-linear elasticity. We construct sets of T 3s, which are (non-trivial) symmetrised rank-one convex hulls of three-tuples of pairwise incompatible strains. In addition, we construct a fivedimensional continuum of T 3s and show that its intersection with the boundary of the symmetrised rank-one convex hull is four-dimensional.We also show that there is another kind of monoclinic-I martensite with qualitatively different semi-convex hulls which, as far as we know, has not been experimentally observed. Our strategy is to combine understanding of the algebraic structure of symmetrised rank-one convex cones with knowledge of the faceting structure of the convex polytope formed by the strains.

  17. Solid State Synthesis and Properties of Monoclinic Celsian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1996-01-01

    Monoclinic celsian of Ba(0.75)Sr(0.25)Al2Si2O8 (BSAS-1) and B(0.85)Sr(O.15)Al2Si2O8 (BSAS-2) compositions have been synthesized from metal carbonates and oxides by solid state reaction. A mixture of BaCO3, SrCO3, Al2O3, and SiO2 powders was precalcined at approx. 900-940 C to decompose the carbonates followed by hot pressing at approx. 1300 C. The hot pressed BSAS-1 material was almost fully dense and contained the monoclinic celsian phase, with complete absence of the undesirable hexacelsian as indicated by x-ray diffraction. In contrast, a small fraction of hexacelsian was still present in hot pressed BSAS-2. However, on further heat treatment at 1200 C for 24 h, the hexacelsian phase was completely eliminated. The average linear thermal expansion coefficients of BSAS-1 and BSAS-2 compositions, having the monoclinic celsian phase, were measured to be 5.28 x 10(exp -6)/deg C and 5.15 x 10(exp -6)/deg C, respectively from room temperature to 1200 C. The hot pressed BSAS-1 celsian showed room temperature flexural strength of 131 MPa, elastic modulus of 96 GPa and was stable in air up to temperatures as high as approx. 1500 C.

  18. Effects of processing parameters on the morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized with chemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivantsov, R.D. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Edelman, I.S., E-mail: ise@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Zharkov, S.M.; Velikanov, D.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Petrov, D.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); Lin, Chun-Rong [National Pingtung University, Pingtung City, Pingtung County, 90003, Taiwan (China); Li, Oksana [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 (Russian Federation); National Pingtung University, Pingtung City, Pingtung County, 90003, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yaw-Teng [National Pingtung University, Pingtung City, Pingtung County, 90003, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-25

    Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles with x = 0, 0.2, and 0.4 were synthesized via thermal decomposition of metal nitrate or chloride salts and selenium powder using different precursor compositions and processing details. Single crystalline nano-belts or nano-rods coexist in the synthesized powder samples with hexagon-shaped plates in dependence on the precursor composition. The belts gathered into conglomerates forming “hierarchical” particles. Visible magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded into a transparent matrix was investigated for the first time. The similarity of the MCD spectra of all samples showed the similarity of the nanoparticles electronic structure independent of their morphology. Basing on the MCD spectral maxima characteristics, electron transitions from the ground to the excited states were identified with the help of the conventional band theory and the multi-electron approach. - Highlights: • Single crystalline Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles with x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 were synthesized. • Correlation between synthesis conditions and nanoparticles morphology were obtained. • The nanoparticles magnetization behavior was studied. • Visible MCD of the Cu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} nanoparticles were studied for the first time.

  19. Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG core-shell nanoparticles: a low-toxic and efficient difunctional nanoplatform for chemo-photothermal therapy under near infrared light radiation with a safe power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xijian; Wang, Qian; Li, Chun; Zou, Rujia; Li, Bo; Song, Guosheng; Xu, Kaibing; Zheng, Yun; Hu, Junqing

    2014-04-21

    A low-toxic difunctional nanoplatform integrating both photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for killing cancer cells using Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG core-shell nanoparticles is reported. Silica coating and further PEG modification improve the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of copper selenide nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG nanoparticles not only display strong near infrared (NIR) region absorption and good photothermal effect, but also exhibit excellent biocompatibility. The mesoporous silica shell is provided as the carrier for loading the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, the release of DOX from Cu₂-xSe@mSiO₂-PEG core-shell nanoparticles can be triggered by pH and NIR light, resulting in a synergistic effect for killing cancer cells. Importantly, the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy driven by NIR radiation with safe power density significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy, and demonstrates better therapeutic effects for cancer treatment than individual therapy.

  20. In vivo formation of natural HgSe nanoparticles in the liver and brain of pilot whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the biochemistry of methylmercury (MeHg) that leads to the formation of mercury-selenium (Hg-Se) clusters is a long outstanding challenge that promises to deepen our knowledge of MeHg detoxification and the role SE plays in this process. Here, we show that mercury ...

  1. In vivo formation of natural HgSe nanoparticles in the liver and brain of pilot whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the biochemistry of methylmercury (MeHg) that leads to the formation of mercury-selenium (Hg-Se) clusters is a long outstanding challenge that promises to deepen our knowledge of MeHg detoxification and the role SE plays in this process. Here, we show that mercury ...

  2. Tailoring the optical properties of poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) polyelectrolyte by incorporation of 2-mercaptoethanol capped CdSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2016-10-01

    The present work deals with the preparation and characterization of 2-mercaptoethanol capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, dispersed in poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) polyelectrolyte aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction spectra, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray have been used to determine the structure, particle size (d), surface morphology and composition of various constituents. The absorption spectra of pure PDADMAC and the CdSe/PDADMAC polymer nanocomposite (PNC) are analyzed to determine the values of the absorption coefficient (α) and energy band gap (E g) which are found to be 4 eV and 3.26 eV respectively. A red shift in the spectrum of the PNC, as compared to the pure polymer, has been observed. With the addition of CdSe nanoparticles in the PDADMAC polyelectrolyte, a remarkable change in the optical parameters of the pure polymer has been observed. The refractive index (n) obtained by using Swanepoel’s method decreases in the case of the PNC as compared to the pure polymer. The value of the static refractive index (n 0) is found to be 4.29 for the pure polymer and 1.52 for the PNC. The extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, optical conductivity and relaxation time have been evaluated. The Wemple-DiDomenico model has been used to evaluate the dispersion parameters such as the average energy gap (E 0) and dispersion energy (E d). The values of the nonlinear refractive index (n 2) of the pure polymer and PNC have been determined using the theoretical approaches suggested by Boling and Tichy and Ticha. n 2 increases in the case of PNC, which relates to the decreased energy band gap. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been studied to explore the energy band structure and interaction between CdSe nanoparticles and PDADMAC. The PL peaks obtained at 437 nm and 461 nm correspond to the pure polymer whereas the peak at 577 nm is attributed to CdSe.

  3. Synthesis of an optically clear, flexible and stable hybrid ureasilicate matrix doped with CdSe nanoparticles produced by reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Luis F.F.F., E-mail: luisfillipeffgoncalves@yahoo.com [Centro de Química – Departamento de Química, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Centro de Física – Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Silva, Carlos J.R. [Centro de Química – Departamento de Química, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kanodarwala, Fehmida K.; Stride, John A. [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Pereira, Mario R.; Gomes, Maria J.M. [Centro de Física – Departamento de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Optically clear and flexible organic–inorganic hybrid materials doped with CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a sol–gel method based on the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of ureasilicate precursors. The CdSe NPs were produced by a colloidal method using reverse micelles and were then transferred to the ureasilicate precursor solution followed by gelation of the mixture using ammonia/water vapours as catalyst for the sol–gel process. The influence of the NPs surface in the dispersion of the NPs within the matrix was investigated by the addition of a capping agent with both thiol and siloxane groups (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, MPTMS). This capping agent was used in order to improve compatibility and avoid aggregation of the NPs within the matrix and to increase the preservation of the original optical properties of the NPs. The nanocomposites obtained were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, steady-state photoluminescence, time resolved photoluminescence, HRTEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The results obtained showed the influence of the use of MPTMS in the preservation of the original optical properties of the CdSe NPs after their transfer into the ureasilicate matrix. The HRTEM analysis showed the presence of well-dispersed spherical NPs with well-defined lattice fringes. The obtained nanocomposites exhibit high transparency in the visible range as a result of the good dispersion of the NPs within the matrix, showing the potentials of the developed method in the production of composite materials in which the optical properties of the NPs incorporated are crucial to the desired application. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a hybrid ureasilicate matrix doped with CdSe nanoparticles. • Absorption and PL spectra of doped xerogels show features of quantum size effect. • Using MPTMS plays an important role in the optical properties of the nanocomposites. • HRTEM analysis showed well-dispersed spherical NPs with well-defined lattice

  4. Mn2+-ZnSe/ZnS@SiO2 Nanoparticles for Turn-on Luminescence Thiol Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Mohammad S.; Jeffries, William R.; Gray, Eric R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological thiols are antioxidants essential for the prevention of disease. For example, low levels of the tripeptide glutathione are associated with heart disease, cancer, and dementia. Mn2+-doped wide bandgap semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit luminescence and magnetic properties that make them attractive for bimodal imaging. We found that these nanocrystals and silica-encapsulated nanoparticle derivatives exhibit enhanced luminescence in the presence of thiols in both organic solvent and aqueous solution. The key to using these nanocrystals as sensors is control over their surfaces. The addition of a ZnS barrier layer or shell produces more stable nanocrystals that are isolated from their surroundings, and luminescence enhancement is only observed with thinner, intermediate shells. Tunability is demonstrated with dodecanethiol and sensitivities decrease with thin, medium, and thick shells. Turn-on nanoprobe luminescence is also generated by several biological thiols, including glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, cysteine, and dithiothreitol. Nanoparticles prepared with different ZnS shell thicknesses demonstrated varying sensitivity to glutathione, which allows for the tuning of particle sensitivity without optimization. The small photoluminescence response to control amino acids and salts indicates selectivity for thiols. Preliminary magnetic measurements highlight the challenge of optimizing sensors for different imaging modalities. In this work, we assess the prospects of using these nanoparticles as luminescent turn-on thiol sensors and for MRI. PMID:28832505

  5. Mn2+-ZnSe/ZnS@SiO2 Nanoparticles for Turn-on Luminescence Thiol Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Yazdanparast

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological thiols are antioxidants essential for the prevention of disease. For example, low levels of the tripeptide glutathione are associated with heart disease, cancer, and dementia. Mn2+-doped wide bandgap semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit luminescence and magnetic properties that make them attractive for bimodal imaging. We found that these nanocrystals and silica-encapsulated nanoparticle derivatives exhibit enhanced luminescence in the presence of thiols in both organic solvent and aqueous solution. The key to using these nanocrystals as sensors is control over their surfaces. The addition of a ZnS barrier layer or shell produces more stable nanocrystals that are isolated from their surroundings, and luminescence enhancement is only observed with thinner, intermediate shells. Tunability is demonstrated with dodecanethiol and sensitivities decrease with thin, medium, and thick shells. Turn-on nanoprobe luminescence is also generated by several biological thiols, including glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, cysteine, and dithiothreitol. Nanoparticles prepared with different ZnS shell thicknesses demonstrated varying sensitivity to glutathione, which allows for the tuning of particle sensitivity without optimization. The small photoluminescence response to control amino acids and salts indicates selectivity for thiols. Preliminary magnetic measurements highlight the challenge of optimizing sensors for different imaging modalities. In this work, we assess the prospects of using these nanoparticles as luminescent turn-on thiol sensors and for MRI.

  6. Metal-organic framework derived CoSe2 nanoparticles anchored on carbon fibers as bifunctional electrocatalysts for efficient overall water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chencheng Sun; Qiuchun Dong; Jun Yang; Ziyang Dai; Jianjian Lin; Peng Chen; Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficient,low-cost,stable,non-noble-metal electrocatalysts for water splitting,particularly those that can catalyze both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at the cathode and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the anode,is a challenge.We have developed a facile method for synthesizing CoSe2 nanoparticles uniformly anchored on carbon fiber paper (CoSe2/CF) via pyrolysis and selenization of in situ grown zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67).CoSe2/CF shows high and stable catalytic activity in both the HER and OER in alkaline solution.At a low cell potential,i.e.,1.63 V,a water electrolyzer equipped with two CoSe2/CF electrodes gave a water-splitting current of 10 mA.cm-2.At a current of 20 mA.cm-2,it can operate without degradation for 30 h.This study not only offers a cost-effective solution for water splitting but also provides a new strategy for developing various catalytic nanostructures by changing the metal-organic framework precursors.

  7. Nanoscale connectivity in a TiO2/CdSe quantum dots/functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets/Au nanoparticles composite for enhanced photoelectrochemical solar cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Remya; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2012-01-14

    Electron transfer dynamics in a photoactive coating made of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs) tethered to a framework of ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide (FGO) nanosheets and mesoporous titania (TiO(2)) was studied. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses on TiO(2)/CdSe/FGO/Au not only revealed the linker mediated binding of CdSe QDs with TiO(2) but also, surprisingly, revealed a nanoscale connectivity between CdSe QDs, Au NPs and TiO(2) with FGO nanosheets, achieved by a simple solution processing method. Time resolved fluorescence decay experiments coupled with the systematic quenching of CdSe emission by Au NPs or FGO nanosheets or by a combination of the latter two provide concrete evidences favoring the most likely pathway of ultrafast decay of excited CdSe in the composite to be a relay mechanism. A balance between energetics and kinetics of the system is realized by alignment of conduction band edges, whereby, CdSe QDs inject photogenerated electrons into the conduction band of TiO(2), from where, electrons are promptly transferred to FGO nanosheets and then through Au NPs to the current collector. Conductive-atomic force microscopy also provided a direct correlation between the local nanostructure and the enhanced ability of composite to conduct electrons. Point contact I-V measurements and average photoconductivity results demonstrated the current distribution as well as the population of conducting domains to be uniform across the TiO(2)/CdSe/FGO/Au composite, thus validating the higher photocurrent generation. A six-fold enhancement in photocurrent and a 100 mV increment in photovoltage combined with an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of 27%, achieved in the composite, compared to the inferior performance of the TiO(2)/CdSe/Au composite imply that FGO nanosheets and Au NPs work in tandem to promote charge separation and furnish less impeded pathways for electron transfer and transport. Such a

  8. Enhancement of surface phonon modes in the Raman spectrum of ZnSe nanoparticles on adsorption of 4-mercaptopyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Syed K.; Lombardi, John R. [Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    By chemically etching a thin film of crystalline ZnSe with acid, we observe a strong Raman enhancement of the surface phonon modes of ZnSe on adsorption of a molecule (4-mercaptopyridine). The surface is composed of oblate hemi-ellipsoids, which has a large surface-to-bulk ratio. The assignment of the observed modes (at 248 and 492 cm{sup −1}) to a fundamental and first overtone of the surface optical mode is consistent with observations from high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy as well as calculations.

  9. 2,3-Dibromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid: a monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent R. Howard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bromination of trans-cinnamic acid resulted in the formation of 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid, C9H8Br2O2. Crystallization from ethanol–water (1:1 gave crystals of different shapes. One is in the form of rods, that crystallized as the orthorhombic polymorph (Pnma, and whose structure has been described [Thong et al. (2008. Acta Cryst. E64, o1946]. The other are thin plate-like crystals which are the monoclinic polymorph (P21/n. The structure of this monoclinic polymorph is similar to that of the orthorhombic polymorph; here the aliphatic C atoms are disordered over three sets of sites (occupancy ratio 0.5:0.25:0.25. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 ring motif. The dimers are linked by weak C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the a-axis direction.

  10. Dynamic Heterogeneity In The Monoclinic Phase Of CCl$_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Nirvana B; Carignano, Marcelo; Serra, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl$_4$) is one of the simplest compounds having a translationally stable monoclinic phase while exhibiting a rich rotational dynamics below 226 K. Recent nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) experiments revealed that the dynamics of CCl$_4$ is similar to that of the other members of the isostructural series CBr$_{n}$Cl$_{4-n}$, suggesting that the universal relaxation features of canonical glasses such as $\\alpha$- and $\\beta$-relaxation are also present in non-glass formers. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we studied the rotational dynamics in the monoclinic phase of CCl$_4$. The molecules undergo $C3$ type jump-like rotations around each one of the four C-Cl bonds. The rotational dynamics is very well described with a master equation using as the only input the rotational rates measured from the simulated trajectories. It is found that the heterogeneous dynamics emerges from faster and slower modes associated with different rotational axes, which have fixed orientations relat...

  11. Behaviour of fluorescence emission of cyanine dyes, cyanine based fluorescent nanoparticles and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in water solution upon specific thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortati, Leonardo; Miletto, Ivana; Alberto, Gabriele; Caputo, Giuseppe; Sassi, Maria Paola

    2011-05-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used as detection methods in a wide range of biological imaging and analytical applications. The purpose of this work is to determine a measurement method which leads to a comparison between different classes of fluorophores in term of stability of the fluorescence signal upon thermal treatment cycles. This kind of investigation can determine whether the fluorophore performance is affected by heating/cooling cycles and to what extent. The fluorophores considered in this work were organic fluorophores belonging to the family of indocyanine dyes (IRIS3 by Cyanine Technologies S.p.A.) in their molecular form or encapsulated within silica nanoparticles, and CdSe/ZnS carboxyl quantum dots (Qdots 565 ITK by Invitrogen). The NIST Standard Reference Material® SRM 1932 fluorescein solution was used in the certified concentration as reference material in order to evaluate the repeatability of the used spectrofluorimeter. The proposed measurement protocol allows to characterize all kind of fluorophores upon thermal treatments. This allows direct comparison of their performance under temperature changes, giving useful guidelines for the selection of the most suitable fluorophore for the envisaged application. Moreover the method appears to be a promising tool for the characterisation of reference fluorescent materials. The experimental results demonstrate that each fluorophore class shows a specific behaviour. The experimental data analysis points out an important hysteresis effect for quantum dots that was not detected for cyanine molecules and was only slightly detected for cyanine doped silica nanoparticles.

  12. Improving the luminescence properties of aequorin by conjugating to CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles: Red shift and slowing decay rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Nezam; Shanehsaz, Maryam; Sajedi, Reza H; Gharaat, Morteza; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    Changing the properties of photoprotein aequorin such as the wavelength emission and decay half-life by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) phenomenon is the main aim in this paper. BRET system was set up with CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles as an acceptor molecule and photoprotein as an energy donor molecule. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanoparticles with very interesting optical properties, including broad excitation spectra, narrow and the symmetric band width emission spectra, tunable by their sizes, compositions, negligible photo-bleaching and good chemical and photo-stability. In this QD-BRET system, aequorin is conjugated to the carboxyl groups on quantum dot surface by EDC/NHS chemistry as cross linker. Bioluminescence energy generates by aequorin upon adding Ca(2+) and transfers to the quantum dots in a radiationless manner and emits at a longer wavelength. The determined bioluminescent parameters for this method included aequorin activity, emission spectra and decay half-life time. In fact, this spectrum tuning strategy resulted in a change in bioluminescent properties of photoprotein, therefore, the maximum emission wavelength shifted from 455 to 540nm and the decay time increased from 3.76 to 12.11s. Nowadays, photoproteins with different characteristics are capable of being employed as a reporter in multi-analyte detections and in vivo imaging.

  13. PEG-phospholipid-encapsulated bismuth sulfide and CdSe/ZnS quantum dot core–shell nanoparticle and its computed tomography/fluorescence performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Qin, Meng-Yao; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Xuan, Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Di, E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.cn [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics at Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, polyethylene glycol-phospholipid structure is used to synthesize hybrid cluster of 40–50 nm diameter that contains hydrophobic bismuth sulfide nanoparticles and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. The composite probe’s toxicity, CT imaging, and fluorescence imaging performance are also studied. Experimental results show that the nanocomposite hybrid cluster has obvious CT contrast enhancement and fluorescence imaging capability in vitro even after cellular uptake. It gives a CT number of 700 (Hounsfield units) at 15 mg/mL, higher than that of the current iobitridol CT contrast agent. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide experiment reveals that it has low cytotoxicity at concentration up to of 3.14 mg/mL of Bi, indicating the composite probe has potential ability for CT and fluorescence bimodal imaging.

  14. 1-Nitro-4-(4-nitrophenoxybenzene: a second monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nadeem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H8N2O5, the aromatic rings are inclined to one another by 56.14 (7°. The nitro groups are inclined by to the benzene rings to which they are attached by 3.86 (17 and 9.65 (15°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. The title compound is a new monoclinic polymorph, crystallizing in space group P21/c. The first polymorph crystallized in space group C2/c and the molecule possesses twofold rotation symmetry. Two low-temperature structures of this polymorph (150 K and 100 K, respectively have been reported [Meciarova et al. (2004. Private Communication (refcode IXOGAD. CCDC, Cambridge, England, and Dey & Desiraju (2005. Chem. Commun. pp. 2486–2488].

  15. A monoclinic polymorph of 2-(4-nitrophenylacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Kennedy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new monoclinic form of 4-nitrophenylacetic acid, C8H7NO4, (I, differs from the known orthorhombic form both in its molecular conformation and in its intermolecular contacts. The conformation is different as the plane of the carboxylic acid group in (I is more nearly perpendicular to the plane of the aromatic ring [dihedral angle = 86.9 (3°] than in the previous form (74.5°. Both polymorphs display hydrogen-bonded R22(8 carboxylic acid dimeric pairs, but in (I, neighbouring dimers interact through nitro–nitro N...O dipole–dipole contacts rather than the nitro–carbonyl contacts found in the orthorhombic form.

  16. Monoclinic polymorph of poly[aqua(μ4-hydrogen tartratosodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. M. Al-Dajani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A monoclinic polymorph of the title compound, [Na(C4H5O6(H2O]n, is reported and complements an orthorhombic form [Kubozono, Hirano, Nagasawa, Maeda & Kashino (1993. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn, 66, 2166–2173]. The asymmetric unit contains a hydrogen tartrate anion, an Na+ cation and a water molecule. The Na+ ion is surrounded by seven O atoms derived from one independent and three symmetry-related hydrogen tartrate anions, and a water molecule, forming a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry. Independent units are linked via a pair of intermolecular bifurcated O—H...O acceptor bonds, generating an R21(6 ring motif to form polymeric two-dimensional arrays parallel to the (100 plane. In the crystal packing, the arrays are linked by adjacent ring motifs, together with additional intermolecular O—H...O interactions, into a three-dimensional network.

  17. CdS/CdSe quantum dots and ZnPc dye co-sensitized solar cells with Au nanoparticles/graphene oxide as efficient modified layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Jin, Junjie; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2016-10-15

    Co-sensitization by using two or more sensitizers with complementary absorption spectra to expand the spectral response range is an effective approach to enhance device performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). To improve the light-harvesting in the visible/near-infrared (NIR) region, organic dye zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was combined with CdS/CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for co-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO inverse opals (IOs) as photoanode. The resulting co-sensitized device shows an efficient panchromatic spectral response feature to ∼750nm and presents an overall conversion efficiency of 4.01%, which is superior to that of the individual ZnPc-sensitized solar cells and CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, an Au nanoparticles/graphene oxide (Au NPs/GO) composite layer was successfully prepared to modify Cu2S counter electrode for the co-sensitized solar cells. Reducing the carrier recombination process by GO and catalytic process of Au NPs leads to increased power conversion efficiency(PCE) from 4.01 to 4.60% and sustainable stability remains ∼85% of its original value after 60min light exposure. In this paper, introduction of the organic dyes as co-sensitizer and Au NPs/GO as counter electrode modified layer has been proved to be an effective route to improve the performance of QDSSCs.

  18. Improved performance of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cell by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as photoelectrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, F. S.; Ahmadi, V.; Samadpour, M.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present novel quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) based on ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite photoanodes for better light harvesting and energy conversion. Photoelectrodes are prepared by doctor blading ZnO NPs/GO nanocomposite paste on a fluorine doped tin oxide substrate which are then sintered at 450 °C to obtain ZnO NPs/RGO nanocomposites. The partial reduction of GO after thermal reduction, is studied by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots are deposited on the films through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition methods, respectively. The unique properties of ZnO NPs/RGO photoanodes, lead to a significant enhancement in the photovoltaic properties of solar cells in comparison with bare ZnO photoanodes. Current-voltage characteristics of cells are studied and the best results are obtained from ZnO NPs-RGO/CdS/CdSe with photoelectric conversion efficiency of 2.20% which is almost two times higher than cells which are made by pure ZnO NPs as photoanode (1.28%). Electrochemical impedance measurements show that the enhancement can be attributed to the increase of electron transfer rate in the ZnO NPs/RGO nanocomposite photoanode which arises from the ultrahigh electron mobility in graphene (RGO) sheets.

  19. Cu2-xSe@mSiO2-PEG core-shell nanoparticles: a low-toxic and efficient difunctional nanoplatform for chemo-photothermal therapy under near infrared light radiation with a safe power density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xijian; Wang, Qian; Li, Chun; Zou, Rujia; Li, Bo; Song, Guosheng; Xu, Kaibing; Zheng, Yun; Hu, Junqing

    2014-03-01

    A low-toxic difunctional nanoplatform integrating both photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for killing cancer cells using Cu2-xSe@mSiO2-PEG core-shell nanoparticles is reported. Silica coating and further PEG modification improve the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of copper selenide nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu2-xSe@mSiO2-PEG nanoparticles not only display strong near infrared (NIR) region absorption and good photothermal effect, but also exhibit excellent biocompatibility. The mesoporous silica shell is provided as the carrier for loading the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, the release of DOX from Cu2-xSe@mSiO2-PEG core-shell nanoparticles can be triggered by pH and NIR light, resulting in a synergistic effect for killing cancer cells. Importantly, the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy driven by NIR radiation with safe power density significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy, and demonstrates better therapeutic effects for cancer treatment than individual therapy.A low-toxic difunctional nanoplatform integrating both photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for killing cancer cells using Cu2-xSe@mSiO2-PEG core-shell nanoparticles is reported. Silica coating and further PEG modification improve the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of copper selenide nanoparticles. As-prepared Cu2-xSe@mSiO2-PEG nanoparticles not only display strong near infrared (NIR) region absorption and good photothermal effect, but also exhibit excellent biocompatibility. The mesoporous silica shell is provided as the carrier for loading the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, the release of DOX from Cu2-xSe@mSiO2-PEG core-shell nanoparticles can be triggered by pH and NIR light, resulting in a synergistic effect for killing cancer cells. Importantly, the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy driven by NIR radiation with safe power density significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy, and demonstrates better therapeutic

  20. Co-delivery of Se nanoparticles and pooled SiRNAs for overcoming drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein and class III β-tubulin in drug-resistant breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Yin, Tiantian; Chen, Qingchang; Qin, Xiuying; Huang, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Taoyuan; Chen, Lanmei; Liu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and class III β-tubulin (β-tubulin III) is a major barrier in microtubule-targeting cancer chemotherapy. In this study, layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDHs) were employed to simultaneously deliver selenium (Se) and pooled small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to achieve therapeutic efficacy. LDH-supported Se nanoparticles (Se@LDH) were compacted with siRNAs (anti-P-gp and anti-β-tubulin III) via electrostatic interactions, which could protect siRNA from degradation. Se@LDH showed excellent abilities to deliver siRNA into cells, including enhancing siRNA internalization, and promoting siRNA escape from endosomes. siRNA transfection experiments further confirmed a higher gene silencing efficiency of Se@LDH than LDH. Interestingly, we found Se@LDH may be a microtubule (MT) stabilizing agent which could inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle at G2/M phase, disrupting normal mitotic spindle formation and inducing cell apoptosis. When complexed with different specific siRNAs, Se@LDH/siRNA nanoparticles, especially the Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs, exhibit an efficient gene-silencing effect that significantly downregulate the expression of P-gp and β-tubulin III. Moreover, Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs could induce cell apoptosis, change cell morphology and increase cellular ROS levels through change the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, activation of caspase-3, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. These results suggested that co-delivery of Se and pooled siRNAs may be a promising strategy for overcoming the drug resistance mediated by P-gp and β-tubulin III in drug-resistant breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What causes the Besnus transition in monoclinic pyrrhotite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, A. U.; Koulialias, D.; Löffler, J. F.; Charilaou, M.

    2016-12-01

    Monoclinic 4C pyrrhotite (ideal formula Fe7S8) is a major magnetic remanence carrier in the Earth's crust and in extraterrestrial materials. Because of its low-temperature magnetic transition around 30 K also known as Besnus transition, this mineral phase is easily detectable in rock samples. An intrinsic origin of the Besnus transition due to a crystallographic change similar to that in the Verwey transition has generally been postulated (1). Although the physical properties of pyrrhotite have intensively been studied, the physics behind the pronounced change in magnetization at the low-temperature transition is still unresolved. To address this question we performed structural and magnetic analyses on a natural pyrrhotite single crystal (Fe6.6S8) from Auerbach, Germany (2,3). Chemical analysis, X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy show that this pyrrhotite consists of an intergrowth of 4C and an incommensurate 5C* superstructure that are polymorphs with different vacancy distributions. The occurrence of two superstructures is magnetically confirmed by symmetric inflection points in the hysteresis measurements above the transition at about 30 K. The disappearance of the inflection points and the associated change of the hysteresis parameters indicate that the two superstructures become embedded to form a unitary magnetic anisotropy system at the transition. This embedding of the 5C* into the 4C pyrrhotite at about 30 K is directly visible by the occurrence of additional 4-fold and 12-fold symmetry terms in magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetic resistivity mesarurements, respectively. From this it follows that the Besnus transition in monoclinic pyrrhotite is an extrinsic magnetic phenomenon with respect to the 4C superstructure, i.e., a coupling effect, and therefore the physics behind it is in fact different from that of the well-known Verwey transition. (1) Rochette et al., The IRM Quarterly, 21, 1 (2011); (2) Charilaou et al., J

  2. Unexpected origin of magnetism in monoclinic Nb12O29 from first-principles calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, C. M.; Van Huis, M. A.; Xu, Q.; Cava, R. J.; Zandbergen, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Nb12O29 is a 4d transition metal oxide that occurs in two forms with different symmetries, monoclinic (m) and orthorhombic (o). The monoclinic form has unusual magnetic properties; below a temperature of 12 K, it exhibits both metallic conductivity and antiferromagnetic ordering. Here, first-princip

  3. Dispersion of Love Waves in a Composite Layer Resting on Monoclinic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion of Love waves is studied in a fibre-reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half-space. The wave velocity equation has been obtained for a fiber-reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half space. Shear wave velocity ratio curve for Love waves has been shown graphically for fibre reinforced material layer resting on various monoclinic half-spaces. In a similar way, shear wave velocity ratio curve for Love waves has been plotted for an isotropic layer resting on various monoclinic half-spaces. From these curves, it has been observed that the curves are of similar type for a fibre reinforced layer resting on monoclinic half-spaces, and the shear wave velocity ratio ranges from 1.14 to 7.19, whereas for the case isotropic layer, this range varies from 1.0 to 2.19.

  4. Bis[2-(hydroxyiminomethylphenolato]nickel(II: a second monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Rusanova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ni(C7H6NO22], (I, is a second monoclinic polymorph of the compound, (II, reported by Srivastava et al. [Acta Cryst. (1967, 22, 922] and Mereiter [Private communication (2002 CCDC refcode NISALO01]. The bond lengths and angles are similar in both structures. The molecule in both structures lies on a crystallographic inversion center and both have an internal hydrogen bond. The title compound crystallizes in the space group P21/c (Z = 2, whereas compound (II is in the space group P21/n (Z = 2 with a similar cell volume but different cell parameters. In both polymorphs, molecules are arranged in the layers but in contrast to the previously published compound (II where the dihedral angle between the layers is 86.3°, in the title polymorph the same dihedral angle is 29.4°. The structure of (I is stabilized by strong intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the O—H group and the phenolate O atom.

  5. Proton ordering in tetragonal and monoclinic H2O ice

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Fei; Berlie, Adam; Liu, Xiaodi; Goncharov, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    H2O ice remains one of the most enigmatic materials as its phase diagram reveals up to sixteen solid phases. While the crystal structure of these phases has been determined, the phase boundaries and mechanisms of formation of the proton-ordered phases remain unclear. From high precision measurements of the complex dielectric constant, we probe directly the degree of ordering of the protons in H2O tetragonal ice III and monoclinic ice V down to 80 K. A broadened first-order phase transition is found to occur near 202 K we attribute to a quenched disorder of the protons which causes a continuous disordering of the protons during cooling and metastable behavior. At 126 K the protons in ice III become fully ordered, and for the case of ice V becoming fully ordered at 113 K forming ice XIII. Two triple points are proposed to exist: one at 0.35 GPa and 126 K where ices III, IX and V coexist; and another at 0.35 GPa and 113 K where ices V, IX and XIII coexist. Our findings unravel the underlying mechanism driving th...

  6. CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cell based on Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the decomposition of zinc acetate solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianping; Wang, Minqiang; Ye, Wei; Fang, Junfei; Zhang, Pengchao; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    In the study, Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Al-ZnO NPs) were prepared by the decomposition of zinc acetate solid solution. The X-ray diffraction results showed that Al3+ was successfully doped without the formation of Al and Al2O3 impurity phases. The less Al-doping did not change the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO. The ratio of Al to Al + Zn (9.05%) measured by the energy dispersive X-ray also confirmed the formation of Al-ZnO. The Al-ZnO NPs were used as the photoanode material to prepare CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cell. Compared with the cell based on commercial ZnO NPs (C-ZnO), the short-circuit current density and the fill factor of the cell were increased from 5.8 mA/cm2 and 34.1% (C-ZnO) to 7.78 mA/cm2 and 48.7% (Al-ZnO), respectively. The cell efficiency was increased from 1.01% (C-ZnO) to (1.9%) (Al-ZnO) and the increase percentage reached 88.1%. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage-decay suggested the lower carrier transport resistance and the longer electron lifetime of Al-ZnO-based cell.

  7. Multiple population-period transient spectroscopy (MUPPETS) of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles. II. Effects of high fluence and solvent heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haorui; Sahu, Kalyanasis; Berg, Mark A

    2013-12-12

    Multiple population-period transient spectroscopy (MUPPETS) is a six-pulse experiment with two time dimensions that is capable of adding information about systems with complicated kinetics. The core theory for MUPPETS focuses on the χ(5) response of the chromophores. This theory was used to analyze the dynamics of excitons and biexcitons in CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles in part I of this paper [J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, DOI:10.1021/jp405785a]. In real experiments, the potential role of additional processes must also be considered, in particular, the χ(7), "saturation" of the MUPPETS signal and nonresonant signals from heating of the solvent. A pathway method for calculating fluence effects in MUPPETS is developed. The fluence dependence of the biexciton signal and its sign reversal, as found in part I, are explained without invoking higher excitons or unexpected species. A method is presented for quantitatively predicting the magnitude of signals from solvent heating using an external standard. Thermal effects in this system are found to be too small to affect the conclusions in part I. Their small size, combined with small, systematic errors in the data, also makes it difficult to measure the yield of solvent heat in these experiments.

  8. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  9. Electron Distributions in Hexagonal Selenium and Tellurium and Monoclinic Selenium with Dilute Impurities and Associated Nuclear Quadrupole Interactions*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, N. B.; Paudyal, D. D.; Mishra, D. R.; Byahut, S.; Aryal, M. M.; Cho, Hwa-Suck; Scheicher, R. H.; Chow, Lee; Jeong, Junho; Das, T. P.

    2006-03-01

    The electron structures of Selenium chains and rings with Te impurities in hexagonal and monoclinic structures respectively and Se impurities in Te chains in hexagonal lattice have been studied using Hartree-Fock cluster model including many-body effects, including lattice relaxation effects. The calculated electronic wave-functions are utilized to obtain ^77Se and ^125Te nuclear quadrupole coupling constants e^2qQ and asymmetry parameters η and compared with available experimental data from Mossbauer and perturbed angular correlation measurements. From our results, the expected nature of nuclear quadrupole interactions associated with Sb impurities will be discussed. *Supported by NSF US-Nepal Program and UGC Nepal **Also at UCF, Orlando

  10. Structural studies of mechano-chemically synthesized CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidhya, B., E-mail: vidhyabhojan@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Velumani, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, Jesus A. [Institute of Physics, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales-Acevedo, Arturo; Asomoza, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico); Chavez-Carvayar, J.A. [Instituto de investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    CuInGaSe{sub 2} is a I-III-VI{sub 2} semiconducting material of tetragonal chalcopyrite structure. It is a very prominent absorber layer for photovoltaic devices. Particle-based coating process for CIGS is considered to be promising technique with relatively simple procedures and low initial investment. In the present work CIGS nanoparticle precursors suitable for screen-printing ink has been prepared by ball milling. High purity elemental copper granules, selenium and indium powders and fine chips of gallium were used as starting materials. First the ball milling was carried out for CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (x = 0.5) with (i) 10 ml of ethyl alcohol (ii) 5 ml of tetra ethylene glycol (wet) and (iii) 1 ml of ethylene diamine (semi-dry) for a milling time of 3 h and the results are not stoichiometric. In order to obtain an improved stoichiometric composition dry ball milling of elemental sources for three different compositions of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) has been carried out. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of (1 1 2), (2 2 0)/(2 0 4), (3 1 2)/(1 1 6), (4 0 0) and (3 3 2) reflections for all the milled powders. These reflections correspond to chalcopyrite structure of CIGS. Shift in peaks towards higher value of 2{theta} is observed with the increase in Ga composition. Average grain size calculated by Scherrer's formula is found to be around 13 nm for the dry samples milled for 1.5 h and 7-8 nm for the samples wet milled for 3 h. Lattice constants 'a' and 'c' are found to decrease with the increase in concentration of Gallium. FESEM analysis revealed a strong agglomeration of the particles and the particle size varied from 11 to 30 nm for the dry-milled samples. Composition of milled powders has been studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. TEM analysis revealed the presence of nanocrystalline particles and SAED pattern corresponds to (1 1 2), (2 2 0)/(2 0 4), (5 1 2)/(4 1 7) and (6

  11. Switch effect of the nonquantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity in monolayered monoclinic transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianqing; Ni, Jun

    2017-07-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the intrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) and its behavior under vertical electric field in monoclinic transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (1T‧-MX2 with M  =  Mo, W and X  =  S, Se, Te). We find that the pristine systems exhibit nonquantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity (SHC) due to the unconserved spin around the direct band gaps though they have nontrivial band topology. The unconserved spin is attributed to the band crossings at Fermi levels for systems without spin-orbit coupling and the distinct composition of the band states around the crossings. Despite the nonquantization of SHC, calculations with the hybrid functional predict SHC approaching the quantized value in W based systems, especially 1T‧-WTe2, which has been realized in experiments. More interesting, a sharp drop of SHC to almost zero in semiconducting systems induced by vertical electric field is observed at the topological phase transition point, suggesting that such systems exhibit a strong switch effect of SHC. In contrast, the switch effect is weak in semi-metallic systems, where the SHC decreases almost continuously with increasing field strength for the chemical potential around the Fermi levels. Our findings suggest potential applications of the pristine 1T‧-MX2 and those under vertical electric field in spintronics devices by utilizing the intrinsic SHE of their bulk states.

  12. Identification of monoclinic θ-phase dispersoids in a 6061 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Karl; Ribis, Joël; Garnier, Jérôme; Colas, Kimberly

    2016-04-01

    Intermetallic dispersoids play an important role in controlling the 6xxx alloy series' grain distribution and increasing the alloy's toughness. The dispersoid distribution in a 6061 aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si) was analysed by transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The dispersoids had three unique crystal structures: simple cubic ?, body-centred cubic ? and monoclinic (C2/m). While the SC and BCC dispersoids have been well characterized in the literature, a detailed analysis of monoclinic dispersoids has not been presented. Therefore, the current work discusses the chemical composition, crystal structure and morphology of the monoclinic dispersoids.

  13. Phase coexistence in ferroelectric solid solutions: Formation of monoclinic phase with enhanced piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase morphology and corresponding piezoelectricity in ferroelectric solid solutions were studied by using a phenomenological theory with the consideration of phase coexistence. Results have shown that phases with similar energy potentials can coexist, thus induce interfacial stresses which lead to the formation of adaptive monoclinic phases. A new tetragonal-like monoclinic to rhombohedral-like monoclinic phase transition was predicted in a shear stress state. Enhanced piezoelectricity can be achieved by manipulating the stress state close to a critical stress field. Phase coexistence is universal in ferroelectric solid solutions and may provide a way to optimize ultra-fine structures and proper stress states to achieve ultrahigh piezoelectricity.

  14. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} micro-/nanostructures: Microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis and their visible-light photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yafang; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Hao; Lu, Zhong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Avenue, Wuhan 430073 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} with different sizes and morphologies were synthesized by a facile microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique for the first time and exhibited different optical properties and visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were prepared by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures could be modulated by varying the solvent and pH value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures exhibited different photocatalytic activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic performance was influenced by the band gap, phase and size. - Abstract: Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (m-BiVO{sub 4}) micro-/nanostructures with different sizes and morphologies were successfully prepared via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined technique. The obtained BiVO{sub 4} products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). It was found that the solvent and pH value had a significant influence on morphology, size and crystalline structure of the product. Nut-like, potato-like and broccoli-like monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} were fabricated in different solvents. The crystal phase could be modulated by varying the pH value of reaction system. The photocatalytic activities of the products were also evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The result revealed that the photocatalytic activities of BiVO{sub 4} nanostructures were closely related to the crystalline phase, band gap and particle size. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} nanoparticles with small crystal size and large band gap exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance.

  15. Synthesis of metals chalcogenides nano-particles from H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) produced electrochemically; Synthese de nanoparticules de chalcogenures de metaux a partir de H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) produit electrochimiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, S.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Alleno, E.; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, 94 - Thiais (France); Hodes, G. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, an electrochemical method to produce H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) hydrides in a controlled way (without being able to store them) and to transfer them directly in the synthesis reactor has been perfected. By this method, the use of H{sub 2}Te has been possible. The method uses the reduction of the elementary chalcogenide in acid medium. The Te being conductor, it can be directly used as electrode, on the other hand S and Se are insulators. Nevertheless, graphite-S or Se conducing composite electrodes can also be used. When the electrolyte composition (pH, salts presence) is well adjusted, the essential of the cathodic current is consumed by the chalcogenide reduction (low evolution of H{sub 2}) with faradic yields of about 100% for H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}Se and 40% for HeTe. The use of H{sub 2}X allows the synthesis of nano-particles of metals chalcogenides directly by reaction with dissolved metallic salts in aqueous or organic medium and precipitation. Thus it has been possible to prepare all the CdX compounds under the form of nano-particles of diameter between 3 and 5 nm by bubbling of the gaseous hydrides in aqueous acetate solutions of Cd. In producing concomitantly H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}Se, nano-particles of solid solutions CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} have been synthesized too. (O.M.)

  16. Phase field modeling of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamivand, Mahmood

    Zirconia based ceramics are strong, hard, inert, and smooth, with low thermal conductivity and good biocompatibility. Such properties made zirconia ceramics an ideal material for different applications form thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to biomedicine applications like femoral implants and dental bridges. However, this unusual versatility of excellent properties would be mediated by the metastable tetragonal (or cubic) transformation to the stable monoclinic phase after a certain exposure at service temperatures. This transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic, known as LTD (low temperature degradation) in biomedical application, proceeds by propagation of martensite, which corresponds to transformation twinning. As such, tetragonal to monoclinic transformation is highly sensitive to mechanical and chemomechanical stresses. It is known in fact that this transformation is the source of the fracture toughening in stabilized zirconia as it occurs at the stress concentration regions ahead of the crack tip. This dissertation is an attempt to provide a kinetic-based model for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia. We used the phase field technique to capture the temporal and spatial evolution of monoclinic phase. In addition to morphological patterns, we were able to calculate the developed internal stresses during tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The model was started form the two dimensional single crystal then was expanded to the two dimensional polycrystalline and finally to the three dimensional single crystal. The model is able to predict the most physical properties associated with tetragonal to monoclinic transformation in zirconia including: morphological patterns, transformation toughening, shape memory effect, pseudoelasticity, surface uplift, and variants impingement. The model was benched marked with several experimental works. The good agreements between simulation results and experimental data, make the model a reliable tool for

  17. Synthesis and Dielectric Studies of Monoclinic Nanosized Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    I. Flavia Princess Nesamani; V. Lakshmi Prabha; Aswathy Paul; Nirmal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium dioxide is a prospective high-κ material that can replace silicon dioxide. Zirconium dioxide nanoparticle has been synthesized using sol-gel process at room temperature. The structural and morphological characterization of the nanoscaled zirconium dioxide is done using FTIR, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and TEM. The particle size of the synthesized ZrO2 is observed in the range of 50–80 nm with an average crystallite size of 2–10 nm. The results are compared with commercial coarse zircon...

  18. Nanoparticle-induced grain growth of carbon-free solution-processed CuIn(S,Se)2 solar cell with 6% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongan; Ho, John C W; Batabyal, Sudip K; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yun; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Wong, Lydia H

    2013-03-13

    Chalcopyrite-based solar cell deposited by solution processes is of great research interest because of the ease of fabrication and cost effectiveness. Despite the initial promising results, most of the reported methods encounter challenges such as limited grain growth, carbon-rich interlayer, high thermal budget, and the presence of secondary Cu-rich phases, which limit the power conversion efficiency (PCE). In this paper, we develop a new technique to deposit large grain, carbon-free CISSe absorber layers from aqueous nanoparticle/precursor mixture which resulted in a solar cell with PCE of 6.2%. CuCl2, InCl3, and thiourea were mixed with CuS and In2S3 nanoparticles in water to form the unique nanoparticle/precursor solution. The Carbon layer formation was prevented because organic solvents were not used in the precursor. The copper-rich (CuS) nanoparticles were intentionally introduced as nucleation sites which accelerate grain growth. In the presence of nanoparticles, the grain size of CISSe film increased by a factor of 7 and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell is 85% higher than the device without nanoparticle. This idea of using nanoparticles as a means to promote grain growth can be further exploited for other types of chalcopyrite thin film deposited by solution methods.

  19. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots of one-pot preparation in octadecene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots were synthesized using a new one-pot procedure where the core was prepared in octadecene. A ZnSe shell around a CdSe nanoparticle was formed by the reaction of selenium-richness on the surfaces of CdSe nanoparticles with Zn2+ from the injected zinc stearate precurso

  20. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots of one-pot preparation in octadecene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Kong, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/ZnSe core-shell quantum dots were synthesized using a new one-pot procedure where the core was prepared in octadecene. A ZnSe shell around a CdSe nanoparticle was formed by the reaction of selenium-richness on the surfaces of CdSe nanoparticles with Zn2+ from the injected zinc stearate

  1. Synthesis and Dielectric Studies of Monoclinic Nanosized Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Flavia Princess Nesamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium dioxide is a prospective high-κ material that can replace silicon dioxide. Zirconium dioxide nanoparticle has been synthesized using sol-gel process at room temperature. The structural and morphological characterization of the nanoscaled zirconium dioxide is done using FTIR, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and TEM. The particle size of the synthesized ZrO2 is observed in the range of 50–80 nm with an average crystallite size of 2–10 nm. The results are compared with commercial coarse zirconia which showed a particle size in the range of 900 nm–2.13 µm and crystallite size of 5.3 nm–20 nm. It is expected that both nanoscaling and the high dielectric constant of ZrO2 would be useful in replacing the low-κ SiO2 dielectric with high-κ ZrO2 for CMOS fabrication technology. The synthesized ZrO2 is subjected to impedance analysis and it exhibited a dielectric constant of 25 to find its application in short channel devices like multiple gate FinFETS and as a suitable alternative for the conventional gate oxide dielectric SiO2 with dielectric value of 3.9, which cannot survive the challenge of an end of oxide thickness ≤ 1 nm.

  2. Post-patterning of an electronic homojunction in atomically thin monoclinic MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sera; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Dohyun; Hwang, Geunwoo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Yang, Heejun; Cho, Suyeon

    2017-06-01

    Monoclinic group 6 transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been extensively studied for their intriguing 2D physics (e.g. spin Hall insulator) as well as for ohmic homojunction contacts in 2D device applications. A critical prerequisite for those applications is thickness control of the monoclinic 2D materials, which allows subtle engineering of the topological states or electronic bandgaps. Local thickness control enables the realization of clean homojunctions between different electronic states, and novel device operation in a single material. However, conventional fabrication processes, including chemical methods, typically produce non-homogeneous and relatively thick monoclinic TMDs, due to their distorted octahedral structures. Here, we report on a post-patterning technique using laser-irradiation to fabricate homojunctions between two different thickness areas in monoclinic MoTe2. A thickness-dependent electronic change from a metallic to semiconducting state, resulting in an electronic homojunction, was realized by the optical patterning of pristine MoTe2 flakes, and a pre-patterned device channel of monoclinic MoTe2 with a thickness-resolution of 5 nm. Our work provides insight on an optical post-process method for controlling thickness, as a promising approach for fabricating impurity-free 2D TMDs homojunction devices.

  3. A novel immunosensing platform for highly sensitive prostate specific antigen detection based on dual-quenching of photocurrent from CdSe sensitized TiO2 electrode by gold nanoparticles decorated polydopamine nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu-Xiang; Cao, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yan-Ming; Ma, Shu-Hui

    2017-05-15

    Herein, a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensing platform for highly sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) was constructed based on dual-quenching of photocurrent from CdSe sensitized TiO2 electrode by gold nanoparticles decorated dopamine-melanin nanospheres (AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs). In this proposal, CdSe sensitized TiO2 was used as photoelectrochemical matrix and the functional AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs were used as signal quenching element. The dual quenching of the gold nanoparticles decorated Dpa-melanin CNSs to the CdSe sensitized TiO2 was achieved as follows: (i) the strong energy transfer between the CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and Au NPs diminishes the photocurrent signal of CdSe QDs; (ii) the steric hindrance of AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs partly obstructs the diffusion of the electron donor, i.e. ascorbic acid, to the surface of photoelectrode, which make the depleting efficiency of the photogenerated holes decrease, leading to a declined photocurrent intensity. On the basis of the dual quenching effect of AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs, a competitive immunosensing platform for PSA was designed upon the specific binding of anti-PSA to PSA and PSA functionalized AuNPs-Dpa-melanin CNSs conjugates. This proposed immunosensor possesses wide linear range from 1.0×10(-11)gmL(-1) to 1.0×10(-7)gmL(-1) with the detection limit of 2.7pgmL(-1). Moreover, the applicability of the present method was demonstrated in the determination of PSA in human serum. The strategy creates new paradigms for PSA and other tumor markers detection and demonstrates high sensitivity, good specificity, and satisfied applicability in complex biological samples.

  4. Microstructure, bioactivity and osteoblast behavior of monoclinic zirconia coating with nanostructured surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Meng, Fanhao; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K; Liu, Xuanyong

    2010-03-01

    A monoclinic zirconia coating with a nanostructural surface was prepared on the Ti-6Al-4V substrate by an atmospheric plasma-spraying technique, and its microstructure and composition, as well as mechanical and biological properties, were investigated to explore potential application as a bioactive coating on bone implants. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the zirconia coating was composed of monoclinic zirconia which was stable at low temperature, and its surface consists of nano-size grains 30-50 nm in size. The bond strength between the coating and the Ti-6Al-4V substrate was 48.4 + or - 6.1 MPa, which is higher than that of plasma-sprayed HA coatings. Hydrothermal experiments indicated that the coating was stable in a water environment and the phase composition and Vickers hardness were independent of the hydrothermal treatment time. Bone-like apatite is observed to precipitate on the surface of the coating after soaking in simulated body fluid for 6 days, indicating excellent bioactivity in vitro. The nanostructured surface composed of monoclinic zirconia is believed to be crucial to its bioactivity. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test demonstrated that osteoblast-like MG63 cells could attach to, adhere to and proliferate well on the surface of the monoclinic zirconia coating, suggesting possible applications in hard tissue replacements.

  5. Efficient channel waveguide lasers in monoclinic double tungstates: towards further integration with on-chip mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalfsen, Koop; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Aravazhi, S.; Bernhardi, Edward; García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus

    2012-01-01

    By varying the thulium concentration in the range of 1.5 – 8.0 at.% in thulium- gadolinium-lutetium-yttrium-co-doped monoclinic double tungstate channel waveguides, a maximum laser slope efficiency of 70% with respect to the absorbed pump power was obtained. Further integration of these channel

  6. Structural, microstructural and vibrational analyses of the monoclinic tungstate BiLuWO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Ahsaine, H. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Environnement LME, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Zohr, BP 8106 Cité Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Taoufyq, A. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Environnement LME, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Zohr, BP 8106 Cité Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Institut Matériaux Microélectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Université de Toulon, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Patout, L. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Université de Toulon, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Ezahri, M.; Benlhachemi, A.; Bakiz, B. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Environnement LME, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Zohr, BP 8106 Cité Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Villain, S.; Guinneton, F. [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Université de Toulon, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France); Gavarri, J.-R., E-mail: gavarri.jr@univ-tln.fr [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique et Nanosciences de Provence, IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Université de Toulon, BP 20132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    The bismuth lutetium tungstate phase BiLuWO{sub 6} has been prepared using a solid state route with stoichiometric mixtures of oxide precursors. The obtained polycrystalline phase has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectroscopy. In the first step, the crystal structure has been refined using Rietveld method: the crystal cell was resolved using monoclinic system (parameters a, b, c, β) with space group A2/m. SEM images showed the presence of large crystallites with a constant local nominal composition (BiLuW). TEM analyses showed that the actual local structure could be better represented by a superlattice (a, 2b, c, β) associated with space groups P2 or P2/m. The Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of vibrational bands similar to those observed in the compounds BiREWO{sub 6} with RE=Y, Gd, Nd. However, these vibrational bands were characterized by large full width at half maximum, probably resulting from the long range Bi/Lu disorder and local WO{sub 6} octahedron distortions in the structure. - Graphical abstract: The average structure of BiLuWO{sub 6} determined from X-ray diffraction data can be represented by A2/m space group. Experimental Electron Diffraction patterns along the [0vw] zone axes of the monoclinic structure and associated simulated patterns show the existence of a monoclinic superstructure with space group P2 or P2/m. - Highlights: • A new monoclinic BiLuWO{sub 6} phase has been elaborated from solid-state reaction. • The space group of the monoclinic disordered average structure should be A2/m. • Transmission electron microscopy leads to a superlattice with P2/m space group. • Raman spectroscopy suggests existence of local disorder.

  7. Novel electrochemical biosensor based on PVP capped CoFe2O4@CdSe core-shell nanoparticles modified electrode for ultra-trace level determination of rifampicin by square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Mollarasouli, Fariba

    2017-06-15

    This work introduces a new electrochemical sensor based on polyvinyl pyrrolidone capped CoFe2O4@CdSe core-shell modified electrode for a rapid detection and highly sensitive determination of rifampicin (RIF) by square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The new PVP capped CoFe2O4@CdSe with core-shell nanostructure was synthesized by a facile synthesis method for the first time. PVP can act as a capping and etching agent for protection of the outer surface nanoparticles and formation of a mesoporous shell, respectively. Another important feature of this work is the choice of the ligand (1,10-phenanthroline) for precursor cadmium complex that works as a chelating agent in order to increase optical and electrical properties and stability of prepared nanomaterial. The nanoparticles have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, FT-IR, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The PL spectroscopy study of CoFe2O4@CdSe has shown significant PL quenching by the formation of CoFe2O4 core inside CdSe, this shows that CoFe2O4 NPs are efficient electron acceptors with the CdSe. It is clearly observed that the biosensor can significantly enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of RIF, under the optimal conditions. The novelty of this work arises from the new synthesis method for the core-shell of CoFe2O4@CdSe. Then, the novel electrochemical biosensor was fabricated for ultra-trace level determination of rifampicin with very low detection limit (4.55×10(-17)M) and a wide linear range from 1.0×10(-16) to 1.0×10(-7)M. The fabricated biosensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity, good reproducibility and stability. Therefore, it was successfully applied for the determination of ultra-trace RIF amounts in biological and pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory recovery data.

  8. Facile synthesis of CuSe nanoparticles and high-quality single-crystal two-dimensional hexagonal nanoplatelets with tunable near-infrared optical absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yimin; Korolkov, Ilia; Qiao, Xvsheng; Zhang, Xianghua; Wan, Jun; Fan, Xianping

    2016-06-01

    A rapid injection approach is used to synthesize the copper selenide nanoparticles and two-dimensional single crystal nanoplates. This technique excludes the use of toxic or expensive materials, increasing the availability of two-dimensional binary chalcogenide semiconductors. The structure of the nanocrystals has been studied and the possible formation mechanism of the nanoplates has been proposed. The optical absorption showed that the nanoplates demonstrated wide and tuneable absorption band in the visible and near infrared region. These nanoplates could be interesting for converting solar energy and for nanophotonic devices operating in the near infrared.

  9. Phase-controlled synthesis of polymorphic tungsten diphosphide with hybridization of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases as a novel electrocatalyst for efficient hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Mingyu; Wu, Tianli; Guo, Weimeng; Wang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Dingke; Wang, Shuxia; Chen, Shijian

    2017-05-01

    The design and development of high-efficiency and non-noble-metal hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts for future clean and renewable energy system has excited significant research interests over the recent years. In this communication, the polymorphic tungsten diphosphide (p-WP2) nanoparticles with mixed monoclinic (α-) and orthorhombic (β-) phases are synthesized by phase-controlled phosphidation route via vacuum capsulation and explored as a novel efficient electrocatalyst towards HER. The p-WP2 catalyst delivers superior performance with excellent stability under both acidic and alkaline conditions over its single phases of α-WP2 and β-WP2. This finding demonstrates that a highly efficient hybrid electrocatalyst can be achieved via precise composition controlling and may open up exciting opportunities for their practical applications toward energy conversion.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe/CdSe core/shell nanoparticles with high emission from 570 to 610 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Valencia, O. G.; Casas Espinola, J. L.; Corea Tellez, M.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the advance process of synthesis of CdTe/CdSe core/shell Quantum Dots (QDs) with emission wavelength from 570 to 610 nm. This synthesis was performed using modified Hot-Injection method. The CdTe/CdSe core-shell QDs have been characterized by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the aim to control the QDs shape and the average size. The optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated in four samples obtained at different reaction times (5, 10, 15 and 20 s) of core growth after the CdSe passivation of the CdTe cores. Obtained results have shown that synthesized QDs have a good crystallinity, spherical shape and bright emission at 610 nm. The reaction time enlargement permits increasing the average size of CdTe/CdSe core-shell QDs, together with “red” shifting the PL wavelength and increasing the PL intensity. The advantages of synthesized CdTe/CdSe core/shell QDs are discussed.

  11. Reflection of and SV waves at the free surface of a monoclinic elastic half-space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarva Jit Singh; Sandhya Khurana

    2002-12-01

    The propagation of plane waves in an anisotropic elastic medium possessing monoclinic symmetry is discussed. The expressions for the phase velocity of qP and qSV waves propagating in the plane of elastic symmetry are obtained in terms of the direction cosines of the propagation vector. It is shown that, in general, qP waves are not longitudinal and qSV waves are not transverse. Pure longitudinal and pure transverse waves can propagate only in certain specific directions. Closed-form expressions for the reflection coefficients of qP and qSV waves incident at the free surface of a homogeneous monoclinic elastic half-space are obtained. These expressions are used for studying numerically the variation of the reflection coefficients with the angle of incidence. The present analysis corrects some fundamental errors appearing in recent papers on the subject.

  12. Evidence for photo-induced monoclinic metallic VO{sub 2} under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Trigo, Mariano [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Reis, David A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Photon Science and Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Andrea Artioli, Gianluca; Malavasi, Lorenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sezione di Chimica Fisica, INSTM (UdR Pavia), Università di Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-01-13

    We combine ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with a diamond-anvil cell to decouple the insulator-metal electronic transition from the lattice symmetry changing structural transition in the archetypal strongly correlated material vanadium dioxide. Coherent phonon spectroscopy enables tracking of the photo-excited phonon vibrational frequencies of the low temperature, monoclinic (M{sub 1})-insulating phase that transforms into the metallic, tetragonal rutile structured phase at high temperature or via non-thermal photo-excitations. We find that in contrast with ambient pressure experiments where strong photo-excitation promptly induces the electronic transition along with changes in the lattice symmetry, at high pressure, the coherent phonons of the monoclinic (M{sub 1}) phase are still clearly observed upon the photo-driven phase transition to a metallic state. These results demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing and studying transient phases under extreme conditions.

  13. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating. After annealation at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure. The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV. In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichlorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr. A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  14. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhou; Jiuhui Qu; Xu Zhao; Huijuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating.After annealation at 400, 500, and 600℃, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry.The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure.The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV.In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichiorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (λ.> 420 nm).Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr.A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  15. Seismic Data Interpretation: A Case Study of Southern Sindh Monocline, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmed Abbasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sindh monocline in Lower Indus Basin is an important oil and gas producing area of Pakistan where a large number of oil, gas and condensate fields have been discovered from structural traps. This research involves the interpretation of stratigraphic and structural styles of Sindh Monocline using 2D (Two-Dimensional seismic reflection and well log. Four reflectors of different formations have been marked and were named as Reflector-1 as of Khadro Formation, Reflector-2 as Upper Goru Member, Reflector-3 as Lower Goru Formation and Reflector-4 as Chiltan Limestone. The average depth of Khadro Formation was marked at 449.0m, Upper Goru Member at 968m, Lower Goru Formation at 1938m and Chiltan Limestone at 2943m. Faults were marked on seismic sections which collectively form horsts and grabens which is the evidence of extensional tectonic in the area. Seismic interpretation was carried out through window based Kingdom Software

  16. Crystalline and magnetic ordering in the monoclinic phase of the layered perovskite PAMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, P.; Lebech, B.; Achiwa, N.

    1994-01-01

    of 1/3b*, and below 39 K PAMC is an antiferromagnet with a small ferromagnetic component. The temperature dependence of the monoclinic angle alpha depends on the mosaicity of the crystal which increases with the number of 'cooling cycles'. The satellite reflections do not have any contribution from...... the magnetic ordering, but their intensity has abrupt changes that coincide with changes in either the nuclear or the magnetic ordering parameter. Magnetoelastic effects seem to influence the ordering of the crystal....

  17. Changes in mobility of plastic crystal ethanol during its transformation into the monoclinic crystal state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.sanz@csic.es; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, ICMA-CSIC, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-02-07

    Transformation of deuterated ethanol from the plastic crystal phase into the monoclinic one is investigated by means of a singular setup combining simultaneously dielectric spectroscopy with neutron diffraction. We postulate that a dynamic transition from plastic crystal to supercooled liquid-like configuration through a deep reorganization of the hydrogen-bonding network must take place as a previous step of the crystallization process. Once these precursor regions are formed, subsequent crystalline nucleation and growth develop with time.

  18. Metastable monoclinic ZnMoO4: hydrothermal synthesis, optical properties and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Li; Tong, Wenming; Zhang, Yanbing; Su, Yiguo; Wang, Xiaojing

    2011-11-01

    Metastable monoclinic ZnMoO4 was successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal route with variation of reaction temperatures and time at pH value of 5.7. Systematic sample characterizations were carried out, including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectra, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. The results show that all as-prepared ZnMoO4 samples were demonstrated to crystallize in a pure-phase of monoclinic wolframite structure. All samples were formed in plate-like morphology. Six IR active vibrational bands were observed in the wave number range of 400-900 cm(-1). The band gap of as-prepared ZnMoO4 was estimated to be 2.86 eV by Tauc equation. Photoluminescence measurement indicates that as-prepared ZnMoO4 exhibits a broad blue-green emission under excitation wavelength of 280 nm at room temperature. Photocatalytic activity of as-prepared ZnMoO4 was examined by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange dye in an aqueous solution under UV radiation of 365 nm. The as-prepared ZnMoO4 obtained at 180 degrees C for 40 h showed the best photocatalytic activity with completing degradation of MO in irradiation time of 120 min. Consequently, monoclinic ZnMoO4 proved to be an efficient near visible light photocatalyst.

  19. Formation energies of intrinsic point defects in monoclinic VO2 studied by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bin; Chen, Lanli; Luo, Hongjie; Gao, Yanfeng

    2016-10-01

    VO2 is an attractive candidate for intelligent windows and thermal sensors. There are challenges for developing VO2-based devices, since the properties of monoclinic VO2 are very sensitive to its intrinsic point defects. In this work, the formation energies of the intrinsic point defects in monoclinic VO2 were studied through the first-principles calculations. Vacancies, interstitials, as well as antisites at various charge states were taken into consideration, and the finite-size supercell correction scheme was adopted as the charge correction scheme. Our calculation results show that the oxygen interstitial and oxygen vacancy are the most abundant intrinsic defects in the oxygen rich and oxygen deficient condition, respectively, indicating a consistency with the experimental results. The calculation results suggest that the oxygen interstitial or oxygen vacancy is correlated with the charge localization, which can introduce holes or electrons as free carriers and subsequently narrow the band gap of monoclinic VO2. These calculations and interpretations concerning the intrinsic point defects would be helpful for developing VO2-based devices through defect modifications.

  20. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K. V.; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-01

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic MA structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic MB , rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  1. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, and antimicrobial efficacy of monoclinic sulfur-nanocolloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Choudhury, Samrat, E-mail: samratroychoudhury@gmail.com [Indian Statistical Institute, Biological Sciences Division (India); Mandal, Amrita; Chakravorty, Dipankar [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (India); Gopal, Madhuban [Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Divisions of Agricultural Chemicals (India); Goswami, Arunava [Indian Statistical Institute, Biological Sciences Division (India)

    2013-04-15

    Stable nanocolloids of monoclinic sulfur ({beta}-SNPs) were prepared through 'water-in-oil microemulsion technique' at room temperature after suitable modifications of the surface. The morphology (rod shaped; {approx}50 nm in diameter) and allotropic nature (monoclinic) of the SNPs were investigated with Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction technique. The surface modification, colloidal stability, and surface topology of {beta}-SNPs were evaluated with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Thermal decomposition pattern of these nanosized particles was determined by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). {beta}-SNPs-colloids expressed excellent antimicrobial activities against a series of fungal and bacterial isolates with prominent deformities at their surface. In contrast, insignificant cytotoxicity was achieved against the human derived hepatoma (HepG2) cell line upon treatment with {beta}-SNPs. A simultaneous study was performed to determine the stock concentration of {beta}-SNP-colloids using a novel high phase liquid chromatographic method. Cumulative results of this study hence, elucidate the stabilization of nanosized monoclinic sulfur at room temperature and their potential antimicrobial efficacy over micron-sized sulfur.

  2. SE PREVENINDO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Débora Assis Moura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar el comportamiento de las prostitutas en relación a la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y del Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida-SIDA, así como investigar cómo se previenen de esas enfermedades. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria, con enfoque cualitativo, llevada a cabo en la Asociación de las Prostitutas en Ceará, Brazil, en septiembre de 2008, a través de una encuesta con 25 prostitutas. El análisis de los datos se hizo según el análisis de contenido, después de ser agrupados en cuatro categorías: conocimiento sobre las enfermedades de transmisión sexual/SIDA; convivencia con la(s enfermedad(es; prevención de la enfermedad de transmisión sexual/SIDA; y el uso de drogas. Se concluyó que las prostitutas no usan preservativos en todas las relaciones sexuales, por lo tanto, las enfermedades de transmisión sexual representan una realidad; la desinformación sobre la(s enfermedad(es es notable; el consumo de drogas lícitas e ilícitas es frecuente entre ellas, factor que las expone a situaciones más vulnerables con relación al VIH/SIDA.

  3. Se los por se lo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambién como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

  4. Coordinate-Invariant Lyddane-Sachs-Teller Relationship for Polar Vibrations in Materials with Monoclinic and Triclinic Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mathias

    2016-11-18

    A coordinate-invariant generalization of the Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation is presented for polar vibrations in materials with monoclinic and triclinic crystal systems. The generalization is derived from an eigendielectric displacement vector summation approach, which is equivalent to the microscopic Born-Huang description of polar lattice vibrations in the harmonic approximation. An expression for a general oscillator strength is also described for materials with monoclinic and triclinic crystal systems. A generalized factorized form of the dielectric response characteristic for monoclinic and triclinic materials is proposed. The generalized Lyddane-Sachs-Teller relation is found valid for monoclinic β-Ga_{2}O_{3}, where accurate experimental data became available recently from a comprehensive generalized ellipsometry investigation [Phys. Rev. B 93, 125209 (2016)]. Data for triclinic crystal systems can be measured by generalized ellipsometry as well, and are anticipated to become available soon and results can be compared with the generalized relations presented here.

  5. Single crystalline monoclinic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanowires with high temperature ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Gazquez Alabart, Jaume [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Oro, Judith [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Arbiol, Jordi [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Ferain, Etienne [Universite catholique de Louvain, Belgium (UCL); Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Puig, Teresa [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Mestres, Narcis [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Obradors, Xavier [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain

    2011-01-01

    Porous mixed-valent manganese oxides are a group of multifunctional materials that can be used as molecular sieves, catalysts, battery materials, and gas sensors. However, material properties and thus activity can vary significantly with different synthesis methods or process conditions, such as temperature and time. Here, we report on a new synthesis route for MnO{sub 2} and LaSr-doped molecular sieve single crystalline nanowires based on a solution chemistry methodology combined with the use of nanoporous polymer templates supported on top of single crystalline substrates. Because of the confined nucleation in high aspect ratio nanopores and of the high temperatures attained, new structures with novel physical properties have been produced. During the calcination process, the nucleation and crystallization of {var_epsilon}-MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with a new hexagonal structure is promoted. These nanoparticles generated up to 30 {mu}m long and flexible hexagonal nanowires at mild growth temperatures (T{sub g} = 700 C) as a consequence of the large crystallographic anisotropy of {var_epsilon}-MnO{sub 2}. The nanocrystallites of MnO{sub 2} formed at low temperatures serve as seeds for the growth of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanowires at growth temperatures above 800 C, through the diffusion of La and Sr into the empty 1D-channels of {var_epsilon}-MnO{sub 2}. Our particular growth method has allowed the synthesis of single crystalline molecular sieve (LaSr-2 x 4) monoclinic nanowires with composition La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and with ordered arrangement of La{sup 3+} and Sr{sup 2+} cations inside the 1D-channels. These nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic ordering with strongly enhanced Curie temperature (T{sub c} > 500 K) that probably results from the new crystallographic order and from the mixed valence of manganese.

  6. Photoacoustic, photoelectrochemical and ultrafast carrier dynamics characterization of nanostrutured TiO{sub 2} electrodes composed of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes sensitized with CdSe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, T.; Kumagai, Y.; Shen, Q. [The Univ. of Electro-Communications (Japan); Katayama, K. [MIT (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Sawada, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agricultur and Technology (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Significant progress in solar cell application has been made since 1990's using nanostructured TiO{sub 2} electrodes adsorbed with organic dyes (dye sensitised solar cell: DSSC). In addition to organic dyes, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have also attracted significant interest as light harvesters in DSSCs. In this study, we investigate the effects of different size mixture of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (15 and 27 nm) in nanostructured anatase-type TiO{sub 2} electrodes on photo-acoustic (PA), photoelectrochemical current (PEC), and transient grating (TG) methods. We adsorbed CdSe QDs onto the electrodes as photo-sensitizer. Redshift of the PA spectra can be clearly observed and the PEC spectra showed the photo-sensitization in the visible region resulting from QDs absorption can be observed. Although the PA intensity of the spectrum shows a little increasing with the increase of the portion of 27 nm TiO{sub 2}, the PEC intensity increases largely with the increase of the portion of 27 run particles. Also, ultrafast decay time of excited electrons in the CdSe QDs around 20 ps decreases with the increase of the portion of 27 nm particles, indicating the correlation with PEC. (au)

  7. Identification of monoclinic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite in human sclera using Raman microspectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ko-Hua; Li, Mei-Jane; Cheng, Wen-Ting;

    2009-01-01

    Raman microspectroscopy was first used to determine the composition of a calcified plaque located at the pterygium-excision site of a 51-year-old female patient's left nasal sclera after surgery. It was unexpectedly found that the Raman spectrum of the calcified sample at 1149, 1108, 1049, 756, 517...... to the characteristic peak at 958/cm of hydroxyapatite (HA). This is the first study to report the spectral biodiagnosis of both monoclinic CPPD and HA co-deposited in the calcified plaque of a patient with sclera dystrophic calcification using Raman microspectroscopy....

  8. Atomic Origins of Monoclinic-Tetragonal (Rutile) Phase Transition in Doped VO 2 Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Asayesh-Ardakani, Hasti

    2015-10-12

    There has been long-standing interest in tuning the metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO) via the addition of chemical dopants. However, the underlying mechanisms by which doping elements regulate the phase transition in VO are poorly understood. Taking advantage of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we reveal the atomistic origins by which tungsten (W) dopants influence the phase transition in single crystalline WVO nanowires. Our atomically resolved strain maps clearly show the localized strain normal to the (122¯) lattice planes of the low W-doped monoclinic structure (insulator). These strain maps demonstrate how anisotropic localized stress created by dopants in the monoclinic structure accelerates the phase transition and lead to relaxation of structure in tetragonal form. In contrast, the strain distribution in the high W-doped VO structure is relatively uniform as a result of transition to tetragonal (metallic) phase. The directional strain gradients are furthermore corroborated by density functional theory calculations that show the energetic consequences of distortions to the local structure. These findings pave the roadmap for lattice-stress engineering of the MIT behavior in strongly correlated materials for specific applications such as ultrafast electronic switches and electro-optical sensors.

  9. Monoclinic tridymite in clast-rich impact melt rock from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J.C.; Horton, J.W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Belkin, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirm a rare terrestrial occurrence of monoclinic tridymite in clast-rich impact melt rock from the Eyreville B drill core in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. The monoclinic tridymite occurs with quartz paramorphs after tridymite and K-feldspar in a microcrystalline groundmass of devitrified glass and Fe-rich smectite. Electron-microprobe analyses revealed that the tridymite and quartz paramorphs after tridymite contain different amounts of chemical impurities. Inspection by SEM showed that the tridymite crystal surfaces are smooth, whereas the quartz paramorphs contain irregular tabular voids. These voids may represent microporosity formed by volume decrease in the presence of fluid during transformation from tridymite to quartz, or skeletal growth in the original tridymite. Cristobalite locally rims spherulites within the same drill core interval. The occurrences of tridymite and cristobalite appear to be restricted to the thickest clast-rich impact melt body in the core at 1402.02-1407.49 m depth. Their formation and preservation in an alkali-rich, high-silica melt rock suggest initially high temperatures followed by rapid cooling.

  10. The giant piezoelectric effect: electric field induced monoclinic phase or piezoelectric distortion of the rhombohedral parent?

    CERN Document Server

    Kisi, E H; Forrester, J S; Howard, C J

    2003-01-01

    Lead zinc niobate-lead titanate (PZN-PT) single crystals show very large piezoelectric strains for electric fields applied along the unit cell edges e.g. [001] sub R. It has been widely reported that this effect is caused by an electric field induced phase transition from rhombohedral (R3m) to monoclinic (Cm or Pm) symmetry in an essentially continuous manner. Group theoretical analysis using the computer program ISOTROPY indicates phase transitions between R3m and Cm (or Pm) must be discontinuous under Landau theory. An analysis of the symmetry of a strained unit cell in R3m and a simple expansion of the piezoelectric strain equation indicate that the piezoelectric distortion due to an electric field along a cell edge in rhombohedral perovskite-based ferroelectrics is intrinsically monoclinic (Cm), even for infinitesimal electric fields. PZN-PT crystals have up to nine times the elastic compliance of other piezoelectric perovskites and it might be expected that the piezoelectric strains are also very large. ...

  11. Ab initio velocity-field curves in monoclinic β-Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the high-field transport in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 using a combination of ab initio calculations and full band Monte Carlo (FBMC) simulation. Scattering rate calculation and the final state selection in the FBMC simulation use complete wave-vector (both electron and phonon) and crystal direction dependent electron phonon interaction (EPI) elements. We propose and implement a semi-coarse version of the Wannier-Fourier interpolation method [Giustino et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 165108 (2007)] for short-range non-polar optical phonon (EPI) elements in order to ease the computational requirement in FBMC simulation. During the interpolation of the EPI, the inverse Fourier sum over the real-space electronic grids is done on a coarse mesh while the unitary rotations are done on a fine mesh. This paper reports the high field transport in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 with deep insight into the contribution of electron-phonon interactions and velocity-field characteristics for electric fields ranging up to 450 kV/cm in different crystal directions. A peak velocity of 2 × 107 cm/s is estimated at an electric field of 200 kV/cm.

  12. Imaging metal-like monoclinic phase stabilized by surface coordination effect in vanadium dioxide nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zejun; Wu, Jiajing; Hu, Zhenpeng; Lin, Yue; Chen, Qi; Guo, Yuqiao; Liu, Yuhua; Zhao, Yingcheng; Peng, Jing; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2017-06-01

    In correlated systems, intermediate states usually appear transiently across phase transitions even at the femtosecond scale. It therefore remains an open question how to determine these intermediate states--a critical issue for understanding the origin of their correlated behaviour. Here we report a surface coordination route to successfully stabilize and directly image an intermediate state in the metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide. As a prototype metal-insulator transition material, we capture an unusual metal-like monoclinic phase at room temperature that has long been predicted. Coordinate bonding of L-ascorbic acid molecules with vanadium dioxide nanobeams induces charge-carrier density reorganization and stabilizes metallic monoclinic vanadium dioxide, unravelling orbital-selective Mott correlation for gap opening of the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator transition. Our study contributes to completing phase-evolution pathways in the metal-insulator transition process, and we anticipate that coordination chemistry may be a powerful tool for engineering properties of low-dimensional correlated solids.

  13. Variable defect structures cause the magnetic low-temperature transition in natural monoclinic pyrrhotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulialias, D.; Kind, J.; Charilaou, M.; Weidler, P. G.; Löffler, J. F.; Gehring, A. U.

    2016-02-01

    Non-stoichiometric monoclinic 4C pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) is a major magnetic remanence carrier in the Earth's crust and in extraterrestrial materials. Because of its low-temperature magnetic transition around 30 K also known as Besnus transition, which is considered to be an intrinsic property, this mineral phase is easily detectable in natural samples. Although the physical properties of pyrrhotite have intensively been studied, the mechanism behind the pronounced change in magnetization at the low-temperature transition is still debated. Here we report magnetization experiments on a pyrrhotite crystal (Fe6.6S8) that consists of a 4C and an incommensurate 5C* superstructure that are different in their defect structure. The occurrence of two superstructures is magnetically confirmed by symmetric inflection points in hysteresis measurements above the transition at about 30 K. The disappearance of the inflection points and the associated change of the hysteresis parameters indicate that the two superstructures become strongly coupled to form a unitary magnetic anisotropy system at the transition. From this it follows that the Besnus transition in monoclinic pyrrhotite is an extrinsic magnetic phenomenon with respect to the 4C superstructure and therefore the physics behind it is in fact different from that of the well-known Verwey transition.

  14. Crystal structure of a new monoclinic polymorph of N-(4-methylphenyl-3-nitropyridin-2-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Mardia Akhmad Aznan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H11N3O2, is a second monoclinic polymorph (P21, with Z′ = 4 of the previously reported monoclinic (P21/c, with Z′ = 2 form [Akhmad Aznan et al. (2010. Acta Cryst. E66, o2400]. Four independent molecules comprise the asymmetric unit, which have the common features of a syn disposition of the pyridine N atom and the toluene ring, and an intramolecular amine–nitro N—H...O hydrogen bond. The differences between molecules relate to the dihedral angles between the rings which range from 2.92 (19 to 26.24 (19°. The geometry-optimized structure [B3LYP level of theory and 6–311 g+(d,p basis set] has the same features except that the entire molecule is planar. In the crystal, the three-dimensional architecture is consolidated by a combination of C—H...O, C—H...π, nitro-N—O...π and π–π interactions [inter-centroid distances = 3.649 (2–3.916 (2 Å].

  15. Low-temperature magnetic properties of monoclinic pyrrhotite with particular relevance to the Besnus transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Michael W. R.; Gilder, Stuart A.; Feinberg, Joshua M.

    2016-12-01

    Monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) owes its ferrimagnetism to an ordered array of Fe vacancies. Its magnetic properties change markedly around 30 K, in what is known as the Besnus transition. Plausible explanations for the Besnus transition are either due to changes in crystalline anisotropy from a transformation in crystal symmetry or from the establishment of a two-phase system with magnetic interaction between the two phases. To help resolve this discrepancy, we measured hysteresis loops every 5° and backfield curves every 10° in the basal plane of an oriented single crystal of monoclinic pyrrhotite at 300 K and every 2 K from 50 K through the Besnus transition until 20 K. Between 50 and 30 K, hysteresis loops possess double inflections between crystallographic a-axes and only a single inflection parallel to the a-axes. Magnetization energy calculations and relative differences of the loops show a sixfold symmetry in this temperature range. We propose that the inflections stem from magnetic axis switching, which is both field and temperature dependent, in a manner somewhat analogous to an isotropic point where magnetocrystalline constants change their sign. The Besnus transition is best characterized by changes in magnetic remanence and coercivity over a 6° temperature span (28-34 K) with a maximum rate of change at 30 K. A surprising yet puzzling finding is that the coercivity ratio becomes less than unity below the transition when fourfold symmetry arises. Because the changes in magnetic parameters are linked to the crystal structure, we conclude the Besnus transition owes its origin to a distortion of the crystallographic axes below 30 K rather than an apparition of a two-phase system. An isothermal magnetization of natural pyrrhotite cycled from room temperature to successively lower temperatures through the Besnus transition decreases 2-4 times less than equivalent grain sizes of magnetite, with less than a 10 per cent loss in remanence between 300 and 150 K

  16. Strong Bilayer Coupling Induced by the Symmetry Breaking in the Monoclinic Phase of BiS2-Based Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Masayuki; Akashi, Ryosuke; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-01

    We perform first-principles band structure calculations for the tetragonal and monoclinic structures of LaO0.5F0.5BiS2. We find that the Bi 6px,y bands on two BiS2 layers exhibit a sizable splitting at the X = (π ,0,0) and several other k-points for the monoclinic structure. We show that this feature originates from the inter-BiS2 layer coupling strongly enhanced by the symmetry breaking of the crystal structure. The Fermi surface also shows a large splitting and becomes anisotropic with respect to the kx- and ky-directions in the monoclinic structure, whereas it remains almost flat with respect to the kz-direction.

  17. KINETIC STUDY OF SELECTIVE GAS-PHASE OXIDATION OF ISOPROPANOL TO ACETONE USING MONOCLINIC ZRO2 AS A CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia was prepared by a precipitation method and calcined at 723 K, 1023 K, and 1253 K in order to obtain monoclinic zirconia. The prepared zirconia was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, surface area and pore size analyzer, and particle size analyzer. Monoclinic ZrO2 as a catalyst was used for the gas-phase oxidation of isopropanol to acetone in a Pyrex-glass-flow-type reactor with a temperature range of 443 K - 473 K. It was found that monoclinic ZrO2 shows remarkable catalytic activity (68% and selectivity (100% for the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone. This kinetic study reveals that the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone follows the L-H mechanism.

  18. 1-Nitro-4-(4-nitro-phen-oxy)benzene: a second monoclinic polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Mehwish; Akhter, Zareen; McKee, Vickie; Nadeem, Arif

    2013-11-01

    In the title compound, C12H8N2O5, the aromatic rings are inclined to one another by 56.14 (7)°. The nitro groups are inclined by to the benzene rings to which they are attached by 3.86 (17) and 9.65 (15)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. The title compound is a new monoclinic polymorph, crystallizing in space group P21/c. The first polymorph crystallized in space group C2/c and the mol-ecule possesses twofold rotation symmetry. Two low-temperature structures of this polymorph (150 K and 100 K, respectively) have been reported [Meciarova et al. (2004). Private Communication (refcode IXOGAD). CCDC, Cambridge, England, and Dey & Desiraju (2005). Chem. Commun. pp. 2486-2488].

  19. THE MONOCLINIC PHASE IN PZT: NEW LIGHT ON MORPHOTROPIC PHASE BOUNDARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOHEDA,B.; GONZALO,J.A.; GUO,R.; PARK,S.E.; CROSS,L.E.; COX,D.E.; SHIRANE,G.

    2000-03-09

    A summary of the work recently carried out on the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of PZT is presented. By means of x-ray powder diffraction on ceramic samples of excellent quality, the MPB has been successfully characterized by changing temperature in a series of closely spaced compositions. As a result, an unexpected monoclinic phase has been found to exist in between the well-known tetragonal and rhombohedral PZT phases. A detailed structural analysis, together with the investigation of the field effect in this region of compositions, have led to an important advance in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the physical properties of PZT as well as other piezoelectric materials with similar morphotropic phase boundaries.

  20. Electronic structure and optical properties of monoclinic clinobisvanite BiVO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zongyan; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2011-03-14

    Monoclinic clinobisvanite bismuth vanadate is an important material with wide applications. However, its electronic structure and optical properties are still not thoroughly understood. Density functional theory calculations were adopted in the present work, to comprehend the band structure, density of states, and projected wave function of BiVO(4). In particular, we put more emphasis upon the intrinsic relationship between its structure and properties. Based on the calculated results, its molecular-orbital bonding structure was proposed. And a significant phenomenon of optical anisotropy was observed in the visible-light region. Furthermore, it was found that its slightly distorted crystal structure enhances the lone-pair impact of Bi 6s states, leading to the special optical properties and excellent photocatalytic activities.

  1. A monoclinic polymorph of (1E,5E-1,5-bis(2-hydroxybenzylidenethiocarbonohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonell Schmitt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H14N4O2S, is a derivative of thioureadihydrazide. In contrast to the previously reported polymorph (orthorhombic, space group Pbca, Z = 8, the current study revealed monoclinic symmetry (space group P21/n, Z = 4. The molecule shows non-crystallographic C2 as well as approximate Cs symmetry. Intramolecular bifurcated O—H...(N,S hydrogen bonds, are present. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds and C—H...π contacts connect the molecules into undulating chains along the b axis. The shortest centroid–centroid distance between two aromatic systems is 4.5285 (12 Å.

  2. Calculation of thermodynamic, electronic, and optical properties of monoclinic Mg2NiH4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, W.R.; Richardson, T.J.; Rubin, M.D.; Wang, L-W.

    2001-10-01

    Ab initio total-energy density functional theory is used to investigate the low temperature (LT) monoclinic form of Mg2NiH4. The calculated minimum energy geometry of LT Mg2NiH4 is close to that determined from neutron diffraction data, and the NiH4 complex is close to a regular tetrahedron. The enthalpies of the phase change to high temperature (HT) pseudo-cubic Mg2NiH4 and of hydrogen absorption by Mg2Ni are calculated and compared with experimental values. LT Mg2NiH4 is found to be a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.4 eV. The optical dielectric function of LT Mg2NiH4 differs somewhat from that of the HT phase. A calculated thin film transmittance spectrum is consistent with an experimental spectrum.

  3. Monoclinic phase transformation and mechanical durability of zirconia ceramic after fatigue and autoclave aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Yasmine A; Cotes, Caroline; Carvalho, Rodrigo F; Machado, João P B; Leite, Fabíola P P; Souza, Rodrigo O A; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10(6) cycles/3.8 Hz/200 N); AUT: Aging in autoclave at 134°C, 2 bar for 24 h; AUT + M: Autoclave aging followed by mechanical cycling. After aging, the transformed monoclinic zirconia (%) were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and surface roughness was measured using atomic force microscopy. The average grain size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and the specimens were submitted to biaxial flexural strength testing (1 mm/min, 1000 kgf in water). Data (MPa) were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Aging procedures significantly affected (p = 0.000) the flexural strength data but the effect of zirconia type was not significant (p = 0.657). AUTZT (936.4 ± 120.9(b) ) and AUT + MZE (867.2 ± 49.3(b) ) groups presented significantly higher values (p autoclave aging alone or with mechanical aging increased the flexure strength but also induced higher transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phase in both zirconia materials tested. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1972-1977, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of the monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia phases on the water gas shift reaction. A theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, María Luisa; Herrera, Barbara; Araya, Paulo; Gracia, Francisco; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of the water gas shift reaction taking place on zirconia surfaces modeled by monoclinic and tetragonal clusters. In order to understand the charge transfer between the active species, in this work we analyze the influence of the geometry of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia using reactivity descriptors such as electronic chemical potential (μ), charge transfer (ΔN) and molecular hardness (η). We have found that the most preferred surface is tetragonal zirconia (tZrO2) indicating also that low charge transfer systems will generate less stable intermediates, that will allow to facilitate desorption process.

  5. Elastic stability and electronic structure of low energy tetragonal and monoclinic PdN2 and PtN2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wen-Jie; Wang Yuan-Xu

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the elastic and electronic structure properties of two new low-energy structures of PdN2 and PtN2 by first-principles calculations. It finds that tetragonal and monoclinic structures are more stable than a pyrite one. The always positive eigenvalues of the elastic constant matrix confirm that both the tetragonal and monoclinic structures are elastically stable. The origin of the low bulk modulus of the two structures is discussed. The results of the calculated density of states show that both of the two low-energy structures are metallic.

  6. Structural Characterization Of CdSe and ZnSe Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Kalita, P. K.; Datta, P.

    2010-10-01

    Chemically bath deposited CdSe and ZnSe powder possesses mixed type structures whereas it is hexagonal wurtzite type in thin film form. SEM images of CdSe symmetrically exhibit the growth of spherical, rod and the rose(flower) type microstructures. ZnSe shows fine grain structures. The growth of microstructures in these selenides according to the growth direction along c-axis of hexagonal wurtzite crystal. Photoluminescence shows strong blue luminescence at 414 and 437 nm in CdSe nanoparticles. ZnSe shows strong PL at 650 nm that is attributed to the strong d-native traps. The blue shifted band gap luminescence at 392 nm shows the quantum confinement in ZnSe nanoparticles.

  7. 铜铟镓硒纳米颗粒制备技术的研究进展%Research progress on synthesis of CuIn1-x Gax Se2 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧群; 张欣鹏; 樊先平; 胡居广; 罗仲宽; 刘剑洪

    2012-01-01

    介绍铜铟镓硒( CuIn1-xGaxSe2,GIGS)薄膜太阳能电池结构及其吸收层制备技术的最新研究成果.指出非真空印刷法制备具有速度快、成本低且能实现连续大规模生产的优点,粒子尺寸小且均匀的GIGS纳米晶体的合成技术是非真空印刷法制备GIGS薄膜的关键.评述GIGS纳米颗粒的合成技术中常用的低温凝胶法、微波法、溶剂热法、热注入法、气体还原法和化学沉积法的研究进展,分析各种方法的优缺点,对深入研究CIGS纳米颗粒的合成提出了建议.%The structure of CIGS thin film solar cells and new research results in their absorption layer fabrications were described. The vacuum and non-vacuum preparation techniques were compared and non-vacuum preparation techniques has the advantages on printing speed, low cost and mass production. CIGS nanocrystals with small and uniform size synthesized are the key technology for the non-vacuum preparation method. We reviewed the research development on various synthesize of CIGS nanomaterials including low temperature sol-gel, microwave, solvother-mal, hot injection, gas reduction, and chemical deposition process etc. , and the advantages and disadvantages of various methods at the end of the paper. The suggestions and views on further study of CIGS nanoparticles were also presented.

  8. Stability of the monoclinic phase in the ferroelectric perovskite PbZr1-xTixO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noheda, B.; Cox, D.E.; Shirane, G.; Guo, R.; Jones, B.; Cross, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    Recent structural studies of ferroelectric PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) with x=0.48, have revealed a monoclinic phase in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), previously regarded as the boundary separating the rhombohedral and tetragonal regions of the PZT phase diagram. In the present paper,

  9. Application of RPR to Monoclinic and Triclinic Symmetries: Initial Results on Elasticity of Single-Crystal Diopside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, D. G.; Ohno, I.

    2001-12-01

    In past years, the rectangular parallelepiped resonance (RPR) method has been used to measure single-crystal elastic moduli, and their temperature dependences, of several materials important to geophysics. The high-temperature elastic properties of cubic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, and trigonal crystals, in addition to polycrystals, have all been studied with the RPR method. One feature of the RPR method is that, in principle, all the single-crystal elastic moduli (Cij) can be obtained from a single spectral sweep. However, no materials with crystal symmetry lower than orthorhombic symmetry have been reported in RPR studies. We extend the RPR theory to monoclinic and triclinic crystal symmetries. With these developments, we are able to compute single-crystal resonant spectra using a set of assumed Cij for right-rectangular parallelepiped monoclinic specimens cut along the b and c axes, or monoclinic specimens cut along known, but arbitrary, axes. We present initial results showing the comparison of calculated and measured resonance modes for single-crystal monoclinic diopside. Our measured resonance spectrum on chrome diopside is markedly more consistent with the spectrum calculated from the elasticity data of Collins and Brown (PCM, 26, 7-13, 1998) using a specimen that is 72% diopside than the end-member diopside elasticity data reported by Levien et al. (PCM, 4, 105-113, 1979).

  10. Coexistence of different charge states in Ta-doped monoclinic HfO2: Theoretical and experimental approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M.A.; Alonso, R.E.; Errico, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of experiments and ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations has been applied to examine hyperfine interactions in Ta-doped hafnium dioxide. Although the properties of monoclinic HfO2 have been the subject of several earlier studies, some aspects remain open. In particular, time dif...

  11. CdSe纳米粒子负载的TiO2纳米带复合材料制备及其可见光催化性能%Preparation of CdSe Nanoparticle-Deposited TiO2 Nanobelts and Their Visible-Light Photocatalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉; 嵇天浩; 李丽; 孙家跃

    2011-01-01

    A series of CdSe nanoparticle-deposited anatase TiO2 nanobelts were prepared by hydrothermal process. Their crystal structures, morphologies, depositing content of CdSe and visible-light photocatalytic activities were characterized using various measurement techniques. The measurement results show that the CdSe nanoparticles with zinc blende face-center-cubic structure and controlled content have deposited on anatase TiO2 nanobelts; the special surface areas of the products become lower in comparison with that of TiO2 nanobelts due to the deposited CdSe, whereas their visible-light absorptions exhibit much more obviously. The visible-light photocatalytic activities in degradation of rhodamine B solution demonstrate that the products with excess depositing content of CdSe nanoparticles and existence of NH3 molecules on the surface, show much lower photodegradation activities. On the contrary, the products with less CdSe nanoparticles and less NH3 molecules exhibit much higher photodegradation activities.%采用水热法制备了CdSe 纳米粒子负载的锐钛矿型TiO2纳米带复合材料,并对产物的晶体结构、形貌尺寸、CdSe负载量及其可见光催化性能进行了测试.结果表明,产物中CdSe纳米粒子以闪锌矿型面心立方结构负载在TiO2纳米带表面,负载量可控;虽然CdSe纳米粒子的负载降低了TiO2纳米带比表面积,但是显著增强了产物可见光吸收率.对罗丹明B的可见光光催化降解活性测试结果表明,若在产物表面CdSe负载量过多或者有大量NH3分子存在,产物光催化活性较低,相反地,若CdSe负载量较低且NH3分子较少,则产物光催化活性有很大提高.

  12. Bis[2-(hy-droxy-imino-meth-yl)phenolato]nickel(II): a second monoclinic polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, Julia A; Buvaylo, Elena A; Rusanov, Eduard B

    2011-01-15

    The title compound, [Ni(C(7)H(6)NO(2))(2)], (I), is a second monoclinic polymorph of the compound, (II), reported by Srivastava et al. [Acta Cryst. (1967), 22, 922] and Mereiter [Private communication (2002) CCDC refcode NISALO01]. The bond lengths and angles are similar in both structures. The mol-ecule in both structures lies on a crystallographic inversion center and both have an inter-nal hydrogen bond. The title compound crystallizes in the space group P2(1)/c (Z = 2), whereas compound (II) is in the space group P2(1)/n (Z = 2) with a similar cell volume but different cell parameters. In both polymorphs, mol-ecules are arranged in the layers but in contrast to the previously published compound (II) where the dihedral angle between the layers is 86.3°, in the title polymorph the same dihedral angle is 29.4°. The structure of (I) is stabilized by strong intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the O-H group and the phenolate O atom.

  13. Phonon instability and pressure-induced isostructural semiconductor-semimetal transition of monoclinic V O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huabing; Gao, Heng; Wu, Wei; Cao, Shixun; Hong, Jiawang; Yu, Dehong; Deng, Guochu; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Peihong; Luo, Hongjie; Ren, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Recent experiments have revealed an intriguing pressure-induced isostructural transition of the low temperature monoclinic V O2 and hinted to the existence of a new metallization mechanism in this system. The physics behind this isostructural phase transition and the metallization remains unresolved. In this work, we show that the isostructural transition is a result of pressure-induced instability of a phonon mode that relates to a CaC l2 -type of rotation of the oxygen octahedra, which alleviates, but does not completely remove, the dimerization and zigzagging arrangement of V atoms in the M1 phase. This phonon mode shows an increasing softening with pressure, ultimately leading to an isostructural phase transition characterized by the degree of the rotation of the oxygen octahedra. We also find that this phase transition is accompanied by an anisotropic compression, in excellent agreement with experiments. More interestingly, in addition to the experimentally identified M1' phase, we find a closely related M1 '' phase, which is nearly degenerate with the M1 ' phase. Unlike the M1 ' phase, which has a nearly pressure-independent electronic band gap, the gap of the M1 '' drops quickly at high pressures and vanishes at a theoretical pressure of about 40 GPa.

  14. Monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} with regular morphologies: Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Haibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)], E-mail: coastllee@hotmail.com; Liu Guocong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Department of Chemistry, Yulin Normal University, Yulin 537000 (China); Duan Xuechen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) samples with regular morphologies were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} as starting materials. The physical and photophysical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis). It was found that cuboid-like, square plate-like and flower-like BiVO{sub 4} could be readily obtained by tailoring the pH values of the reaction suspensions in the presence of CTAB. Both pH value and CTAB played crucial roles in the morphology evolution of the as-prepared samples. The bandgaps (E{sub g}) of cuboid-like, square plate-like and flower-like BiVO{sub 4} were 2.39 eV, 2.40 eV and 2.46 eV, respectively. The photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} was much better than that of P25 for photodegradation of methyl orange under sunlight irradiation. The photocatalytic activities of BiVO{sub 4} samples were highly related to their crystallinities and shapes.

  15. Monoclinic structured BiVO4 nanosheets: hydrothermal preparation, formation mechanism, and coloristic and photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Dairong; Jiao, Xiuling

    2006-02-16

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO(4)) nanosheets have been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a morphology-directing template. The nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM). The BiVO(4) nanosheets had a monoclinic structure, were ca. 10-40 nm thick, and showed a preferred (010) surface orientation. The formation mechanism and the effects of reaction temperature and time on the products were investigated. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectra indicated that the BiVO(4) nanosheets had outstanding spectral selectivity and improved color properties compared with the corresponding bulk materials. Furthermore, the nanosheets showed good visible photocatalytic activities as determined by degradation of N,N,N',N'-tetraethylated rhodamine (RB) under solar irradiation.

  16. Vibrational Spectroscopy and Phonon-Related Properties of the L-Aspartic Acid Anhydrous Monoclinic Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A M; Costa, S N; Sales, F A M; Freire, V N; Bezerra, E M; Santos, R P; Fulco, U L; Albuquerque, E L; Caetano, E W S

    2015-12-10

    The infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectra of the monoclinic P21 l-aspartic acid anhydrous crystal were recorded and interpreted with the help of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The effect of dispersive forces was taken into account, and the optimized unit cells allowed us to obtain the vibrational normal modes. The computed data exhibits good agreement with the measurements for low wavenumbers, allowing for a very good assignment of the infrared and Raman spectral features. The vibrational spectra of the two lowest energy conformers of the l-aspartic molecule were also evaluated using the hybrid B3LYP functional for the sake of comparison, showing that the molecular calculations give a limited description of the measured IR and Raman spectra of the l-aspartic acid crystal for wavenumbers below 1000 cm(-1). The results obtained reinforce the need to use solid-state calculations to describe the vibrational properties of molecular crystals instead of calculations for a single isolated molecule picture even for wavenumbers beyond the range usually associated with lattice modes (200 cm(-1) < ω < 1000 cm(-1)).

  17. Discovery of Fe7O9: a new iron oxide with a complex monoclinic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Bykova, Elena; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V.; McCammon, Catherine; Kupenko, Ilya; Ismailova, Leyla; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    Iron oxides are fundamentally important compounds for basic and applied sciences as well as in numerous industrial applications. In this work we report the synthesis and investigation of a new binary iron oxide with the hitherto unknown stoichiometry of Fe7O9. This new oxide was synthesized at high-pressure high-temperature (HP-HT) conditions, and its black single crystals were successfully recovered at ambient conditions. By means of single crystal X-ray diffraction we determined that Fe7O9 adopts a monoclinic C2/m lattice with the most distorted crystal structure among the binary iron oxides known to date. The synthesis of Fe7O9 opens a new portal to exotic iron-rich (M,Fe)7O9 oxides with unusual stoichiometry and distorted crystal structures. Moreover, the crystal structure and phase relations of such new iron oxide groups may provide new insight into the cycling of volatiles in the Earth’s interior.

  18. Monoclinic high-pressure polymorph of AlOOH predicted from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Hermann, Andreas; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlOOH, is a prototypical hydrous mineral in the geonomy. The study of the high-pressure phase evolution of AlOOH is of fundamental importance in helping to understand the role of hydrous minerals in the water storage and transport in Earth, as in other planets. Here, we have systematically investigated the high-pressure phase diagram of AlOOH up to 550 GPa using the efficient crystal structure analysis by particle swarm optimization (CALYPSO) algorithm in conjunction with first principles calculations. We predict a peculiar monoclinic phase (space group P 21/c , 16 atoms/cell, Z =4 ) as the most stable phase for AlOOH above 340 GPa. The occurrence of this new phase results in the breakup of symmetric linear O-H-O hydrogen bonds into asymmetric, bent O-H-O linkages and in sevenfold coordinated metal cations. The new P 21/c phase turns out to be a universal high-pressure phase in group 13 oxide hydroxides, and stable for both compressed GaOOH and InOOH. The formation of the new phase in all compounds is favored by volume reduction due to denser packing.

  19. Elastic and vibrational properties of monoclinic HfO2 from first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Zhou, Bo; Li, Qian; Jiang, ZhenYi; Wang, WenBo; Ma, WenYan; Zhang, XiaoDong

    2012-03-01

    The elastic and vibrational properties of crystalline monoclinic HfO2 have been investigated using density functional perturbation theory. Using the Voigt and Reuss theory, we estimate the bulk, shear and Young's modulus for polycrystalline HfO2, which agree very well with the available experimental and theoretical data. Additionally, we present a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of HfO2 polymorphs and find the trends in the elastic parameters for the HfO2 structures are consistent with those for the ZrO2 structures. The choice of exchange-correlation functional has an important effect on the results of elastic and vibrational properties. The utilization of Hartwigzen-Goedecker-Hutter type functional is a great improvement on calculation of the zone-centre phonon frequencies, and shows the root-mean-square absolute deviation of 7 cm-1 with experiments. A rigorous assignment of all the Raman modes is achieved by combining symmetry analysis with the first-principles calculations, which helps us to identify the main peak and some other features of Raman spectra. Furthermore, the Raman spectrum of HfO2 powder has been simulated for the first time, providing a theoretical benchmark for the interpretation of the unresolved problems in experimental studies.

  20. Preparation and Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Performance of CdSe Nanoparticle Sensitized TiO2 Nanorod Arrays%CdSe纳米颗粒敏化的TiO2纳米棒阵列的制备及其光电和光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭帼英; 黄盼; 弓程; 孙岚; 林昌健

    2016-01-01

    CdSe is a kind of semiconductor materials with visible light response.Sensitizing TiO2 with CdSe can make composite ma-terial possessing visible light absorption and efficiently promote separation of photogenerated charges.In this work,TiO2 nanorod arrays were first synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)with a hydrothermal method.CdSe nanoparticles were then deposited on TiO2 nanorod arrays by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method.At last,CdSe nanoparticle sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays were obtained and characterized.Experimental results showed that CdSe nanoparticle sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays exhibited enhanced visible light absorption,and its photocurrent density was 10 times as high as that of pure TiO2 nanorod arrays.The photo-catalytic degradation rate of methylene blue over CdSe nanoparticle sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays increased by 85% and 75%,sepa-rately compared to that of methylene blue self-degradation and pure TiO2 nanorod arrays.%CdSe是一种具有可见光响应的半导体材料,利用CdSe对TiO2进行敏化有望使复合材料具有可见光吸收,有效促进光生电荷的分离。采用水热法在掺杂 F的 SnO2(FTO)导电玻璃表面制备金红石TiO2纳米棒阵列,再采用连续离子层吸附反应法在TiO2纳米棒阵列表面复合CdSe纳米颗粒,制得CdSe纳米颗粒敏化的TiO2纳米棒阵列,并对其进行了表征。实验结果表明,CdSe纳米颗粒敏化的TiO2纳米棒阵列在可见光区有较强的光吸收,其光电流密度是 TiO2纳米棒阵列的10倍,对亚甲基蓝的可见光催化降解速率较亚甲基蓝的自降解和TiO2纳米棒阵列分别提高了85%和75%。

  1. Polarization-dependent angular distribution of the absorption behavior in Ytterbium-doped monoclinic LYB and LGB compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, W.; Petit, Y.; Rouzet, S.; Fargues, A.; Veber, P.; Velazquez, M.; Jubera, V.; Canioni, L.; Manek-Hönninger, I.

    2017-02-01

    In this contribution we detail the full characterization of the anisotropy of the absorption properties of two different Yb-doped monoclinic borate compounds under polarized light. The studied crystals are Li6(Gd)0.75Yb0.25(BO3)3 and Li6Y0.75Yb0.25(BO3)3, respectively, grown by the Czochralski method. We focused on the study of their absorption at the zero line transition as a function of the polarization direction of the incident light for two different crystal cuts of each compound. We discuss the different Eigen frames that must be considered in these materials due to their monoclinic character, as well as the optimal crystal orientation for the considered absorption and the potential influences when used as laser materials.

  2. Influence of downsizing of zeolite crystals on the orthorhombic ↔ monoclinic phase transition in pure silica MFI-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalan, Ihab; Michelin, Laure; Rigolet, Séverinne; Marichal, Claire; Daou, T. Jean; Lebeau, Bénédicte; Paillaud, Jean-Louis

    2016-08-01

    The impact of crystal size on the transition orthorhombic ↔ monoclinic phase in MFI-type purely silica zeolites is investigated between 293 and 473 K using 29Si MAS NMR and powder X-ray diffraction. Three silicalite-1 zeolites are synthesized: a material constituted of micron-sized crystals, pseudospherical nanometer-sized crystals and hierarchical porous zeolites with a mesoporous network created by the use of a gemini-type diquaternary ammonium surfactant giving nanosheet zeolites. Our results show for the first time that the orthorhombic ↔ monoclinic phase transition already known for micron-sized particles also occurs in nanometer-sized zeolite crystals whereas our data suggest that the extreme downsizing of the zeolite crystal to one unit cell in thickness leads to an extinction of the phase transition.

  3. Thermal Hydrolysis Synthesis and Characterization of Monoclinic Metahewettite CaV6O16•3H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lanjie; ZHENG Shili; WANG Shaona; DU Hao; ZHANG Yi

    2014-01-01

    Monoclinic metahewettite CaV6O16•3H2O has been fabricated via thermal hydrolysis of calcium vanadate (Ca10V6O25). High purity calcium vanadate precipitate, featuring column structure with surface area of 8.61 m2/g, can be obtained by reacting sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4) with calcium oxide at 90℃for 2 h. By acidification of calcium vanadate in hot water at pH of 1.0-3.0, the monoclinic metahewettite crystals with uniform particle distribution, layered structure and nonporous structure can be fabricated. With the well crystallized layered structure, CaV6O16•3H2O may be a potential cathode material for secondary batteries as well as super capacitor materials.

  4. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water oxidation over metal-doped monoclinic BiVO(4) photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Kanak Pal Singh; Kang, Hyun Joon; Bist, Amita; Dua, Piyush; Jang, Jum Suk; Lee, Jae Sung

    2012-10-01

    The visible-light-induced water oxidation ability of metal-ion-doped BiVO(4) was investigated and of 12 metal ion dopants tested, only W and Mo dramatically enhanced the water photo-oxidation activity of bare BiVO(4); Mo had the highest improvement by a factor of about six. Thus, BiVO(4) and W- or Mo-doped (2 atom %) BiVO(4) photoanodes about 1 μm thick were fabricated onto transparent conducting substrate by a metal-organic decomposition/spin-coating method. Under simulated one sun (air mass 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2)) and at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, the highest photocurrent density (J(PH)) of about 2.38 mA cm(-2) was achieved for Mo doping followed by W doping (J(PH) ≈ 1.98 mA cm(-2)), whereas undoped BiVO(4) gave a J(PH) value of about 0.42 mA cm(-2). The photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity of W- and Mo-doped BiVO(4) photoanodes corresponded to the incident photon to current conversion efficiency of about 35 and 40 % respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky analysis indicated a positive flat band shift of about 30 mV, a carrier concentration 1.6-2 times higher, and a charge-transfer resistance reduced by 3-4-fold for W- or Mo-doped BiVO(4) relative to undoped BiVO(4). Electronic structure calculations revealed that both W and Mo were shallow donors and Mo doping generated superior conductivity to W doping. The photo-oxidation activity of water on BiVO(4) photoanodes (undopedphotocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity of monoclinic BiVO(4) by drastically reducing its charge-transfer resistance and thereby minimizing photoexcited electron-hole pair recombination.

  5. Analysis of tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation caused by accelerated artificial aging and the effects of microstructure in stabilized zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Thomas J.

    This investigation addresses the issue that yttria stabilized zirconia is being used as a dental biomaterial without substantial evidence of its long-term viability. Furthermore, stabilized zirconia (SZ) undergoes low temperature degradation (LTD), which can lead to roughening of the surface. A rougher exterior can lead to increased wear of the antagonist in the oral environment. Despite the LTD concerns, SZ is now widely used in restorative dentistry, including full contour crowns. A comparison of aging methods to determine the role of artificial aging on inducing the transformation has not been extensively studied. Therefore, simulations of the transformation process were investigated by comparing different methods of accelerated aging. The rejected null hypothesis is that the temperature of aging treatment will not affect the time required to cause measurable monoclinic transformation of yttria stabilized zirconia. The transformation of SZ starts at the surface and progresses inward; however, it is unclear whether the progression is constant for different aging conditions. This investigation analyzed the depth of transformation as a function of aging conditions for stabilized zirconia in the top 5-6 mum from the surface. The rejected null hypothesis is that the transformation amount is constant throughout the first six micrometers from the surface. The effects of grain size on the amount of monoclinic transformation were also investigated. This study aimed to determine if the grain size of partially stabilized zirconia affects the amount of monoclinic transformation, surface roughness, and property degradation due to aging. The rejected null hypothesis is that the grain size will not affect the amount of monoclinic transformation, thus have no effect on surface roughening or property degradation. The final part of this study addresses the wear of enamel when opposing zirconia by observing how grain size and aging affected the wear rate of an enamel antagonist

  6. Batteries: encapsulated monoclinic sulfur for stable cycling of li-s rechargeable batteries (adv. Mater. 45/2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, San; Jung, Young Hwa; Jung, Wook Ki; Jung, Dae Soo; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Do Kyung

    2013-12-03

    On page 6547 Do Kyung Kim, Jang Wook Choi and co-workers describe a highly aligned and carbon-encapsulated sulfur cathode synthesized with an AAO template that exhibits a high and long cycle life, and the best rate capability based on the complete encapsulation of sulfur (physical) and implementation of the monoclinic sulfur phase (chemical). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Low temperature solution-phase growth of ZnSe and ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchsang, Nattasamon; Shapoval, Liubov; Vietmeyer, Felix; Yu, Yanghai; Hodak, Jose H.; Tang, I.-Ming; Kosel, Thomas H.; Kuno, Masaru

    2011-08-01

    High quality ZnSe nanowires (NWs) and complementary ZnSe/CdSe core/shell species have been synthesized using a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth technique. In particular, bismuth salts as opposed to pre-synthesized Bi or Au/Bi nanoparticles have been used to grow NWs at low temperatures in solution. Resulting wires are characterized using transmission electron microscopy and possess mean ensemble diameters between 15 and 28 nm with accompanying lengths ranging from 4-10 μm. Subsequent solution-based overcoating chemistry results in ZnSe wires covered with CdSe nanocrystals. By varying the shell's growth time, different thicknesses can be obtained and range from 8 to 21 nm. More interestingly, the mean constituent CdSe nanocrystal diameter can be varied and results in size-dependent shell emission spectra.High quality ZnSe nanowires (NWs) and complementary ZnSe/CdSe core/shell species have been synthesized using a recently developed solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth technique. In particular, bismuth salts as opposed to pre-synthesized Bi or Au/Bi nanoparticles have been used to grow NWs at low temperatures in solution. Resulting wires are characterized using transmission electron microscopy and possess mean ensemble diameters between 15 and 28 nm with accompanying lengths ranging from 4-10 μm. Subsequent solution-based overcoating chemistry results in ZnSe wires covered with CdSe nanocrystals. By varying the shell's growth time, different thicknesses can be obtained and range from 8 to 21 nm. More interestingly, the mean constituent CdSe nanocrystal diameter can be varied and results in size-dependent shell emission spectra. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10176e

  8. Study of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of monoclinic and triclinic spin chain CoV2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Moumita; Mandal, Prabhat

    We have investigated magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of both monoclinic and triclinic phases of CoV2O6 from magnetization and heat capacity measurements. Conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effects have been observed in both phases of CoV2O6. For a field change from 0 to 7 T, maximum values of magnetic entropy change and adiabatic temperature change reach 11.8 J kg-1 K-1 and 9.5 K respectively for monoclinic CoV2O6 while the corresponding values reach 12.1 J kg-1 K-1 and 13.1 K for triclinic CoVO6. Particularly for triclinic CoVO6, the magnetocaloric parameters are quite large in low or moderate field range. Apart from this, we have constructed magnetic phase diagram of monoclinic CoV2O6 where field-induced complex magnetic phases appear below a certain critical temperature 6 K when external magnetic field is applied along crystallographic easy axis.

  9. Solvothermal, chloroalkoxide-based synthesis of monoclinic WO(3) quantum dots and gas-sensing enhancement by surface oxygen vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifani, Mauro; Comini, Elisabetta; Díaz, Raül; Andreu, Teresa; Genç, Aziz; Arbiol, Jordi; Siciliano, Pietro; Faglia, Guido; Morante, Joan R

    2014-10-01

    We report for the first time the synthesis of monoclinic WO3 quantum dots. A solvothermal processing at 250 °C in oleic acid of W chloroalkoxide solutions was employed. It was shown that the bulk monoclinic crystallographic phase is the stable one even for the nanosized regime (mean size 4 nm). The nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, High resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. It was concluded that they were constituted by a core of monoclinic WO3, surface covered by unstable W(V) species, slowly oxidized upon standing in room conditions. The WO3 nanocrystals could be easily processed to prepare gas-sensing devices, without any phase transition up to at least 500 °C. The devices displayed remarkable response to both oxidizing (nitrogen dioxide) and reducing (ethanol) gases in concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 ppm and from 100 to 500 ppm, at low operating temperatures of 100 and 200 °C, respectively. The analysis of the electrical data showed that the nanocrystals were characterized by reduced surfaces, which enhanced both nitrogen dioxide adsorption and oxygen ionosorption, the latter resulting in enhanced ethanol decomposition kinetics.

  10. Evaluation of nanoparticle-ligand distributions to determine nanoparticle concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Shergill, Ravi T; Krull, Ulrich J

    2015-01-20

    The concentration of nanoparticles in solution is an important, yet challenging, parameter to quantify. In this work, a facile strategy for the determination of nanoparticle concentration is presented. The method relies on the quantitative analysis of the inherent distribution of nanoparticle-ligand conjugates that are generated when nanoparticles are functionalized with ligands. Validation of the method was accomplished by applying it to gold nanoparticles and semiconductor nanoparticles (CdSe/ZnS; core/shell). Poly(ethylene glycol) based ligands, with functional groups that quantitatively react with the nanoparticles, were incubated with the nanoparticles at varying equivalences. Agarose gel electrophoresis was subsequently used to separate and quantify the nanoparticle-ligand conjugates of varying valences. The distribution in the nanoparticle-ligand conjugates agreed well with that predicted by the Poisson model. A protocol was then developed, where a series of only eight different ligand amounts could provide an estimate of the nanoparticle concentration that spans 3 orders of magnitude (1 μM to 1 mM). For the gold nanoparticles and semiconductor nanoparticles, the measured concentrations were found to deviate by only 7% and 2%, respectively, from those determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The precision of the assay was evaluated, resulting in a coefficient of variation of 5-7%. Finally, the protocol was used to determine the extinction coefficient of alloyed semiconductor nanoparticles (CdSxSe1-x/ZnS), for which a reliable estimate is currently unavailable, of three different emission wavelengths (525, 575, and 630 nm). The extinction coefficient of the nanoparticles of all emission wavelengths was similar and was found to be 2.1 × 10(5) M(-1)cm(-1).

  11. Petrology of Karoo volcanic rocks in the southern Lebombo monocline, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluso, Leone; Cucciniello, Ciro; Petrone, Chiara M.; Lustrino, Michele; Morra, Vincenzo; Tiepolo, Massimo; Vasconcelos, Lopo

    2008-11-01

    The Karoo volcanic sequence in the southern Lebombo monocline in Mozambique contains different silicic units in the form of pyroclastic rocks, and two different basalt types. The silicic units in the lower part of the Lebombo sequence are formed by a lower unit of dacites and rhyolites (67-80 wt.% SiO 2) with high Ba (990-2500 ppm), Zr (800-1100 ppm) and Y (130-240 ppm), which are part of the Jozini-Mbuluzi Formation, followed by a second unit, interlayered with the Movene basalts, of high-SiO 2 rhyolites (76-78 wt.%; the Sica Beds Formation), with low Sr (19-54 ppm), Zr (340-480 ppm) and Ba (330-850 ppm) plus rare quartz-trachytes (64-66 wt.% SiO 2), with high Nb and Rb contents (240-250 and 370-381 ppm, respectively), and relatively low Zr (450-460 ppm). The mafic rocks found at the top of the sequence are basalts and ferrobasalts belonging to the Movene Formation. The basalts have roughly flat mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns, with abundances of the most incompatible elements not higher than 25 times primitive mantle. The ferrobasalt has TiO 2 ˜ 4.7 wt.%, Fe 2O 3t = 16 wt.%, and high Y (100 ppm), Zr (420 ppm) and Ba (1000 ppm). The Movene basalts have initial (at 180 Ma) 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7052-0.7054 and 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.51232, and the Movene ferrobasalt has even lower 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.70377) and higher 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.51259). The silicic rocks show a modest range of initial Sr-( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.70470-0.70648) and Nd-( 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.51223-0.51243) isotope ratios. The less evolved dacites could have been formed after crystal fractionation of oxide-rich gabbroic cumulates from mafic parental magmas, whereas the most silica-rich rhyolites could have been formed after fractional crystallization of feldspars, pyroxenes, oxides, zircon and apatite from a parental dacite magma. The composition of the Movene basalts imply different feeding systems from those of the underlying Sabie River basalts.

  12. Structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of monoclinic N{sub 2}H{sub 5}N{sub 3} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi-Jun, Liu; Fu-Sheng, Liu, E-mail: qijunliu@home.swjtu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu (China); Bond and Band Engineering Group, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory (for Universities) of High Pressure Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu (China); Zheng-Tang, Liu [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, (China)

    2015-08-15

    Structural, elastic, mechanical, and electronic properties of monoclinic N{sub 2}H{sub 5}N{sub 3} at zero and high pressure have been investigated using the plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method within the density-functional theory (DFT). The pressure dependences of structural parameters, elastic constants, mechanical properties, band gaps, and density of states of monoclinic N{sub 2}H{sub 5}N{sub 3} have been calculated and discussed. The obtained results show that monoclinic N{sub 2}H{sub 5}N{sub 3} is unstable at pressures exceeding the value 126.1 GPa. The ratio of B/G and the Cauchy’s pressure indicate that monoclinic N{sub 2}H{sub 5}N{sub 3} behaves in ductile nature with pressure ranging from 0 to 200 GPa. (author)

  13. Magnetically Hard Fe3Se4 Embedded in Bi2Se3 Topological Insulator Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Hugo Menezes do Nascimento; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Zheng, Yunlin; Demaille, Dominique; Hidki, Sarah; Fonda, Emiliano; Novikova, Anastasiia; Fujii, Jun; Torelli, Piero; Salles, Benjamin Rache; Vobornik, Ivana; Panaccione, Giancarlo; de Oliveira, Adilson Jesus Aparecido; Marangolo, Massimiliano; Vidal, Franck

    2016-01-26

    We investigated the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of Bi2Se3 epilayers containing Fe grown on GaAs(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. It is shown that, in the window of growth parameters leading to Bi2Se3 epilayers with optimized quality, Fe atom clustering leads to the formation of FexSey inclusions. These objects have platelet shape and are embedded within Bi2Se3. Monoclinic Fe3Se4 is identified as the main secondary phase through detailed structural measurements. Due to the presence of the hard ferrimagnetic Fe3Se4 inclusions, the system exhibits a very large coercive field at low temperature and room temperature magnetic ordering. Despite this composite structure and the proximity of a magnetic phase, the surface electronic structure of Bi2Se3 is preserved, as shown by the persistence of a gapless Dirac cone at Γ.

  14. Two anionically derivatized scandium oxoselenates(IV): ScF[SeO3] and Sc2O2[SeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Stefan; Chou, Sheng-Chun; Schleid, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Scandium fluoride oxoselenate(IV) ScF[SeO3] and scandium oxide oxoselenate(IV) Sc2O2[SeO3] could be synthesized through solid-state reactions. ScF[SeO3] was obtained phase-pure, by reacting mixtures of Sc2O3, ScF3 and SeO2 (molar ratio: 1:1:3) together with CsBr as fluxing agent in corundum crucibles embedded into evacuated glassy silica ampoules after firing at 700 °C for seven days. Sc2O2[SeO3] first emerged as by-product during the attempts to synthesize ScCl[SeO3] following aforementioned synthesis route and could later be reproduced from appropriate Sc2O3/SeO3 mixtures. ScF[SeO3] crystallizes monoclinically in space group P21/m with a=406.43(2), b =661.09(4), c=632.35(4) pm, β=93.298(3)° and Z=2. Sc2O2[SeO3] also crystallizes in the monoclinic system, but in space group P21/n with a=786.02(6), b=527.98(4), c=1086.11(8) pm, β=108.672(3)° for Z=4. The crystal structures of both compounds are strongly influenced by the stereochemically active lone pairs of the ψ1-tetrahedral [SeO3]2- anions. They also show partial structures, where the derivatizing F- or O2- anions play an important role. For ScF[SeO3] chains of the composition 2+ ∞ 1[FSc2/2] form from connected [FSc2]5+ dumbbells, while [OSc3]7+ pyramids and [OSc4]10+ tetrahedra units are condensed to layers according to 2+ ∞ 2[O2Sc2 ] in Sc2O2[SeO3].

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of dye adsorption on WO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Sangeeta; Mandal, Sandip; Sarkar, Debasish; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Madras, Giridhar

    2017-10-01

    Monoclinic WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple acid catalyzed co-precipitation reaction. Spherical particles with average size ∼55 nm were confirmed from electron microscopy followed by functional, structural and optical characterizations. The adsorption of methylene blue was examined by using WO3 nanoparticles and the capacity was higher than most of the reported studies. The effect of pH and material loading on adsorption was determined. The mechanism of adsorption was examined by XPS and a detailed explanation of surface phenomena was proposed. Regeneration study was carried and a high stability of heat treated WO3 towards adsorption of methylene blue was observed.

  16. Template-Engaged In Situ Synthesis of Carbon-Doped Monoclinic Mesoporous BiVO4: Photocatalytic Treatment of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingming; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian; Tripathi, Pranav K.; Liu, Yafei; Hu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, carbon-doped monoclinic scheelite mesoporous bismuth vanadate was synthesized through template-engaged in situ method. The bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and ammonia metavanadate were used as bismuth and vanadium precursors, respectively, glucose as carbon source, and mesoporous SiO2 aerogel as a hard template. Carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 were obtained by heat treatment of BiVO4/glucose/template to carbonize glucose and form monoclinic crystal, followed by etching with NaOH solution to remove the SiO2 template. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and desorption, UV-visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the sample with a carbon content of 0.5 wt.% possesses a specific surface area of 10.2 m2/g and has mesoporous structure with the most probable pore size of 13.9 nm. The band gap of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 was estimated to be 2.33 eV, indicating the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. The photocatalytic efficiency of carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in 120 min reaches 98.7%, Besides, the carbon-doped monoclinic mesoporous BiVO4 photocatalyst still showed high stability: 85% for Rhodamine B degradation after ten recycles.

  17. Evolution of Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of Monoclinic ZrO2 under High Pressure: A First Principles Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Ming-Xiu; HE Kai-Hua; ZHENG Guang; HOU Shu-En

    2008-01-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of the monoclinic ZrO2 were studied by ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory and pseudopotential method. The calculated lattice parameters and band gap are in agreement with the experimental and other theo- retical values. The evolution of lattice parameters and electronic properties were illustrated under high pressure. Meanwhile, the optical properties, such as adsorption coefficients, imaginary part of dielectric function, and energy loss function, were investigated under both ambient and high pressures.

  18. Synthesis of Monoclinic Form of Gd2-xNaxCuO4 by Direct Precipitation from Molten Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phase of Gd2-xNaxCuO4 was synthesized by direct precipitation from the mixture of Gd2O3 and CuO in the molten KOH/NaOH/KNO3 solution at temperature as low as 280° C. The resulting precipitate was characterized by using SEM, XRD, EDX, XPS and magnetic method. The XRD data indicate that the precipitated Gd2-xNaxCuO4 is monoclinic with lattice parameters a=8.6816(A), b=3.7233(A). C=6.0796(A), α =γ =90°, β =108.75° and V=186.1(A)3.

  19. Static deformation of two welded monoclinic elastic half-spaces due to a long inclined strike-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kumar; Sarvajit Singh; Jagdish Singh

    2002-06-01

    Static deformation of two monoclinic elastic half-spaces in welded contact due to a long inclined strike-slip fault situated in one of the half-spaces is studied analytically and numerically. Closedform algebraic expressions for the displacement at any point of the medium are obtained. The variation of the displacement at the interface with the horizontal distance from the fault is studied. The effect of anisotropy on the displacement field is examined. It is found that while the anisotropy of the source half-space has a significant effect on the displacement at the interface, the anisotropy of the other half-space has only a marginal effect.

  20. Biomineralization of Se Nanoshpere by Bacillus Licheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Yuan; Jianming Zhu; Congqiang Liu; Shen Yu; Lei Lei

    2015-01-01

    Biological dissimilatory reduction of selenite (SeO32-) to elemental selenium (Se0) is com-mon, but the mineral formation and the biogenic process remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the Se0 formation during the selenite bioreduction by Bacillus licheniformis SeRB-1 through transmis-sion electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques. Results showed that the reduction process occurred mostly during the exponential phase and early stationary phase, whilst the elemental selenium was produced in these pe-riods. From the TEM images and polyacrylamide gel electropheresis, it is known that the Se0 granule formation is a biologically-induced type, and the cell envelopes are the main biomineralization positions, and particles may go through a process from nucleation to crystallization, under the control of mi-crobes. In fact, the minerals are spherical nanoparticles, occurring as a microcrystal or amorphous form. It is vital to recognize which kinds of proteins and/or polysaccharides act as a template to direct nanoparticle nucleation and growth? This should focus for further studies. This study may shed light on the process of formation of Se(0) nanosphere.

  1. Superconductivity in cubic noncentrosymmetric PdBiSe Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, B.; Thamizhavel, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2015-03-01

    Mixing of spin singlet and spin triplet superconducting pairing state is expected in noncentrosymmetric superconductors (NCS) due to the inherent presence of Rashba-type antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling. Unlike low symmetry (tetragonal or monoclinic) NCS, parity is isotropicaly broken in space for cubic NCS and can additionally lead to the coexistence of magnetic and superconducting state under certain conditions. Motivated with such enriched possibility of unconventional superconducting phases in cubic NCS we are reporting successful formation of single crystalline cubic noncentrosymmetric PdBiSe with lattice parameter a = 6.4316 Å and space group P21 3 (space group no. 198) which undergoes to superconducting transition state below 1.8 K as measured by electrical transport and AC susceptibility measurements. Significant strength of Rashba-type antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling can be expected for PdBiSe due to the presence of high Z (atomic number) elements consequently making it potential candidate for unconventional superconductivity.

  2. Metal Ions Mediated Morphology and Phase Transformation of Chalcogenide Semiconductor: From CuClSe2 Microribbon to CuSe Nanosheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Hao-Di; Zhao, Yu; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2015-05-01

    Foreign ions are of significant importance in controlling and modulating the morphology of semiconductor nanocrystals during the colloidal synthesis process. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of foreign metal ions to simultaneously control the morphology and crystal phase of chalcogenide semiconductors. The results indicate that the introduction of Al(3+) ions can induce the structural transformation from monoclinic CuClSe2 microribbons (MRs) to klockmannite CuSe nanosheets (NSs) and the growth of large-sized CuSe NSs. The as-prepared micrometer-sized CuSe NSs exhibit a high-conducting behavior, long-term durability, and environment stability. The novel properties enable CuSe NSs to open up a bright prospect for printable electrical interconnects and flexible electronic devices.

  3. Ab initio calculation of electron-phonon coupling in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between electrons and vibrational modes in monoclinic β-Ga2O3 is theoretically investigated using ab-initio calculations. The large primitive cell of β-Ga2O3 gives rise to 30 phonon modes all of which are taken into account in transport calculation. The electron-phonon interaction is calculated under density functional perturbation theory and then interpolated using Wannier-Fourier interpolation. The long-range interaction elements between electrons and polar optical phonon (POP) modes are calculated separately using the Born effective charge tensor. The direction dependence of the long-range POP coupling in a monoclinic crystal is explored and is included in the transport calculations. Scattering rate calculations are done using the Fermi golden rule followed by solving the Boltzmann transport equation using the Rode's method to estimate low field mobility. A room temperature mobility of 115 cm2/V s is observed. Comparison with recent experimentally reported mobility is done for a wide range of temperatures (30 K-650 K). It is also found that the POP interaction dominates the electron mobility under low electric field conditions. The relative contribution of the different POP modes is analyzed and the mode 21 meV POP is found to have the highest impact on low field electron mobility at room temperature.

  4. Mild oxide-hydrothermal synthesis of different aspect ratios of monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} nanorods tuned by temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Fengqiang; Wu, Qingsheng; Ma, Jie; Chen, Yijun [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2009-01-15

    The monoclinic scheelite BiVO{sub 4} nanocrystals were easily prepared via an oxide-hydrothermal synthesis (OHS) method directly utilizing bulk-phase materials of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as precursor. In the presence of PEG 4000, the reactions were performed in the mild temperature range from 130 C to 200 C. The products were characterized with FTIR, XRD, TEM and UV-vis DRS. These data clearly demonstrated that monoclinic scheelite structure BiVO{sub 4} could be synthesized by the feasible OHS route. The aspect ratios of nanorods were increased with the synthesized temperature. The as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} showed high photocatalytic activity, which was demonstrated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under visible-light irradiation ({lambda}>420 nm). A growth mechanism of bismuth vanadate was proposed. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Observation of spin glass behavior in monoclinic Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bie, Xiaofei; Wei, Yingjin; Liu, Lina [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Nikolowski, Kristian; Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chen, Hong [College of Physics, Beihua University, Jilin 132013 (China); Wang, Chunzhong; Chen, Gang [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Du, Fei, E-mail: dufei@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Physics and Technology for Advanced Batteries (Ministry of Education), College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} has been refined with monoclinic phase (space group C2/m). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spin glass has been confirmed by analyzing dc, ac, and time-dependence remanence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometrical frustration combined random competition was suggested to be the main cause for spin glass formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In order to distinguish the spin glass from the superparamagnetism, ac susceptibility under different frequencies is studied. - Abstract: The structure and magnetic properties of Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} were studied by X-ray diffraction, dc and ac susceptibilities. Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} belongs to the monoclinic structure with two different Mn sites. The irreversibility and spin freezing behaviors are observed in the dc magnetization curves. The peaks of ac susceptibility display the dependences on the frequency. Both the magnetic relaxation effect and the corresponding analysis confirm a spin glass (SG) transition at low temperature. By evaluating the geometrical frustration parameter, we suggest the spin glass in Li{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 2} originate from the frustration effect combined with the competition among the Mn{sup 3+/4+}-O{sup 2-}-Mn{sup 3+/4+} exchange interaction.

  6. BiVO4 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Sivakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple thermal decomposition method. The synthesized bismuth vanadate nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, it is found that the synthesized sample belongs to monoclinic BiVO4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the formation of Bi-O bond in the sample. Ultraviolet–Visible (DRS-UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the optical property of the BiVO4 nanoparticles. The morphology was identified by both scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Further, the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanoparticles was investigated by photodegradation of methylene blue as a model organic pollutant.

  7. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  8. A monoclinic polymorph of 1,2-bis[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylsulfanyl]ethane (BMTTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Argibay-Otero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and crystal structure of a monoclinic (P21/c polymorph of the title compound, C6H10S2N8, are reported. The molecule has pseudo-twofold rotational symmetry, with the tetrazole rings being inclined to one another by 5.50 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [101] and enclosing R22(20 ring motifs. The chains are linked by offset π–π interactions involving the tetrazole rings [intercentroid distances vary from 3.3567 (7 to 3.4227 (7 Å], forming layers parallel to the ac plane. The crystal structure of the triclinic polymorph (P\\overline{1} has been described previously [Li et al. (2011. Acta Cryst. E67, o1669].

  9. Weakly faceted cellular patterns versus growth-induced plastic deformation in thin-sample directional solidification of monoclinic biphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Akamatsu, Silvère; Faivre, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    We present an experimental study of thin-sample directional solidification (T-DS) in impure biphenyl. The platelike growth shape of the monoclinic biphenyl crystals includes two low-mobility (001) facets and four high-mobility {110} facets. Upon T-DS, biphenyl plates oriented with (001) facets parallel to the sample plane can exhibit either a strong growth-induced plastic deformation (GID), or deformation-free weakly faceted (WF) growth patterns. We determine the respective conditions of appearance of these phenomena. GID is shown to be a long-range thermal-stress effect, which disappears when the growth front has a cellular structure. An early triggering of the cellular instability allowed us to avoid GID and study the dynamics of WF patterns as a function of the orientation of the crystal.

  10. Neutron diffraction observations of ferroelastic domain switching and tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation in Ce-TZP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisi, E.H. [Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kennedy, S.J.; Howard, C.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales (Australia). Neutron Scattering Group

    1997-03-01

    In-situ neutron diffraction has been used to study the plastic deformation of a tetragonal zirconia polycrystal stabilized with 12 mol% ceria under compressive loads up to 1.6 GPa. The development of significant plastic strain in the ceramic has been found to be due to a combination of ferroelastic switching and the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation, both beginning at {approximately}1.2 GPa. Evidence of a strong coupling between the two phenomena is present. Both transitions are partially reversed on removal of the load. The linear elastic response of the a and c crystal axes of the parent tetragonal phase suggests that the ferroelastic switching occurs directly by a shear mechanism rather than via a cubic intermediate state. Anisotropic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell, as the critical stress is approached, gives some insight into the shear transformation mechanisms.

  11. A second monoclinic polymorph of 2-[2-(4-methoxyphenylhydrazinylidene]-1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H18N2O3 is the second monoclinic polymorph (P21/c of the compound, the first being reported in space group P21 [Bertolasi et al. (1993. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, pp. 2223–2228]. In the molecular structure of the title compound, the interplanar angle between the benzoyl units is 80.04 (5°, while the corresponding angles between the phenylhydrazinylidene and benzoyl groups are 36.11 (5 and 55.77 (2°. A strong resonance-assisted intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond is found. In the crystal, the entire supramolecular structure is constructed by weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions and an inter-ring π–π interaction [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6088 (8 Å].

  12. Monoclinic β-Li2TiO3: Neutron diffraction study and estimation of Li diffusion pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchak, M.; Dolotko, O.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Baran, V.; Senyshyn, A.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2016-11-01

    A neutron powder diffraction study on lithium titanate Li2TiO3 was performed at low temperatures. The monoclinic β-phase has been found to be stable over the whole investigated range of temperatures (4 K-300 K). A smooth and nonlinear increase of the lattice parameters has been observed upon heating and correlated to the behavior of interatomic distances. Lithium diffusion pathways in Li2TiO3 were estimated theoretically on the basis of the obtained structural data using bond-valence modeling. Experimentally diffusion pathways were evaluated by analysis of the negative nuclear scattering densities at 1073 K, which were reconstructed using a maximum entropy method. Although the bond-valence mismatch map indicated a possible Li diffusion either in ab plane or along c direction, analysis of the experimental data revealed that Li migration is thermodynamically less feasible in latter case.

  13. Density functional theory analysis of Raman frequency modes of monoclinic zirconium oxide using Gaussian basis sets and isotopic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daramola, Damilola A; Muthuvel, Madhivanan; Botte, Gerardine G

    2010-07-29

    Geometry and vibration properties for monoclinic zirconium oxide were studied using Gaussian basis sets and LDA, GGA, and B3LYP functionals. Bond angles, bond lengths, lattice parameters, and Raman frequencies were calculated and compared to experimental values. Bond angles and lengths were found to agree within experimental standard deviations. The B3LYP gave the best performance of all three functionals with a percent error of 1.35% for the lattice parameters while the average difference between experimental and calculated Raman frequency values was -3 cm(-1). The B3LYP functional was then used to assign the atomic vibrations causing each frequency mode using isotopic substitution of (93.40)Zr for (91.22)Zr and (18.00)O for (16.00)O. This resulted in seven modes assigned to the Zr atom, ten modes to the O atom, and one mode being a mixture of both.

  14. Contenha-se, se for capaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Feitoza Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Em O Instinto da Linguagem, Steven Pinker discorre sobre sua célebre tese: a linguagem não é a mais prodigiosa invenção cultural humana. Ela é uma peça da constituição biológica do cérebro. A linguagem é uma habilidade complexa e especializada, que se desenvolve espontaneamente na criança, sem qualquer esforço consciente ou instrução formal, que se manifesta sem que se perceba sua lógica subjacente, que é qualitativamente a mesma em todo indiví­duo, e que difere de capacidades mais gerais de processamento de informações ou de comportamento inteligente. Para Pinker, a concepção de linguagem como um tipo de instinto transmite a idéia de que as pessoas sabem falar mais ou menos da mesma maneira que as aranhas sabem tecer suas teias. Ele apóia suas idéias em Darwin e Chomsky. Palavras-chave linguagem, gramática universal, evolução Abstract In Language Instinct, Steven Pinker argues about his famous thesis: language is not the most prodigious human cultural invention. It is a distinct piece of the biological constitution of the brain. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops spontaneously in the child, without conscious effort or formal instruction. It reveals itself without awareness of its underlying logic, which is qualitatively the same in every individual, and which is distinct from more general abilities of information processing of intelligent behavior. According to Pinker, the conception of language as a kind of instinct conveys the idea that people know how to talk in more or less the same way as spiders know how to spin webs. His thesis is founded in Darwin and Chomsky-s theories. Keywords language, universal grammar, evolution

  15. Photovoltaic Devices Employing Ternary PbSxSe1-x Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wanli; Luther, Joseph; Zheng, Haimei; Wu, Yue; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-02-05

    We report solar cells based on highly confined nanocrystals of the ternary compound PbSxSe1-x. Crystalline, monodisperse alloyed nanocrystals are obtained using a one-pot, hot injection reaction. Rutherford back scattering and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy suggest that the S and Se anions are uniformly distributed in the alloy nanoparticles. Photovoltaic devices made using ternary nanoparticles are more efficient than either pure PbS or pure PbSe based nanocrystal devices.

  16. Formation of Metal Selenide and Metal-Selenium Nanoparticles using Distinct Reactivity between Selenium and Noble Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Ho; Choi, Ji Yong; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Joon T; Song, Hyunjoon

    2015-07-01

    Small Se nanoparticles with a diameter of ≈20 nm were generated by the reduction of selenium chloride with NaBH4 at -10 °C. The reaction with Ag at 60 °C yielded stable Ag2 Se nanoparticles, which subsequently were transformed into M-Se nanoparticles (M=Cd, Zn, Pb) through cation exchange reactions with corresponding ions. The reaction with Pt formed Pt layers that were evenly coated on the surface of the Se nanoparticles, and the dissolution of the Se cores with hydrazine generated uniform Pt hollow nanoparticles. The reaction with Au generated tiny Au clusters on the Se surface, and eventually formed acorn-shaped Au-Se nanoparticles through heat treatment. These results indicate that small Se nanoparticles with diameters of ≈20 nm can be used as a versatile platform for the synthesis of metal selenide and metal-selenium hybrid nanoparticles with complex structures.

  17. Solution-processed Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 thin films based on binary and ternary chalcogenide nanoparticle precursors and their application in solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) ist ein vielversprechendes Material um günstige Solarzellen mit hoher Effizienz herzustellen. In dieser Arbeit wurde ein kosteneffizienter Prozess für die Abscheidung von dünnen Schichten aus CZTSSe Absorbern entwickelt. Mittels Rotationbeschichtung von ZnS, SnS und Cu3SnS4 (CTS) Nanopartikel-Tinte wurden die CZTSSe Absorber in einem vierstufigen Prozess hergestellt. Im ersten Schritt werden jeweils ZnS, SnS und CTS Nanopartikel durch Aufheizen in einem kolloid...

  18. Electronic structure of ferromagnetic semiconductor material on the monoclinic and rhombohedral ordered double perovskites La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuh, Huei-Ru; Chang, Ching-Ray [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Weng, Ke-Chuan [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yin-Kuo, E-mail: kant@ntnu.edu.tw [Center for General Education and Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-07

    Double perovskite La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6} with monoclinic structure and rhombohedra structure show as ferromagnetic semiconductor based on density functional theory calculation. The ferromagnetic semiconductor state can be well explained by the superexchange interaction. Moreover, the ferromagnetic semiconductor state remains under the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA plus onsite Coulomb interaction calculation.

  19. SE-FIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  20. Optical function spectra and bandgap energy of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. G., E-mail: sukgeun.choi@nrel.gov; Kang, J.; Beall, C.; Wei, S.-H.; Christensen, S. T.; Repins, I. L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Li, J.; Haneef, H.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2015-01-26

    We present the optical function spectra of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} determined from 0.30 to 6.45 eV by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) at room temperature. We analyze the SE data using the Tauc-Lorentz model and obtain the direct-bandgap energy of 0.49 ± 0.02 eV, which is much smaller than the previously known value of 0.84 eV for the monoclinic-phase Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}. We also perform density-functional theory calculations to obtain the complex dielectric function data, and the results show good agreement with the experimental spectrum. Finally, we discuss the electronic origin of the main optical structures.

  1. LuF[SeO3]: the structural chameleon of lanthanoid fluoride oxoselenates(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Christian; Dinnebier, Robert E; Schleid, Thomas

    2013-10-07

    LuF[SeO3] is a compound that can easily be obtained by a solid-state reaction of Lu2O3, LuF3, and SeO2 with CsBr as the fluxing agent. The outstanding property of LuF[SeO3] is the appearance of two phase transitions within a range of less than 200 K. With an increase in the coordination number for Lu(3+) from 7 to 8, the triclinic room-temperature modification changes at temperatures below -40 °C to the monoclinic low-temperature or high-pressure phase of LuF[SeO3]. At the same time, room-temperature modification retains the structure but gains higher symmetry at the second phase transition of around +110 °C. This second transition can even be observed under a microscope using polarized light to see twinning lamellae disappear and reappear during this reversible process.

  2. Compounds in the system Cu 2SeAs 2Se 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachnik, R.; Kurz, G.

    1984-11-01

    The phase diagram Cu 2SeAs 2Se 3 was investigated by thermal and X-ray methods. Cu 2Se has a limited solubility for As 2Se 3 (5 mole% at 769 K). The stoichiometric compound Cu 3AsSe 3 exists between 696 and 769 K. Cu 4As 2Se 5, a phase at 66.6 mole% Cu 2Se, decomposes peritectically at 746 K. The narrow homogeneity range (4 mole% at 683 K) extends far into the ternary space. CuAsSe 2 also decomposes peritectically at 683 K. A degenerated eutectic between CuAsSe 2 and As 2Se 3 was found at 641 K. Single crystals of Cu 4As 2Se 5 were grown in a salt melt. A metastable modification of the high-temperature phase Cu 3AsSe 3 can be obtained by quenching. Cu 4As 2Se 5 (space group R3, lattice constants a = 1404.0(1) pm, c = 960.2(1) pm), Cu 6As 4Se 9, obtained by Cambi and Elli, and Cu 7As 6Se 13 of Takeuchi and Horiuchi are different versions of a sphalerite-type compound with a broad homogeneity range in the system CuAsSe. CuAsSe 2 is possibly monoclinic with lattice parameters of a = 946.5(1) pm, b = 1229.3(1) pm, c = 511.7(1) pm, and β = 98.546(4)°. The enthalpy of mixing of Cu 2Se and As 2Se 3 in the liquid state is endothermic.

  3. Synthesis of TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles via sonochemical approach for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, Sambandam; Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Lana-Villarreal, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Through an ultrasound assisted method, TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature. The XRD pattern of as-prepared TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles matches well with that of pure monoclinic WO3 and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. TEM images show that the prepared TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles consist of mixed square and hexagonal shape particles about 8-12nm in diameter. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles was tested for the degradation of a wastewater containing methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination. The TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles exhibits a higher degradation rate constant (6.72×10(-4)s(-1)) than bare TiO2 nanoparticles (1.72×10(-4)s(-1)) under similar experimental conditions.

  4. Photosensitive anisotype n-ZnSe/ p-InSe and n-ZnSe/ p-GaSe heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.

    2014-08-01

    Anisotype n-ZnSe/ p-InSe and n-ZnSe/ p-GaSe heterojunctions are obtained for the first time. They are grown on layered crystalline GaSe and InSe substrates by annealing in Zn vapor. It is found that these heterojunctions are sensitive to light in the near-infrared and visible spectral ranges.

  5. A literatura se ensina?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, Teresa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Não sei se, na verdade, se ensina literatura. Mas qualquer coisa que se parecer com isto – ensinar literatura – tem que nascer de uma vibração conjunta de quem mostra e de quem vê pela primeira vez. Caminhar junto e descobrir sempre que as malhas do texto são infinitas. Venho portanto falar de sala de aula e de seminário, de circulação de saberes e de desejos, de uma atenção ao corpo sensível do texto que deve impactar, comprometer a linearidade da percepção, desalojar os sentidos prévios, en...

  6. Predicting suitable optoelectronic properties of monoclinic VON semiconductor crystals for photovoltaics using accurate first-principles computations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2015-08-26

    Using accurate first-principles quantum calculations based on DFT (including the perturbation theory DFPT) with the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange-correlation functional, we predict essential fundamental properties (such as bandgap, optical absorption coefficient, dielectric constant, charge carrier effective masses and exciton binding energy) of two stable monoclinic vanadium oxynitride (VON) semiconductor crystals for solar energy conversion applications. In addition to the predicted band gaps in the optimal range for making single-junction solar cells, both polymorphs exhibit relatively high absorption efficiencies in the visible range, high dielectric constants, high charge carrier mobilities and much lower exciton binding energies than the thermal energy at room temperature. Moreover, their optical absorption, dielectric and exciton dissociation properties are found to be better than those obtained for semiconductors frequently utilized in photovoltaic devices like Si, CdTe and GaAs. These novel results offer a great opportunity for this stoichiometric VON material to be properly synthesized and considered as a new good candidate for photovoltaic applications.

  7. Tuning oxygen vacancy photoluminescence in monoclinic Y2WO6 by selectively occupying yttrium sites using lanthanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bangfu; Han, Chao; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Rongming; Tang, Zilong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of isovalent lanthanum (La) doping on the monoclinic Y2WO6 photoluminescence was studied. Introducing the non-activated La3+ into Y2WO6 brings new excitation bands from violet to visible regions and strong near-infrared emission, while the bands position and intensity depend on the doping concentration. It is interesting to find that doping La3+ into Y2WO6 promotes the oxygen vacancy formation according to the first-principle calculation, Raman spectrum, and synchrotron radiation analysis. Through the Rietveld refinement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, La3+ is found to mainly occupy the Y2 (2f) site in low-concentration doped samples. With increasing doping concentration, the La3+ occupation number at the Y3 (4g) site increases faster than those at the Y1 (2e) and Y2 (2f) sites. When La3+ occupies different Y sites, the localized energy states caused by the oxygen vacancy pair change their position in the forbidden band, inducing the variation of the excitation and emission bands. This research proposes a feasible method to tune the oxygen vacancy emission, eliminating the challenge of precisely controlling the calcination atmosphere. PMID:25821078

  8. A second monoclinic polymorph of 2-(diformylmethylidene-3,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khaledi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C13H13NO2, is a polymorph of the structure first reported by Helliwell et al. [Acta Cryst. (2006, E62, o737-o738]. It is also monoclinic (space group P21/c, but with completely different cell constants. The molecular conformations of these polymorphs differ by a 180° rotation of one formyl group. The present molecule is planar [maximum deviation 0.089 (2 Å] with the exception of the two methyl groups which lie on either side of the plane. There are strong intra- and intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The latter link pairs of molecules across crystallographic centers of symmetry. Two aldehyde O atoms are brought close together [2.896 (4 Å in this arrangement but are not hydrogen bonded. In the earlier polymorph, one formyl group is rotated by 180° to yield intermolecular hydrogen bonding and an infinite polymeric chain. The other formyl group is involved in the same intramolecular hydrogen bonding as has been found here.

  9. Monoclinic Hydroxyapatite Nanoplates Hybrid Composite with Improved Compressive Strength, and Porosity for Bone Defect Repair: Biomimetic Synthesis and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bo; Farghaly, Ahmed A; Guo, Zhenzhao; Zhao, Pengg; Li, Hong; Zhou, Changren; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been used for bone restoration despite its intrinsic fragile property. In order to enhance the CPC mechanical properties, biopolymers were introduced as filler to prepare CPC based cements. Chitosan/tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) based cement for bone repair has been prepared in the study. Solidification of the prepared cement was carried out in a simulate body fluid at 37 degrees C. The introduction of chitosan improved the mechanical performance of the as-prepared CPC hybrid nanocomposite. FTIR, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and SAED were used to characterize the CPC nanocomposite. Data simulations have been performed to assist in determining the crystalline phase/s in the CPC hybrid nanocomposite. Based on the SAED, HRTEM measurements and data simulations, a monoclinic phase of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with a plate-like structure was obtained in the CPC system, which is believed to be responsible for the observed enhancement in CPC mechanical properties. The obtained composite has a biocompatibility comparable to that of commercial sample.

  10. Pure monoclinic La(1-x)Eu(x)PO₄ micro-/nano-structures: fast synthesis, shape evolution and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Ni, Yonghong; Ma, Xiang; Hong, Jianming

    2014-08-15

    Rare-earth-doped LaPO4 crystals have been attracting considerable interest. In this work, we reported the fast syntheses of LaPO4 and Eu-doped LaPO4 crystals via a simple oil-bath route, employing La(NO3)3 and KH2PO4 as the original reactants, Eu2O3 as the dopant. The reaction was carried out in ethylene glycol system at 120°C for 30 min without any assistance of surfactants or templates. X-ray powder diffraction analyses showed that pure monoclinic LaPO4 form was obtained in the system without Eu(3+) ions, and the above phase was not changed after integrating Eu(3+) ions into LaPO4 matrix. However, electron microscopy observations discovered that the integration of Eu(3+) ions into LaPO4 matrix obviously changed the morphology and size of the final La(1-x)Eu(x)PO4 crystals. With the increase in Eu(3+) amount from 0 to 0.35, the shape of the final product varied from homogeneous egg-like nanospheroids, to irregular grains with microscales, and to homogeneous microspheroids. Also, the Eu(3+) ion content in La(1-x)Eu(x)PO4 markedly affected the photoluminescence properties of the final product. When x=0.2, the product exhibited the strongest PL emission.

  11. Synthesis of monoclinic structured BiVO4 spindly microtubes in deep eutectic solvent and their application for dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yu, Yaqin; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Yonggang

    2010-09-15

    Monoclinic structured spindly bismuth vanadate microtubes were fabricated on a large scale by a simple ionothermal treatment in the environment-friendly green solvent of urea/choline chloride. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, IR and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. As-obtained BiVO(4) microtubes exhibit the spindly shape with a side length of ca. 800 nm and a wall thickness of ca. 100 nm. The opening of these microtubes presents a saw-toothed structure, which is seldom in other tube-shaped materials. The formation mechanism of the spindly microtubes is ascribed to the complex cooperation of the reaction-crystallization process controlled by BiOCl and the nucleation-growth process of nanosheets induced by solvent molecules attached on the surface of microtubes. Such spindly microtubes exhibit much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than that of bulk BiVO(4) prepared by solid-state reaction, possibly resulting from their large surface area and improved crystallinity.

  12. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of monoclinic structured spindle BiVO4 particles with hollow structure and its photocatalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Liu, Haisong; Wang, Xiangfei; Zhang, Lan

    2010-04-01

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO(4)) spindle particles with monoclinic scheelite structure have been successfully synthesized via a facile sonochemical method. The as-prepared BiVO(4) photocatalyst exhibited a hollow interior structure constructed from the self-assembly of cone shape primary nanocrystals. A possible oriented attachment growth mechanism has been proposed based on the results of time-dependent experiments, which indicates the formation of spindle particles is mainly attributed to the phase transformation procedure induced by ultrasound irradiation. A series of morphology evolutions of BiVO(4) from compact microspheres, to hollow microspheres, and then to spindle particles have been arrested in the process of sonochemical treatment. Optical absorption experiments revealed the BiVO(4) spindle had strong absorption in the visible light region. A much higher photocatalytic activity of these spindle particles was found in comparison with the SSR-BiVO(4) material for degradation of rhodamine-B under visible light irradiation, which may be ascribed to its special single-crystalline nanostructure.

  13. Template-Free Synthesis of Monoclinic BiVO4 with Porous Structure and Its High Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoclinic BiVO4 photocatalysts with porous structures were synthesized by a two-step approach without assistance of any templates. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, photocurrent responses, and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS. It is found that the as-prepared BiVO4 samples had a porous structure with aperture diameter of 50–300 nm. Moreover, the BET specific surface area of the porous BiVO4-200 °C sample reaches up to 5.69 m2/g, which is much higher than that of the sample of BiVO4 particles without porous structure. Furthermore, a possible formation mechanism of BiVO4 with porous structure was proposed. With methylene blue (MB as a model compound, the photocatalytic oxidation of organic contaminants in aqueous solution was investigated under visible light irradiation. It is found that the porous BiVO4-200 °C sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, and the photocatalytic rate constant is about three times of that of the sample of BiVO4 particles without porous structure. In addition, the photocurrent responses and electrochemical impedance spectra strongly support this conclusion.

  14. Growth of orthorhombic and tetragonal modifications of TlInS{sub 2} from its monoclinic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekperov, O.Z.; Ibragimov, G.B.; Axundov, I.A.; Nadjafov, A.I.; Fakix, A.R. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2009-05-15

    Orthorhombic (O) and tetragonal (T) modifications of TlInS{sub 2} were grown by sulfur vapor annealing of monoclinic (M) crystals. Lattice parameters and syngony of the grown crystals were determined from X-ray investigations (Laue, Weissenberg, rocking crystal and powder diffractions). The lattice parameters a =6.88 A, b=14.04 A, c=4.02 A, Z=4 and a=b=7.76 A, c=26.6 A, Z=20 as well as space groups (SG), P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 were ascribed to O and T modifications, correspondingly. The transition of M-crystals to O- or T-phase takes place through the intermediate disordered state of M-phase in which the unit packets with c{approx}15 A are randomly positioned along the c-axis. From photoconductivity (PC) edge it was found that the band gap of O-TlInS{sub 2} (E{sub g}=2.52{+-}0.01 eV) is slightly higher whereas that of T-TlInS{sub 2} (E{sub g}=1.87{+-}0.01 eV) is noticeably lower than the band gap of M-TlInS{sub 2}. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Photocatalytic degradation and removal mechanism of ibuprofen via monoclinic BiVO4 under simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuhua; Kang, Yapu; Chen, Min; Liu, Guoguang; Lv, Wenying; Yao, Kun; Chen, Ping; Huang, Haoping

    2016-05-01

    Characterized as by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra techniques, BiVO4 photocatalyst was hydrothermally synthesized. The photocatalytic degradation mechanisms of ibuprofen (IBP) were evaluated in aqueous media via BiVO4. Results demonstrated that the prepared photocatalyst corresponded to phase-pure monoclinic scheelite BiVO4. The synthesized BiVO4 showed superior photocatalytic properties under the irradiation of visible-light. The photocatalytic degradation rate of IBP decreased with an increase in the initial IBP concentration. The degradation process followed first-order kinetics model. At an IBP concentration of 10 mg L(-1), while a BiVO4 concentration of 5.0 g L(-1) with pH value of 4.5, the rate of IBP degradation was obtained as 90% after 25 min. The photocatalytic degradation of IBP was primarily accomplished via the generation of superoxide radical (O2(•-)) and hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH). During the process of degradation, part of the (•)OH was converted from the O2(•-). The direct oxidation of holes (h(+)) made a minimal contribution to the degradation of IBP.

  16. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr polyhalogen–chalcogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Alemi; E Solaimani

    2004-06-01

    In this paper polyhalogen–chalcogen Br2SeIBr was synthesized and the crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. This compound was prepared in the temperature range 150–50°C which was brownish-red in colour and crystallized in monoclinic crystal system and space group 21/c with four molecules per unit cell. Lattice parameters were: = 6.3711(1), = 6.7522(2), = 16.8850(5) Å, = = 90°, = 95·96°, = 722·45 Å3.

  18. A new monoclinic polymorph of 3-diethylamino-4-(4-methoxyphenyl-1,1-dioxo-4H-1λ6,2-thiazete-4-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Orlando

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new monoclinic form of the title compound, C14H17N3O3S, has been found upon slow crystallization from water. Another monoclinic form of the compound was obtained previously from a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether [Clerici et al. (2002. Tetrahedron, 58, 5173–5178]. Both phases crystallize in space group P21/n with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The formally single exocyclic C—N bond that connects the –NEt2 unit with the thiazete ring is considerably shorter than the adjacent, formally double, endocyclic C=N bond. This is likely to be due to the extended conjugated system between the electron-donor diethylammine fragment and the electron-withdrawing sulfonyl group. In the newly discovered polymorph, the methoxy group is rotated by almost 180° around the phenyl–OCH3 bond, resulting in a different molecular conformation.

  19. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of monoclinic β-Cu2V2O7 : A GGA+U study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashima, Masatomo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2009-03-01

    A first-principles study on monoclinic C2/c copper pyrovanadate β-Cu2V2O7 has been performed using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U method. The optimized unit-cell parameters and atomic coordinates of β-Cu2V2O7 agree well with experimental data. The optimized crystal structure of β-Cu2V2O7 indicates the existence of one-dimensional -Cu-Cu-Cu-Cu- chains. The electronic structure and magnetic properties were evaluated by the GGA+U calculations, which indicate that the β-Cu2V2O7 is a semiconducting antiferromagnetic material with an indirect band gap and local magnetic moment per Cu atom of 0.73μB . The intrachain exchanges for short and long Cu-Cu couples are estimated to be 6.4 and 4.1 meV, respectively, while the calculated interchain exchange (2.1 meV) is smaller, which indicate the one-dimensional character. The top of the valence band is composed of V3d , O2p , and Cu3d electrons while the bottom of the conduction band is primarily composed of Cu3d electrons. Valence electron-density distribution map indicates the V-O and Cu-O covalent bonds. Calculated partial electronic density of states strongly suggests that the V-O and Cu-O covalent bonds are mainly attributed to the overlaps of V3d and O2p atomic orbitals and of Cu3d and O2p , respectively.

  20. Propagation of SH waves in an regular non homogeneous monoclinic crustal layer lying over a non-homogeneous semi-infinite medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the dispersion equation for SH waves in a non-homogeneous monoclinic layer over a semi infinite isotropic medium. The wave velocity equation has been obtained. In the isotropic case, when non-homogeneity is absent, the dispersion equation reduces to the standard SH wave equation. The dispersion curves are depicted by means of graphs for different values of non-homogeneity parameters for the layer and semi-infinite medium.

  1. Optical, structural and fluorescence properties of nanocrystalline cubic or monoclinic Eu:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, CNRS-Universite Lyon1, 10, rue Andre-Marie Ampere, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: martinet@pcml.univ-lyon1.fr; Pillonnet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, CNRS-Universite Lyon1, 10, rue Andre-Marie Ampere, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lancok, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Garapon, C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, CNRS-Universite Lyon1, 10, rue Andre-Marie Ampere, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-10-15

    Eu{sup 3+}-doped lutetium oxide (Eu:Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystalline films were grown on fused-silica substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Depending on deposition conditions (oxygen pressure, temperature and laser energy), the structure of the films changed from amorphous to crystalline and the cubic or monoclinic phases were obtained with varying preferential orientation and crystallite size. The monoclinic phase could be prepared for the first time at temperatures as low as 240 deg. C and in a narrow range of parameters. Although this phase has been previously reported for powder samples, it occurs only for high pressures and high temperatures preparation conditions. The refractive indices were measured by m-lines spectroscopy for both crystalline phases and their dispersion curve fitted by the Sellmeier expression. The specific Eu{sup 3+} fluorescence properties of the different phases, monoclinic and cubic, were registered and show modifications due to the disorder induced by the nanometric size of the crystallites, emphasised in particular by quasi-selective excitation in the charge transfer band.

  2. Monoclinic 122-Type BaIr2Ge2 with a Channel Framework: A Structural Connection between Clathrate and Layered Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new 122-type phase, monoclinic BaIr2Ge2 is successfully synthesized by arc melting; X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to purify the phase and determine its crystal structure. BaIr2Ge2 adopts a clathrate-like channel framework structure of the monoclinic BaRh2Si2-type, with space group P21/c. Structural comparisons of clathrate, ThCr2Si2, CaBe2Ge2, and BaRh2Si2 structure types indicate that BaIr2Ge2 can be considered as an intermediate between clathrate and layered compounds. Magnetic measurements show it to be diamagnetic and non-superconducting down to 1.8 K. Different from many layered or clathrate compounds, monoclinic BaIr2Ge2 displays a metallic resistivity. Electronic structure calculations performed for BaIr2Ge2 support its observed structural stability and physical properties.

  3. Sulfur–selenium isomorphous substitution and polymorphism in the Ag{sub 2}(S,Se) series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Palyanova, Galina A.; Kokh, Konstantin A., E-mail: k.a.kokh@gmail.com

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}S–Ag{sub 2}Se samples were synthesized. • Compositional gap between acanthite and naumannite is absent. • The existence ranges of solid solutions were specified. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}S–Ag{sub 2}Se chalcogenides have been synthesized by heating stoichiometric mixtures of elementary substances in vacuum sealed quartz vessels. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction with high-temperature experiments and X-ray single-crystal method were applied to study synthesized silver sulfoselenides. The synthesized silver sulfoselenides are homogeneous under optical and scanning electron microscope. At room temperature, two Ag{sub 2}S{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} polymorphs – monoclinic and orthorhombic – coexist in the interval of 0.6 < x < 0.8. Compositional gap between two solid solutions is absent. At higher temperature, an intermediate monoclinic phase was observed in the range of Ag{sub 2}S{sub 0.25}Se{sub 0.75}–Ag{sub 2}S{sub 0.175}Se{sub 0.825}.

  4. Effects of size on mass density and its influence on mechanical and thermal properties of ZrO$_2$ nanoparticles in different structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOTAN JAWDAT ABDULLAH; QING JIANG; MUSTAFA SAEED OMAR

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of size on mass density and its subsequent influence on the other physical parameters of zirconia nanoparticles in the structural forms of cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic. The general equations for these calculations are established based on the variation of lattice parameter model and surface internal atoms ratio. The mass density of nanoparticles differs from the bulk value when particle size decreases. At a diameter of 4 nm, the mass density values of zirconia nanoparticles are 3.898, 3.626 and 3.488 g $\\cdot$ cm$^{−3}$ compared to 6.25, 6.1 and 5.87 g $\\cdot$ cm$^{−3}$ for bulk cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic forms, respectively. These results indicate thatthe variation in mass density is largely due to the differences on their boundaries and the variation in lattice parameters. The calculated results agree well with the available experimental data for the monoclinic form structure ofZrO$_2$ nanoparticles. The relationship between mass density and melting temperature; and Debye temperature and cohesive energy are proposed. All these parameters have the same nanosize dependence in this regard.

  5. A Biphasic Ligand Exchange Reaction on Cdse Nanoparticles: Introducing Undergraduates to Functionalizing Nanoparticles for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Jennifer M.; Franz, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, including cadmium selenide (CdSe) particles, are attractive as light harvesting materials for solar cells. In the undergraduate laboratory, the size-tunable optical and electronic properties can be easily investigated; however, these nanoparticles (NPs) offer another platform for application-based tunability--the NP…

  6. A Biphasic Ligand Exchange Reaction on Cdse Nanoparticles: Introducing Undergraduates to Functionalizing Nanoparticles for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Jennifer M.; Franz, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, including cadmium selenide (CdSe) particles, are attractive as light harvesting materials for solar cells. In the undergraduate laboratory, the size-tunable optical and electronic properties can be easily investigated; however, these nanoparticles (NPs) offer another platform for application-based tunability--the NP…

  7. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  8. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100) substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively. PMID:20672085

  9. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd S.; Russell, Thomas P.; Dinsmore, Anthony; Skaff, Habib; Lin, Yao

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  10. Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots Using Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Yamaguchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum were optimized for the synthesis, and the CdSe quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of F. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-thin sections of F. oxysporum showed that the CdSe quantum dots were precipitated in the intracellular space, indicating that cadmium and selenium ions were incorporated into the cell and that the quantum dots were synthesized with intracellular metabolites. To reveal differences in F. oxysporum metabolism, cell extracts of F. oxysporum, before and after CdSe synthesis, were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results suggested that the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD decreased after CdSe synthesis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic superoxide increased significantly after CdSe synthesis. The accumulation of superoxide may increase the expression of various metabolites that play a role in reducing Se4+ to Se2− and inhibit the aggregation of CdSe to make nanoparticles.

  11. Fe distribution in GaSe and InSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalyuk, Z.D.; Feichuk, P.I.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Zbykovskaya, N.I.

    1985-06-01

    In this paper, the authors use tagged atoms to determine the effective coefficients of Fe distribution in GaSe and InSe during crystallization of a doped melt by the Bridgman method. The distribution of Fe in GaSe and InSe was studied with the aid of Fe tagged with the radiosotopes VVFe + VZFe. Doping of the material was combined with the processes of synthesis and crystallization. Equations are presented for the calculation of the real impurity distribution in GaSe and InSe crystals.

  12. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules L.

    2017-01-03

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  13. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  14. Colloidal CdSe and ZnSe/Mn quantum dots: Their cytotoxicity and effects on cell morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna O. Drobintseva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The CdSe and ZnSe:Mn colloidal quantum dots (QDs have been synthesized in order to use them as a contrast agent for bioimaging. The synthesis of QDs was made in the aqueous solution. These compounds are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles and are held to be promising fluorophores which can be used as an important research tool in biology and medicine. They can be exploited to allocate the problematic biological tissues and individual cells. Their applicability to human examination was studied. For this purpose we investigated the morphological changes in the cells by reacting with the CdSe/l-Cys and ZnSe:Mn/MPA quantum dots. The cytotoxicity of CdSe/l-Cys in the line of breast carcinoma was examined using confocal microscopy. The results can be seen as encouraging.

  15. Structural phase transitions in Bi2Se3 under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wang, Lin; Hu, Qingyang; Zhao, Jinggeng; Yan, Shuai; Yang, Ke; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Gu, Genda; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2015-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy and angle dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) have been carried out to pressures of 35.6 and 81.2 GPa, respectively, to explore its pressure-induced phase transformation. The experiments indicate that a progressive structural evolution occurs from an ambient rhombohedra phase (Space group (SG): R-3m) to monoclinic phase (SG: C2/m) and eventually to a high pressure body-centered tetragonal phase (SG: I4/mmm). Evidenced by our XRD data up to 81.2 GPa, the Bi2Se3 crystallizes into body-centered tetragonal structures rather than the recently reported disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) phase. Furthermore, first principles theoretical calculations favor the viewpoint that the I4/mmm phase Bi2Se3 can be stabilized under high pressure (>30 GPa). Remarkably, the Raman spectra of Bi2Se3 from this work (two independent runs) are still Raman active up to ~35 GPa. It is worthy to note that the disordered BCC phase at 27.8 GPa is not observed here. The remarkable difference in atomic radii of Bi and Se in Bi2Se3 may explain why Bi2Se3 shows different structural behavior than isocompounds Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3.

  16. Electronic states of InSe/GaSe superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkoç, Ş.; Allahverdi, K.; Ibrahim, Z.

    1994-06-01

    Analysis of recent publications revealed an increasing interest in epitaxial growth of InSe/GaSe superlattice. Within the effective mass theory we carried out self-consistent calculations of the confined and itinerant electronic states, potential profile and charge density distribution of InSe/GaSe superlattice, where the InSe layers are the well and the GaSe layers the barrier. Calculations were performed for three types of doping: uniform, modulated in the well, and modulated in the barrier. It has been found that the Coulomb interaction in the well and barrier forces the formation of localized states in the barrier region. The possibility of an insulator-metal transition in InSe/GaSe superlattice is predicted for modulation doping in the barrier and for a doping level n = 10 19cm-3. A decrease of the barrier height has been found for modulation doping in the well.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic performance of visible light induced bismuth oxide nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Waseem; Haque, M.M. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002 (India); Muneer, M., E-mail: m.muneer.ch@amu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002 (India); Harada, T.; Matsumura, M. [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-11-05

    Pure and doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by sol gel method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetry/Differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), potentiostat/galvanostat (CV), Electron-spin resonance (ESR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD patterns of the fabricated Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibited only the characteristic peaks of well crystallized monoclinic α−Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and were in pure state. It was found that the crystallite size of doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles decreases with increase in dopant concentration up to certain limit and then decrease. The SEM image depicts that pure and doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles displayed nanorod like morphology; on doping the surface becomes rough. The UV–Vis absorption spectra of synthesized nanoparticles revealed that absorption edge shifts towards the longer wavelength after doping and it is highly beneficial for absorbing more visible light in the solar spectrum. FTIR spectra of doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed an additional absorption band. The photocatalytic performance of the as prepared photocatalyst was evaluated by degradation of three different organic dyes as a function of irradiation time. - Highlights: • We have synthesized excellent material which can be used for waste water treatment using simple one pot sol gel method. • The characterization of Ce & Nd doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed nanorod like uniform morphology having monoclinic phase and good structural stability. • 2% Ce doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} photocatalyst exibit a high photocatalytic activity for degradation of all dyes under visible light illumination. • The effect of doped material was examined on the photocatalytic activity.

  18. Fe distribution in GaSe and InSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalyuk, Z.D.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Zbykovskaya, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Radiometry was used to determine the effective coefficients of Fe distribution in GaSe and InSe during planar crystallization of melt with 5 x 10/sup 17/-6 x 10/sup 19/ at/cm/sup 3/ initial impurity concentration; concentration dependence of these cofficients was established. Equations for calculation of the real impurity distribution in GaSe and InSe crystals are presented.

  19. Formation of a Colloidal CdSe and ZnSe Quantum Dots via a Gamma Radiolytic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeshah Salem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal cadmium selenide (CdSe and zinc selenide (ZnSe quantum dots with a hexagonal structure were synthesized by irradiating an aqueous solution containing metal precursors, poly (vinyl pyrrolidone, isopropyl alcohol, and organic solvents with 1.25-MeV gamma rays at a dose of 120 kGy. The radiolytic processes occurring in water result in the nucleation of particles, which leads to the growth of the quantum dots. The physical properties of the CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles were measured by various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to confirm the nanocrystalline structure, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX was used to estimate the material composition of the samples, transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to determine the morphologies and average particle size distribution, and UV-visible spectroscopy was used to measure the optical absorption spectra, from which the band gap of the CdSe and ZnSe nanoparticles could be deduced.

  20. Labeling radiopharmaceuticals with Se-75: using Se-75 selenious acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, S.A.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Ice, R.D. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City (USA). Health Sciences Center)

    1982-08-01

    A cheap, easy method of introducing high specific activity Se-75 into radiopharmaceuticals is described. Se-75 selenious acid is reduced with NaBH/sub 4/ producing the nucleophile NaHSe. Using this method, a fatty acid, cholesterol, estrogen and phenethylamine are all labelled with Se-75.

  1. M(o)ssbauer spectroscopic study of monoclinic astrophyllite%单斜星叶石矿物的穆斯堡尔光谱学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文; 施倪承; 刘密兰; 马喆生; 李哲; Alexandr KHOMYAKOV

    2008-01-01

    Monoclinic astrophyllite from Kala Peninsula, Russia was investigated by 57Fe Mossbauer effect. The Mossbauer spectra of the sample at 298 K, 180 K and 80 K were measured. Each spectrum of monoclinic astrophyllite consists of two Fe2+ and one Fe3+ quadrupole doublets. The distortion parameters, the variances of the octahedral bond angles 0-2 and the normalized bond-length variation △ for monoclinic astrophyllite were calculated. However, since a discrepancy between two distortion parameters exists, an assignment of the quadrupole doublet to iron at the specific site was not given. Temperature dependences of the isomer shift and the quadrupole splitting were presented and discussed. According to the ratio of ferric to total iron obtained by the Mossbauer effect and the mean value off ( Fe3+ (O) )/f ( Fe2+ (O) ), the chemical formula of monoclinic astrophyllite was rewritten.%本文对产于俄罗斯希宾地区的单斜星叶石进行了不同的温度条件下的穆斯堡尔光谱效应研究.通过在温度分别在298 K,180 K和80 K条件下的分析,发现单斜星叶石由2个Fe2+和1个Fe3+四极双峰组成,并进行了单斜星叶石中的畸变参数包括八面体键角(σ2)和键长变量(△)的计算.但是,在两个畸变参数之间存在着明显的差异,将无法对它们的穆斯堡尔参数和四极双峰进行指派.本文对温度在同质异能位移和四极分裂中的作用进行了探讨,根据通过穆斯堡尔效应和f(Fe3+(O))/f(Fe2+(O))的平均值获得的三价铁对全铁的比值,改写了单斜星叶石的化学式.

  2. Cubic-to-monoclinic phase transition during the epitaxial growth of crystalline Gd2O3 films on Ge(001) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Wiemer, Claudia; Bhuiyan, Md. Nurul Kabir; Tallarida, Grazia; Fanciulli, Marco; Pavia, Giuseppe

    2007-05-01

    Thin crystalline films of Gd2O3 are grown on an atomically flat Ge(001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy and are characterized in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex situ by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy. The first stage of the growth corresponds to a cubic (110) structure, with two equiprobable, 90° rotated, in-plane domains. Increasing the thickness of the films, a phase transition from cubic (110) to monoclinic (100) oriented crystallites is observed which keeps the in-plane domain rotation, as evidenced by XRD and AFM.

  3. Monoclinic structure of hydroxylpyromorphite Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2 - hydroxylmimetite Pb10(AsO4)6(OH)2 solid solution series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, Alicja; Manecki, Maciej; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Zelek, Sylwia; Rakovan, John; Bajda, Tomasz; Marchlewski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Seven samples of hydroxyl analogues of pyromorphite-mimetite solid solutions series were synthesized from aqueous solutions at 80° C in a computer-controlled chemistate: 200 mL aqueous solutions of 0.05M Pb(NO3)2 and 0.03M KH2AsO4 and/or KH2PO4 were dosed with a 0.25 mL/min rate to a glass beaker, which initially contained 100 mL of distilled water. Constant pH of 8 was maintained using 2M KOH. The syntheses yielded homogeneous fine-grained white precipitates composition of which was close to theoretical Pb10[(PO4)6-x(AsO4)x](OH)2, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. High-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data were obtained in transmission geometry at the beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, USA). The structure Rietveld refinements based on starting parameters of either hexagonal hydroxylpyromorphite or monoclinic mimetite-M were performed using GSAS+EXPGUI software. Apatite usually crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with the space group P63/m. For the first time, however, the lowering of the hexagonal to monoclinic crystal symmetry was observed in the hydroxyl variety of pyromorphite-mimetite solid solution series. This is indicated by better fitting of the modeled monoclinic structure to the experimental data. The same is not the case for analogous calcium hydroxylapatite series Ca5(PO4)3OH - Ca5(AsO4)3OH (Lee et al. 2009). Systematical linear increase of unit cell parameters is observed with As substitution from a=9.88, b=19.75, and c=7.43 for Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2 to a=10.23, b=20.32, and c=7.51 for Pb10(AsO4)6(OH)2. A strong pseudohexagonal character (γ ≈ 120° and b ≈ 2a) of the analyzed monoclinic phases was established. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319 and partially by Polish NCN grant No 2011/01/M/ST10/06999. Lee Y.J., Stephens P.W., Tang Y., Li W., Philips B.L., Parise J.B., Reeder R.J., 2009. Arsenate substitution in hydroxylapatite: Structural characterization

  4. Lifting the geometric frustration through a monoclinic distortion in “114” YBaFe{sub 4}O{sub 7.0}: Magnetism and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffort, V.; Sarkar, T. [CRISMAT, CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Caignaert, V., E-mail: vincent.caignaert@ensicaen.fr [CRISMAT, CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Pralong, V.; Raveau, B. [CRISMAT, CNRS-ENSICAEN, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Avdeev, M. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Cervellino, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Waerenborgh, J.C.; Tsipis, E.V. [UCQR, IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, CFMC-UL, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2013-09-15

    The possibility to lift the geometric frustration in the “114” stoichiomeric tetragonal oxide YBaFe{sub 4}O{sub 7.0} by decreasing the temperature has been investigated using neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction techniques. Besides the structural transition from tetragonal to monoclinic symmetry that appears at T{sub S}=180 K, a magnetic transition is observed below T{sub N}=95 K. The latter corresponds to a lifting of the 3D geometric frustration toward an antiferromagnetic long range ordering, never observed to date in a cubic based “114’” oxide. The magnetic structure, characterized by the propagation vector k{sub 1}=(0,0,½), shows that one iron Fe2 exhibits a larger magnetic moment than the three others, suggesting a possible charge ordering according to the formula YBaFe{sup 3+}Fe{sub 3}{sup 2+}O{sub 7.0}. The magnetic M(T) and χ′(T) curves, in agreement with neutron data, confirm the structural and magnetic transitions and evidence the coexistence of residual magnetic frustration. Moreover, the transport measurements show a resistive transition from a thermally activated conduction mechanism to a variable range hopping mechanism at T{sub S}=180 K, with a significant increase of the dependence of the resistivity vs. temperature. Mössbauer spectroscopy clearly evidences a change in the electronic configuration of the iron framework at the structural transition as well as coexistence of several oxidation states. The role of barium underbonding in these transitions is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Atomic displacements at the tetragonal-monoclinic transition in YBaFe{sub 4}O{sub 7}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The structural and magnetic phase transitions of YBaFe{sub 4}O{sub 7} were studied below room temperature. • The tetragonal to monoclinic transition, characterized by NPD and SXRD, was studied using mode crystallography approach. • Monoclinic distortion allows the lifting of the geometrical frustration on the iron sublattice

  5. The monoclinic form of 2,9-dichloro-5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b] acridine-7,14-dithione dimethylacetamide disolvate

    OpenAIRE

    Hoki, T.; Senju, T.; Mizuguchi, Jin

    2005-01-01

    The title compound, C(20)H(10)Cl(2)N(2)S(2)(.)2C(4)H(9)NO, is a dimethylacetamide (DMA) disolvate of DTQ-Cl, which is a thionated derivative of a 2,9-dichloroquinacridone pigment. The compound shows polymorphism and this paper reports the monoclinic form ( space group P2(1)/c, Z = 4). Two DMA molecules are hydrogen bonded via their O atoms to the NH group of DTQ-Cl. The molecular planes of the two DMA molecules are asymmetrically twisted with respect to the DTQ-Cl skeleton by 11.65 (8) and 31...

  6. TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    TEST CELLS SE-5 - SE-8 - SE-10 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB AND 117 HIGH ENERGY FUELS LABORATORY HEFL - TRANSDUCER INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTATION CONSOLE SE-10 - MODULE FUEL CELL EXPERIMENT SE-8 -

  7. Hydrothermal growth of NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals assisted by PVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hai; Zhang, Maofeng; Zhang, Xianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2009-10-01

    NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals assembled of nanoparticles have been prepared via a hydrothermal method in an ethanolamine and water mixed solution assisted by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The prepared tubular crystals with hexagonal structure are composed of nanoparticles with average diameter of 30 nm. It was found that the phase of the products could be adjusted by the molar ratio of the reactants (Ni/Se), and the morphology of the products could be greatly influenced by the quantity of surfactant PVA. Based on the experimental results, the possible formation mechanism of NiSe 2 tubular microcrystals is also discussed.

  8. Study of the heterointerfaces InSe on GaSe and GaSe on InSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargues, D.; Brahim-Otsmane, L.; Eddrief, M.; Sébenne, C.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-03-01

    InSe and GaSe thin films are grown on freshly cleaved (00.1) substrates of GaSe and InSe, respectively, by molecular beam epitaxy. They are studied in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). From the attenuation curves of the XPS substrate core level peaks, the quasi layer-by-layer growth is shown during the first stages of deposition in agreement with RHEED results. But both interfaces are not totally symmetrical. For InSe on GaSe(00.1), the sharpness of the interface is shown and the conditions of growth are well established. For GaSe on InSe(00.1), the sharpness of the interface can also be suggested although it is less clear; this is related to the growth conditions.

  9. Molten Salt Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Optical Properties of a Novel Quaternary Metal Selenide, K2AgIn3Se6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo, Hong-You(郭洪猷); Wang, Zhi-Xia(王志霞); Shu, Gui-Ming(舒桂明); Wang, Ru-Ji(王如骥); Zhang, Li-Dan(张丽丹); Wang, Ping(王平)

    2004-01-01

    K2AgIn3Se6 was synthesized by a molten-salt (alkali-metal polyselenide flux) reaction at 500 ℃. The orange red granular crystal crystallizes in monoclinic space group C2/c with cell parameters, a=1.16411(7) nm, b=1.16348(8) nm, c=2.14179(12) nm, V=2.8740(9) nm3, and Z=8. The crystal has a new two-dimensional structure containing 2∞[AgIn3Se6]2- anionic layers separated by K+ cations and the 2∞[AgIn3Se6]2- layer is constructed with corner-shared [AgSe4] and [InSe4] tetrahedra. The optical band gap of K2AgIn3Se6 was determined to be ca. 2.9 eV by UV/vis/NIR diffuse reflectance spectra.

  10. Investigation of biocompatible and protein sensitive highly luminescent quantum dots/nanocrystals of CdSe, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnesh, R K; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2017-02-16

    The size and shape dependent semiconductor quantum dots (0D nanoparticles) with color tunability demonstrating significant influence in a biological system and considered as ideal probes. Here, a non-coordinated colloidal approach was used for the synthesis of CdSe, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4nm. The synthesized nanocrystals show a high crystallinity, examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). The core-shell semiconductor QDs exhibit stronger photoluminescence (PL) as compared to the core QDs. The strong PL with small full-width half maximum (FWHM) indicates that the prepared QDs have a nearly uniform size distribution and well dispersibility. The quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases due to the surface passivation. Further, the PL of BSA is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shell QDs and follows the well-known Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the PL lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among CdSe core, CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity and most biocompatibility. Thus, the prepared core-shell QDs are biocompatible and exhibit strong sensing ability.

  11. Robust Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-21

    SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) (ES) ARO U.S. Anny Research Office 11 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Lawrence, Gregory M. Grason, Todd Emrick, Alfred J. Crosby. Stretching of assembled nanoparticle helical springs, Physical Chemistry Chemical...par with thermally sintered conductive adhesives. C. Examination of stretching of nanoparticle-based springs. This part of the project

  12. Study of structural and optical properties of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Poonam; Gupta, Ankita; Kaur, Sarabjeet; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Iron doped Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at different concentration (3%, 6%, 9%) at 300-400° C with Copper Acetate and Ferric Chloride as precursors in presence of Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Hydroxide as stabilizing agent. Effect of doping on the structural and optical properties is studied. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Visible Spectroscopy for examining the size and the band gap respectively. The X-Ray Diffraction plots confirmed the monoclinic structure of Copper oxide suggesting the Cu atoms replaced by Fe atoms and no secondary phase was detected. The indirect band gap of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles is 2.4eV and increases to 3.4eV as the concentration of dopant increases. The majority of particle size is in range 8 nm to 35.55 nm investigated by X-ray diffractometer.

  13. Facile synthesis of Ag2S nanoparticles functionalized by carbon-containing citrate shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, S. I.; Gusev, A. I.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Rempel, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Silver sulfide nanoparticles with non-toxic citrate shell are synthesized by chemical bath deposition from aqueous mixtures of silver nitrate and sodium sulfide in the presence of sodium citrate used as a complexing and stabilizing agent. The prepared nanoparticles have Ag2S core with monoclinic crystal structure functionalized by a carbon-containing citrate shell. By varying the concentrations of reagents it was possible to prepare core-shell nanoparticles with pre-assigned size of Ag2S core from 10 and 50 nm and pre-assigned thickness from 1.5 to 10 nm of citrate shell. A probable mechanism of formation of carbon-containing citrate shell on Ag2S core has been proposed.

  14. Controlled building of CdSe@ZnS/Au and CdSe@ZnS/ Au2S/Au nanohybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raquel E. Galian[1; Pilar Diaz[1; Antonio Ribera[1; Alejandro Rincon-Bertolin[1; Said Agouram[2; Julia Perez-Prieto[1

    2015-01-01

    The addition of Au3. to spherical amine-capped CdSe@ZnS nanoparticles in toluene at room temperature and under darkness can lead to ternary CdSe@ZnS/Au nanohybrids. We demonstrate that this happens only when the nanoparticles possess a relatively thin ZnS shell, thus showing that thickness plays a key role in gold deposition on the CdSe@ZnS nanoparticle surface. Our hypothesis is that the amine ligand acts as the reductant of Au3+ ions into Au+ ions, whose affinity for sulfur would keep them at the CdSe@ZnS surface. This interaction stabilizes the Au+ ion, making it less prone to reduction than a non-coordinated Au+ ion. In CdSe@ZnS with a thin shell, Au+ ions at the surface of, or most probably within, the ZnS shell cause the transfer of Cd2+ ions into the solution. Subsequently, the core Se2- anion, which is a better reductant than the shell S2- reduces Au+ ions to Au(0), and large gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are quickly deposited on the CdSe@ZnS surface in room temperature process, leading to ternary CdSe@ZnS/Au nanohybrids. In solution, these ternary nanohybrids progressively transform into quaternary CdSe@ZnS/Au2S/Au nanohybrids due to the reaction of the shell S2- anion with the remaining Au+ at the CdSe@ZnS surface, thus leading to the growth of Au2S nanoparticles on the CdSe@ZnS surface while Zn concomitantly leaches from the nanohybrid into the solution. Photoirradiation of the heterostructures with visible light enhances their emission efficiency. Comparatively, irradiation of the precursors, i.e., CdSe@ZnS nanoparticles, causes a drastic decrease in their emission accompanied by a blue shift of their emission maximum. The optical properties of these nanohybrids were analyzed by absorption and fluorescence (steady-state and time-resolved) spectroscopy, and the composition of the samples and the chemical states were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  15. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnSe microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huaqiang; Xiao, Yujiang; Zhang, Sichun

    2011-01-07

    This paper reports the synthesis of semiconductor ZnSe microspheres composed of nanoparticles via a solvothermal route between the organic molecule selenophene (C(4)H(4) Se) and ZnCl(2) without adding any surfactant. The ZnSe microspheres were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), specific surface area measurement, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. A strong and broad blue PL emission at 443 nm in wavelength (∼2.79 eV in photon energy) is attributed to the near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnSe, while the 530 nm peak is a defect-related (DL) emission. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnSe microspheres was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation. The degradations of MO reach 94% or 95.1%, close to 100%, in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 7 or 10 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Meanwhile the degradations of MO reach 94.3% or 60.6% in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 12 h, respectively. The degradation rate of ZnSe microspheres is twice that of ZnSe commercial powder under UV light irradiation, and three times under visible light irradiation. The degradation process of MO dye on ZnSe microspheres under UV or visible light is also discussed.

  16. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ZnSe microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huaqiang; Xiao, Yujiang; Zhang, Sichun

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of semiconductor ZnSe microspheres composed of nanoparticles via a solvothermal route between the organic molecule selenophene (C4H4 Se) and ZnCl2 without adding any surfactant. The ZnSe microspheres were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), specific surface area measurement, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. A strong and broad blue PL emission at 443 nm in wavelength (~2.79 eV in photon energy) is attributed to the near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnSe, while the 530 nm peak is a defect-related (DL) emission. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared ZnSe microspheres was evaluated by photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation. The degradations of MO reach 94% or 95.1%, close to 100%, in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 7 or 10 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Meanwhile the degradations of MO reach 94.3% or 60.6% in the presence of the as-synthesized ZnSe microspheres or commercial ZnSe powder after 12 h, respectively. The degradation rate of ZnSe microspheres is twice that of ZnSe commercial powder under UV light irradiation, and three times under visible light irradiation. The degradation process of MO dye on ZnSe microspheres under UV or visible light is also discussed.

  17. Comparative X-ray diffraction study of the crystalline microstructure of tetragonal and monoclinic vanadium-zirconium dioxide solid solutions produced from gel precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojdecki, Marek Andrzej [Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna, Warszawa (Poland). Inst. Matematyki i Kryptologii; Ruiz de Sola, Esther; Alarcon, Javier [Valencia Univ., Burjasot (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Amigo, Jose Maria [Valencia Univ., Burjasot (Spain). Dept. de Geologia

    2009-04-15

    The microstructural characteristics of solid solutions, prepared by heating dried gel precursors with nominal compositions V{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} (0{<=}x{<=}0.1) at 723 and 1573 K, were determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. The crystalline microstructure of the resulting specimens, characterized by a prevalent crystallite shape, a volume-weighted crystallite size distribution and a second-order lattice strain distribution, was found to depend on the vanadium content. A characteristic feature of all size distributions was their bimodality, explained as a result of transformations between tetragonal and monoclinic phases during thermal treatment. A comparative study of the microstructure of both zirconia phases has been carried out, enabling reconstruction of a probable course of crystallization of both pure and vanadium-doped zirconias: on heating a sample, nucleation and the early growth stages involve crystallites of both phases; then on annealing and cooling, the crystallites of one phase transform into the other, depending on the thermal treatment temperature. Each logarithmic normal component of the crystallite size distribution of the resulting phase can be attributed to one of these processes. The limit of solubility of vanadium in tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia is estimated from the microstructural characteristics. (orig.)

  18. A novel monoclinic phase of impurity-doped CaGa2S4 as a phosphor with high emission intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Suzuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the solid-state synthesis of impurity-doped CaGa2S4, calcium tetrathiodigallate(III, a novel phosphor material (denominated as the X-phase, with monoclinic symmetry in the space group P21/a, has been discovered. Its emission intensity is higher than that of the known orthorhombic polymorph of CaGa2S4 crystallizing in the space group Fddd. The asymmetric unit of the monoclinic phase consists of two Ca, four Ga and eight S sites. Each of the Ca and Ga atoms is surrounded by seven and four sulfide ions, respectively, thereby sharing each of the sulfur sites with the nearest neighbours. In contrast, the corresponding sites in the orthorhombic phase are surrounded by eight and four S atoms, respectively. The photoluminescence peaks from Mn2+ and Ce3+ in the doped X-phase, both of which are supposed to replace Ca2+ ions, have been observed to shift towards the high energy side in comparison with those in the orthorhombic phase. This suggests that the crystal field around the Mn2+ and Ce3+ ions in the X-phase is weaker than that in the orthorhombic phase.

  19. High-pressure syntheses and crystal structures of monoclinic B-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} and orthorhombic HoGaO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, Stefanie A. [Dept. Chemie und Biochemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Huppertz, Hubert [Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Univ. Innsbruck (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    Monoclinic holmium sesquioxide B-Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} and orthorhombic holmium orthogallate HoGaO{sub 3} were synthesized in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus under high-pressure / high-temperature conditions of 11.5 GPa / 1250 C and 7.5 GPa / 1250 C, respectively. Both crystal structures could be determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, collected at r.t. The monoclinic holmium oxide crystallizes in the space group C2/m (Z = 6) with the parameters a = 1394.7(3), b = 350.83(7), c = 865.6(2) pm, {beta} = 100.23(3) . R1 = 0.0517, wR2 = 0.1130 (all data), and the orthorhombic compound HoGaO{sub 3} in Pnma (Z = 4) with the parameters a = 553.0(2), b = 753.6(2), c = 525.4(2) pm. R1 = 0.0222, and wR2 = 0.0303 (all data). (orig.)

  20. Heterometallic Complexes with Selenolate Ligands: Crystal Structures of [(CO)(3)Mn(&mgr;-SePh)(3)Co(&mgr;-SePh)(3)Mn(CO)(3)](-), (CO)(4)Mn(&mgr;-SeMe)(2)Co(CO)(&mgr;-SeMe)(3)Mn(CO)(3), and [(CO)(3)Mn(&mgr;-SePh)(3)Mn(CO)(3)](-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Wen-Feng; Lee, Way-Zen; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming

    1997-03-12

    Oxidation of Co(2+) by diphenyl diselenide in the presence of cis-[PPN][Mn(CO)(4)(SePh)(2)], followed by carbonyl shift from Mn(I) to Co(III) and a benzeneselenolate group rearranging to bridge two metals, led directly to the thermally unstable (CO)(4)Mn(&mgr;-SePh)(2)Co(CO)(&mgr;-SePh)(3)Mn(CO)(3). Dropwise addition of [PPN][SePh] to the neutral (CO)(4)Mn(&mgr;-SePh)(2)Co(CO)(&mgr;-SePh)(3)Mn(CO)(3) resulted in formation of a linear trinuclear complex possessing a hexaselenolatecobalt(III) core, [PPN][(CO)(3)Mn(&mgr;-SePh)(3)Co(&mgr;-SePh)(3)Mn(CO)(3)]. This complex crystallized in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 10.878(1) Å, b = 15.095(2) Å, c = 25.372(4) Å, alpha = 95.04(1) degrees, beta = 95.00(1) degrees, gamma = 91.52(2) degrees, V = 4132(2) Å(3), and Z = 2; final R = 0.042 and R(w) = 0.042. In contrast, the thermally unstable cis-[PPN][Mn(CO)(4)(SeMe)(2)], which was reacted with Co(ClO(4))(2).6H(2)O and (MeSe)(2) in THF under a nitrogen atmosphere, led to the isolation of the stable heterometallic selenolate (CO)(4)Mn(&mgr;-SeMe)(2)Co(CO)(&mgr;-SeMe)(3)Mn(CO)(3). Crystal data: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 28.413(7) Å, b = 11.091(3) Å, c = 22.849(6) Å, beta = 125.06(3) degrees, V = 5894(3) Å(3), and Z = 8; final R = 0.047 and R(w) = 0.048. The results indicated that the distinct electronic effects between methaneselenolate and benzeneselenolate play a key role in stabilizing the neutral Mn(I)-Co(III)-Mn(I)-selenolate complexes.

  1. Application of Cu3InSnSe5 Heteronanostructures as Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yue; Zhao, Wenjie; Li, Chunguang; Huang, He; Bai, Tianyu; Chen, Cailing; Liang, Chen; Shi, Zhan; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Xiao-Bo; Feng, Shouhua

    2017-05-31

    In this research, we reported the synthesis of quaternary Cu3InSnSe5 nanoparticles with uniform size distribution and morphology for the first time through delicate controls over the chemical reaction kinetics. On the basis of the preparation strategy of Cu3InSnSe5 nanoparticles, Pt-Cu3InSnSe5 and Au-Cu3InSnSe5 heteronanostructures were designed and yielded using a simple and efficient seed growth method. These two heteronanostructures remained monodispersed without presence of any Cu3InSnSe5 nanocrystal impurities. To explore their application potentials for dye-sensitized solar cells, counter electrodes consisting of individual Cu3InSnSe5, Pt-Cu3InSnSe5, or Au-Cu3InSnSe5 constituents were fabricated. Current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics evaluation reveals that Cu3InSnSe5 nanoparticles, Pt-Cu3InSnSe5 and Au-Cu3InSnSe5 heterostructured nanoparticles display a comparative power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.8%, 7.6%, and 6.5% to that of a Pt-based counter electrode (7.9%), respectively. As such, we believe that the reported preparation strategy could provide new insights to the design and manufacture of counter electrode materials with controlled structure, morphology, and optimized power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced drug transport in cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Brandt, Yekaterina I.; Rivera, Antonio C.; Cook, Nathaniel C.; Plumley, John B.; Withers, Nathan J.; Kopciuch, Michael; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Huber, Dale L.; Smyth, Hugh D.; Osinski, Marek

    2012-10-01

    Iron oxide colloidal nanoparticles (ferrofluids) are investigated for application in the treatment of cystic fibrosis lung infections, the leading cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. We investigate the use of iron oxide nanoparticles to increase the effectiveness of administering antibiotics through aerosol inhalation using two mechanisms: directed particle movement in the presence of an inhomogeneous static external magnetic field and magnetic hyperthermia. Magnetic hyperthermia is an effective method for decreasing the viscosity of the mucus and biofilm, thereby enhancing drug, immune cell, and antibody penetration to the affected area. Iron oxide nanoparticles of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power). Nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited excellent heating power. Additionally, iron oxide / zinc selenide core/shell nanoparticles were prepared, in order to enable imaging of the iron oxide nanoparticles. We also report on synthesis and characterization of MnSe/ZnSeS alloyed quantum dots.

  3. Electronic and Thermal Transport Properties of Complex Structured Cu-Bi-Se Thermoelectric Compound with Low Lattice Thermal Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeol Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclinic Cux+yBi5−ySe8 structure has multiple disorders, such as randomly distributed substitutional and interstitial disorders by Cu as well as asymmetrical disorders by Se. Herein, we report the correlation of electronic and thermal properties with the structural complexities of Cux+yBi5−ySe8. It is found that the interstitial Cu site plays an important role not only to increase the electrical conductivity due to the generation of electron carriers but also to reduce the thermal conductivity mainly due to the phonon scattering by mass fluctuation. With impurity doping at the interstitial Cu site, an extremely low lattice thermal conductivity of 0.32 W·m−1·K−1 was achieved at 560 K. These synergetic effects result in the enhanced dimensionless figure of merit (ZT.

  4. Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Pantoea agglomerans and their antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, S. K.; Campos, V. L., E-mail: vcampos@udec.cl; Leon, C. G. [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Microbiologia Ambiental, Departamento de Microbiologia (Chile); Rodriguez-Llamazares, S. M. [Centro de Investigacion de Polimeros Avanzados (CIPA) (Chile); Rojas, S. M.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Fisiologia Vascular, Departamento de Fisiologia (Chile); Smith, C. [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Microbiologia (Chile); Mondaca, M. A. [Universidad de Concepcion, Laboratorio de Microbiologia Ambiental, Departamento de Microbiologia (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    The bio-reduction of selenite (Se (IV)) generates nanoparticles with sizes ranging between 30 and 300 nm. Biologic properties of Se nanoparticles, e.g., antioxidant activity, are dependent on the nanoparticle size; smaller particles have greater activity. In this study, the bio-reduction of selenite by Pantoea agglomerans strain UC-32 under aerobic conditions and room temperature to produce bioactive Se nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm was demonstrated. Isolation and purification of the nanoparticles was performed by alkaline lysis. These purified nanoparticles were stabilized with l-cysteine (4 mM). The visualization and characterization of nanoparticles were performed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The antioxidant activity of nanoparticles was determined by production of reactive oxygen species using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the accumulation of spherical selenium nanoparticles as intracellular and extracellular deposits. The size of Se nanoparticles varied with incubation time. Amorphous Se nanoparticles with size in the order of 100 nm were obtained before 24 h of incubation; but, at 24 h of incubation, the size of the majority of the nanoparticles was in the desirable order of 100 nm and they were not aggregated. Energy dispersive spectroscopy spectra indicated that nanoparticles were composed entirely of selenium. Antioxidant activity of stabilized selenium nanoparticles demonstrated high antioxidant activity when compared to selenite and selenium nanoparticles without stabilization. Stabilized biologically synthetized selenium (0) nanoparticles with size less than 100 nm have a potential application as a food additive with antioxidant properties relevant to human health.

  5. Biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles by Pantoea agglomerans and their antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S. K.; Campos, V. L.; León, C. G.; Rodríguez-Llamazares, S. M.; Rojas, S. M.; González, M.; Smith, C.; Mondaca, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    The bio-reduction of selenite (Se (IV)) generates nanoparticles with sizes ranging between 30 and 300 nm. Biologic properties of Se nanoparticles, e.g., antioxidant activity, are dependent on the nanoparticle size; smaller particles have greater activity. In this study, the bio-reduction of selenite by Pantoea agglomerans strain UC-32 under aerobic conditions and room temperature to produce bioactive Se nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm was demonstrated. Isolation and purification of the nanoparticles was performed by alkaline lysis. These purified nanoparticles were stabilized with l-cysteine (4 mM). The visualization and characterization of nanoparticles were performed by transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The antioxidant activity of nanoparticles was determined by production of reactive oxygen species using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the accumulation of spherical selenium nanoparticles as intracellular and extracellular deposits. The size of Se nanoparticles varied with incubation time. Amorphous Se nanoparticles with size in the order of 100 nm were obtained before 24 h of incubation; but, at 24 h of incubation, the size of the majority of the nanoparticles was in the desirable order of 100 nm and they were not aggregated. Energy dispersive spectroscopy spectra indicated that nanoparticles were composed entirely of selenium. Antioxidant activity of stabilized selenium nanoparticles demonstrated high antioxidant activity when compared to selenite and selenium nanoparticles without stabilization. Stabilized biologically synthetized selenium (0) nanoparticles with size less than 100 nm have a potential application as a food additive with antioxidant properties relevant to human health.

  6. Epitaxial growth of ZnSe and ZnSe/CdSe nanowires on ZnSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellet-Amalric, E.; Bounouar, S.; Kheng, K. [CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, CEA Grenoble, INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38 054 Grenoble (France); Elouneg-Jamroz, M.; Bougerol, C.; Hertog, M. den; Genuist, Y.; Poizat, J.P.; Andre, R.; Tatarenko, S. [CEA-CNRS-UJF Group, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, Institut Neel, BP 166, 38 042 Grenoble (France)

    2010-06-15

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of ZnSe nanowires (NWs) on a ZnSe(100) epilayer assisted by gold catalyst. Gold dewetting assists in the formation of nanotrenches along the [0-1-1] direction in the ZnSe buffer layer. Nucleation of the gold catalyst in the trenches leads to the growth of NWs preferentially in directions orthogonal to the trenches. The wires adopt mostly the wurtzite type structure and grow along the c-axis. CdSe quantum dots were inserted in the ZnSe NWs. The CdSe insertions systematically adopt a cubic zinc-blende arrangement with a[111] growth axis, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Nanoparticles as potential clinical therapeutic agents in Alzheimer's disease: focus on selenium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Muhamad, Salina; Pecze, Laszlo

    2017-07-01

    In etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), involvement of amyloid β (Aβ) plaque accumulation and oxidative stress in the brain have important roles. Several nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide, silica dioxide, silver and zinc oxide have been experimentally using for treatment of neurological disease. In the last decade, there has been a great interest on combination of antioxidant bioactive compounds such as selenium (Se) and flavonoids with the oxidant nanoparticles in AD. We evaluated the most current data available on the physiological effects of oxidant and antioxidant nanoparticles. Areas covered: Oxidative nanoparticles decreased the activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the brain of rats and mice. However, Se-rich nanoparticles in small size (5-15 nm) depleted Aβ formation through decreasing ROS production. Reports on low levels of Se in blood and tissue samples and the low activities of GSH-Px, catalase and SOD enzymes in AD patients and animal models support the proposed crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD. Expert commentary: In conclusion, present literature suggests that Se-rich nanoparticles appeared to be a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of AD.

  8. Study of optical and structural properties of CdSe quantum dot embedded in PVA polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Chetna; Sharma, Ambika

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the properties and applicability of devices it is essential to incorporate semiconductor nanoparticles into polymer matrix. This introduces a new branch of science which includes device fabrications such as gas sensors, nonlinear optics, catalysis etc. Herein, we have synthesized CdSe/PVA nanocomposite (NC) material using wet chemical synthesis technique. The XRD studies revealed the formation of crystalline structure of CdSe nanoparticles (NP's) and PVA NC's with an average size of 100 nm and 5 nm respectively. Energy band gap is determined using UV-VIS Spectroscopy. A red shift in the absorption edge of CdSe/PVA NC is observed with respect to CdSe Np's, The photoluminescence spectra also show red shift for CdSe/PVA NC as compared to CdSe NP's Thus the use of CdSe/PVA for solar cell application would be more preferable than CdSe NP's.

  9. Electronic transport in nanoparticle monolayers sandwiched between graphene electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenguang; Zhang, Datong; van der Zande, Arend; Kim, Philip; Herman, Irving P

    2014-11-06

    Graphene/CdSe nanoparticle monolayer/graphene sandwich structures were fabricated to explore the interactions between these layered materials. Electrical transport across these heterostructures suggests that transport is limited by tunneling through the nanoparticle (NP) ligands but not the NP core itself. Photoconductivity suggests ligands may affect the exciton separation efficiency.

  10. Flexible Aluminum Nanobowls for Alternative Preparation of Individual or a Small Number of Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan; CHEN Xin; YUE Yang; ZHANG Rong-jun; DAI Ning

    2009-01-01

    The nanoscale aluminum bowls were derived from the porous alumina and were used as the flexible nanoscale reactors for the preparation of nanoparticles.Both single source precursor and preprepared nanoparticles were induced in the nanobowls by melting the precursor/polymer films spin-coated on aluminum nanobowis for the formation of nanostructural composites in the nanobowls.We have prepared a single nanoparticle or just a small number of metal(e.g.Pt) nanoparticles or semiconductor nanoparticles(e.g.CdSe or CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanostructures) in the nanobowls.

  11. Divalent samarium compounds with heavier chalcogenolate (EPh; E = Se, Te) ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, D; Kornienko, A; Emge, T J; Brennan, J G

    2000-05-15

    Crystalline coordination complexes of Sm(EPh)2 (E = Se, Te) are described. The selenolate compound Sm(SePh)2 is unstable in solution, but a divalent selenolate can be prepared and isolated when precisely 1 equiv of Zn(SePh)2 is present to form heterometallic [(THF)3Sm(mu 2-SePh)3Zn(mu 2-SePh)]n (1). This compound is a 1D coordination polymer with alternating Sm(II) and Zn(II) ions connected by an alternating (1,3) number of bridging selenolate ligands and three THF ligands bound to each Sm(II) ion. The tellurolate Sm(TePh)2 forms a stable pyridine coordination compound (py)5Sm(TePh)2 (2) that is isostructural with known Eu and Yb benzenetellurolates. Both compounds were characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. Polymer 1 was characterized by low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and the unit cell of the tellurolate was determined. Crystal data (Mo K alpha, 153(5) (K) are as follows. 1: monoclinic space group P21, a = 10.666(2) A, b = 16.270(3) A, c = 12.002(3) A, beta = 114.81(2) degrees, Z = 2.2: orthorhombic space group Pbca, with a = 13.865(3) A, b = 16.453(5) A, c = 31.952(7) A, Z = 8.

  12. Reassignment of oxygen-related defects in CdTe and CdSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastin, Dirk

    2015-05-22

    This thesis reassigns the O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complex in CdTe and the O{sub Se}-V{sub Cd} complex in CdSe to a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO{sub 2}*, and the O{sub Cd} defect in CdSe to a V{sub Cd}H{sub 2} complex using Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy. The publications of the previous complexes were investigated by theoreticians who performed first-principle calculations of theses complexes. The theoreticians ruled out the assignments and proposed alternative defects, instead. The discrepancy between the experimentally obtained and theoretically proposed defects was the motivation of this work. Two local vibrational modes located at 1096.8 (ν{sub 1}) and 1108.3 cm{sup -1} (ν{sub 2}) previously assigned to an O{sub Te}-V{sub Cd} complex are detected in CdTe single crystals doped with CdSO{sub 4} powder. Five weaker additional absorption lines accompanying ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2} could be detected. The relative intensities of the absorption lines match a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO{sub 2}* having two configurations labeled ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2}. A binding energy difference of 0.5±0.1 meV between the two configurations and an energy barrier of 53±4 meV separating the two configurations are determined. Uniaxial stress applied to the crystal leads to a splitting of the absorption lines which corresponds to an orthorhombic and monoclinic symmetry for ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2}, respectively. In virgin and oxygen-doped CdSe single crystals, three local vibrational modes located at 1094.1 (γ{sub 1}), 1107.5 (γ{sub 2}), and 1126.3 cm{sup -1} (γ{sub 3}) previously attributed to an O{sub Se}-V{sub Cd} complex could be observed. The signals are accompanied by five weaker additional absorption features in their vicinity. The additional absorption lines are identified as isotope satellites of a sulfur-dioxygen complex SO{sub 2}* having three configurations γ{sub 1}, γ{sub 2}, and γ{sub 3}. IR absorption measurements with uniaxial stress applied to the

  13. Biopolymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmitha Sundar, Joydip Kundu and Subhas C Kundu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review on nanoparticles highlights the various biopolymers (proteins and polysaccharides which have recently revolutionized the world of biocompatible and degradable natural biological materials. The methods of their fabrication, including emulsification, desolvation, coacervation and electrospray drying are described. The characterization of different parameters for a given nanoparticle, such as particle size, surface charge, morphology, stability, structure, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, drug loading and drug release, is outlined together with the relevant measurement techniques. Applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology are discussed along with a promising future scope.

  14. Nanoparticle standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-08

    We will purchase a COTS materials printer and adapt it for solution printing of known elemental concentration solutions. A methodology will be developed to create deposits of known mass in known locations on selected substrates. The deposits will be characterized for deposited mass, physical morphology, thickness and uniformity. Once an acceptable methodology has been developed and validated, we will create round robin samples to be characterized by LGSIMS instruments at LANL, PNNL and NIST. We will demonstrate the feasibility of depositing nanoparticles in known masses with the goal of creating separated nanoparticles in known locations.

  15. Deposition of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunxiang; Afzaal, Mohammad; Malik, Mohammad A.; O'Brien, Paul

    2006-12-01

    A new method is reported for the growth of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles using copper acetylacetonate and trioctylphosphine selenide. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition experiments lead to successful deposition of tetragonal Cu 2Se films. In contrast, hexadecylamine capped nanoparticles are composed of cubic Cu 2-xSe. The deposited materials are optically and structurally characterized. The results of this comprehensive study are described and discussed.

  16. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO2 nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rafiq Hussain Siddiqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl2.8H2O and Zr(SO42.H2O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl2.8H2O precursor was estimated to be 18.1 nm and that from Zr(SO42.H2O was 9.7 nm. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies also shows different sizes of nanoparticles and different morphology depending on the precursor used for the synthesis of ZrO2 nanoparticles

  17. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq Hussain; Al-Wassil, Abdulaziz Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Refaat Mohamad [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Chemistry, College of Science; Al-Otaibi, Abdullah Mohmmed [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia). The NationalProgram for Advanced Materials and Building Systems

    2012-11-15

    Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O and Zr(SO{sub 4})2.H{sub 2}O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl{sub 2}.8H{sub 2}O precursor was estimated to be 18.1 nm and that from Zr(SO{sub 4})2.H{sub 2}O was 9.7 nm. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies also shows different sizes of nanoparticles and different morphology depending on the precursor used for the synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles. (author)

  18. Difference in the luminescence properties of orthorhombic and monoclinic forms of Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}:Ln (Ln = Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Adish; Shah, Alpa; Sudarsan, V., E-mail: vsudar@barc.gov.in; Vatsa, R.K.; Jain, V.K., E-mail: jainvk@barc.gov.in

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Improved emission colour purity with orthorhombic form of Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}. • Non-stationary quenching exists in orthorhombic and monoclinic forms of Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}:Tb. • Ion pair formation and cross relaxation quenching operating for Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}:Dy samples. - Abstract: The luminescence properties of Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} doped orthorhombic and monoclinic forms of Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} are significantly different. Orthorhombic Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} doped with Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions gives bright green and blue emission upon UV light excitation with CIE coordinates (0.25, 0.46) and (0.25, 0.24), respectively. The monoclinic Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} doped with these ions exhibits light green and yellowish white emissions, respectively. This has been attributed to the differences in crystallographic environments around Y{sup 3+} ions in orthorhombic and monoclinic forms of Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}. Quantum yield of emission for orthorhombic Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}:Tb (∼29%) is significantly higher than that of the monoclinic Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5}:Tb (∼14%). Lifetime values corresponding to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ions in both monoclinic and orthorhombic forms of Y{sub 2}GeO{sub 5} follow an opposite trend with respect to {sup 5}D{sub 4} level of Tb{sup 3+} ions. This is attributed to difference in the concentration quenching mechanism operating for Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions.

  19. Catalytic synthesis of matchstick-like Ag2Se-ZnSe hetero-nanorods using Ag2S nanocrystals as seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiling; Yu, Huan; Lu, Chunhua; Wang, Lin; Long, Lingliang; Wu, Yanjun; Wang, Junli

    2015-04-01

    In nanowire catalytic growth, the catalyst particles usually remain at the tip of as-grown nanowires, which can be utilized to prepare matchstick-like heterostructures at the nanoscale. Based on this feature and a solution-phase catalytic growth route, we herein report the synthesis of Ag2Se-ZnSe matchstick-like hetero-nanorods, consisting of Ag2Se head and ZnSe rod-like stem. Three different kinds of silver sources, including Ag(0), Ag2S, and Ag2Se, are selected as initial seeds for growing ZnSe crystalline nanowire/rods. By comparison with the case of Ag(0) or Ag2Se, the use of Ag2S nanoparticles, which alter the chemical composition of catalytic particles and convert to Ag2Se catalyst after adding Se precursor (SeO2), is highly effective for the formation of uniform Ag2Se-ZnSe hetero-nanorods. The reason for this result may be attributed to a synergistic effect between the size of catalyst particles and the chemical conversion of Ag2S to Ag2Se.

  20. Study on optical properties of rare-earth ions in nanocrystalline monoclinic SrAl2O4: Ln (Ln = Ce3+, Pr3+, Tb3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zuoling; Zhou, Shihong; Zhang, Siyuan

    2005-08-01

    SrAl(2)O(4): Ln (Ln = Ce(3+), Pr(3+), Tb(3+)) nanocrystals have been synthesized by the combustion method. The results of XRD indicated that the resulting SrAl(2)O(4): Ln (Ln = Ce(3+), Pr(3+), Tb(3+)) nanocrystals have a reduced and distorted monoclinic lattice compared with bulk materials. The spectral properties are measured, and it is found that the excitation peaks of 5d energy levels red shift in nanocrystals in contrast to that in bulk crystals. The mechanism of spectra and energy changes is investigated. The order of the degree of red shift for nano SrAl(2)O(4): Ln (Ln = Ce(3+), Pr(3+), Tb(3+)) crystals is Pr(3+) > Ce(3+) > Tb(3+), which is in good agreement with our predicted results.

  1. Triclinic-monoclinic-orthorhombic (T-M-O) structural transitions in phase diagram of FeVO4-CrVO4 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Ganesh; Reddy, V. R.; Rambabu, P.; Mal, P.; Das, Pradip; Mohapatra, N.; Padmaja, G.; Turpu, G. R.

    2017-09-01

    Phase diagram of FeVO4-CrVO4 solid solutions pertinent with structural and magnetic phases is presented with unambiguous experimental evidences. Solid solutions Fe1-xCrxVO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were synthesized through the standard solid state route and studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectra of X-rays, Raman spectroscopy, d.c. magnetization, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. FeVO4 and CrVO4 were found to be in triclinic (P-1 space group) and orthorhombic structures (Cmcm space group), respectively. Cr incorporation into the FeVO4 lattice leads to the emergence of a new monoclinic phase dissimilar to the both end members of the solid solutions. In Fe1-xCrxVO4 up to x = 0.10, no discernible changes in the triclinic structure were found. A new structural monoclinic phase (C2/m space group) emerges within the triclinic phase at x = 0.125, and with the increase in Cr content, it gets stabilized with clear single phase signatures in the range of x = 0.175-0.25 as evidenced by the Rietveld analysis of the structures. Beyond x = 0.33, orthorhombic phase similar to CrVO4 (Cmcm space group) emerges and coexists with a monoclinic structure up to x = 0.85, which finally tends to stabilize in the range of x = 0.90-1.00. The Raman spectroscopic studies also confirm the structural transition. FeVO4 Raman spectra show the modes related to three nonequivalent V ions in the triclinic structure, where up to 42 Raman modes are observed in the present study. With the stabilization of structures having higher symmetry, the number of Raman modes decreases and the modes related to symmetry inequivalent sites collate into singular modes from the doublet structure. A systematic crossover from two magnetic transitions in FeVO4, at 21.5 K and 15.4 K to single magnetic transition in CrVO4, at 71 K (antiferromagnetic transition), is observed in magnetization studies. The intermediate solid solution with x = 0.15 shows two magnetic transitions

  2. Orientation relationships between icosahedral clusters in hexagonal MgZn2 and monoclinic Mg4Zn7 phases in Mg-Zn(-Y) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Julian M.; Somekawa, Hidetoshi; Singh, Alok; Mukai, Toshiji

    2011-07-01

    Intermetallic precipitates formed in heat-treated and aged Mg-Zn and Mg-Zn-Y alloys have been investigated via electron microscopy. Coarse spheroidal precipitates formed on deformation twin boundaries contained domains belonging to either the MgZn2 hexagonal Laves phase or the monoclinic Mg4Zn7 phase. Both phases are structurally related to the quasi-crystalline phase formed in Mg-Zn-Y alloys, containing icosahedrally coordinated zinc atoms arranged as a series of broad rhombohedral units. This rhombohedral arrangement was also visible in intragranular precipitates where local regions with the structures of hexagonal MgZn2 and Mg4Zn7 were found. The orientation adopted by the MgZn2 and Mg4Zn7 phases in twin-boundary and intragranular precipitates was such that the icosahedral clusters were aligned similarly. These results highlight the close structural similarities between the precipitates of the Mg-Zn-Y alloy system.

  3. A monoclinic polymorph of (R,R-4,4′-dibromo-2,2′-[cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilomethanylylidene]diphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Ha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H20Br2N2O2, a tetradentate Schiff base, is the enantiomerically pure R,R-diastereomer of four possible stereoisomers. The molecular structure reveals two strong intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds between the hydroxy O atom and the imino N atom, which each generate S(6 rings. In the crystal, molecules are stacked in columns along the a axis; when viewed down the b axis, successive columns are stacked in the opposite direction. The structure reported herein is the monoclinic polymorph of the previously reported orthorhombic form [Yi & Hu (2009. Acta Cryst. E65, o2643], in which the complete molecule is generated by a crystallographic twofold axis.

  4. Stress-induced VO{sub 2} films with M2 monoclinic phase stable at room temperature grown by inductively coupled plasma-assisted reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okimura, Kunio; Watanabe, Tomo [School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-04-01

    We report on growth of VO{sub 2} films with M2 monoclinic phase stable at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. The films were grown on quartz glass and Si substrates by using an inductively coupled plasma-assisted reactive sputtering method. XRD-sin{sup 2}{Psi} measurements revealed that the films with M2 phase are under compressive stress in contrast to tensile stress of films with M1 phase. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed characteristic crystal grain aspects with formation of periodical twin structure of M2 phase. Structural phase transition from M2 to tetragonal phases, accompanied by a resistance change, was confirmed to occur as the temperature rises. Growth of VO{sub 2} films composed of M2 phase crystalline is of strong interest for clarifying nature of Mott transition of strongly correlated materials.

  5. Comment on ``Monoclinic phase of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 ceramics: Raman and phenomenological thermodynamic studies''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantti, J.; Lappalainen, J.; Lantto, V.; Nishio, S.; Kakihana, M.

    2001-05-01

    Recently, Souza Filho et al. [A. G. Souza Filho, K. C. V. Lima, A. P. Ayala, I. Guedes, P. T. C. Freire, J. Mendes Filho, E. B. Araujo, and J. A. Eiras, Phys. Rev. B 61, 14 283 (2000)] reported a phase transition between monoclinic and tetragonal phases as a function of temperature in a PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 ceramic sample, observed by Raman spectroscopy. We show that their observation has no relation to the phase transition and the anomaly they interpreted as an indication of a phase transition was due to the erroneous curve fit procedure, which predicts a clearly observable phase transition for all tetragonal lead-zirconate-titanate ceramics, including lead titanate. A more appropriate way to study this phase transition phenomena by Raman spectroscopy is discussed.

  6. Off-resonance effects in (14)N NQR signals from the pulsed spin-locking (PSL) and three-pulse echo sequence; a study for monoclinic TNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John A S; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar; Peirson, Neil F; Barras, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    In NQR detection applications signal averaging by the summation of rapidly regenerated signals from multiple pulse sequences of the pulsed spin-locking (PSL) type is often used to improve sensitivity. It is important to characterise and if possible minimise PSL sequence off-resonance effects since they can make it difficult to optimise detection performance. We illustrate this with measurements of the variation of the decay time T2e and the amplitude of PSL signal trains with pulse spacing and excitation offset frequency for the 870 kHz ν+(14)N NQR line of monoclinic TNT under carefully stabilised temperature conditions. We have also carried out a similar study of signals from monoclinic TNT and 1H-1,2,3-triazole generated by a three-pulse echo sequence and the results are shown to agree well with a theoretical treatment appropriate to polycrystalline NQR samples such as TNT for which spin I=1, asymmetry parameter η≠0 and T1≫T2. Based on this theory we derive simple models for calculating TNT PSL signal trains and hence the pulse spacing and off-resonance dependence of signal amplitude and T2e which we compare to our experimental data. We discuss the influence of PSL echo summation on off-resonance effects in detected signal intensity and show how a phase-alternated multiple pulse sequence can be used in combination with the PSL sequence to eliminate variation in detection performance due to off-resonance effects.

  7. Magnetic characterization of non-ideal single-domain monoclinic pyrrhotite and its demagnetization under hydrostatic pressure up to 2 GPa with implications for impact demagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezaeva, Natalia S.; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Rochette, Pierre; Kars, Myriam; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Sadykov, Ravil A.; Kuzina, Dilyara M.; Axenov, Sergey N.

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a comprehensive magnetic characterization of synthesized non-ideal single-domain (SD) monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8). The samples were in the form of a powder and a powder dispersed in epoxy. "Non-ideal" refers to a powder fraction of predominantly SD size with a minor contribution of small pseudo-single-domain grains; such non-ideal SD pyrrhotite was found to be a remanence carrier in several types of meteorites (carbonaceous chondrites, SNC…), which justifies the usage of synthetic compositions as analogous to natural samples. Data were collected from 5 to 633 K and include low-field magnetic susceptibility (χ0), thermomagnetic curves, major hysteresis loops, back-field remanence demagnetization curves, first-order reversal curves (FORCs), alternating field and pressure demagnetization of saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), low temperature data (such as zero-field-cooled and field-cooled remanence datasets together with room temperature SIRM cooling-warming cycles) as well as XRD and Mössbauer spectra. The characteristic Besnus transition is observed at ∼33 K. FORC diagrams indicate interacting SD grains. The application of hydrostatic pressure up to 2 GPa using nonmagnetic high-pressure cells resulted in the demagnetization of the sample by 32-38%. Repeated cycling from 1.8 GPa to atmospheric pressure and back resulted in a total remanence decrease of 44% (after 3 cycles). Pressure demagnetization experiments have important implications for meteorite paleomagnetism and suggest that some published paleointensities of meteorites with non-ideal SD monoclinic pyrrhotite as remanence carrier may be lower limits because shock demagnetization was not accounted for.

  8. Sample Set (SE): SE12 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE12 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites Investigation of Spi...nacia oleracea leaf metabolites. 2 cultivars (Nihon and Wasesaradaakari), 2 growth conditions (normal film and UV film

  9. Sample Set (SE): SE30 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE30 Comparison of seed metabolites among soybean varieties Investigation of Glycin...e max. green seed metabolites. 3 varieties (Kamogawashichiri, Koitozairai, Tanbakuro) data are examined. Tak

  10. Sample Set (SE): SE26 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26 Effect of compost for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassica oleracea v...ar. capitata YR Seisyun leaf metabolites. 2 growth conditions (with or without 6t compost treatment) and 3 r

  11. Sample Set (SE): SE20 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE20 Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolite analysis for a software test Investigatio...es that were investigated to optimize the parameters of PowerGet software for better metabolite annotation i

  12. Sample Set (SE): SE51 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE51 RIKEN tandem mass spectral database (ReSpect) for phytochemicals: A plant-spec...ochemicals was developed and named ReSpect (RIKEN tandem mass spectral database). Of the 3595 metabolites in

  13. Sample Set (SE): SE37 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE37 Medicago truncatula shoot metabolite analysis using stable isotopes Metabolite...formed to estimate the elemental composition with high reliability using the number of stable isotopes incor

  14. Sample Set (SE): SE28 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE28 Comparison of leaf metabolites among developmental stages of Hevea brasiliensi...s Investigation of Hevea brasiliensis leaf metabolites. 4 developmental stages and 6 replicates data are exa

  15. Sample Set (SE): SE48 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE48 Toward better annotation in plant metabolomics: isolation and structure elucidation of 36 special... elucidated the structures of specialized metabolites from rice by using MS/MS and NMR. Thirty-six compounds

  16. Sample Set (SE): SE55 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE55 AtMetExpress development: a phytochemical atlas of arabidopsis development We analyzed phytochem...idopsis produces various phytochemicals in a highly tissue-specific manner, which often accompanies the expr

  17. Sample Set (SE): SE10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10 Effect of phosphorus nutrition for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassi...ca oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (high, low and no phosphorus nutrition

  18. Sample Set (SE): SE14 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE14 Effect of agricultural films for tomato fruit metabolites Investigation of Sol...anum lycopersicum fruit metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  19. Sample Set (SE): SE16 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE16 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites 2 Investigation of S...pinacia oleracea leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  20. Sample Set (SE): SE19 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE19 Grobal triacylglycerol analysis in mouse liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) ...rol (TAG) molecular species from complex lipid mixtures of mouse liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) using

  1. On the Phonon Related Properties of Cu1-xSnxO (x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariammal, R. N.; Ramachandran, K.

    2010-10-01

    Sn doped CuO nanoparticles are synthesized by one step solid state reaction and the monoclinic phase of CuO is confirmed by XRD. The localized vibrational mode (LVM) due to doping of Sn in CuO was calculated and compared with the experimental work. The thermal conductivity of the above system was measured using photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy and its dependence on particle size and doping is discussed.

  2. HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in K3-ODS Ferritic Steel Developed for Radiation Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Tumey, S; Kuntz, J; El-Dasher, B; Wall, M; Choi, W; Kimura, A; Willaime, F; Serruys, Y

    2009-11-02

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles and radiation damage in 16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and the matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles and multiple crystalline domains formed within a nanoparticle lead us to propose a three-stage mechanism to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels. Effects of nanoparticle size and density on cavity formation induced by (Fe{sup 8+} + He{sup +}) dual-beam irradiation are briefly addressed.

  3. MULTIPLE EXCITON GENERATIONSOLAR CELLS USING CdSe QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAFTOM MESFIN GEBRESLASSIE,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and Simulation works of Nano structured Solar Cells Using CdSe Quantum Dots have been analyzed and investigated. CdSe quantum dots have been synthesized from non coordinating and highboiling solvent Octadecene and a series of increasing CdSe particle sizes are produced. The synthesized CdSe quantum dots are highly examined under a Transmission Electron Microscope and four images ofdifferent sizes of CdSe quantum dots (5.8 nm, 6.4 nm, 7.0 nm and 7.7 nm have been obtained. A 1.1x1.1cm2 TiO2 electrode is prepared using indium tin oxide conducting glass and TiO2 nanoparticles. The CdSe quantum dot (5.8nm was adsorbed on TiO2 photoelectrode and used as sensitizer. In this paper work, a sandwich type cell configuration which is made up of TiO2 photoelectrode, graphite coated counter electrode, an electrolyte of iodine and potassium iodide have been used. This sandwich type cell has been exposed to sun light and we have achieved 0.32 V and 0.2 mA

  4. Preparation and antioxidant capacity of element selenium nanoparticles sol-gel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Qin, Biyin; Zhou, Yanhui; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wenjie

    2011-06-01

    This paper reported the preparation and antioxidant capacities of element selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe(0))-ascorbic acid (Vc) sol and nanSe(0)/Vc/selenocystine (SeCys) sol-gel compounds. NanoSe(0)-Vc sol was prepared by reduction of selenious dioxide (SeO2) with Vc. In the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol, highly concentrated Vc was also used as a modifier to modulate the diameter of Se(0) nanoparticles in the liquid phase. Then excellent nanoSe(0) sol-gel compounds were obtained by adding SeCys into the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol. The structure of the nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds was defined, which was constructed via C-Se, Se-H and O=C-Se valences and by interaction between SeCys and Vc via peptide bonds, esterification and dehydration. The antioxidant capacities of the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds were estimated by oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assay. The nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds possessed a strong antioxidant capacity due to forming the perfect three-dimensional (3D) frameworks structure. The results suggested that the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds might be potential medicine, especially antioxidant.

  5. Vetenfinf se ha actualizado recientemente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe trata de un sitio web alojado en el servidor de Veterinaria.org y mantenido por el Dr. Norberto Fondevila, del Instituto de Virologia CICVyA- INTA Cautelar de Argentina .

  6. Señas Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. García Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra un sistema que permite el estudio y práctica del Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano (LMS, el cual es el método de comunicación de las personas que padecen un trastorno de procesamiento auditivo. El sistema propuesto en este artículo consta de un guante de tela instrumentado con sensores de flexión, una etapa de acondicionamiento de señales y una tarjeta de adquisición de datos; que en su conjunto constituyen el Hardware. El software esta formado por un programa de adquisición de datos y una interfaz de usuario, ambos codificados en Visual Basic Net. El sistema propuesto se modela por medio del lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML, ya que Visual Basic es un lenguaje orientado a eventos.

  7. Synthesis and structure of Cs[UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4})(OH)] . nH{sub 2}O (n = 1.5 or 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serezhkina, L. B., E-mail: lserezh@ssu.samara.ru [Samara State University (Russian Federation); Peresypkina, E. V.; Virovets, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Pushkin, D. V.; Verevkin, A. G. [Samara State University (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    The synthesis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of Cs[UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4})(OH)] . 1.5H{sub 2}O (I) and Cs[UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4})(OH)] . H{sub 2}O (II) are performed. Compound I crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, a = 7.2142(2) A, b = 14.4942(4) A, c = 8.9270(3) A, {beta} = 112.706(1){sup o}, space group P2{sub 1}/m, Z = 4, and R = 0.0222. Compound II is monoclinic, a = 8.4549(2) A, b = 11.5358(3) A, c = 9.5565(2) A, {beta} = 113.273(1){sup o}, space group P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 4, and R = 0.0219. The main structural units of crystals I and II are [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4})(OH)]{sup -} layers which belong to the AT{sup 3}M{sup 2} crystal chemical group of uranyl complexes (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, T{sup 3} = SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and M{sup 2} = OH{sup -}). In structure I, johannite-like layers are found. Structure II is a topological isomer of I. The two structures differ in the number of U(VI) atoms bound to the central atom by all bridging ligands.

  8. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  9. Phase transformation induced resistive switching behavior in Al/Cu2Se/Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shania; Kim, Kihwan; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Deok-kee

    2017-04-01

    The phase transformation induced resistive switching behavior of an Al/Cu2Se/Pt device was studied. While the device did not demonstrate any resistive switching behavior at room temperature, it exhibited resistive switching behavior at 125 °C, near the transition temperature of copper(I) selenide (Cu2Se) (137 °C), where Cu2Se is known to transform from the monoclinic to superionic phase. The increase in ionic conductivity and structural variations (from ordered to disordered structure) associated with phase transformation were observed to be responsible for the origin of the switching behavior and increase in the on/off resistance ratio near the transition temperature. Thermodynamic calculations showed that a reduction in Gibb’s free energy of nucleation and an increase in the migration speed of the Cu ion associated with the ionic conductivity and order to disorder the transition of the Cu2Se at the transition temperature were the important factors responsible for the reduction in the SET voltages at 155 °C.

  10. Neutron thermodiffraction study of the crystallization of Ag-Ge-Se glasses: evidence of a new phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piarristeguy, Andrea A; Yot, Pascal G; Ribes, Michel; Pradel, Annie [Institut Charles Gerhardt, Equipe PMDP UMR 5253 CNRS, CC1503, Universite Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Cuello, Gabriel J [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: andrea.piarristeguy@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr, E-mail: cuello@ill.eu, E-mail: pyot@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr, E-mail: mribes@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr, E-mail: apradel@lpmc.univ-montp2.fr

    2008-04-16

    Silver-containing chalcogenide glasses are potential candidates for electrical memory manufacturing. In order to study the glasses under dynamic conditions, using the temperature as the main parameter, a neutron thermodiffraction study of three Ag{sub x}(Ge{sub 0.25}Se{sub 0.75}){sub 100-x} glasses (x = 5,15 and 25) was carried out. Two in situ diffraction experiments were performed: a first series including heating ramps from room temperature up to 350 {sup 0}C and a second one comprising the measurement of an isotherm at about 300 {sup 0}C for 5 h. For the three studied glasses two stable crystalline phases were formed during the heating process: the cubic Ag{sub 8}GeSe{sub 6} appeared first, followed by the crystallization of monoclinic GeSe{sub 2}. The crystallization process for the Ag-rich (x = 15 and 25) glasses was more complex, with the appearance of a new unstable phase at high temperature, i.e. Ag{sub 2}GeSe{sub 3}. Such a phase decomposed with time or temperature to produce a new phase, Ag{sub 10}Ge{sub 3}Se{sub 11}, along with the stable GeSe{sub 2}. This phase has never been reported to date while the existence of Ag{sub 2}GeSe{sub 3} was still controversial.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation and photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen generation on CdSe nanoparticles sensitized TiO2 nanotube arrays%CdSe纳米颗粒敏化TiO2纳米管阵列的光催化降解及光电催化制氢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐波; 储伟; 刘中清; 刘旭

    2015-01-01

    采用胶体化学法制备不同尺寸的硒化镉纳米颗粒( CdSe-NP)胶体,并利用原位吸附法将CdSe-NP与由阳极氧化法得到的TiO2纳米管阵列( TN)复合,在可见光下降解甲基橙溶液和外加偏压制氢,分别考察CdSe-NP敏化的TiO2纳米管阵列( CdSe-NP/TN)的光催化性能和光电催化性能。对比TN,CdSe-NP/TN表现出明显增强的光催化活性及更优异的光电催化性能,而过大的CdSe-NP尺寸则不利于复合材料的催化活性。表征结果表明,CdSe-NP/TN优异的性能是由于敏化CdSe-NP后吸收边红移以及光生电子和空穴复合率降低。%The cadmium se1ehide hahopartic1es( CdSe-NP)with differeht sizes were prepared by co11oida1 chemica1 method,ahd the combihatioh of CdSe-NP ahd TiO2 hahotube arrays( TN)prepared by ahodic ox-idatioh method was achieved by ih situ absorptioh method. The photocata1ytic ahd photoe1ectrocata1ytic properties of CdSe-NP sehsitized TiO2 hahotube arrays( CdSe-NP/TN)were ihvestigated by methy1 orahge so1utioh degradatioh ahd photocata1ytic hydrogeh geheratioh with app1ied bias uhder visib1e 1ight irradia-tioh,respective1y. Compared with TN,CdSe-NP/TN samp1es exhibited superior photocata1ytic ahd photo-e1ectrocata1ytic activity. However,oversize CdSe-NP was disadvahtageous to cata1ytic activity of the com-posites. The resu1ts of characterizatiohs demohstrated that the ehhahced performahce of CdSe-NP/TN was due to the red shift of absorptioh thresho1d ahd the decreased recombihatioh of photo-geherated e1ectrohs ahd ho1es after CdSe-NP sehsitizatioh.

  12. Impact of the oxygen defects and the hydrogen concentration on the surface of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 on the reduction rates of stearic acid on Ni/ZrO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foraita, Sebastian D.; Fulton, John L.; Chase, Zizwe A.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Xu, Pinghong; Barath, Eszter; Camaioni, Donald M.; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-02-02

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of ZrO2 phases on the activity of Ni/ZrO2 catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid are described. A synergistic interaction between Ni and ZrO2 support was found. The effect is greatest for the monoclinic phase of ZrO2.

  13. High-performance broadband photodetector using solution-processible PbSe-TiO(2)-graphene hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Kiran Kumar; Wang, Junzhong; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Nesladek, Milos; Nalla, Venkatram; Ji, Wei; Loh, Kian Ping

    2012-04-01

    Highly sensitive, multicomponent broadband photodetector devices are made from PbSe/graphene/TiO(2). TiO(2) and PbSe nanoparticles act as light harvesting photoactive materials from the UV to IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, while the graphene acts as a charge collector for both photogenerated holes and electrons under an applied electric field.

  14. Synthesis of lanthanum tungstate interconnecting nanoparticles by high voltage electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keereeta, Yanee, E-mail: ynkeereeta@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} as one of semiconducting materials. • H.V. electrospinning was used to synthesize La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} interconnecting nanoparticles. • A promising material for photoemission. - Abstract: Lanthanum tungstate (La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}) interconnecting nanoparticles in the shape of fibers were successfully synthesized by electrospinning in combination with high temperature calcination. In this research, calcination temperature for the synthesis of the fibers evidently influenced the diameter, morphology and crystalline degree. The crystalline monoclinic La{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} fibers with 200–700 nm in diameter, two main Raman peaks at 945 and 927 cm{sup −1}, FTIR stretching modes at 936 and 847 cm{sup −1}, 2.02 eV energy gap and 415–430 nm blue emission were synthesized by calcination of inorganic/organic hybrid fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface of the composite fibers before calcination was very smooth. Upon calcination the composite fibers at 750 °C for 5 h, they were transformed into nanoparticles join together in the shape of fibers with rough surface.

  15. Sample Set (SE): SE27 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27 Effect of agricultural films for cabbage leaf metabolites Investigation of Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultura...l film or no agricultural film), 3 replicates data are examined. Takeshi Ara 1, Naoki Yamamoto 1,

  16. Sample Set (SE): SE56 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE56 MS/MS spectral tag-based annotation of non-targeted profile of plant secondary...sis, resulting in clarification of the functions of reported genes involved in glycosylation of flavonoids. Thus, non-target

  17. Sample Set (SE): SE50 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oids We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity mitigate against ox...ress. These data confirm the usefulness of flavonoids for enhancing both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance...SE50 Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavon

  18. Sample Set (SE): SE58 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE58 Exploring matrix effects and quantification performance in metabolomics experiments using artificial...ificial biological gradients is a general and inexpensive tool for calibration that... the peaks but also highlights cases with strong background-dependent signal interference. Analysis of art

  19. Significados y funciones del "se"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Contreras

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo la autora se limita a comentar críticamente lo que la Real Academia Española de la Lengua (cit. Ac. dice en su "Gramática de la lengua española" de 1931 (Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, S. A. con respecto a los diversos tipos de "se" que ella toma en cuenta, comentario que pretende mostrar una mayor diversificación que la establecida en la mencionada obra. (In this article, its author offers a critical commentary of the position taken by The Spanish Royal Academy of Language (RAE in Gramática de la lengua española (1931 on the subject of "Uses of 'se'". The author intends to show a greater variety of uses than those proposed by RAE.

  20. Crystal structure of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxides and bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the isotopes {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlmann, Holger [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Hein, Christina; Kautenburger, Ralf [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Inorganic Solid State Chemistry; Hansen, Thomas C.; Ritter, Clemens [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Doyle, Stephen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation (ISS)

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structures of monoclinic samarium and cubic europium sesquioxide, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were reinvestigated by powder diffraction methods (laboratory X-ray, synchrotron, neutron). Rietveld analysis yields more precise structural parameters than previously known, especially for oxygen atoms. Interatomic distances d(Sm-O) in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} range from 226.3(4) to 275.9(2) pm [average 241.6(3) pm] for the monoclinic B type Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} [space group C2/m, a = 1418.04(3) pm, b = 362.660(7) pm, c = 885.48(2) pm, β = 100.028(1) ], d(Eu-O) in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 229.9(2) to 238.8(2) pm for the cubic bixbyite (C) type [space group Ia anti 3, a = 1086.87(1) pm]. Neutron diffraction at 50 K and 2 K did not show any sign for magnetic ordering in Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Isotopically enriched {sup 154}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 153}Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used for the neutron diffraction work because of the enormous absorption cross section of the natural isotopic mixtures for thermal neutrons. The isotopic purity was determined by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry to be 98.9% for {sup 154}Sm and 99.8% for {sup 153}Eu. Advanced analysis of the neutron diffraction data suggest that the bound coherent scattering lengths of {sup 154}Sm and {sup 153}Eu need to be revised. We tentatively propose b{sub c}({sup 154}Sm) = 8.97(6) fm and b{sub c}({sup 153}Eu) = 8.85(3) fm for a neutron wavelength of 186.6 pm to be better values for these isotopes, showing up to 8% deviation from accepted literature values. It is shown that inaccurate scattering lengths may result in severe problems in crystal structure refinements causing erroneous structural details such as occupation parameters, which might be critically linked to physical properties like superconductivity in multinary oxides.

  1. The phase transition of W-doped VO2 nanoparticles synthesized by an improved thermolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiwei; Zhang, Jianwu; Wang, Zhongping; Zhang, Zengming; Ding, Zejun

    2013-02-01

    High-quality thermochromic monoclinic VO2(M) and series of W-doped V(1-x)W(x)O2(M) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by an improved thermolysis method. The products were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technologies. The measurement of DSC revealed that the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT) of 2.0% W-doped VO2 sample occurred at 25.6 degrees C, which was much lower than the MIT of host VO2(M) nanoparticles at 67.6 degrees C. The results showed that the proportion of the transmittance of tetragonal phase reached only about 29% of that of monoclinic phase for 0.5% W-doped VO2 at the wavenumber 900 cm(-1), which indicated W-doped VO2(M) was an intelligent window and optical switch materials.

  2. Fungus mediated biosynthesis of WO3 nanoparticles using Fusarium solani extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, N. S.; Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Ilangovan, R.

    2017-05-01

    Currently nanoparticles were synthesized by emphasis bioremediation process due to less hazardous, eco-friendly and imperative applications on biogenic process. Fungus mediated biosynthesis strategy has been developed to prepare tungsten oxide nanoflakes (WO3, NFs) using the plant pathogenic fungus F.solani. The powder XRD pattern revealed the monoclinic crystal structure with improved crystalline nature of the synthesized WO3 nanoparticles. FESEM images showed the flake-like morphology of WO3, with average thickness and length around 40 nm and 300 nm respectively. The Raman spectrum of WO3 NFs showed their characteristic vibration modes that revealed the defect free nature of the WO3 NFs. Further, the elemental analysis indicated the stoichiometric composition of WO3 phase.

  3. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotin, Pavel Aleksandrovich; Bubenov, Sergey Sergeevich; Mordvinova, Natalia Evgenievna; Dorofeev, Sergey Gennadievich

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm). In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculiarities of the process. The structure, Ag content, and optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. The optimal conditions for maximizing both the reaction yield and IR photoluminescence quantum yield are found.

  4. Dealing with Pro Se Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinato, Tammy R.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of the "pro se" patrons (people who are representing themselves in a legal dispute or transaction) has received significant attention in the legal information literature, and many excellent suggestions have been offered to aid law librarians in dealing with this population group. However, these suggestions can be usefully applied in…

  5. Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-22

    CdSe nanoparticles nanorods nanostructures photocatalysis semiconductors Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Semiconductor photocatalysis has been identified as a promising avenue for the conversion of solar...sophistication leading to increasingly complex and multi-functional architectures. For photocatalysis in particular, the high surface- to- volume ratios in

  6. DFT insights into the electronic and optical properties of fluorine-doped monoclinic niobium pentoxide (B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}:F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shazly, Tamer S.; Rehim, Sayed S.A. [Ain-Shams University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Hassan, Walid M.I. [Cairo University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Allam, Nageh K. [American University in Cairo, Energy Materials Lab (EML), School of Sciences and Engineering, New Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    We report on the effect of fluorine doping on the electronic structure and optical properties of monoclinic niobium pentoxide (B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) as revealed by the first principles calculations. Density functional theory (DFT) along with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) at the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBEsol) exchange-correlation functional was used in this study. The band calculations revealed that the studied materials are indirect bandgap semiconductors, with bandgap energies of 2.67 and 2.28 eV for the undoped and F-doped B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively. Upon doping B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the Fermi level shifts towards the conduction band, allowing optical absorption in the visible region with enhanced transmittance in the wavelength range 400-1000 nm. The calculated static refractive index of the undoped B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is in good agreement with the reported experimental value, which is enhanced upon F-incorporation resulting in cladding properties for the F-doped B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Also, the effective mass of free charge carriers increased upon F-doping. The enhanced properties were attributed to the effect of the excessive valent electron of the incorporated F atom. (orig.)

  7. Density functional theory insights into the structural stability and Li diffusion properties of monoclinic and orthorhombic Li2FeSiO4 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Chiu, Hsien-Chieh; Bevan, Kirk H.; Jiang, De-Tong; Zaghib, Karim; Demopoulos, George P.

    2016-06-01

    Lithium iron orthosilicate (Li2FeSiO4) is an important alternative cathode for next generation Li-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (330 mA h/g). However, its development has faced great challenges arising from significant structural complexity, including the disordered arrangement/orientation of Fe/Si tetrahedra, polytypes and its poorly understood Li storage and transport properties. In this context, ab-initio calculations are employed to investigate the phase stability and Li diffusion profiles of both monoclinic (P21) and orthorhombic (Pmn21) Li2FeSiO4 orthosilicates. The calculations demonstrate that formation of Lisbnd Fe antisites can induce a metastability competition between both phases, with neither dominating across nearly the entire discharging profile from Li2FeSiO4 through to LiFeSiO4. Furthermore, structural instability is shown to be a serious concern at discharge concentrations below LiFeSiO4 (1 Li extraction) due to the shared occupation of Li donated electrons with oxygen 2p orbitals - rather than the hypothesized transition to a tetravalent Fe4+ state. This finding is further supported by diffusion calculations that have determined a high activation energy barrier towards fast charging and rapid phase transitions. In summary, these theoretical results provide critical and timely insight into the structural dynamics of lithium iron orthosilicate, in pursuit of high energy density cathodes.

  8. Synthesis of monoclinic structured BiVO{sub 4} spindly microtubes in deep eutectic solvent and their application for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wei, E-mail: weiliu@ouc.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Yu Yaqin; Cao Lixin; Su Ge; Liu Xiaoyun; Zhang Lan; Wang Yonggang [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Monoclinic structured spindly bismuth vanadate microtubes were fabricated on a large scale by a simple ionothermal treatment in the environment-friendly green solvent of urea/choline chloride. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, IR and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of rhodamine B aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. As-obtained BiVO{sub 4} microtubes exhibit the spindly shape with a side length of ca. 800 nm and a wall thickness of ca. 100 nm. The opening of these microtubes presents a saw-toothed structure, which is seldom in other tube-shaped materials. The formation mechanism of the spindly microtubes is ascribed to the complex cooperation of the reaction-crystallization process controlled by BiOCl and the nucleation-growth process of nanosheets induced by solvent molecules attached on the surface of microtubes. Such spindly microtubes exhibit much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than that of bulk BiVO{sub 4} prepared by solid-state reaction, possibly resulting from their large surface area and improved crystallinity.

  9. Surfactant-free synthesis of hyperbranched monoclinic bismuth vanadate and its applications in photocatalysis, gas sensing, and lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Xie, Yi; Zhu, Xi; Yan, Si; Wang, Sunxi

    2008-01-01

    Hyperbranched monoclinic BiVO(4) (h-BiVO(4)) has been synthesized on a large scale and with good uniformity by a surfactant-free hydrothermal route. h-BiVO(4) consists of four trunks with branches distributed on opposite sides. From observation of the intermediates at an early stage of the reaction process, it can be seen that during formation h-BiVO(4) has different growth rates along the a, b, and c axes. Based on crystal structure analysis and experimental results, h-BiVO(4) shows preferential growth along the [100] direction, and subsequently, along the [010] and [001] directions. As-synthesized h-BiVO(4) exhibits excellent photocatalytic ability in the photodegradation reaction of an aqueous solution of RB under visible light. Electrochemical measurements predict that h-BiVO(4) possesses high sensitivity to formaldehyde and ethanol gases, favorable discharge capacity, and capacity retention, which indicate potential applications in the fields of sensing devices and lithium-ion batteries.

  10. A monoclinic polymorph of [(Z-N-(3-chlorophenyl-O-methylthiocarbamato-κS](triphenylphosphane-κPgold(I: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Ing Yeo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Au(C8H7ClNOS(C18H15P], is a monoclinic (P21/n, Z′ = 1; form β polymorph of the previously reported triclinic form (P-1, Z′ = 1; form α [Tadbuppa & Tiekink (2010. Acta Cryst. E66, m664]. The molecular structures of both forms feature an almost linear gold(I coordination geometry [P—Au—S = 175.62 (5° in the title polymorph], being coordinated by thiolate S and phosphane P atoms, a Z conformation about the C=N bond and an intramolecular Au...O contact. The major conformational difference relates to the relative orientations of the residues about the Au—S bond: the P—Au—S—C torsion angles are −8.4 (7 and 106.2 (7° in forms α and β, respectively. The molecular packing of form β features centrosymmetric aggregates sustained by aryl-C—H...O interactions, which are connected into a three-dimensional network by aryl-C—H...π contacts. The Hirshfeld analysis of forms α and β shows many similarities with the notable exception of the influence of C—H...O interactions in form β.

  11. Magnetic properties of monoclinic lanthanide metaborates, Ln(BO2)3, Ln  =  Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Suard, E.; Dutton, S. E.

    2017-10-01

    The bulk magnetic properties of the lanthanide metaborates, Ln(BO2)3, Ln  =  Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb are studied using magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity and isothermal magnetisation measurements. They are found to crystallise in a monoclinic structure containing chains of magnetic Ln 3+ and could therefore exhibit features of low-dimensional magnetism and frustration. Pr(BO2)3 is found to have a non-magnetic singlet ground state. No magnetic ordering is observed down to 0.4 K for Nd(BO2)3. Gd(BO2)3 exhibits a sharp magnetic transition at 1.1 K, corresponding to 3D magnetic ordering. Tb(BO2)3 shows two magnetic ordering features at 1.05 K and 1.95 K. A magnetisation plateau at a third of the saturation magnetisation is seen at 2 K for both Nd(BO2)3 and Tb(BO2)3, which persists in an applied field of 14 T. This is proposed to be a signature of quasi 1D behaviour in Nd(BO2)3 and Tb(BO2)3.

  12. Tetrakis(μ2-2,2-dimethylpropanoato-κ2O,O′bis[(pyridine-κNcopper(II]: a monoclinic polymorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailatun Nazirah Ozair

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the dinuclear title complex, [Cu2(C5H9O24(C5H5N2], represents a monoclinic polymorph of the previously reported triclinic form [Blewett et al. (2006. Acta Cryst. E62, m420–m422]. Each carboxylate group is bidentate bridging and the distorted octahedral geometry about each CuII atom is completed by a pyridine N atom and the other Cu atom [Cu...Cu = 2.6139 (7 Å]. In the crystal, molecules are connected into supramolecular chains via π–π interactions formed by the pyridine rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.552 (3 Å] and these are connected into a two-dimensional array in the ac plane by C—H...π contacts. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two orientations in a 0.734 (6:0.266 (6 ratio.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of monoclinic rare earth titanates, RE2Ti2O7 (RE = La, Pr, Nd), by a modified SHS method using inorganic activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Krishnankutty; K R Dayas

    2008-11-01

    The nano particles of phase pure rare earth titanates, synthesized by the SHS technique, get well sintered at lower temperatures compared to the compounds formed by the solid-state method. These dielectrics are highly stable and can be used in the microwave frequency range. We report here a modified SHS method to synthesize phase pure monoclinic RE2Ti2O7 at 350°C through the oxide/nitrate precursors using an inorganic compound, ammonium acetate, in place of the general type of organic activators such as urea, alanine etc. The nanopowders of La2Ti2O7, Pr2Ti2O7 and Nd2Ti2O7 on heating exhibit an exothermic behaviour with a broad maxima in the range 267–284°C and become endothermic with maxima in the range 1043–1220°C; interestingly, the phase pure crystalline material is formed at the temperature of exothermic maxima, as confirmed by XRD.

  14. Growth, vibrational and luminescence analysis of monoclinic KGd(1-x)Prx(WO4)2 (x=0.005, 0.02, 0.05) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraju, D.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Durairajan, A.; Balaji, D.; Samuel, P.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Growth of pure KGW, 0.5, 2 and 5 wt% Pr3+ doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals were carried out using top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method with K2WO4 as flux. Growth parameters that include the cooling rate and pulling rate were modified to achieve transparent doped crystals to that of pure crystals. Optically polished samples were used for optical and structural studies. Structure of grown crystals was confirmed and lattice parameter values were calculated using single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Both pure and doped crystals belong to the monoclinic phase with C2/c space group. When compared to pure matrix of KGW, some notable changes were observed in the lattice parameter values of doped crystals. It may be due to the ionic radii mismatch of replacing praseodymium ion in the place of gadolinium ion. Absorption and emission measurements were carried out for the 2 mm thick polished samples. The doped samples show a very good transparency with an intense absorption band around the blue region of the spectrum with additional absorption peaks in the IR region as well. Strong red emission was observed in the emission spectrum. The energy levels and their corresponding transitions were figured out in Pr3+ ions inside the matrix. Emission characteristics were compared for different dopant concentration. Raman spectra reveal the intense tungstate vibrational modes in the higher frequency region. Comparison of pure and doped samples reveal that there is no significant change in vibrational modes at higher doping concentration.

  15. Phase transitions in CuS-Ag2S nanoparticle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela Christy, R.; Thanka Kumaran, J. T.; Bansal, C.; Brightson, M.

    2016-02-01

    (Ag2)xCu1-xS, x = .2, .4, .6 and .8 nanoparticles were synthesized by the solvothermal method. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction to study the crystal structure and size. The surface morphologies of the above samples were studied using scanning electron microscope. As there is continuous shift in the lower wavelength absorption edge of the UV-VIS spectrum of these samples with concentration, (Ag2)xCu1-xS nanoparticles can be tuned to different band gap energies by varying the composition. The D.C. electrical resistance was measured in the temperature range 310-485 K. As Ag2S transforms from monoclinic to bcc at around 450 K, copper sulfide nanoparticles also shows a phase transition at around 470 K, the effects of these two transitions are seen in the resistance measurements and in the UV-VIS spectra of the entire system. The electrical resistance of (Ag2)xCu1-xS nanoparticles rapidly reduces as more and more copper sulfide is added.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gálvez-Barboza, S. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); González, L.A. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Puente-Urbina, B.A.; Saucedo-Salazar, E.M. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); García-Cerda, L.A., E-mail: luis.garcia@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solgel method. • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a semispherical shape with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm. • The samples doped with 10% in weight of Ce directly crystallized in a cubic structure. • A quick, straightforward and effective route for the preparation of Ce-doped nanoparticles. - Abstract: A modified solgel method to synthesize Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles was carried out using a precursor material prepared with cerium nitrate, hafnium chloride, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The obtained precursor material was calcined at 500 and 700 °C for 2 h in air. The influence of the concentration of Ce and the calcination temperature was studied to observe the structural and morphological changes of the obtained materials. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering (RS) were employed. The XRD patterns shown that the Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic to cubic phase, which is significantly dependent on the Ce content and calcination temperature. TEM images have also confirmed the existence of semispherical nanoparticles with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm.

  17. Facile synthesis of decorated graphene oxide sheets with WO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adineh, Ensieh; Rasuli, Reza [University of Zanjan, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 45371-38791, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Potential applications of graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites have attracted remarkable attention to modify its properties by functionalizing and decorating with nanoparticles. In this work, after synthesis of GO sheets by oxidation and exfoliation of natural graphite, they were decorated with tungsten oxide nanoparticles using arc discharge in GO solution. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the chain of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles decorates the GO sheets. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that WO{sub 3} nanoparticles are attached to GO sheets by bond formation between the tungsten and oxygen of functional groups, especially with epoxides on the GO sheets. Nanocomposite production in different arc currents shows that the greater the electrical current, the stronger the bond is formed between WO{sub 3} and GO. X-ray diffraction confirms that the WO{sub 3} nanoparticles on the GO are highly crystalline in monoclinic phase. Moreover, by increasing the arc current from 20 to 40 A, the band gap energy of GO + WO{sub 3} decreases to ∝2.6 eV. (orig.)

  18. Universal synthesis of air stable, phase pure, controllable FeSe2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengrong; Bai, Yongxiao; Deng, Aiying; Bao, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Iron diselenium (FeSe2) is a promising semiconductor for thin-film solar cells because it has a suitable band gap (E g = 1.0 eV) and high absorption coefficient. Despite these prospects, the controllable synthesis of FeSe2 nanostructures and the diversity of their geometries has hardly been studied previously. Here, we described a successful synthesis of phase-pure, high-quality, and stable orthorhombic FeSe2 nanocrystals (NCs) in aqueous solvents. A variety of morphologies of the FeSe2 NCs were achieved by adjusting synthetic methods. FeSe2 nanoparticles with diameters of 30-100 nm were synthesized in the presence of ethylenediamine (en). Moreover, the synthetic approach developed for nanoparticles proved to be quite universal and could be modified to produce nanowires and octahedrons, with which structure the material could display high crystallinity. The diameter of the FeSe2 nanowires was 300-500 nm with a length exceeding 2 μm. The octahedrons displayed lateral dimensions of 1 μm. Meanwhile, the probable growth mechanism and fabrication process of the NCs were proposed. Polycrystalline FeSe2 thin films were fabricated by modifying the sedimentation method. The obvious photoconductivity of FeSe2 has already been observed, and it was considered to be one candidate of solar cell for the very first time.

  19. Effect of doping on exciton states in InSe and GaSe lamellar semiconductors. [InSe:Dy; InSe:Ho; GaSe:Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhafarova, S.Z.; Ragimova, N.A.; Abutalybov, G.I.; Guseinov, A.M.; Abdinov, A.S. (Inst. of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan))

    1991-11-16

    Investigations of exciton luminescence and absorption spectra of InSe (GaSe) lamellar semiconductors doped with different kinds of compounds at T=1.8 K are carried out. It is found that changes in the luminescence intensity of free and bound excitons are due to screening of Coulomb interaction between electron and hole. Increase of free excitons luminescence intensity in InSe crystals activated by holmium ions is attributed to ''healing'' of metal and chalcogenide vacancies and also to interlaminar interaction increase due to exchange interaction of local formations, i.e. holmium ions. (orig.).

  20. Excited state assisted three-photon absorption based optical limiting in nanocrystalline Cu2Se and FeSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Benoy; Molli, Muralikrishna; Aditha, Saikiran; Mimani Rattan, Tanu; Siva Sankara Sai, S.; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2013-09-01

    Transition metal selenides (FeSe2 and Cu2Se) are synthesized by the hydrothermal co-reduction method. XRD results revealed the crystalline nature of their single phase and the elemental compositions are obtained using EDS. TEM images of the as-prepared samples show the formation of nanorods of 10-20 nm diameter in case of iron selenide and nanoparticles of 10-35 nm diameter in case of copper selenide. The energy bandgap values are calculated using tauc plots obtained from UV-Visible absorption spectra. The open aperture Z-scan measurements carried out using 5 ns pulses at 532 nm revealed that the samples showed excellent optical limiting behavior owing to strong nonlinear absorption (NLA). Through numerical simulations, the mechanism of NLA is found to be effective three-photon absorption which has significant contribution from excited state absorption.

  1. ¿Se desindustrializa Brasil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mattos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende retomar algunos temas específicos del debate sobre la desindustrialización en Brasil, así como también, apunta a recordar algunos aspectos del debate teórico-histórico sobre la desindustrialización, presente en la literatura sobre desarrollo económico. En la primera parte, se destacan algunos elementos del referido debate presentes en la literatura especializada, discutiendo aspectos teóricos de la formulación kaldoriana que destacan el papel del crecimiento industrial y de la mudanza estructural en el crecimiento de las economías capitalistas. En la segunda, son organizados y analizados algunos indicadores recientes del desempeño del sector industrial brasileño. Finalmente, se ofrecen algunas breves notas conclusivas.

  2. Characterization of Cu{sub 2−x}Se thin films synthesized from electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tung-Cheng [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, Yi, E-mail: huyi@ttu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Bing [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Taipei Chengshih University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Cu{sub 2−x}Se films were electrodeposited on Mo substrate with CuSO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}. • The deposited films were near-stoichiometric Cu{sub 2−x}Se with FCC structure. • The direct band gap for Cu{sub 2−x}Se thin films are in the range of 2.14–2.18 eV. -- Abstract: Copper selenide (Cu{sub 2−x}Se) thin films were potentiostatically deposited on molybdenum substrate with an aqueous solution of CuSO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}. The effect of the deposition potential on the microstructure and electrical properties of the thin films were studied using FESEM, HRTEM, and two probe conducting measurements. The morphologies of the films changed from densely packed nanoparticles to the plate-like grains growing perpendicular to the substrate. In addition, these plates were composed of nanoparticles of about 100–200 nm in size. The nanoparticles were verified to be the face centered cubic (FCC) Cu{sub 2−x}Se from XPS and HRTEM analysis. The direct band gap for the Cu{sub 2−x}Se thin films was in the range of 2.14–2.18 eV measured from UV–vis absorption edge. The electrical conductivity of the thin films increased from 4.51 × 10{sup −3} to 7.08 × 10{sup −3} (Ω m){sup −1} as the Cu/Se ratio decreased from 1.92 to 1.89.

  3. Fabrication of ITO/Ag3SbS3/CdX (X = S, Se) thin film heterojunctions for photo-sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, T.; Henry, J.; Mohanraj, K.; Sivakumar, G.

    2016-11-01

    Thin film heterojunctions of Ag3SbS3/CdX (X = S, Se) are deposited on a glass substrate coated with SnO2:In (ITO). The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and I-V analysis. XRD reveals the monoclinic structure of Ag3SbS3 and a fcc structure for both CdS and CdSe thin films. The AFM images clearly show the distinct morphological features (nanopyramids, wedge-shaped and rectangular nanorod-like grains). From the I-V studies, under illumination, an ITO/Ag3SbS3/CdS heterojunction produces a higher photocurrent (12.4 mA) than that an ITO/Ag3SbS3/CdSe heterojunction (1.34 mA).

  4. Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer for Biosensing, Molecular Imaging and Drug Release Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Nai-Tzu Chen; Shih-Hsun Cheng; Ching-Ping Liu; Jeffrey S. Souris; Chen-Tu Chen; Chung-Yuan Mou; Leu-Wei Lo

    2012-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) may be regarded as a “smart” technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of “visible” and “activatable” FRET probes se...

  5. Illa se iactet in aula!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertomeu, María Julia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available More than a few of Kant’s contemporaries, including some of his disciples, were sharply critical of the systematic character of his philosophy, and, markedly, of the philosophical prose in which this character was expressed. Others, on the contrary, found solace in the prospect of seeing the philosopher either isolated or trapped in the purely speculative realm of the academic room, in the good —or bad— company of all the metaphysical politicians of the time: «illa se iactet in aula!» However, fearful that the walls or the metaphorical bars of the room were not enough to contain the «popular» propagation of Kant’s ideas, they completed —in line with Burke— Virgilio’s poem, distinctly alluding to surely less symbolic bars: «Illa se iactet in aula Aeolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet». Kant replied in time, writing both to each group separately and to everyone at once. But he did it always from his fiercely held conviction about the importance of both a philosophical theory and a methodological discipline, which, even when «unpopular» in the beginning, he considered essential elements of a moral and political practice that was so hostile toward moral paternalism as it was to its counterpart, a (paternalistic political despotism.

    No pocos contemporáneos de Kant, incluidos algunos de sus discípulos, fueron pródigos en la crítica mordaz del carácter sistemático de su filosofía, y señaladamente, de la prosa filosófica en que ese carácter se expresaba. Otros, en cambio, no se privaron de manifestar el deseo de ver al filósofo aislado o acorralado en el recinto puramente especulativo del aula académica, en la buena —o en la mala— compañía de todos los políticos metafísicos de la época: «illa se iactet in aula!» Pero, temerosos de que los muros o los barrotes metafóricos del aula no bastaran a contener la propagación «popular» de las ideas del filósofo, completaron

  6. Thermoelectric Performance for SnSe Hot-Pressed at Different Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Li, J. C.; Qin, X. Y.; Zhang, J.; Song, C. J.; Wang, L.; Xin, H. X.

    2016-09-01

    Herein, nanoparticles SnSe are prepared by fusion method together with ball-milling technique and the effect of hot-pressing temperatures on the thermoelectric properties of the dense materials is explored. Due to the optimization of carrier concentration, the peak figure of merit (ZT) value of the compacted material reaches 0.73 for SnSe sample hot-pressed at 400°C and 450°C. The present investigation indicates that the thermoelectric performance of the SnSe compound can be significantly improved by sintering with suitable temperature.

  7. Development of Nanoparticle Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I have been working with the development of nanoparticle sensitized solar cells. In the subarea of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), I have investigated type-II quantum dots (QDs), quantum rods (QRs) and alloy QDs, and developed novel redox couples as electrolytes. I have also proposed upconversion nanoparticles as energy relay materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Colloidal ZnSe/CdS type-II QDs were applied for QDSCs for the first time. The interesting fe...

  8. Phase transition and high temperature thermoelectric properties of copper selenide Cu2-xSe (0 <= x <= 0.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xing-Xing; Xie, Wen-Jie; Tang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Jie

    2011-08-01

    With good electrical properties and an inherently complex crystal structure, Cu2-xSe is a potential “phonon glass electron crystal" thermoelectric material that has previously not attracted much interest. In this study, Cu2-xSe (0 <= x <= 0.25) compounds were synthesized by a melting-quenching method, and then sintered by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulk material. The effect of Cu content on the phase transition and thermoelectric properties of Cu2-xSe were investigated in the temperature range of 300 K-750 K. The results of X-ray diffraction at room temperature show that Cu2-xSe compounds possess a cubic structure with a space group of Fm3m(#225) when 0.15 <= x <= 0.25, whereas they adopt a composite of monoclinic and cubic phases when 0 <= x <= 0.15. The thermoelectric property measurements show that with increasing Cu content, the electrical conductivity decreases, the Seebeck coefficient increases and the thermal conductivity decreases. Due to the relatively good power factor and low thermal conductivity, the nearly stoichiometric Cu2Se compound achieves the highest ZT of 0.38 at 750 K. It is expected that the thermoelectric performance can be further optimized by doping appropriate elements and/or via a nanostructuring approach.

  9. Comparison and validation of Logistic Regression and Analytic Hierarchy Process models of landslide susceptibility in monoclinic regions. A case study in Moldavian Plateau, N-E Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Niculita, Mihai

    2014-05-01

    The regions with monoclinic geological structure are large portions of earth surface where the repetition of similar landform patterns is very distinguished, the scarps of cuestas being characterized by similar values of morphometrical variables. Landslides are associated with these scarps of cuestas and consequently, a very high value of landslide susceptibility can be reported on its surface. In these regions, landslide susceptibility mapping can be realized for the entire region, or for test areas, with accurate, reliable, and available datasets, concerning multi-temporal inventories and landslide predictors. Because of the similar geomorphologic and landslide distribution we think that if any relevance of using test areas for extrapolating susceptibility models is present, these areas should be targeted first. This study case try to establish the level of usability of landslide predictors influence, obtained for a 90 km2 sample located in the northern part of the Moldavian Plateau (N-E Romania), in other areas of the same physio-geographic region. In a first phase, landslide susceptibility assessment was carried out and validated using logistic regression (LR) approach, using a multiple landslide inventory. This inventory was created using ortorectified aerial images from 1978 and 2005, for each period being considered both old and active landslides. The modeling strategy was based on a distinctly inventory of depletion areas of all landslide, for 1978 phase, and on a number of 30 covariates extracted from topographical and aerial images (both from 1978 and 2005 periods). The geomorphometric variables were computed from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained by interpolation from 1:5000 contour data (2.5 m equidistance), at 10x10 m resolution. Distance from river network, distance from roads and land use were extracted from topographic maps and aerial images. By applying Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) the covariates with significance under 0.001 level

  10. Crystal field analysis of Nd{sup 3+} energy levels in monoclinic NdAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascales, C.; Zaldo, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Caldino, U. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Mexico DF (Mexico); Garcia Sole, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Luo, Z.D. [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2001-09-03

    The energies of 135 Kramers doublets extending up to the {sup 2}H1{sub 11/2} multiplet for Nd{sup 3+} in a monoclinic C2/c space group (No 15) NdAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (NAB) single crystal laser have been determined from polarized optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements at 7 K. The strongly polarized character of the Nd spectra has been discussed under the assumption of a local D{sub 3} symmetry, higher than the C{sub 2} symmetry of NAB, and the observed energy levels have been labelled with the adequate crystal quantum numbers and irreducible representations. A detailed Hamiltonian of 21 parameters has been used in the simulation of the energy levels and associated wavefunctions of the 4f{sup 3} configuration of Nd{sup 3+}. The diagonalized complete energy matrix combines simultaneously the free-ion and single-particle crystal field interactions. Starting B{sup k}{sub q} CF parameters were calculated from the semi-empirical simple overlap model SOM. A comparative simulation considering the C{sub 2} symmetry of NAB is provided. Moreover, two-electron CF interactions as well as an empirical correction have been tested in calculating the anomalous splitting of the {sup 2}H2{sub 11/2} levels. A final fit in D{sub 3} symmetry produces a very good adjustment with a low rms deviation {sigma}=15.3 cm{sup -1} between observed and calculated energy levels. (author)

  11. El derecho costarricense se actualiza

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Pérez, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Durante muchos años el derecho costarricense se mantuvo estático, tranquilo frente a los cambios sociales, políticos, económicos, religiosos, etc. Parecía que el sistema jurídico era indiferente a la movilidad en las demás estructuras del Sistema Social. Esto, superficialmente, indujo a más de un observador, pétreo, reaccionario y resistente en las transformaciones operadas en el resto de la realidad del país. Sin embargo, tales cambios en las estructuras y en las relaciones globales paulatin...

  12. Buenas piezas. Cuando se siente

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Borja; Lo Siento; Molinero Domingo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Entrevista a Borja Martínez de Lo Siento Studio. Viajamos a Barcelona para conocer el espacio en el que Lo Siento desarrolla su trabajo. Se trata de un estudio reconocido por los proyectos de identidad gráfica, packaging, diseño editorial y especialmente valorados por la creación de atractivas tipografías. Han recibido varios Laus y Grand Laus, premios organizados por la Asociación de Diseñadores Gráficos y Directores de Arte (ADG-FAD), por ejemplo al álbum The Mill...

  13. Probing and repairing damaged surfaces with nanoparticle-containing microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Katrina; Narasimhan, Amrit; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Moon, Sungcheal; Revanur, Ravindra; Kundu, Santanu; Kim, Hyun Suk; Crosby, Alfred J.; Russell, Thomas P.; Emrick, Todd; Kolmakov, German; Balazs, Anna C.

    2012-02-01

    Nanoparticles have useful properties, but it is often important that they only start working after they are placed in a desired location. The encapsulation of nanoparticles allows their function to be preserved until they are released at a specific time or location, and this has been exploited in the development of self-healing materials and in applications such as drug delivery. Encapsulation has also been used to stabilize and control the release of substances, including flavours, fragrances and pesticides. We recently proposed a new technique for the repair of surfaces called `repair-and-go'. In this approach, a flexible microcapsule filled with a solution of nanoparticles rolls across a surface that has been damaged, stopping to repair any defects it encounters by releasing nanoparticles into them, then moving on to the next defect. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the repair-and-go approach using droplets of oil that are stabilized with a polymer surfactant and contain CdSe nanoparticles. We show that these microcapsules can find the cracks on a surface and selectively deliver the nanoparticle contents into the crack, before moving on to find the next crack. Although the microcapsules are too large to enter the cracks, their flexible walls allow them to probe and adhere temporarily to the interior of the cracks. The release of nanoparticles is made possible by the thin microcapsule wall (comparable to the diameter of the nanoparticles) and by the favourable (hydrophobic-hydrophobic) interactions between the nanoparticle and the cracked surface.

  14. Nitrogen-doped graphene/ZnSe nanocomposites: hydrothermal synthesis and their enhanced electrochemical and photocatalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Xiao, Tian-Yuan; Li, Hui-Hui; Yang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zheng; Yao, Hong-Bin; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-24

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (GN) has great potential applications in many fields because doping with nitrogen can alter the electrical properties of graphene. It is still a challenge to develop a convenient method for synthesis of GN sheets. In this paper, we first report the synthesis of a nitrogen-doped graphene/ZnSe nanocomposite (GN-ZnSe) by a one-pot hydrothermal process at low temperature using graphene oxide nanosheets and [ZnSe](DETA)(0.5) nanobelts as precursors. ZnSe nanorods composed of ZnSe nanoparticles were found to deposit on the surface of the GN sheets. The results demonstrated that [ZnSe](DETA)(0.5) nanobelts were used not only as the source of ZnSe nanoparticles but also as the nitrogen source. Interestingly, it was found that the as-prepared nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance for oxygen reduction reaction and photocatalytic activities for the bleaching of methyl orange dye under visible-light irradiation. This facile and catalyst-free approach for depositing ZnSe nanoparticles onto the graphene sheets may provide an alternative way for preparation of other nanocomposites based on GN sheets under mild conditions, which show their potential applications in wastewater treatment, fuel cells, energy storage, nanodevices, and so on.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen generation and simultaneous degradation of organic pollutant via CdSe/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenchao [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Li, Fang [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Dieqing [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Leung, Dennis Y.C., E-mail: ycleung@hku.hk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong (China); Li, Guisheng, E-mail: liguisheng@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Resource Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: A highly efficient CdSe/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays photoanode was explored via the electrodeposition with ion-exchange method for photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution and simultaneous degradation of organic pollutant under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • CdSe nanoparticles enhanced TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays electrode was prepared by an electrodeposition with ion-exchange method. • CdSe nanoparticles were strongly bonded on the pore walls of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, with the formation of CdSe–TiO{sub 2} heterojunctions. • Such CdSe/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes arrays, acting as photoanode, exhibited high efficiency for both generation of hydrogen and degradation of MO in photoelectrocatalysis reaction system under visible-light irradiation. - Abstract: CdSe nanoparticles enhanced TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays electrodes (CdSe/TNTAs) were explored as the photoanode for driving the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) generation of hydrogen and simultaneous degradation of organic pollutants in a PEC system. The evolution hydrogen and the simultaneous degradation of organic pollutants were performed in an electrolytic cell (three electrodes system) under visible-light (λ > 400 nm). Such CdSe/TiO{sub 2} based PEC system exhibited both high efficiency of hydrogen generation and effective oxidation of methyl orange (MO). Such high PEC performance of CdSe/TNTAs was attributed to the high dispersity of CdSe nanoparticles on both outside and inside of the pore walls of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, the strong combination and heterojunctions between CdSe and TiO{sub 2} through Cd−O bonds via electrodeposition with ion-exchange method.

  16. Interferometric investigation and simulation of refractive index in glass matrixes containing nanoparticles of varying sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeney, Michael Gerard; Ince, Rabia; Yukselici, Mehmet Hikmet; Allahverdi, Cagdas

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between refractive index and nanoparticle radii of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles embedded within glass matrixes was investigated experimentally and by simulations. A homemade automated Michelson interferometer arrangement employing a rotating table and a He-Ne laser source at a wavelength of 632.8 nm determined the refractive index versus nanoparticle radii of embedded cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles. The refractive index was found to decrease linearly with nanoparticle radius increase. However, one sample showed a step increase in refractive index; on spectroscopic analysis, it was found that its resonant wavelength matched that of the He-Ne source wavelength. The simulations showed that two conditions caused the step increase in refractive index: low plasma frequency and matched sample and source resonances. This simple interferometer setup defines a new method of determining the radii of nanoparticles embedded in substrates and enables refractive index tailoring by modification of exact annealing conditions.

  17. Neutron diffraction study on hydrogen bond structure in K{sub 3}H(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} and K{sub 3}D(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda-Yamamuro, N.; Yamamuro, O.; Matsuo, T. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan). E-mail: matsuo@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ichikawa, M. [Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Ibberson, R.M.; David, W.I.F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-09

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the room- and low-temperature phases of K{sub 3}H(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} (T{sub trs} = 21 K) and K{sub 3}D(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} (T{sub trs} = 105 K) have been performed using the time-of-flight high-resolution powder diffractometer HRPD at the ISIS pulsed neutron source. Data were collected at 2 and 30 K for K{sub 3}H(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} and 2 and 130 K for K{sub 3}D(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} over the d-spacing range 0.7-2.4 A. The room-temperature phases of the crystals have monoclinic structure belonging to the space group A2/a. Rietveld refinement combined with the published dielectric and calorimetric studies reveals that H/D atoms are disordered over two symmetry-equivalent positions. The hydrogen bonds are non-linear with an O-H/D...O angle of 175(1) deg. The hydrogen bond length is 2.495(1) A in K{sub 3}H(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} and 2.533(2) A in K{sub 3}D(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The separation between the half occupancy hydrogen positions is 0.32(1) A for K{sub 3}H(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2} and 0.550(4) A for K{sub 3}D(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The relation between these structural parameters and the isotope effect in the transition temperature is discussed. Diffraction patterns of the low-temperature phases indicated that the structure change accompanying the transition is very small. (author)

  18. Nanoparticles: Uncertainty Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Scientific uncertainty plays a major role in assessing the potential environmental risks of nanoparticles. Moreover, there is uncertainty within fundamental data and information regarding the potential environmental and health risks of nanoparticles, hampering risk assessments based on standard a...

  19. Main: SE2PVGRP1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE2PVGRP1 S000101 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi SE2 (stem element 2) of bean (P.v.) GRP...1.8 gene; part of SE2 element; stem; SE2; GRP; GRP1; bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) TTNNNGTAGCTAGTGTATTTGTAT ...

  20. Pressure effect and electron diffraction on the anomalous transition in ternary superconductor Bi2Rh3Se2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Chan, C. L.; Mukherjee, S.; Chou, C. C.; Tseng, C. M.; Hsu, S. L.; Chu, M.-W.; Lin, J.-Y.; Yang, H. D.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of external hydrostatic pressure up to 22.23 kbar on the temperature-dependent transport properties of the ternary compound Bi2Rh3Se2 is investigated. Interestingly, the resistive anomaly at Ts~250 K, previously proposed as a charge-density-wave (CDW) transition, is shifted to higher temperature with increasing pressure, in distinct contrast to an established knowledge for CDW. Using temperature-dependent electron-diffraction characterizations, we have unraveled that this transition is, in effect, of a structural phase-transformation nature, experiencing the symmetry reduction from a high-symmetry C-centered monoclinic lattice to a low-symmetry primitive one below Ts. A more elaborately determined room-temperature C-centered lattice was also proposed.

  1. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Koster, Rik S.; Wang, Shuaiwei; Fang, Changming; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; van Huis, Marijn A.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., "Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heterona

  2. Nanoparticles for photothermal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaque, D; Martínez Maestro, L; del Rosal, B; Haro-Gonzalez, P; Benayas, A; Plaza, J L; Martín Rodríguez, E; García Solé, J

    2014-08-21

    The current status of the use of nanoparticles for photothermal treatments is reviewed in detail. The different families of heating nanoparticles are described paying special attention to the physical mechanisms at the root of the light-to-heat conversion processes. The heating efficiencies and spectral working ranges are listed and compared. The most important results obtained in both in vivo and in vitro nanoparticle assisted photothermal treatments are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of the different heating nanoparticles are discussed.

  3. Synthesis of quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles using a segmented flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbwahnche, R. C.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Ryzhov, O. A.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an automated method of synthesizing quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles using segmented flow rector synthesis as a new alternative to the batch method of synthesizing nanoparticles. A reactor was successfully applied to the synthesis of colloidal solutions of semiconductor (CdSe) and metal (Ag) nanoparticles. This instrument is applicable in both material science laboratories and industry.

  4. Segmented flow reactor for synthesis of quantum dot nanocrystals and plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbwahnche, R. C.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Ryzhov, O. A.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    This research presents an automated method of synthesizing semiconductor and metal nanoparticles using flow rector synthesis as a new alternative to the batch method of synthesizing nanoparticles. Experiments were carried out to determine the optimal flow rates of reagents droplets. The reactor was successfully applied to the synthesis of colloidal solutions of semiconductor (CdSe) and metal (Ag) nanoparticles. This instrument is applicable both in material science laboratories and in industry.

  5. Se metallomics during lactic fermentation of Se-enriched yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, María; Gutiérrez, Ana M; Pérez-Conde, M Concepción; Cámara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2014-12-01

    Selenium biotransformation by lactic acid bacteria during the preparation of Se-enriched yogurt was evaluated. The study focused on the distribution of selenium in the aqueous soluble protein fraction and the detection of selenoamino acids. Screening of selenium in Tris-buffer-urea soluble fraction was carried out by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after pre-fractionating with asymmetric field flow fractionation using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as the detector. Selenium-containing fractions were identified by peptide mapping using nano LC-ESI/LTQMS. Proteins such as thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, albumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoperoxidase were identified in the selenium-containing fraction. All these proteins were detected in both the control and the selenium-enriched yogurt except chaperones, which were only detected in the control samples. Chaperones are heat-shock proteins expressed in response to elevated temperature or other cellular stresses. Selenium may have an effect on chaperones expression in Lactobacillus. For the amino acids analysis, selenocysteine was the primary seleno-containing species.

  6. Se equivocó el masoreta ¿se equivocaba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Tejero, Emilia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has a didactic purpose; it is not aimed at scholars of the Masora but rather at researchers in closely associated areas. The editions of Hebrew Biblical manuscripts and critical studies that have been published recently are particularly useful tools for those who wish to delve into other areas of research such as the history of the Hebrew Biblical text, its exegesis or the origins of grammar. Here, the author concentrates on the analysis of three issues: variant formulations of a same information; coherence between a text and its Masorah, and the possible discrepancies among sources.

    Este artículo, de carácter didáctico, no está destinado a los estudiosos de la Masora, sino a investigadores de áreas cercanas. Las ediciones de manuscritos y los estudios publicados en los últimos años son instrumentos de gran utilidad para quienes deseen adentrarse en un campo de investigación con repercusión en otras áreas tales como la historia del texto bíblico hebreo, su exégesis o los inicios de la gramática. Se analizan tres cuestiones: distinta formulación para una misma noticia, coherencia entre un texto y su masora y posibles discrepancias entre las fuentes.

  7. A novel inorganic precipitation-peptization method for VO2 sol and VO2 nanoparticles preparation: Synthesis, characterization and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Jiang, Peng; Xiang, Wei; Ran, Fanyong; Cao, Wenbin

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a simple, safe and cost-saving precipitation-peptization method was proposed to prepare VO2 sol by using inorganic VOSO4-NH3⋅H2O-H2O2 reactants system in air under room temperature. In this process, VOSO4 was firstly precipitated to form VO(OH)2, then monometallic species of VO(O2)(OH)(-) were formed through the coordination between VO(OH)2 and H2O2. The rearrangement of VO(O2)(OH)(-) in a nonplanar pattern and intermolecular condensation reactions result in multinuclear species. Finally, VO2 sol is prepared through the condensation reactions between the multinuclear species. After drying the obtained sol at 40°C, VO2 xerogel exhibiting monoclinic crystal structure with the space group of C2/m was prepared. The crystal structure of VO2 nanoparticles was transferred to monoclinic crystal structure with the space group of P21/c (VO2(M)) by annealing the xerogel at 550°C. Both XRD and TEM analysis indicated that the nanoparticles possess good crystallinity with crystallite size of 34.5nm as estimated by Scherrer's method. These results suggest that the VO2 sol has been prepared successfully through the proposed simple method.

  8. Functionalization of fabrics with PANI/CuO nanoparticles by precipitation route for anti-bacterial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thampi, V. V. Anusha; Thanka Rajan, S.; Anupriya, K.; Subramanian, B., E-mail: subramanianb3@gmail.com, E-mail: bsmanian@cecri.res.in [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute (India)

    2015-01-15

    The present work aims at developing copper oxide nanocrystals immobilized onto the fabrics for the improvement of antimicrobial activity. The CuO nanocrytstals were deposited onto woven fabrics and non-woven fabrics through chemical precipitation route. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM, and TEM. The presence of CuO on the surface of the fabrics was confirmed by EDAX. The CuO nanoparticles were found to have grown to a size of 50 nm with a monoclinic structure. The antibacterial activities were assessed for the coated CuO samples by the agar diffusion plate method followed by FE-SEM. To promote the slow release of Cu ions into the medium from the fabric matrix, the synthesized nanoparticles were immobilized in polyaniline polymer matrix before being coated onto the fabric samples, and the results are discussed.Graphical Abstract.

  9. Loading of atorvastatin and linezolid in β-cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide/silica nanoparticles: A spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Eva Janet; Shibu, Abhishek [Department of Nanosciences & Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Paulraj, Mosae Selvakumar [Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Enoch, Israel V.M.V., E-mail: drisraelenoch@gmail.com [Department of Nanosciences & Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Chemistry, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of β–cyclodextrin–conjugated cadmium selenide–silica nanoparticles, the loading of two drugs viz., Atorvastatin and linezolid in the cyclodextrin cavity, and the fluorescence energy transfer between CdSe/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the drugs encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity are reported in this paper. IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis by light–scattering experiment were used as the tools of characterizing the size and the crystal system of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles fall under hexagonal system. The silica–shell containing CdSe nanoparticles were functionalized by reaction with aminoethylamino–β–cyclodextrin. Fluorescence spectra of the nanoparticles in their free and drug–encapsulated forms were studied. The FÖrster distances between the encapsulated drugs and the CdSe nanoparticles are below 3 nm. The change in the FÖrster resonance energy parameters under physiological conditions may aid in tracking the release of drugs from the cavity of the cyclodextrin. - Highlights: • CdSe/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of crystallite size 15 nm are prepared. • β-Cyclodextrin is attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. • Atorvastatin and linezolid get encapsulated in the cyclodextrin cavity. • FRET efficiency between the nanoparticles and the loaded drugs are determined.

  10. O3 Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Juan

    2016-11-16

    Ti2O3 nanoparticles with high performance of photothermal conversion are demonstrated for the first time. Benefiting from the nanosize and narrow-bandgap features, the Ti2O3 nanoparticles possess strong light absorption and nearly 100% internal solar–thermal conversion efficiency. Furthermore, Ti2O3 nanoparticle-based thin film shows potential use in seawater desalination and purification.

  11. Shape tunable plasmonic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; El-Sayed, Ivan Homer

    2017-03-07

    Noble metal nanoparticles and methods of their use are provided. Certain aspects provided solid noble metal nanoparticles tuned to the near infrared. The disclosed nanoparticles can be used in molecular imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods for imaging cells are also provided.

  12. Shape tunable plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; El-Sayed, Ivan Homer

    2017-03-07

    Noble metal nanoparticles and methods of their use are provided. Certain aspects provided solid noble metal nanoparticles tuned to the near infrared. The disclosed nanoparticles can be used in molecular imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods for imaging cells are also provided.

  13. High-conjugation-efficiency aqueous CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Giang H T; Shih, Wan Y; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2013-11-12

    Quantum dots (QDs) are photoluminescent nanoparticles that can be directly or indirectly coupled with a receptor such as an antibody to specifically image a target biomolecule such as an antigen. Recent studies have shown that QDs can be directly made at room temperature and in an aqueous environment (AQDs) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the capping ligand without solvent and ligand exchange typically required by QDs made by the organic solvent routes (OQDs). In this study, we have synthesized CdSe AQDs and compared their conjugation efficiency and imaging efficacy with commercial carboxylated OQDs in HT29 colon cancer cells using a primary antibody-biotinylated secondary antibody-streptavidin (SA) sandwich. We showed that the best imaging condition for AQDs occurred when one AQD was bound with 3 ± 0.3 SA with a nominal SA/AQD ratio of 4 corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 75 ± 7.5%. In comparison, for commercial CdSe-ZnS OQDs to achieve 2.7 ± 0.4 bound SAs per OQD for comparable imaging efficacy a nominal SA/OQD ratio of 80 was needed corresponding to an SA conjugation efficiency of 3.4 ± 0.5% for CdSe-ZnS OQDs. The more than 10 times better SA conjugation efficiency of the CdSe AQDs as compared to that of the CdSe-ZnS OQDs was attributed to more capping molecules on the AQD surface as a result of the direct aqueous synthesis. More capping molecules on the AQD surface also allowed the SA-AQD conjugate to be stable in cell culture medium for more than three days without losing their staining capability in a flowing cell culture medium. In contrast, SA-OQD conjugates aggregated in cell culture medium and in phosphate buffer saline solution over time.

  14. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped p-GaSe/n-InSe heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetomi, S.; Ikari, T.

    2000-08-01

    GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions have been formed by bringing the cleavage surface of undoped n-InSe and Cu-doped p-GaSe into direct contact. Transport and phototransport properties are studied by the measurements of capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, and the spectral response of short-circuit current. Moreover, the efficiency parameters under illumination are estimated by using the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current. These characteristics of GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions are compared with those of GaSe(Un)/InSe heterojunctions fabricated by undoped p-GaSe and n-InSe. The series resistance of GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions is found, the value of which is about 103 times lower than the corresponding value of GaSe(Un)/InSe heterojunctions. A short-circuit current density of 9.0 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage of 0.42 V on GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions are obtained under illumination of 120 mW/cm2 of a halogen lamp. The short-circuit current of GaSe(Cu)/InSe heterojunctions is about one order of magnitude lager than that of GaSe(Un)/InSe heterojunctions. These experimental results indicate that the low-resistivity of Cu-doped GaSe is effective for the electrical and photovoltaic properties of GaSe/InSe heterojunctions.

  15. Observation of Anomalous Properties associated with the Low Temperature Structural Distortion in β-FeSe and Related Superconductorsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M. K.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Superconductivity in the tetragonal phase FeSe provides a unique platform for the detailed investigation of the correlation between the physical properties and crystal structure to better understand the possible origin of superconductivity in the new iron-based superconductors. We have carried out a series of properties characterizations by measuring magnetic susceptibility, Raman, NMR and femtosecond spectroscopy on single crystals and epitaxial thin films of the FeSe and Te-doped Fe(SeTe samples. Our results show clearly the presence of anomalies in all the characterized properties at the temperature where a structural distortion from tetragonal to orthorhombic (or monoclinic appears for all superconducting samples, but not in the non-superconducting ones. This structural distortion was observed not accompanied by a magnetic ordering as commonly occurs in the parent compounds of FeAs-based superconductors. All the observations suggest that the low temperature structural distortion is essential for the occurrence of superconductivity in the FeSe and related compounds. Details of the experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  16. Metal-selenium interactions. Crystal structure of binuclear [(1 -iodo)-(2 - -iodo) (triphenyl selenophosphorane-Se)mercury(II)]2 complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarlok S Lobana; Amarjeet Singh; Mandeep Kaur; Alfonso Castineiras

    2001-04-01

    Reaction of mercury(II) diiodide with triphenyl selenophosphorane-Se (1:1 mole ratio) in acetone followed by recrystallisation of the product from chloroform formed crystals of stoichiometry {HgI2(Ph3PSe)}(1). Compound 1 existsas a centrosymmetric homobimetallic dimer, {Hg( -I)I(Ph3PSe)}2, as monoclinic crystals of space group 21/. The dimer comprises two 2-iodo atoms that form unequal Hg-I bonds {2 8230(10), 3 1135(9) Å} and two equal terminal Hg-I bonds {2 6524(10) Å}. The Se atom of Ph3PSe forms terminal Hg-Se bond {2 5914(11)Å} and thus the geometry about each Hg centre is distorted tetrahedral and the range of tetrahedral bond angles is 92 97(2) to 130 85(3)°, the largest being that of Se(1)-Hg(1)-I(1) and the shortest, I(2)-Hg(1)-I(2)∗. Hg-Hg and I-I separations of {4 0930(11)Å} and {4 3097(15)Å} are more than the sums of their respective van der Waal radii {3 00 Å and 4 24 Å}.

  17. About lamination upper and convexification lower bounds on the free energy of monoclinic shape memory alloys in the context of T 3-configurations and R-phase formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechte-Heinen, R.; Schlömerkemper, A.

    2016-11-01

    This work is concerned with different estimates of the quasiconvexification of multi-well energy landscapes of NiTi shape memory alloys, which models the overall behavior of the material. Within the setting of the geometrically linear theory of elasticity, we consider a formula of the quasiconvexification which involves the so-called energy of mixing.We are interested in lower and upper bounds on the energy of mixing in order to get a better understanding of the quasiconvexification. The lower bound on the energy of mixing is obtained by convexification; it is also called Sachs or Reuß lower bound. The upper bound on the energy of mixing is based on second-order lamination. In particular, we are interested in the difference between the lower and upper bounds. Our numerical simulations show that the difference is in fact of the order of 1% and less in martensitic NiTi, even though both bounds on the energy of mixing were rather expected to differ more significantly. Hence, in various circumstances it may be justified to simply work with the convexification of the multi-well energy, which is relatively easy to deal with, or with the lamination upper bound, which always corresponds to a physically realistic microstructure, as an estimate of the quasiconvexification. In order to obtain a potentially large difference between upper and lower bound, we consider the bounds along paths in strain space which involve incompatible strains. In monoclinic shape memory alloys, three-tuples of pairwise incompatible strains play a special role since they form so-called T 3-configurations, originally discussed in a stress-free setting. In this work, we therefore consider in particular numerical simulations along paths in strain space which are related to these T 3-configurations. Interestingly, we observe that the second-order lamination upper bound along such paths is related to the geometry of the T 3-configurations. In addition to the purely martensitic regime, we also consider

  18. Anomalous antibacterial activity and dye degradation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Raj Kumar; Nenavathu, Bhavani Prasad; Talukdar, Soumita

    2014-02-01

    Selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by mechanochemical method were spherically shaped of size distribution of 10.2±3.4 nm measured by transmission electron microscopy. Diffused reflectance spectroscopy revealed increase in the band gap, ranging between 3.47 eV and 3.63 eV due to Se doping in ZnO nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of pristine and Se doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation in culture media confirmed by TBARS assay. Compared to complete inhibition of growth by 0.45 mg/mL of pristine ZnO nanoparticles, the batches of 0.45 mg/mL of selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibited only 51% inhibition of growth of Escherichia coli. The reduced antibacterial activity of selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to two opposing factors, e.g., ROS generation for inhibition of growth, countered by sustaining growth of E. coli due to availability of Se micronutrients in culture media, confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer measurement. Higher ROS generation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was attributed to creation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed from green emission peak observed at 565 nm. The impact of higher ROS generation by selenium doped ZnO nanoparticles was evident from enhanced photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue dye, than pristine ZnO nanoparticles.

  19. Low temperature formation of CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cell absorbers by all printed multiple species nanoparticulate Se + Cu-In + Cu-Ga precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möckel, Stefan A., E-mail: Stefan.A.Moeckel@FAU.de [Department of Materials Science, Chair of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wernicke, Tobias; Arzig, Matthias; Köder, Philipp [Department of Materials Science, Chair of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Brandl, Marco [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Ahmad, Rameez; Distaso, Monica; Peukert, Wolfgang [Institute of Particle Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Cauerstr. 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hock, Rainer [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wellmann, Peter J. [Department of Materials Science, Chair of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    In this work an all nanoparticulate precursor for application in Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} solar cell absorbers is presented. Binary Cu-In nanoparticles, Cu-Ga powder and elemental Se nanoparticles were mixed in dispersion and deposited on Mo-coated substrates. Research was focused on Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} layer formation kinetics, phase composition characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore phase composition and morphology were studied by ex-situ XRD, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed a fast consumption of the precursor and the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} below 340 °C. Binary secondary phases were not observed at any temperature. - Highlights: • All printable precursor for CIGSe • Formation of Ga droplets • Complete consumption below 340 °C.

  20. Preparation, physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of diphenyl diselenide-loaded poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis Antunes Junior, Osmar; Antônio, Emilli; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara; Khalil, Najeh Maissar

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed, characterized and evaluated the antioxidant activity of poly (lactic acid) nanoparticles containing diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of mean particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release profile, physical stability, polymer-drug interactions and thermal properties. Also, the antioxidant activity of nanoparticles on hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was assessed. Nanoparticles presented a mean size of 210nm, had low polydispersity, zeta potential of -24mV, and an encapsulation efficiency over 90%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results showed (PhSe)2 is dispersed in PLA matrix in an amorphous state. Lyophilized nanoparticles maintained physical stability over three months, while nanoparticles dispersed in water did not present stability over 7days. In vitro release assay was characterized by a biphasic release pattern with burst effect in 8h followed by a sustained release diffusion governed over 192h. Nanoencapsulation did not alter the antioxidant activity of (PhSe)2 on HOCl. The study concludes these properties of (PhSe)2-loaded nanoparticles can be useful to extend the biological effects of (PhSe)2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Conjugated polymer composite nanoparticles by rapid mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christoph; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Composite nanoparticles from poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluoren-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT) and poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluoren-2,7-diyl) (PF) with embedded inorganic nanoparticles (TiO2 , CdSe, and CdSe/CdS) are prepared through kinetic trapping by rapid turbulent mixing in a multi-inlet vortex mixer without the need for polymer functionalization. High contents of inorganic materials up to 50-60 wt% are realized for all composites. The influence of flow ratios, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration, and absolute flow rates on the particle size and morphology is studied. High water-to-THF ratios and high total flow rates around 2 m s(-1) yield particle sizes below 50 nm. By adjusting these parameters, controlled particle sizes between 30 to several hundred nanometers are obtained. Composite particles from CdSe/CdS and F8BT or PF show a strong quenching of the polymer emission and near exclusive emission from the inorganic nanocrystal, which indicates an efficient energy transfer with fluorescence quantum yields of 23% for the F8BT/CdSe/CdS composites and 21% for the PF/CdSe/CdS composites. The dispersions are colloidally stable for several months.

  2. Reaction kinetics of CuGaSe 2 formation from a GaSe/CuSe bilayer precursor film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. K.; Payzant, E. A.; Kim, S.; Speakman, S. A.; Crisalle, O. D.; Anderson, T. J.

    2008-06-01

    The reaction pathway and kinetics of CuGaSe 2 formation were investigated by monitoring the phase evolution of temperature ramp annealed or isothermally soaked bilayer glass/GaSe/CuSe precursor film using time-resolved, in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Bilayer GaSe/CuSe precursor films were deposited on alkali-free thin glass substrates in a migration-enhanced epitaxial deposition system. The initial CuSe phase begins to transform to β-Cu 2-xSe at around 230 °C, followed by CuGaSe 2 formation accompanied by a decrease in the β-Cu 2-xSe peak intensity at around 260 °C. Both the parabolic and Avrami diffusion-controlled reaction models represented the experimental data very well over the entire temperature range (280-370 °C) of the set of isothermal experiments with estimated activation energies of 115(±16) and 124(±19) kJ/mol, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM-EDS) analysis suggests that CuGaSe 2 forms at the interface of the initial GaSe and CuSe layers.

  3. Heteroepitaxy of Layered Compound InSe and InSe/GaSe onto GaAs Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Maman; Yamada, Akira; Konagai, Makoto

    1998-07-01

    The van der Waals epitaxy of InSe films was performed on (111)GaAs surface at the growth temperature of 350°C. A spiral trigonal structure was observed on the surface of the InSe films. To improve crystal quality of the InSe films, their orientation control was investigated. The growth rate decreased rapidly as the growth temperature increased and no InSe films were obtained at growth temperatures higher than 480°C. At growth temperatures of 450°C and higher, a double-domain structure was observed, probably due to the coexistence of In4Se3 phase in the films. Therefore, the InSe film was directly grown on c-axis inclined GaSe, and it was revealed that InSe films were more easily grown on GaSe than on (001)GaAs surface, due to the same crystal structure. Furthermore, for fabrication of the quantum well structure, heteroepitaxial growth of GaSe/InSe/GaSe films on (001)GaAs substrate was investigated.

  4. Ligand induced circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence in CdSe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K; Porter, Ashlin G; Bartko, Samuel G; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2013-12-23

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by postsynthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The origin of the induced chirality is consistent with the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand.

  5. Ligand Induced Circular Dichroism and Circularly Polarized Luminescence in CdSe Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohgha, Urice; Deol, Kirandeep K.; Porter, Ashlin G.; Bartko, Samuel G.; Choi, Jung Kyu; Leonard, Brian M.; Varga, Krisztina; Kubelka, Jan; Muller, Gilles; Balaz, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Chiral thiol capping ligands L- and D-cysteines induced modular chiroptical properties in achiral cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs). Cys-CdSe prepared from achiral oleic acid capped CdSe by post-synthetic ligand exchange displayed size-dependent electronic circular dichroism (CD) and circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Opposite CPL signals were measured for the CdSe QDs capped with D- and L-cysteine. The CD profile and CD anisotropy varied with size of CdSe nanocrystals with largest anisotropy observed for CdSe nanoparticles of 4.4 nm. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR (MAS ssNMR) experiments suggested bidentate interaction between cysteine and the surface of CdSe. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations verified that attachment of L- and D-cysteine to the surface of model (CdSe)13 nanoclusters induces measurable opposite CD signals for the exitonic band of the nanocluster. The chirality was induced by the hybridization of highest occupied CdSe molecular orbitals with those of the chiral ligand. PMID:24200288

  6. AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayati, Marzieh, E-mail: m-bayati@tums.ac.ir [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinirad, Somayeh [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Foroumadi, Alireza [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gilani, Kambiz [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ► AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ► The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range and V {sub p−p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz–10 MHz range and V {sub p−p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

  7. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  8. Performances of effective medium model in interpreting optical properties of polyvinylcarbazole:ZnSe nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaabane, Aida; Ben Hamed, Zied; Kouki, Fayçal; Abderrahmane Sanhoury, Mohamed; Zellama, Kacem; Zeinert, Andreas; Bouchriha, Habib

    2014-04-01

    The effective medium model is applied to investigate the optical properties of hybrid nanocomposite layers of Polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) and nanoparticles of Zinc Selenide (ZnSe). Thin films of PVK:ZnSe nanocomposites show a porous microstructure with pore diameters of 500 nm. Numerical calculations led to the determination of optical constants such as the refractive index n, the extinction coefficient k, the dielectric permittivity ɛ, and absorption coefficient α. Using common theoretical models, we have determined the Cauchy parameters of the refractive index, namely, static ɛs and lattice ɛ∞ dielectric constants as well as the plasma frequency ωp, carrier density to effective mass ratio N/me*, and the optical conductivity σoc. We show that the optical band gap energy Eg of the nanocomposite structure decreases slightly upon the increase of the nanoparticles volume fraction and is in good agreement with the Vegard law.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated with poly (ethylene glycol) diamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Shivani; Kaur, Gurvir; Gupta, Shikha; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    Bio-functionalization or surface modification is an important technique to obtain biocompatibility in semiconductor nanoparticles for biomedical applications. In this study semiconductor core/shell quantum dots of CdSe/ZnS have been prepared by chemical reduction method and then further PEGylated using Poly(ethylene glycol) diamine of Mw 2000. They were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy & Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results reveals the successful PEGylation of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots conjugated with poly (ethylene glycol) diamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Shivani; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Centre of Advanced Study in Physics Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Kaur, Gurvir [Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal, Sangrur (India); Gupta, Shikha [Goswami Ganesh Dutta Sanatan Dharma College, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Bio-functionalization or surface modification is an important technique to obtain biocompatibility in semiconductor nanoparticles for biomedical applications. In this study semiconductor core/shell quantum dots of CdSe/ZnS have been prepared by chemical reduction method and then further PEGylated using Poly(ethylene glycol) diamine of M{sub w} 2000. They were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy & Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results reveals the successful PEGylation of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

  11. Water driven enhanced photoluminescence of Ln (=Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) doped LaVO{sub 4} nanoparticles and effect of Ba{sup 2+} co-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okram, Reena; Phaomei, Ganngam [Department of Chemistry, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003, Imphal (India); Singh, N. Rajmuhon, E-mail: rajmuhon@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003, Imphal (India)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► Dy{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped LaVO{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared in water gives the highest luminescence intensity due to higher structure and site symmetries of tetragonal (t-) zircon phase. ► Water plays main role in the synthesis of tetragonal rare-earth doped LaVO{sub 4} nanoparticles, accountable to the phase change induced by strong interaction between water and the surface of LaVO{sub 4} nanoparticles. ► Luminescence intensity is enhanced upon the introduction of Ba{sup 2+} in LaVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}). ► Re-dispersible in polar solvents and can be incorporated in polymer film of PVA. -- Abstract: Well-dispersed Dy{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped LaVO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized at a relatively low temperature of 140 °C in ethylene glycol (EG), water, N,N′-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and mixed solvents. The samples prepared in water show mixed tetragonal and monoclinic phase where tetragonal planes are found to be dominated over the monoclinic planes. However, the samples prepared in EG and DMF show monoclinic phase. Due to the phase transformation of the samples prepared in water the luminescence intensity of these samples is highly enhanced than that of the samples prepared in EG and DMF. The mixed phase of the samples prepared in water transformed to pure monoclinic phase when heated at 900 °C. The luminescence intensity of Dy{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped LaVO{sub 4} prepared in EG are also enhanced when large divalent Ba{sup 2+} ions is used as co-activator. The optimum concentration for Ba{sup 2+} ions was found to be 1 at.% in both Dy{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped systems. The prepared nanoparticles are subsequently dispersed in methanol and incorporated in polymer films of PVA which showed the characteristic emissions of Dy{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} when irradiated under UV light.

  12. Oxide or carbide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in liquids and their structural, optical, and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaltianos, N. G.; Friedt, J.-M.; Chassagnon, R.; Moutarlier, V.; Blondeau-Patissier, V.; Combe, G.; Assoul, M.; Monteil, G.

    2016-05-01

    Laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in deionized (DI) water, ethanol, or toluene was carried out for the production of nanoparticles' colloidal solutions. Due to the interaction of the ablation plasma plume species with the species which are produced by the liquid decomposition at the plume-liquid interface, hafnia (HfO2) nanoparticles are synthesized in DI water, hafnium carbide (HfC) nanoparticles in toluene, and a mixture of these in ethanol. The hafnia nanoparticles are in the monoclinic low temperature phase and in the tetragonal and fcc high temperature phases. Their size distribution follows log-normal function with a median diameter in the range of 4.3-5.3 nm. Nanoparticles synthesized in DI water have band gaps of 5.6 and 5.4 eV, in ethanol 5.72 and 5.65 eV (using low and high pulse energy), and in toluene 3 eV. The values for the relative permittivity in the range of 7.74-8.90 were measured for hafnia nanoparticles' thin films deposited on substrates by drop-casting (self-assembled layers) in parallel plate capacitor structures.

  13. Oxide or carbide nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in liquids and their structural, optical, and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semaltianos, N. G., E-mail: nsemaltianos@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Friedt, J.-M.; Blondeau-Patissier, V.; Combe, G. [Dépt. Temps-Fréquence, Femto-st, UMR CNRS 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon 25030 (France); Chassagnon, R. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot De Bourgogne, ICB UMR CNRS 6303, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon 21078 (France); Moutarlier, V. [UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon 25030 (France); Assoul, M.; Monteil, G. [Dépt. Mécanique Appliquée, Femto-st, UMR CNRS 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon 25030 (France)

    2016-05-28

    Laser ablation of a bulk Hf target in deionized (DI) water, ethanol, or toluene was carried out for the production of nanoparticles' colloidal solutions. Due to the interaction of the ablation plasma plume species with the species which are produced by the liquid decomposition at the plume-liquid interface, hafnia (HfO{sub 2}) nanoparticles are synthesized in DI water, hafnium carbide (HfC) nanoparticles in toluene, and a mixture of these in ethanol. The hafnia nanoparticles are in the monoclinic low temperature phase and in the tetragonal and fcc high temperature phases. Their size distribution follows log-normal function with a median diameter in the range of 4.3–5.3 nm. Nanoparticles synthesized in DI water have band gaps of 5.6 and 5.4 eV, in ethanol 5.72 and 5.65 eV (using low and high pulse energy), and in toluene 3 eV. The values for the relative permittivity in the range of 7.74–8.90 were measured for hafnia nanoparticles' thin films deposited on substrates by drop-casting (self-assembled layers) in parallel plate capacitor structures.

  14. Monoclinic-to-orthorhombic phase transition of the hexamethylenetetramine-2-methylbenzoic acid (1/2) cocrystal with temperature-dependent dynamic molecular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tze Shyang; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2016-12-01

    As a function of temperature, the hexamethylenetetramine-2-methylbenzoic acid (1/2) cocrystal, C6H12N4·2C8H8O2, undergoes a reversible structural phase transition. The orthorhombic high-temperature phase in the space group Pccn has been studied in the temperature range between 165 and 300 K. At 164 K, a t2 phase transition to the monoclinic subgroup P21/c space group occurs; the resulting twinned low-temperature phase was investigated in the temperature range between 164 and 100 K. The domains in the pseudomerohedral twin are related by a twofold rotation corresponding to the matrix (100/0-10/00-1. Systematic absence violations represent a sensitive criterium for the decision about the correct space-group assignment at each temperature. The fractional volume contributions of the minor twin domain in the low-temperature phase increases in the order 0.259 (2) → 0.318 (2) → 0.336 (2) → 0.341 (3) as the temperature increases in the order 150 → 160 → 163 → 164 K. The transformation occurs between the nonpolar point group mmm and the nonpolar point group 2/m, and corresponds to a ferroelastic transition or to a t2 structural phase transition. The asymmetric unit of the low-temperature phase consists of two hexamethylenetetramine molecules and four molecules of 2-methylbenzoic acid; it is smaller by a factor of 2 in the high-temperature phase and contains two half molecules of hexamethylenetetramine, which sit across twofold axes, and two molecules of the organic acid. In both phases, the hexamethylenetetramine residue and two benzoic acid molecules form a three-molecule aggregate; the low-temperature phase contains two of these aggregates in general positions, whereas they are situated on a crystallographic twofold axis in the high-temperature phase. In both phases, one of these three-molecule aggregates is disordered. For this disordered unit, the ratio between the major and minor conformer increases upon cooling from

  15. Optical absorption, induced bleaching, and photoluminescence of CdSe nanoplatelets grown in cadmium octanoate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchova, Alina; Dmytruk, Andriy; Dmitruk, Igor; Klimusheva, Gertruda; Mirnaya, Tetyana; Asaula, Vitaliy

    2014-02-01

    CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) are chemically synthesized in thermotropic ionic liquid crystalline (LC) phase of cadmium octanoate that was used as a nanoreactor. The nanocomposite samples are obtained by the rapid cooling of the LC phase to room temperature. Observed doublet structure in absorption spectra of the nanocomposites is characteristic for the two-dimensional CdSe nanoplatelets (NPLs). The thicknesses of the CdSe NPLs are 1.6, 1.9 and 2.3 nm as determined from the absorption spectra, and correspond to 4, 5 and 6 CdSe monolayers, respectively. Induced simultaneous bleaching of the doublet components observed under femtosecond laser excitation, as well as photoluminescence spectra and their kinetics are found compatible with the model of excitons with heavy- and light-hole valence bands confined in nanoplatelets.

  16. Tailoring of morphology and crystal structure of CdSe nanostructures by controlling the ratio of triethylenetetraamine and water in their mixed solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M.R.; Zarghami, V. [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fray, D.J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    The morphological manipulation, structural characterization, and optical properties of different CdSe nanocrystals were reported. Several different CdSe nanostructures, including nanowires, tetrapod crystals, and nanoparticles were grown by varying the volume ratio of triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and water (WA) in their mixed solution. By manipulating the growth driving force (i.e., the degree of supersaturation) and kinetics of the process (i.e., growth rate), the morphology and crystal structure of CdSe nanocrystals can be tailored. Growth driving force changed their morphology from nanowires to tetrapod structures and from the latter structure to nanoparticles. Moreover, kinetics of the process altered their crystal structure from wurtzite to zinc blende. The optical property of CdSe nanocrystals was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The absorption edge of CdSe nanostructures showed a blue shift. CdSe nanocrystals prepared under optimized conditions showed good microstructural and optical properties for solar cell application. (orig.)

  17. Monoclinic form of (cyanato-κN{2,2′-[ethane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilomethylidyne]diphenolato-κ4O,N,N′,O′}manganese(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daopeng Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Mn(C16H14N2O2(NCO], is a monoclinic polymorph of the previously published orthorhombic form [Lu et al. (2006. Inorg. Chem. 45, 3538–3548]. The MnIII ion is chelated by a tetradentate Schiff base ligand and coordinated by the N atom of a cyanate ligand in a distorted square-pyramidal arrangement. In the crystal, there are short intermolecular Mn...Ophenolate distances of 2.752 (3 Å between pairs of inversion-related molecules.

  18. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-09-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  19. Comparing the Pressure-Induced Structural Behavior of CuCr 2 O 4 and CuCr 2 Se 4 Spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiopoulos, I. [Department; Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Section 4.3,; Tsurkan, V. [Institute; Experimental; Loidl, A. [Experimental; Zhang, Dongzhou [Partnership; Wang, Y. [Department

    2017-07-20

    We have conducted high-pressure measurements on the CuCr2O4 and CuCr2Se4 spinels to unravel the structural systematics of these materials under compression. Our studies have revealed diverse structural behavior in these two compounds. In particular, CuCr2O4 retains its ambient-pressure I41/amd structure up to 50 GPa. Close inspection of the lattice and interatomic parameters reveals a compressibility change near 23 GPa, which is accompanied by an expansion of the apical Cr–O bond distances. We speculate that an outer Cr3+ 3d orbital reorientation might be at play in this system, manifesting as the change in compressibility at that pressure point. On the other hand, CuCr2Se4 undergoes a structural transformation from the starting Fd3¯m phase toward a monoclinic structure initiated at ~8 GPa and completed at ~20 GPa. This high-pressure behavior resembles that of ZnCr2Se4, and it appears that, unlike similar chalcogenide Cr spinels, steric effects take a leading role in this pressure-induced Fd3¯m → monoclinic transition. Close comparison of our results with the reported literature yields significant insights behind the pressure-induced structural systematics of this important family of materials, thus both allowing for the careful manipulation of the structural/physical properties of these systems by strain and promoting our understanding of similar pressure-induced effects in relevant systems.

  20. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Av. Julian Claveria, 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena, E-mail: medg@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Av. Julian Claveria, 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-05-07

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  1. Optical, structural and morphological properties of zirconia nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodina, T I; Val' yano, G E; Gololobova, O A; Karpukhin, V T; Malikov, M M; Strikanov, D A [Joint Institute for High Temperatutes, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectra, the structural composition and morphology of zirconia nanoparticles synthesised via the laser ablation of a metal in water and aqueous solutions of the sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant have been studied using absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that, exposing zirconium to intense nanosecond laser pulses at a high repetition rate in these liquids, one can obtain stable cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic crystalline phases of nanozirconia with a particle size in the range 40 – 100 nm and a Zr – SDS organic – inorganic composite. The absorption and fluorescence of the synthesised zirconia strongly depend on the SDS concentration in the starting solution. The gas – vapour bubbles forming during ablation are shown to serve as templates for the formation of hollow nanoand microstructures. (nanostructures)

  2. Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska

    2013-03-06

    (recombination). The values of QD-ITO distance and trap density, determined with the simulation were consistent with transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The separation and diffusion of charge carriers was limited due to trapping of charge carriers. Smaller interparticle distances led to faster decays in CdSe QD monolayers. However the increase of traps, which resulted in a slower decay dominated and led to longer decay times of SPV transients of modified CdSe QD layers. By deposition of CdSe QDs on CdS a heterojunction was created. The CdS layer served as acceptor for electrons excited in CdSe QDs. Furthermore a CdSe QD/CdTe nanoparticle heterojunction was realized by successive electrophoretic deposition. CdSe QDs acted as electron acceptors, whereas CdTe nanoparticles acted as electron donors. Charge separation was dominated by the CdSe QD/CdTe nanoparticle interphase, as inverted layer stacking of CdSe QDs and CdTe nanoparticles gave an inverted SPV signal.

  3. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment including a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  4. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  5. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of Zn doped Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, Ch [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Falmbigl, M.; Rogl, P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Heinrich, P.; Royanian, E.; Bauer, E. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Mallik, Ramesh Chandra, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Zn doped ternary compounds Cu{sub 2}Zn{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}Se{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075) were prepared by solid state synthesis. The undoped compound showed a monoclinic crystal structure as a major phase, while the doped compounds showed a cubic crystal structure confirmed by powder XRD (X-Ray Diffraction). The surface morphology and elemental composition analysis for all the samples were studied by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EPMA (Electron Probe Micro Analyzer), respectively. SEM micrographs of the hot pressed samples showed the presence of continuous and homogeneous grains confirming sufficient densification. Elemental composition of all the samples revealed an off-stoichiometry, which was determined by EPMA. Transport properties were measured between 324 K and 773 K. The electrical resistivity decreased up to the samples with Zn content x = 0.05 in Cu{sub 2}Zn{sub x}Sn{sub 1−x}Se{sub 3}, and slightly increased in the sample Cu{sub 2}Zn{sub 0.075}Sn{sub 0.925}Se{sub 3}. This behavior is consistent with the changes in the carrier concentration confirmed by room temperature Hall coefficient data. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity of all samples showed heavily doped semiconductor behavior. All the samples exhibit positive Seebeck coefficient (S) and Hall coefficient indicating that the majority of the carriers are holes. A linear increase in Seebeck coefficient with increase in temperature indicates the degenerate semiconductor behavior. The total thermal conductivity of the doped samples increased with a higher amount of doping, due to the increase in the carrier contribution. The total and lattice thermal conductivity of all samples showed 1/T dependence, which points toward the dominance of phonon scattering at high temperatures. The maximum 1/TZT = 0.48 at 773 K was obtained for the sample Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} due to a low thermal conductivity compared to the doped samples. - Highlights: • In this investigation, the

  7. Study of optical and structural properties of CdSe quantum dot embedded in PVA polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Chetna, E-mail: ctyagi05@gmail.com; Sharma, Ambika, E-mail: ambikasharma2004@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Sciences ITM University, HUDA Sector-23 A, Gurgaon, 122017 (Haryana) INDIA (India)

    2015-08-28

    To enhance the properties and applicability of devices it is essential to incorporate semiconductor nanoparticles into polymer matrix. This introduces a new branch of science which includes device fabrications such as gas sensors, nonlinear optics, catalysis etc. Herein, we have synthesized CdSe/PVA nanocomposite (NC) material using wet chemical synthesis technique. The XRD studies revealed the formation of crystalline structure of CdSe nanoparticles (NP’s) and PVA NC’s with an average size of 100 nm and 5 nm respectively. Energy band gap is determined using UV-VIS Spectroscopy. A red shift in the absorption edge of CdSe/PVA NC is observed with respect to CdSe Np’s, The photoluminescence spectra also show red shift for CdSe/PVA NC as compared to CdSe NP’s Thus the use of CdSe/PVA for solar cell application would be more preferable than CdSe NP’s.

  8. Preparation and electrical characterization of the compound CuAgGeSe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal, M A; Chalbaud, L M de; Fernandez, B J; Velasquez-Velasquez, A; Pirela, M, E-mail: mavu@ula.v, E-mail: clio@ula.v [Laboratorio de Temperaturas Bajas, Centro de Estudios en Semiconductores, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Los Andes, Apartado de Correos No 1, La Hechicera, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2009-05-01

    This work reports the synthesis and electrical characterization of the compound CuAgGeSe{sub 3}. This material was synthesized by direct melting of the constituent elements, in their stoiochiometric ratio inside an evacuated quartz ampoule. The chemical analysis (EDX) confirmed the 1:1:1:3 stoichiometric ratios for the compound. The differential thermal analysis showed the existence of a principal phase that melts at 558 deg. C and a second phase at 636{sup 0}C. The X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicated that the compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group Cc, with unit cell parameters: a = 6.776(0) A, b = 11.901(5) A, c = 6.772(0) and beta = 108.2(0){sup 0}. The study of the electrical properties was realized in the temperature range from 80 to 300 K and under a magnetic field of 14 kG. Employing the Mott transition model, we were able to obtain the temperature dependence of the resistivity and we estimated that the activation energy is 25.3 meV in the low temperatures region. The mobility temperature dependence is analyzed by taking into account the scattering of charge carriers by acoustic phonons, polar optic phonons and thermally activated hopping. From the analysis, the activation energy is estimated to be around 38 meV and the characteristic temperature of the phonons is estimated to be around 400 K.

  9. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  10. Controlled synthesis of ferromagnetic MnSe x particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junjie; Li, Chao; Chen, Duo; Kang, Shishou; Liu, Guolei; Yu, Shuyun; Han, Guangbing; Mei, Liangmo

    2016-10-01

    The MnSe x (x = 1,2) nanoparticles were synthesized under hydrothermal condition, by reaction of the reduced selenium and Mn2+ ion in the presence of hydrazine and acetic acid. By precisely controlling the pH value of the solution, a series of MnSe x particles were synthesized. The structure and morphology of as-prepared particles were examined with x-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average sizes of as-prepared particles varied from nanoscale to microscale with pH value increase. Furthermore, the nucleation and growth mechanism associated with pH values were discussed, which can be applied to the hydrothermal synthesis of metal chalcogenide in general. Finally, the optical and magnetic properties of as-prepared particles were measured. All as-made particles exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with low coercivity and remanence at room temperature. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474184 and 11627805), the 111 Project (Grant No. B13029), and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China.

  11. Plasmon dynamics in colloidal Cu₂-xSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotognella, Francesco; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Srimath Kandada, Ajay Ram; Dorfs, Dirk; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Conforti, Matteo; Miszta, Karol; Comin, Alberto; Korobchevskaya, Kseniya; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Manna, Liberato; Tassone, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The optical response of metallic nanostructures after intense excitation with femtosecond-laser pulses has recently attracted increasing attention: such response is dominated by ultrafast electron-phonon coupling and offers the possibility to achieve optical modulation with unprecedented terahertz bandwidth. In addition to noble metal nanoparticles, efforts have been made in recent years to synthesize heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals so as to achieve a plasmonic behavior with spectrally tunable features. In this work, we studied the dynamics of the localized plasmon resonance exhibited by colloidal Cu(2-x)Se nanocrystals of 13 nm in diameter and with x around 0.15, upon excitation by ultrafast laser pulses via pump-probe experiments in the near-infrared, with ∼200 fs resolution time. The experimental results were interpreted according to the two-temperature model and revealed the existence of strong nonlinearities in the plasmonic absorption due to the much lower carrier density of Cu(2-x)Se compared to noble metals, which led to ultrafast control of the probe signal with modulation depth exceeding 40% in transmission.

  12. Turnover of Se in adequately fed chickens using Se-75 as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Kjelsen, A; Govasmark, E; Haug, A; Salbu, B

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic selenium (Se) in the form of selenite is applied to livestock to avoid Se deficiency. Selenite is, however, an artificial Se source in diets of unsupplemented chickens. It is therefore hypothesized that organic Se sources, such as Se-enriched yeast and wheat, could be a more suitable Se supply in animal nutrition, although information on the transition of Se from organic Se sources in fast-growing chickens is scarce. In this work, chickens were fed a low Se diet (0.27 ± 0.01 mg Se/kg, Se-enriched yeast) until 20 days of age, after which the Se concentration was increased to maximum concentration allowed by the poultry industry in Europe (0.5 p.p.m. Se). At the same time, a daily contribution of carrier-free (75)Se tracer from labelled wheat was administered from day 20 to 27. The chickens showed S and Se homeostasis, as the concentration of S and Se in liver, blood or kidney remained about constant, and steady state of S and Se in the other organs was reached 1 day after the diet shift. The uptake of (75)Se was readily seen in all organs. After 1 week, the depuration of the (75)Se tracer was followed, and biological half-lives and retention in individual organs were determined. The shortest biological half-lives were observed in major metabolic organs, the liver, kidney and pancreas with half-lives close to 4 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05) uptake in lung, brain and muscle that reached steady state when the administration of (75)Se was terminated. The half-life of (75)Se in heart was 9 days and 7 days in blood. The longest half-lives were observed in muscle (12 days), brain and lungs (13 days). All half-lives were shorter than in Se deplete animals.

  13. Precipitação seletiva de tamanhos em nanopartículas semicondutoras coloidais de CdTe e CdSe: um estudo por espectroscopia UV-VIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lívia Cristina de Souza Viol; Fernanda Oliveira Silva; Diego Lourençoni Ferreira; José Luiz Aarestrup Alves; Marco Antônio Schiavon

    2011-01-01

    .... The synthesis of CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles and the effect of the post-preparative size-selective precipitation have been characterized mainly by mean of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis...

  14. Optical and structural characterization of nickel selenide nanoparticles synthesized by simple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloto, N.; Moloto, M. J.; Coville, N. J.; Sinha Ray, S.

    2009-07-01

    A series of nickel selenide (NiSe 2, NiSe and Ni 3Se 4) nanoparticles have been synthesized by three different methods, i.e. the single-source precursor (method 1), the thermolysis of trioctylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and nickel chloride in hexadecylamine (method 2) as well as the reaction of nickel chloride and selenium using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent in methanol and in water (method 3). The optical properties of nickel selenide synthesized from all the methods showed good nanometric characteristics with an observed blue-shift in absorption band-edge from bulk nickel selenide. The structural characteristics varied with the methods employed, with method 1 producing 10 nm spherical NiSe 2 particles, method 2 star-shaped NiSe particles, while method 3 produced hexagonal NiSe nanoparticles in methanol and rod-shaped Ni 3Se 4 particles in water.

  15. The reactivity of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 and (PhP)3Se2 towards acetylenes and cyanamides: X-ray crystal structures of some P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Pravat; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek

    2002-06-17

    Several unusual P-Se-C and P-Se-C-N heterocycles are formed by the reaction of [PhP(Se)(mu-Se)]2 or (PhP)3Se2 with alkynes or cyanamides, generated by the fragmentation of the organophosphorus-selenium compound and addition across the C identical to C or C identical to N triple bond of the organic substrate. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals an unexpected diversity of structural motifs within these heterocyclic systems, including P2SeCN, P2C2Se and PC2Se2 rings.

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H C

    2013-03-01

    The pure and Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles of the series Cu(1-x)Fe(x)O (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were successfully prepared by a simple low temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data showed that all the samples were single phase crystallized in monoclinic structure of space group C2/c with average crystallite size of about 25 nm and unit cell volume decreases with increasing iron doping concentration. TEM micrograph showed nearly spherical shaped agglomerated particles of 4% Fe-doped CuO with average diameter 26 nm. Pure CuO showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with coercive field of 67 Oe. The ferromagnetic properties were greatly enhanced with Fe-doping in the CuO matrix. All the doped samples showed ferromagnetism at room temperature with a noticeable coercive field. Saturation magnetization increases with increasing Fe-doping, becomes highest for 4% doping then decreases for further doping which confirms that the ferromagnetism in these nanoparticles are intrinsic and are not resulting from any impurity phases. The ZFC and FC branches of the temperature dependent magnetization (measured in the range of 10-350 K by SQUID magnetometer) look like typical ferromagnetic nanoparticles and indicates that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature is above 350 K.

  17. Fine CuO anisotropic nanoparticles supported on mesoporous SBA-15 for selective hydrogenation of nitroaromatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Shweta; Mutreja, Vishal; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2016-01-01

    SBA-15 modified with APTMS (3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane) having pore diameter (∼8 nm) has been synthesized and impregnated with 1-10 wt.% Cu using Cu(NO3)2 as a metal source followed by calcination at 350 °C. As-prepared CuO/ap-SBA-15 powder showed changes in the color from white for bare SBA-15 to light green due to formation of anisotropic CuO nanoparticles that exhibited a characteristic plasmon absorption band at 359 and 747 nm. TEM studies showed a change in the morphology of CuO NPs as a function of increased Cu loading. Moreover, well dispersed CuO nanospheres (∼5-6 nm) and nanorods (aspect ratio ∼11-20 nm) having monoclinic crystal phase were observed within the mesoporous channels of SBA-15. Elemental mapping studies confirmed uniform distribution of CuO nanoparticles on the surface of SBA-15. An increase in surface area was also observed from 694 m(2) g(-1) for SBA-15 to 762 m(2) g(-1) for 10 wt.% Cu loading probably due to the deposition of excess of CuO nanoparticles on the outer siliceous surface. The catalytic activity also increased with Cu loading and 10 wt.% CuO/ap-SBA-15 catalyst displayed the highest catalytic activity for the reduction of m-chloronitrobenzene and m-nitrotoluene with 83% and 100% selectivity for m-chloroaniline and m-aminotoluene respectively.

  18. 不规则单斜地层中磁弹性剪切波的色散方程%Dispersion Equation of Magnetoelastic Shear Waves in an Irregular Monoclinic Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A·查托帕答雅; S·古普塔; S·A·萨胡; A·K·辛格; 黄雅意

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of horizontally polarised shear waves in an internal magnetoelastic monoclinic stratum with irregularity in lower interface was studied. The stratum was sandwiched between two magnetoelastic monoclinic semi-infinite media. Dispersion equation was obtained in closed form. In absence of magnetic field and irregularity of the medium, the dispersion equation agrees with the equation of classical case in three layered media. The effect of magnetic field and size of irregularity on the phase velocity has been depicted by means of graphs.%在内夹磁弹性单斜地层中,下界面不规则变化时,研究水平偏振剪切波的传播,该地层夹在两个半无限磁弹性单斜介质之间,得到了闭式的色散方程.不计磁场及介质界面的不规则性,该色散方程与三层介质中经典方程相一致.图示了磁场和界面不规则深度对相速度的影响.

  19. Defect studies of ZnSe nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipose, U; Saxena, Ankur; Ruda, Harry E [Centre for Nanotechnology, University of Toronto, 170 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E4 (Canada); Simpson, P J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wang, Y Q; Kavanagh, K L [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2008-05-28

    During the synthesis of ZnSe nanowires various point and extended defects can form, leading to observed stacking faults and twinning defects, and strong defect related emission in photoluminescence spectra. In this paper, we report on the development of a simple thermodynamic model for estimating the defect concentration in ZnSe nanowires grown under varying Se vapour pressure and for explaining the results of our experimental findings. Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used successfully for the first time for nanowires and the results support predictions from the defect model as well as agreeing well with our structural and optical characterization results. Under very high Se vapour pressure, Se nodules were observed to form on the sidewalls of the nanowire, indicating that beyond a limit, excess Se will begin to precipitate out of the liquid alloy droplet in the vapour-liquid-solid growth of nanowires.

  20. Excitons, biexcitons, and phonons in ultrathin CdSe/ZnSe quantum structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gindele, F.; Woggon, Ulrike; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1999-01-01

    The optical properties of CdSe nanostructures grown by migration-enhanced epitaxy of CdSe on ZnSe are studied by time-, energy-, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence and excitation spectroscopy, as well as by polarization-dependent four-wave mixing and two-photon absorption experiments....... The nanostructures consist of a coherently strained Zn1-xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum well with embedded islands of higher Cd content with sizes of a few nanometer due to strain-induced CdSe accumulation. The local increase in CdSe concentration results in a strong localization of the excitonic wave function, in an increase...

  1. Biomimetic synthesis of selenium nanospheres by bacterial strain JS-11 and its role as a biosensor for nanotoxicity assessment: a novel se-bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs were synthesized by green technology using the bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain JS-11. The bacteria exhibited significant tolerance to selenite (SeO3(2- up to 100 mM concentration with an EC50 value of 140 mM. The spent medium (culture supernatant contains the potential of reducing soluble and colorless SeO3(2- to insoluble red elemental selenium (Se(0 at 37°C. Characterization of red Se° product by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX analysis revealed the presence of stable, predominantly monodispersed and spherical selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs of an average size of 21 nm. Most likely, the metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA released by strain JS-11 in culture supernatant along with the known redox agents like NADH and NADH dependent reductases are responsible for biomimetic reduction of SeO3(2- to Se° nanospheres. Based on the bioreduction of a colorless solution of SeO3(2- to elemental red Se(0, a high throughput colorimetric bioassay (Se-Assay was developed for parallel detection and quantification of nanoparticles (NPs cytotoxicity in a 96 well format. Thus, it has been concluded that the reducing power of the culture supernatant of strain JS-11 could be effectively exploited for developing a simple and environmental friendly method of Se-NPs synthesis. The results elucidated that the red colored Se° nanospheres may serve as a biosensor for nanotoxicity assessment, contemplating the inhibition of SeO3(2- bioreduction process in NPs treated bacterial cell culture supernatant, as a toxicity end point.

  2. First Principles Calculation of Elastic Constants of Monoclinic HfO2 Thin Film%单斜相HfO2薄膜弹性常数的第一性原理计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺玲; 邵淑英; 李静平

    2013-01-01

    用电子束蒸发沉积在K9玻璃基底上镀制HfO2薄膜,沉积温度为200℃,蒸发速率为0.03 nm/s.由X射线衍射谱可知薄膜出现明显结晶,且为单斜相和正交相混合结构,其中单斜相占明显优势.用Jade5软件分析得到单斜相HfO2的晶格常数a,b,c以及晶格矢量a和c之间的夹角β.基于得到的晶格常数建立了单斜相HfO2薄膜的晶体结构模型.同时建立固态单斜相HfO2的晶体结构模型进行对比.通过密度泛函理论(DFT)框架下的平面超软赝势法,采用两种不同的交换关联函数:局域密度近似(LDA)中的CA-PZ和广义梯度近似(GGA)中的质子平衡方程(PBE),计算了薄膜态和固态单斜晶相HfO2的弹性刚度系数矩阵Gij和弹性柔度系数矩阵Sij,Reuss模型、Voigt模型和Hill理论下的体积模量和剪切模量,材料平均杨氏模量和泊松比.此外还计算得到薄膜态和固态单斜晶相HfO2在不同方向上的杨氏模量.%HfO2 films are deposited by electron beam evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.03 nm/s and deposition temperature of 200 ℃ on K9 glass substrates. The films are observed to show a mixed structure of monoclinic and orthorhombic phase through X-ray diffraction and monoclinic phase is of obvious advantages. The structure parameters a, b, c and angel β of monoclinic HfO2 films are obtained using Jade5 software, based on which the crystal structure model is built. While solid crystal monoclinic HfO2 model is built to compare with the thin film one. Elastic stiffness constants of monoclinic HfO2 thin film and solid crystal are investigated using the plane waves ultrasoft pseudopotential technique based on the density functional theory (DFT) under two different exchange correlation functions of local density approximation (LDA) CA-PZ and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) PBE. Reuss, Voigt and Hill theories are used to estimate the bulk, shear and average Young's moduli and Possion ratio for polycrystalline HfO2

  3. Strain Compensation in Single ZnSe/CdSe Quantum Wells: Analytical Model and Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Torsten; Riedl, Thomas; Neumann, Elmar; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lindner, Jörg K N; Pawlis, Alexander

    2017-03-08

    The lattice mismatch between CdSe and ZnSe is known to limit the thickness of ZnSe/CdSe quantum wells on GaAs (001) substrates to about 2-3 monolayers. We demonstrate that this thickness can be enhanced significantly by using In0.12Ga0.88As pseudo substrates, which generate alternating tensile and compressive strains in the ZnSe/CdSe/ZnSe layers resulting in an efficient strain compensation. This method enables to design CdSe/ZnSe quantum wells with CdSe thicknesses ranging from 1 to 6 monolayers, covering the whole visible spectrum. The strain compensation effect is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and supported by molecular statics simulations. The model approach with the supporting experimental measurements is sufficiently general to be also applied to other highly mismatched material combinations for the design of advanced strained heterostructures.

  4. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Characterizations of CoMoO4 Nanoparticles: An Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation of 4-Chlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umapathy, V; Neeraja, P

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt molybdate CoMoO4 nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized using cobalt nitrate, ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ethyl cellulose by a simple sol-gel method. Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the obtained powder were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD results indicated that the resultant powder was pure single phase crystalline with monoclinic structure. FT-IR spectra indicate the type of bonds between metals and oxygen. HR-SEM images shows that the morphology of the powder consist with well defined nanoparticles (NPs) structure. VSM results showed antiferromagnetic behavior. Photo-catalytic activity of CoMoO4 nanoparticles (NPs) was performed. The addition of TiO2 catalyst enhanced the photo-catalytic activity of CoMoO4 nanoparticles (NPs). The catalysts CoMoO4, Ti02 and mixed oxide catalyst CoMoO4-TiO2 nano- composites (NCs) were tested for the photo-catalytic degradation (PCD) of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). It was found that the PCD efficiency of CoMoO4-TiO2 NCs was higher (97.5%) than that of pure CoMoO4 (88.0%) and TiO2 (94.0%) catalysts.

  5. Biocompatibility selenium nanoparticles with an intrinsic oxidase-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Leilei; Huang, Kaixun; Liu, Hongmei

    2016-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) are considered to be the new selenium supplement forms with high biological activity and low toxicity; however, the molecular mechanism by which SeNPs exert the biological function is unclear. Here, we reported that biocompatibility SeNPs possessed intrinsic oxidase-like activity. Using Na2SeO3 as a precursor and glutathione as a reductant, biocompatibility SeNPs were synthesized by the wet chemical reduction method in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of structure characterization revealed that synthesized SeNPs were amorphous red elementary selenium with spherical morphology, and ranged in size from 25 to 70 nm size with a narrow distribution (41.4 ± 6.7 nm). The oxidase-like activity of the as-synthesized SeNPs was tested with 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. The results indicated that SeNPs could catalyze the oxidization of TMB by dissolved oxygen. These SeNPs showed an optimum catalytic activity at pH 4 and 30 °C, and the oxidase-like activity was higher as the concentration of SeNPs increased and the size of SeNPs decreased. The Michaelis constant ( K m) values and maximal reaction velocity ( V max) of the SeNPs for TMB oxidation were 0.0083 mol/L and 3.042 μmol/L min, respectively.

  6. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using gum karaya as a biotemplate and their antibacterial application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thekkae Padil VV

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vinod Vellora Thekkae Padil, Miroslav ČerníkLaboratory of Chemical Remediation Processes, Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technology and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 1402/2, Liberec, Czech RepublicBackground: Copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles have attracted huge attention due to catalytic, electric, optical, photonic, textile, nanofluid, and antibacterial activity depending on the size, shape, and neighboring medium. In the present paper, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles using gum karaya, a natural nontoxic hydrocolloid, by green technology and explored its potential antibacterial application.Methods: The CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a colloid-thermal synthesis process. The mixture contained various concentrations of CuCl2 · 2H2O (1 mM, 2 mM, and 3 mM and gum karaya (10 mg/mL and was kept at 75°C at 250 rpm for 1 hour in an orbital shaker. The synthesized CuO was purified and dried to obtain different sizes of the CuO nanoparticles. The well diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of the synthesized CuO nanoparticles. The zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.Results: Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed CuO nanoparticles evenly distributed on the surface of the gum matrix. X-ray diffraction of the synthesized nanoparticles indicates the formation of single-phase CuO with a monoclinic structure. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy peak at 525 cm−1 should be a stretching of CuO, which matches up to the B2u mode. The peaks at 525 cm−1 and 580 cm−1 indicated the formation of CuO nanostructure. Transmission electron microscope analyses revealed CuO nanoparticles of 4.8 ± 1.6 nm, 5.5 ± 2.5 nm, and 7.8 ± 2.3 nm sizes were synthesized with various concentrations of CuCl2 · 2H2O (1 mM, 2 mM, and

  7. Phase transition and high temperature thermoelectric properties of copper selenide Cu2-χSe(0≤χ≤0.25)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xing-Xing; Xie Wen-Jie; Tang Xin-Feng; Zhang Qing-Jie

    2011-01-01

    With good electrical properties and an inherently complex crystal structure,Cu2-xSe is a potential "phonon glass electron crystal" thermoelectric material that has previously not attracted much interest.In this study,Cu2-xSe (0≤x≤0.25)compounds were synthesized by a melting-quenching method,and then sintered by spark plasma sintering to obtain bulk material.The effect of Cu content on the phase transition and thermoelectric properties of Cu2-xSe were investigated in the temperature range of 300 K-750 K.The results of X-ray diffraction at room temperature show that Cu2-xSe compounds possess a cubic structure with a space group of Fm3m(#225)when 0.15 < x≤0.25,whereas they adopt a composite of monoclinic and cubic phases when 0≤x≤0.15.The thermoelectric property measurements show that with increasing Cu content,the electrical conductivity decreases,the Seebeck coefficient increases and the thermal conductivity decreases.Due to the relatively good power factor and low thermal conductivity,the nearly stoichiometric Cu2Se compound achieves the highest ZT of 0.38 at 750 K.It is expected that the thermoelectric performance can be further optimized by doping appropriate elements and/or via a nanostructuring approach.

  8. Size tuning of MAA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots and their stability in different pH environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurvir; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in

    2014-01-15

    The present work reports synthesis of mercaptoacetic acid capped CdSe nanoparticles soluble in water at different temperatures and with different precursor ratios. This enabled to tune the particle size of QDs from 2.7 to 5.8 nm. The particles consist of nanocrystals; with mixed phase, hexagonal wurtzite as well as sphalerite cubic and are luminescent with quantum yield 10%. The quantum yield up to 20% has been obtained by growing a shell of CdS over the CdSe. HR-TEM images, XRD patterns and the photoluminescence excitation spectra shows epitaxial growth of CdS shell over CdSe and with average size 3.2 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 1.2 nm for CdSe and CdSe/CdS quantum dots respectively. FT-IR spectrum and the negative zeta potential value together confirms the attachment of mercaptoacetic acid to the QD surface, where the carboxylic acid group is facing towards solvent and provides stability due to electrostatic hindrance. Further, the QDs are checked for their stability and the luminescence in environments of different pH (4–11 pH). Both CdSe and CdSe/CdS agglomerate with total elimination of fluorescence for 4 pH medium, and no shift in the fluorescence emission peak observed for the 6–9 pH, therefore QDs can be applicable as the fluorescence tags in this specific range of pH. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MAA capped CdSe and CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs. • Synthesis temperature and precursor ratio controls the growth of QDs. • PLE spectra shows four kind of absorption features for CdSe QDs. • Growth of CdS shell over CdSe core has not affected the energy levels of the core. • CdSe and CdSe/CdS QDs are not stable in low pH (less than 6) environments.

  9. Optical properties of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At the NBI I am involved in projects relating to optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in particular with respect to plasmonic heating with direct applications to photothermal cancer therapy. For this purpose we have developed heating assays that can be used to measure the heating of any...... nanoscopic heat source like an irradiated nanoparticle...

  10. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynich, Raman A., E-mail: dynich@solo.by [Institute of Social Educational Technologies (Belarus)

    2015-06-15

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such “energy breathing” is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 and 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  11. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  12. Industrial applications of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, W J; Stoessel, P R; Wohlleben, W; Hafner, A

    2015-08-21

    Research efforts in the past two decades have resulted in thousands of potential application areas for nanoparticles - which materials have become industrially relevant? Where are sustainable applications of nanoparticles replacing traditional processing and materials? This tutorial review starts with a brief analysis on what makes nanoparticles attractive to chemical product design. The article highlights established industrial applications of nanoparticles and then moves to rapidly emerging applications in the chemical industry and discusses future research directions. Contributions from large companies, academia and high-tech start-ups are used to elucidate where academic nanoparticle research has revolutionized industry practice. A nanomaterial-focused analysis discusses new trends, such as particles with an identity, and the influence of modern instrument advances in the development of novel industrial products.

  13. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  14. Cs3Sm7Se12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schneck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, tricaesium heptasamarium(III dodecaselenide, is setting a new starting point for realization of the channel structure of the Cs3M7Se12 series, now with M = Sm, Gd–Er. This Cs3Y7Se12-type arrangement is structurally based on the Z-type sesquiselenides M2Se3 adopting the Sc2S3 structure. Thus, the structural set-up of Cs3Sm7Se12 consists of edge- and vertex-connected [SmSe6]9− octahedra [dØ(Sm3+ – Se2− = 2.931 Å], forming a rock-salt-related network [Sm7Se12]3− with channels along [001] that are apt to take up monovalent cations (here Cs+ with coordination numbers of 7 + 1 for one and of 6 for the second cation. The latter cation has a trigonal–prismatic coordination and shows half-occupancy, resulting in an impossible short distance [2.394 (4 Å] between symmetrically coupled Cs+ cations of the same kind. While one Sm atom occupies Wyckoff position 2b with site symmetry ..2/m, all other 11 crystallographically different atoms (namely 2 × Cs, 3 × Sm and 6 × Se are located at Wyckoff positions 4g with site symmetry ..m.

  15. Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Christof; Elbe, Andreas; Schurz, Christian M; Schleid, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, tricaesium hepta-samarium(III) dodeca-selenide, is setting a new starting point for realization of the channel structure of the Cs(3)M(7)Se(12) series, now with M = Sm, Gd-Er. This Cs(3)Y(7)Se(12)-type arrangement is structurally based on the Z-type sesquiselenides M(2)Se(3) adopting the Sc(2)S(3) structure. Thus, the structural set-up of Cs(3)Sm(7)Se(12) consists of edge- and vertex-connected [SmSe(6)](9-) octa-hedra [d(Ø)(Sm(3+) - Se(2-)) = 2.931 Å], forming a rock-salt-related network [Sm(7)Se(12)](3-) with channels along [001] that are apt to take up monovalent cations (here Cs(+)) with coordination numbers of 7 + 1 for one and of 6 for the second cation. The latter cation has a trigonal-prismatic coordination and shows half-occupancy, resulting in an impossible short distance [2.394 (4) Å] between symmetrically coupled Cs(+) cations of the same kind. While one Sm atom occupies Wyckoff position 2b with site symmetry ..2/m, all other 11 crystallographically different atoms (namely 2 × Cs, 3 × Sm and 6 × Se) are located at Wyckoff positions 4g with site symmetry ..m.

  16. Doping of CdSe Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John

    2003-10-01

    What happens to a nanocrystal when it is doped with electrons? We doped CdSe nanocrystals with potassium metal and sodium biphenyl, potassium and sodium acting as the charge carriers. In order to monitor the properties of the doped nanocrystals we used Electron Spin Resonance and luminescence techniques. In this poster we present findings and problems encountered in doping CdSe nanocrystals.

  17. Antimony-based ligand exchange to promote crystallization in spray-deposited Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Alex; Shavel, Alexey; Fontané, Xavier; Montserrat, Joana; Fan, Jiandong; Ibáñez, Maria; Saucedo, Edgardo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Cabot, Andreu

    2013-10-30

    A multistrategy approach to overcome the main challenges of nanoparticle-based solution-processed Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells is presented. We developed an efficient ligand exchange strategy, using an antimony salt, to displace organic ligands from the surface of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles. An automated pulsed spray-deposition system was used to deposit the nanoparticles into homogeneous and crack-free films with controlled thickness. After annealing the film in a Se-rich atmosphere, carbon-free and crystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 absorber layers were obtained. Not only was crystallization promoted by the complete removal of organics, but also Sb itself played a critical role. The Sb-assisted crystal growth is associated with the formation of a Sb-based compound at the grain boundaries, which locally reduces the melting point, thus promoting the film diffusion-limited crystallization.

  18. Preparation of CdSe/ZnSe Core-shell Nanocrystal in One-step Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Xiao-fang; SHAN Gui-ye; KONG Xiang-gui; WANG Xin; ZENG Qing-hui; ZHANG You-lin

    2005-01-01

    High-quality Zn-doped CdSe core-shell nanocrystals were successfully prepared by incorporating a stoichiometric amount of Zn precursor into the CdSe reaction system, in which the Se precursor was excess and an Se-rich surface was formed. By injecting different amounts of Zn precursor, the core-shell nanocrystals demonstrated by the emission spectra were formed. The obtained Zn-doped CdSe nanocrystals exhibit a photoluminescence efficiency from 30% to 85%, which is comparable to those for the reported CdSe/ZnS, CdSe/CdS in the literature. In particular, a shell ZnSe layer with different thicknesses of ZnSe can be formed in this experiment by only changing the amount of Zn precursor added, which is simple and effective.

  19. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD) from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin films shifts toward the low-photon-energy region as the PbSe content increases. The use of a phase-separating PbSe-ZnSe system and HWD techniques enables simple production of the composite package. PMID:21711822

  20. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Seishi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin films shifts toward the low-photon-energy region as the PbSe content increases. The use of a phase-separating PbSe-ZnSe system and HWD techniques enables simple production of the composite package.