WorldWideScience

Sample records for monochromatic aerial imagery

  1. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  2. NAIP Aerial Imagery (Resampled), Salton Sea - 2005 [ds425

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — NAIP 2005 aerial imagery that has been resampled from 1-meter source resolution to approximately 30-meter resolution. This is a mosaic composed from several NAIP...

  3. Integration of aerial oblique imagery and terrestrial imagery for optimized 3D modeling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Zhu, Qing; Yau, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) models are fundamental to the spatial data infrastructure of a digital city, and have numerous potential applications in areas such as urban planning, urban management, urban monitoring, and urban environmental studies. Recent developments in aerial oblique photogrammetry based on aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer promising techniques for 3D modeling. However, 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery in urban areas with densely distributed high-rise buildings may show geometric defects and blurred textures, especially on building façades, due to problems such as occlusion and large camera tilt angles. Meanwhile, mobile mapping systems (MMSs) can capture terrestrial images of close-range objects from a complementary view on the ground at a high level of detail, but do not offer full coverage. The integration of aerial oblique imagery with terrestrial imagery offers promising opportunities to optimize 3D modeling in urban areas. This paper presents a novel method of integrating these two image types through automatic feature matching and combined bundle adjustment between them, and based on the integrated results to optimize the geometry and texture of the 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery. Experimental analyses were conducted on two datasets of aerial and terrestrial images collected in Dortmund, Germany and in Hong Kong. The results indicate that the proposed approach effectively integrates images from the two platforms and thereby improves 3D modeling in urban areas.

  4. Encoding and analyzing aerial imagery using geospatial semantic graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Strip, David R.; McLendon, William Clarence,; Parekh, Ojas D.; Diegert, Carl F.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Rintoul, Mark Daniel

    2014-02-01

    While collection capabilities have yielded an ever-increasing volume of aerial imagery, analytic techniques for identifying patterns in and extracting relevant information from this data have seriously lagged. The vast majority of imagery is never examined, due to a combination of the limited bandwidth of human analysts and limitations of existing analysis tools. In this report, we describe an alternative, novel approach to both encoding and analyzing aerial imagery, using the concept of a geospatial semantic graph. The advantages of our approach are twofold. First, intuitive templates can be easily specified in terms of the domain language in which an analyst converses. These templates can be used to automatically and efficiently search large graph databases, for specific patterns of interest. Second, unsupervised machine learning techniques can be applied to automatically identify patterns in the graph databases, exposing recurring motifs in imagery. We illustrate our approach using real-world data for Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and compare the performance of our approach to that of an expert human analyst.

  5. Automatic digital surface model (DSM) generation from aerial imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Cao, Shixiang; He, Hongyan; Xing, Kun; Yue, Chunyu

    2018-04-01

    Aerial sensors are widely used to acquire imagery for photogrammetric and remote sensing application. In general, the images have large overlapped region, which provide a lot of redundant geometry and radiation information for matching. This paper presents a POS supported dense matching procedure for automatic DSM generation from aerial imagery data. The method uses a coarse-to-fine hierarchical strategy with an effective combination of several image matching algorithms: image radiation pre-processing, image pyramid generation, feature point extraction and grid point generation, multi-image geometrically constraint cross-correlation (MIG3C), global relaxation optimization, multi-image geometrically constrained least squares matching (MIGCLSM), TIN generation and point cloud filtering. The image radiation pre-processing is used in order to reduce the effects of the inherent radiometric problems and optimize the images. The presented approach essentially consists of 3 components: feature point extraction and matching procedure, grid point matching procedure and relational matching procedure. The MIGCLSM method is used to achieve potentially sub-pixel accuracy matches and identify some inaccurate and possibly false matches. The feasibility of the method has been tested on different aerial scale images with different landcover types. The accuracy evaluation is based on the comparison between the automatic extracted DSMs derived from the precise exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) and the POS.

  6. An Improved SIFT Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J M; Yan, D M; Wang, G; Zhang, L

    2014-01-01

    The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform has the benefits of low cost and convenience compared with satellites. Recently, UAVs have shown a wide range of applications such as land use change, mineral resources management and local topographic mapping. Because of the instability of the UAV air gesture, an image matching method is necessary to match different images of an object or scene. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are invariant to image scaling, rotation and translation. However, the main drawback of a SIFT algorithm is its significant memory consumption and low computational speed, particularly in the case of high-resolution imagery. In this study, in order to overcome these drawbacks, we have analysed the construction of the scale-space in the SIFT algorithm and selected new parameters to construct the SIFT scale-space to improve the memory consumption and computational speed for the processing of UAV imagery. Here, we propose a restriction on the number of octaves and levels for Gaussian image pyramids. Our experiment shows that the proposed algorithm effectively reduces memory consumption and significantly improves the operational efficiency of the feature point extraction and matching under the premise of maintaining the precision of the extracted feature points

  7. Hurricane Gustav Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Gustav made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  8. Hurricane Humberto Aerial Photography: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regions after Hurricane Humberto made landfall. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA...

  9. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2011 Digital Orthophotos - Lee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The dataset consists of tiled orthogonal imagery produced from nadir images captured by Pictometry International January 2nd and March 21st, 2011. Automatic aerial...

  10. Hurricane Ike Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Ike made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  11. Tropical Storm Ernesto Aerial Photography: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regions after Tropical Storm Ernesto made landfall. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA...

  12. Mapping coastal marine debris using aerial imagery and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Kirsten; Neilson, Brian; Chung, Anne; Meadows, Amber; Castrence, Miguel; Ambagis, Stephen; Davidson, Kristine

    2017-12-19

    This study is the first to systematically quantify, categorize, and map marine macro-debris across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), including remote areas (e.g., Niihau, Kahoolawe, and northern Molokai). Aerial surveys were conducted over each island to collect high resolution photos, which were processed into orthorectified imagery and visually analyzed in GIS. The technique provided precise measurements of the quantity, location, type, and size of macro-debris (>0.05m 2 ), identifying 20,658 total debris items. Northeastern (windward) shorelines had the highest density of debris. Plastics, including nets, lines, buoys, floats, and foam, comprised 83% of the total count. In addition, the study located six vessels from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami. These results created a baseline of the location, distribution, and composition of marine macro-debris across the MHI. Resource managers and communities may target high priority areas, particularly along remote coastlines where macro-debris counts were largely undocumented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Earth mapping - aerial or satellite imagery comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotev, Svetlin; Jordanov, Dimitar; Lukarski, Hristo

    Nowadays, solving the tasks for revision of existing map products and creation of new maps requires making a choice of the land cover image source. The issue of the effectiveness and cost of the usage of aerial mapping systems versus the efficiency and cost of very-high resolution satellite imagery is topical [1, 2, 3, 4]. The price of any remotely sensed image depends on the product (panchromatic or multispectral), resolution, processing level, scale, urgency of task and on whether the needed image is available in the archive or has to be requested. The purpose of the present work is: to make a comparative analysis between the two approaches for mapping the Earth having in mind two parameters: quality and cost. To suggest an approach for selection of the map information sources - airplane-based or spacecraft-based imaging systems with very-high spatial resolution. Two cases are considered: area that equals approximately one satellite scene and area that equals approximately the territory of Bulgaria.

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery was scanned from historic hard copy images and georeferenced to current imagery. This data is available via map service., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery...

  15. Automatic Classification of Aerial Imagery for Urban Hydrological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, A.; Yang, C.; Breitkopf, U.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Rottensteiner, F.; Wallner, M.; Verworn, A.; Heipke, C.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the potential of automatic supervised classification for urban hydrological applications. In particular, we contribute to runoff simulations using hydrodynamic urban drainage models. In order to assess whether the capacity of the sewers is sufficient to avoid surcharge within certain return periods, precipitation is transformed into runoff. The transformation of precipitation into runoff requires knowledge about the proportion of drainage-effective areas and their spatial distribution in the catchment area. Common simulation methods use the coefficient of imperviousness as an important parameter to estimate the overland flow, which subsequently contributes to the pipe flow. The coefficient of imperviousness is the percentage of area covered by impervious surfaces such as roofs or road surfaces. It is still common practice to assign the coefficient of imperviousness for each particular land parcel manually by visual interpretation of aerial images. Based on classification results of these imagery we contribute to an objective automatic determination of the coefficient of imperviousness. In this context we compare two classification techniques: Random Forests (RF) and Conditional Random Fields (CRF). Experimental results performed on an urban test area show good results and confirm that the automated derivation of the coefficient of imperviousness, apart from being more objective and, thus, reproducible, delivers more accurate results than the interactive estimation. We achieve an overall accuracy of about 85 % for both classifiers. The root mean square error of the differences of the coefficient of imperviousness compared to the reference is 4.4 % for the CRF-based classification, and 3.8 % for the RF-based classification.

  16. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - FDOT 2009 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This Imagery was provided by Florida Department of Transportation to the Volusia County Property Appraiser. 1 Foot Color Pixel Orthophotography. This imagery was...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile. This fil, Published in 2005, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, University of Georgia.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2005. This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP...

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - FDOT 2003 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — These aerials were flown by the Florida Department of Transportation from December 23, 2002 to February 13, 2003 NAD 83 Mosaic format Semi Orthorectified black and...

  19. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Office for Coastal Management purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic...

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - FDOT 2006 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — This Imagery was provided by Florida Department of Transportation to the Volusia County Property Appraiser. The photography was acquired Dec 2005 through Feb 2006. 1...

  1. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - VOLUSIA 2006 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 2006, 6 inch Pixel Color Orthophotography - - Panchromatic, red, green, blue and near infrared imagery was acquired using the Leica ADS40 multi-spectral scanner (see...

  2. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - USAAIR 2003 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — USA Airphoto Imagery (http://www.airphotousa.com). Used with the Photomapper Application (http://www.airphotousa.com/Products/PhotoMapper/index.html). April, 2003 -...

  3. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - USAAIR 2005 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — USA Airphoto Imagery (http://www.airphotousa.com). Used with the Photomapper Application (http://www.airphotousa.com/Products/PhotoMapper/index.html). March, 2005 -...

  4. A workflow for extracting plot-level biophysical indicators from aerially acquired multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in technologies associated with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has allowed for researchers, farmers and agribusinesses to incorporate UAVs coupled with various imaging systems into data collection activities and aid expert systems for making decisions. Multispectral imageries allow for a q...

  5. Mapping the Land: Aerial Imagery for Land Use Information. Resource Publications in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James B.

    Intended for geography students who are enrolled in, or who have completed, an introductory course in remote sensing; for geography researchers; and for professors; this publication focuses specifically on those general issues regarding the organization and presentation of land use information derived from aerial imagery. Many of the ideas…

  6. Automated Identification of River Hydromorphological Features Using UAV High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rivas Casado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European legislation is driving the development of methods for river ecosystem protection in light of concerns over water quality and ecology. Key to their success is the accurate and rapid characterisation of physical features (i.e., hydromorphology along the river. Image pattern recognition techniques have been successfully used for this purpose. The reliability of the methodology depends on both the quality of the aerial imagery and the pattern recognition technique used. Recent studies have proved the potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs to increase the quality of the imagery by capturing high resolution photography. Similarly, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN have been shown to be a high precision tool for automated recognition of environmental patterns. This paper presents a UAV based framework for the identification of hydromorphological features from high resolution RGB aerial imagery using a novel classification technique based on ANNs. The framework is developed for a 1.4 km river reach along the river Dee in Wales, United Kingdom. For this purpose, a Falcon 8 octocopter was used to gather 2.5 cm resolution imagery. The results show that the accuracy of the framework is above 81%, performing particularly well at recognising vegetation. These results leverage the use of UAVs for environmental policy implementation and demonstrate the potential of ANNs and RGB imagery for high precision river monitoring and river management.

  7. The Evaluation of High Resolution Aerial Imagery for Monitoring of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Royal Natal National Park and the Rugged Glen Nature Reserve are part of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park (UDP) World Heritage Site and have infestations of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum [L.] Kuhn). Prior image classification research on bracken fern were constrained by low resolution satellite imagery and ...

  8. Pseudo natural colour aerial imagery for urban and suburban mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Due to their near-infrared data channel, digital airborne four-channel imagers provide a potentially good discrimination between vegetation and human-made materials, which is very useful in automated mapping. Due to their red, green and blue data channels, they also provide natural colour images......, which are very useful in traditional (manual) mapping. In this paper, an algorithm is described which provides an approximation to the spectral capabilities of the four-channel imagers by using a colour-infrared aerial photo as input. The algorithm is tailored to urban/suburban surroundings, where...... the quality of the generated (pseudo) natural colour images are fully acceptable for manual mapping. This brings the combined availability of near-infrared and (pseudo) natural colours within reach for mapping projects based on traditional photogrammetry, which is valuable since traditional analytical cameras...

  9. Canopy Density Mapping on Ultracam-D Aerial Imagery in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Khodaee, Z.

    2013-09-01

    Canopy density maps express different characteristics of forest stands, especially in woodlands. Obtaining such maps by field measurements is so expensive and time-consuming. It seems necessary to find suitable techniques to produce these maps to be used in sustainable management of woodland ecosystems. In this research, a robust procedure was suggested to obtain these maps by very high spatial resolution aerial imagery. It was aimed to produce canopy density maps by UltraCam-D aerial imagery, newly taken in Zagros woodlands by Iran National Geographic Organization (NGO), in this study. A 30 ha plot of Persian oak (Quercus persica) coppice trees was selected in Zagros woodlands, Iran. The very high spatial resolution aerial imagery of the plot purchased from NGO, was classified by kNN technique and the tree crowns were extracted precisely. The canopy density was determined in each cell of different meshes with different sizes overlaid on the study area map. The accuracy of the final maps was investigated by the ground truth obtained by complete field measurements. The results showed that the proposed method of obtaining canopy density maps was efficient enough in the study area. The final canopy density map obtained by a mesh with 30 Ar (3000 m2) cell size had 80% overall accuracy and 0.61 KHAT coefficient of agreement which shows a great agreement with the observed samples. This method can also be tested in other case studies to reveal its capability in canopy density map production in woodlands.

  10. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Suwannee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  11. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Sumter County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Alachua County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  13. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Putnam County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Lake County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  15. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - FL Bay Ortho Imagery Project Spring 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This file references a single orthogonal imagery tile produced from nadir images captured by Pictometry International during the period of December 30th, 2012 and...

  16. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Taylor County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Okeechobee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Baker County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Palm Beach County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Leon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  1. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Volusia County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  2. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Lee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  3. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Nassau County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  4. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Duval County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  5. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Indian River County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  6. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 NAIP Imagery - Gadsden County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains polygons delineating the seams boundary between acquired imagery used in the creation of DOQQs and compressed county mosaic (CCM). The DOQQ...

  7. Vehicle detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery using attribute belief propagation (ABP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Ying; Zhang, Li; Huang, Yuchun

    2016-10-01

    With the popularity of very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery, the shape, color, and context attribute of vehicles are better characterized. Due to the various road surroundings and imaging conditions, vehicle attributes could be adversely affected so that vehicle is mistakenly detected or missed. This paper is motivated to robustly extract the rich attribute feature for detecting the vehicles of VHR imagery under different scenarios. Based on the hierarchical component tree of vehicle context, attribute belief propagation (ABP) is proposed to detect salient vehicles from the statistical perspective. With the Max-tree data structure, the multi-level component tree around the road network is efficiently created. The spatial relationship between vehicle and its belonging context is established with the belief definition of vehicle attribute. To effectively correct single-level belief error, the inter-level belief linkages enforce consistency of belief assignment between corresponding components at different levels. ABP starts from an initial set of vehicle belief calculated by vehicle attribute, and then iterates through each component by applying inter-level belief passing until convergence. The optimal value of vehicle belief of each component is obtained via minimizing its belief function iteratively. The proposed algorithm is tested on a diverse set of VHR imagery acquired in the city and inter-city areas of the West and South China. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can detect vehicle efficiently and suppress the erroneous effectively. The proposed ABP framework is promising to robustly classify the vehicles from VHR Aerial imagery.

  8. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, 4 inch aerial photography (color, infrared, and color oblique) in urban areas, 1 foot in national forest, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Los Angeles County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2006. 4 inch aerial photography (color, infrared, and color oblique) in urban areas, 1 foot in...

  9. VECTORIZATION OF ROAD DATA EXTRACTED FROM AERIAL AND UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bulatov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Road databases are essential instances of urban infrastructure. Therefore, automatic road detection from sensor data has been an important research activity during many decades. Given aerial images in a sufficient resolution, dense 3D reconstruction can be performed. Starting at a classification result of road pixels from combined elevation and optical data, we present in this paper a fivestep procedure for creating vectorized road networks. These main steps of the algorithm are: preprocessing, thinning, polygonization, filtering, and generalization. In particular, for the generalization step, which represents the principal area of innovation, two strategies are presented. The first strategy corresponds to a modification of the Douglas-Peucker-algorithm in order to reduce the number of vertices while the second strategy allows a smoother representation of street windings by Bezir curves, which results in reduction – to a decimal power – of the total curvature defined for the dataset. We tested our approach on three datasets with different complexity. The quantitative assessment of the results was performed by means of shapefiles from OpenStreetMap data. For a threshold of 6 m, completeness and correctness values of up to 85% were achieved.

  10. Detecting blind building façades from highly overlapping wide angle aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burochin, Jean-Pascal; Vallet, Bruno; Brédif, Mathieu; Mallet, Clément; Brosset, Thomas; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    This paper deals with the identification of blind building façades, i.e. façades which have no openings, in wide angle aerial images with a decimeter pixel size, acquired by nadir looking cameras. This blindness characterization is in general crucial for real estate estimation and has, at least in France, a particular importance on the evaluation of legal permission of constructing on a parcel due to local urban planning schemes. We assume that we have at our disposal an aerial survey with a relatively high stereo overlap along-track and across-track and a 3D city model of LoD 1, that can have been generated with the input images. The 3D model is textured with the aerial imagery by taking into account the 3D occlusions and by selecting for each façade the best available resolution texture seeing the whole façade. We then parse all 3D façades textures by looking for evidence of openings (windows or doors). This evidence is characterized by a comprehensive set of basic radiometric and geometrical features. The blindness prognostic is then elaborated through an (SVM) supervised classification. Despite the relatively low resolution of the images, we reach a classification accuracy of around 85% on decimeter resolution imagery with 60 × 40 % stereo overlap. On the one hand, we show that the results are very sensitive to the texturing resampling process and to vegetation presence on façade textures. On the other hand, the most relevant features for our classification framework are related to texture uniformity and horizontal aspect and to the maximal contrast of the opening detections. We conclude that standard aerial imagery used to build 3D city models can also be exploited to some extent and at no additional cost for facade blindness characterisation.

  11. Parabolic dune reactivation and migration at Napeague, NY, USA: Insights from aerial and GPR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, James D.; Davis, Dan M.

    2010-02-01

    Observations from mapping since the 19th century and aerial imagery since 1930 have been used to study changes in the aeolian geomorphology of coastal parabolic dunes over the last ~ 170 years in the Walking Dune Field, Napeague, NY. The five large parabolic dunes of the Walking Dune Field have all migrated across, or are presently interacting with, a variably forested area that has affected their migration, stabilization and morphology. This study has concentrated on a dune with a particularly complex history of stabilization, reactivation and migration. We have correlated that dune's surface evolution, as revealed by aerial imagery, with its internal structures imaged using 200 MHz and 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys. Both 2D (transect) and high-resolution 3D GPR imagery image downwind dipping bedding planes which can be grouped by apparent dip angle into several discrete packages of beds that reflect distinct decadal-scale episodes of dune reactivation and growth. From aerial and high resolution GPR imagery, we document a unique mode of reactivation and migration linked to upwind dune formation and parabolic dune interactions with forest trees. This study documents how dune-dune and dune-vegetation interactions have influenced a unique mode of blowout deposition that has alternated on a decadal scale between opposite sides of a parabolic dune during reactivation and migration. The pattern of recent parabolic dune reactivation and migration in the Walking Dune Field appears to be somewhat more complex, and perhaps more sensitive to subtle environmental pressures, than an idealized growth model with uniform deposition and purely on-axis migration. This pattern, believed to be prevalent among other parabolic dunes in the Walking Dune Field, may occur also in many other places where similar observational constraints are unavailable.

  12. A fully convolutional network for weed mapping of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huasheng; Deng, Jizhong; Lan, Yubin; Yang, Aqing; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Appropriate Site Specific Weed Management (SSWM) is crucial to ensure the crop yields. Within SSWM of large-scale area, remote sensing is a key technology to provide accurate weed distribution information. Compared with satellite and piloted aircraft remote sensing, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable of capturing high spatial resolution imagery, which will provide more detailed information for weed mapping. The objective of this paper is to generate an accurate weed cover map based on UAV imagery. The UAV RGB imagery was collected in 2017 October over the rice field located in South China. The Fully Convolutional Network (FCN) method was proposed for weed mapping of the collected imagery. Transfer learning was used to improve generalization capability, and skip architecture was applied to increase the prediction accuracy. After that, the performance of FCN architecture was compared with Patch_based CNN algorithm and Pixel_based CNN method. Experimental results showed that our FCN method outperformed others, both in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The overall accuracy of the FCN approach was up to 0.935 and the accuracy for weed recognition was 0.883, which means that this algorithm is capable of generating accurate weed cover maps for the evaluated UAV imagery.

  13. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique, This data set was acquired through a federal grant with Pictometry International. The imagery is either 4" or 9" resolution., Published in 2011, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique dataset current as of 2011. This data set was acquired through a federal grant with Pictometry International. The imagery is...

  14. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  15. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B.; Lewis, A.; David, N.

    1996-01-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico

  16. Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.

  17. Building change detection via a combination of CNNs using only RGB aerial imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Keisuke; Hamaguchi, Ryuhei; Sato, Masakazu; Fujita, Aito; Imaizumi, Tomoyuki; Hikosaka, Shuhei

    2017-10-01

    Building change information extracted from remote sensing imageries is important for various applications such as urban management and marketing planning. The goal of this work is to develop a methodology for automatically capturing building changes from remote sensing imageries. Recent studies have addressed this goal by exploiting 3-D information as a proxy for building height. In contrast, because in practice it is expensive or impossible to prepare 3-D information, we do not rely on 3-D data but focus on using only RGB aerial imageries. Instead, we employ deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to extract effective features, and improve change detection accuracy in RGB remote sensing imageries. We consider two aspects of building change detection, building detection and subsequent change detection. Our proposed methodology was tested on several areas, which has some differences such as dominant building characteristics and varying brightness values. On all over the tested areas, the proposed method provides good results for changed objects, with recall values over 75 % with a strict overlap requirement of over 50% in intersection-over-union (IoU). When the IoU threshold was relaxed to over 10%, resulting recall values were over 81%. We conclude that use of CNNs enables accurate detection of building changes without employing 3-D information.

  18. Tracking stormwater discharge plumes and water quality of the Tijuana River with multispectral aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svejkovsky, Jan; Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Mustain, Neomi M.; Kum, Jamie B.

    2010-04-01

    Spatial-temporal characteristics and environmental factors regulating the behavior of stormwater runoff from the Tijuana River in southern California were analyzed utilizing very high resolution aerial imagery, and time-coincident environmental and bacterial sampling data. Thirty nine multispectral aerial images with 2.1-m spatial resolution were collected after major rainstorms during 2003-2008. Utilizing differences in color reflectance characteristics, the ocean surface was classified into non-plume waters and three components of the runoff plume reflecting differences in age and suspended sediment concentrations. Tijuana River discharge rate was the primary factor regulating the size of the freshest plume component and its shorelong extensions to the north and south. Wave direction was found to affect the shorelong distribution of the shoreline-connected fresh plume components much more strongly than wind direction. Wave-driven sediment resuspension also significantly contributed to the size of the oldest plume component. Surf zone bacterial samples collected near the time of each image acquisition were used to evaluate the contamination characteristics of each plume component. The bacterial contamination of the freshest plume waters was very high (100% of surf zone samples exceeded California standards), but the oldest plume areas were heterogeneous, including both polluted and clean waters. The aerial imagery archive allowed study of river runoff characteristics on a plume component level, not previously done with coarser satellite images. Our findings suggest that high resolution imaging can quickly identify the spatial extents of the most polluted runoff but cannot be relied upon to always identify the entire polluted area. Our results also indicate that wave-driven transport is important in distributing the most contaminated plume areas along the shoreline.

  19. Spatially explicit rangeland erosion monitoring using high-resolution digital aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Barger, Nichole N.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all of the ecosystem services supported by rangelands, including production of livestock forage, carbon sequestration, and provisioning of clean water, are negatively impacted by soil erosion. Accordingly, monitoring the severity, spatial extent, and rate of soil erosion is essential for long-term sustainable management. Traditional field-based methods of monitoring erosion (sediment traps, erosion pins, and bridges) can be labor intensive and therefore are generally limited in spatial intensity and/or extent. There is a growing effort to monitor natural resources at broad scales, which is driving the need for new soil erosion monitoring tools. One remote-sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil movement is a time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) created using aerial photogrammetry methods. By geographically coregistering the DEMs and subtracting one surface from the other, an estimate of soil elevation change can be created. Such analysis enables spatially explicit quantification and visualization of net soil movement including erosion, deposition, and redistribution. We constructed DEMs (12-cm ground sampling distance) on the basis of aerial photography immediately before and 1 year after a vegetation removal treatment on a 31-ha Piñon-Juniper woodland in southeastern Utah to evaluate the use of aerial photography in detecting soil surface change. On average, we were able to detect surface elevation change of ± 8−9cm and greater, which was sufficient for the large amount of soil movement exhibited on the study area. Detecting more subtle soil erosion could be achieved using the same technique with higher-resolution imagery from lower-flying aircraft such as unmanned aerial vehicles. DEM differencing and process-focused field methods provided complementary information and a more complete assessment of soil loss and movement than any single technique alone. Photogrammetric DEM differencing could be used as a technique to

  20. Mapping snow depth in complex alpine terrain with close range aerial imagery - estimating the spatial uncertainties of repeat autonomous aerial surveys over an active rock glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jason; Marcer, Marco; Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth mapping in open areas using close range aerial imagery is just one of the many cases where developments in structure-from-motion and multi-view-stereo (SfM-MVS) 3D reconstruction techniques have been applied for geosciences - and with good reason. Our ability to increase the spatial resolution and frequency of observations may allow us to improve our understanding of how snow depth distribution varies through space and time. However, to ensure accurate snow depth observations from close range sensing we must adequately characterize the uncertainty related to our measurement techniques. In this study, we explore the spatial uncertainties of snow elevation models for estimation of snow depth in a complex alpine terrain from close range aerial imagery. We accomplish this by conducting repeat autonomous aerial surveys over a snow-covered active-rock glacier located in the French Alps. The imagery obtained from each flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to create an individual digital elevation model (DEM) of the snow surface. As result, we obtain multiple DEMs of the snow surface for the same site. These DEMs are obtained from processing the imagery with the photogrammetry software Agisoft Photoscan. The elevation models are also georeferenced within Photoscan using the geotagged imagery from an onboard GNSS in combination with ground targets placed around the rock glacier, which have been surveyed with highly accurate RTK-GNSS equipment. The random error associated with multi-temporal DEMs of the snow surface is estimated from the repeat aerial survey data. The multiple flights are designed to follow the same flight path and altitude above the ground to simulate the optimal conditions of repeat survey of the site, and thus try to estimate the maximum precision associated with our snow-elevation measurement technique. The bias of the DEMs is assessed with RTK-GNSS survey observations of the snow surface elevation of the area on and surrounding

  1. Fusion of pixel and object-based features for weed mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junfeng; Liao, Wenzhi; Nuyttens, David; Lootens, Peter; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Pižurica, Aleksandra; He, Yong; Pieters, Jan G.

    2018-05-01

    The developments in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and advanced imaging sensors provide new opportunities for ultra-high resolution (e.g., less than a 10 cm ground sampling distance (GSD)) crop field monitoring and mapping in precision agriculture applications. In this study, we developed a strategy for inter- and intra-row weed detection in early season maize fields from aerial visual imagery. More specifically, the Hough transform algorithm (HT) was applied to the orthomosaicked images for inter-row weed detection. A semi-automatic Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed with Random Forests (RF) combined with feature selection techniques to classify soil, weeds and maize. Furthermore, the two binary weed masks generated from HT and OBIA were fused for accurate binary weed image. The developed RF classifier was evaluated by 5-fold cross validation, and it obtained an overall accuracy of 0.945, and Kappa value of 0.912. Finally, the relationship of detected weeds and their ground truth densities was quantified by a fitted linear model with a coefficient of determination of 0.895 and a root mean square error of 0.026. Besides, the importance of input features was evaluated, and it was found that the ratio of vegetation length and width was the most significant feature for the classification model. Overall, our approach can yield a satisfactory weed map, and we expect that the obtained accurate and timely weed map from UAV imagery will be applicable to realize site-specific weed management (SSWM) in early season crop fields for reducing spraying non-selective herbicides and costs.

  2. ICAO Aeronautical chart production: aerodrome obstruction charts from small–format aerial digital imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Padro Molina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeronautical charts and aerodrome obstruction charts, provide information about obstacles around the airport, so pilots and air traffic controllers can comply with the procedures and limitations of its utilization. Safety in aviation demands updated and precise aeronautical charts production, adopting the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. In this paper the methodology employed to generate obstruction charts for five airports in Mexico, using aerial digital imagery obtained with small–format cameras, is described. Through two aerial surveys on each airport, from 10 000 and 5 000 feet above ground level, two orthomosaics were generated covering the airport influence area, the runway, and the obstacle limitation surfaces: approach/Take–off climb, transitional, inner horizontal, and conical. Using stereopair photointerpretation most of the obstacles were identified, and by means of the orthomosaics; aerodrome charts, and aerodrome obstruction charts types A, B and C, were generated. Using satellite geodetic receivers, 18 points were surveyed on each runway in order to obtain its dimensions, and to establish ground control points for mosaics generation. Throughout detailed field work, height and location of the obstacles were verified, and finally, after several reviewing processes by aeronautical authorities, generation of ICAO charts was concluded when all airport maps were integrated in a Geographical Information System.

  3. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant: Incorporating Historic Aerial Imagery into Modern Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flathers, E.

    2013-12-01

    One challenge that researchers face as data organization and analysis shift into the digital realm is the incorporation of 'dirty' data from analog back-catalogs into current projects. Geospatial data collections in university libraries, government data repositories, and private industry contain historic data such as aerial photographs that may be stored as negatives, prints, and as scanned digital image files. A typical aerial imagery series is created by taking photos of the ground from an aircraft along a series of parallel flight lines. The raw photos can be assembled into a mosaic that represents the full geographic area of the collection, but each photo suffers from individual distortion according to the attitude and altitude of the collecting aircraft at the moment of acquisition, so there is a process of orthorectification needed in order to produce a planimetric composite image that can be used to accurately refer to locations on the ground. Historic aerial photo collections often need significant preparation for consumption by a GIS: they may need to be digitized, often lack any explicit spatial coordinates, and may not include information about flight line patterns. Many collections lack even such basic information as index numbers for the photos, so it may be unclear in what order the photos were acquired. When collections contain large areas of, for example, forest or agricultural land, any given photo may have few visual cues to assist in relating it to the other photos or to an area on the ground. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant (PMA) is a collection of tools designed to assist in the organization of historic aerial photo collections and the preparation of collections for orthorectification and use in modern research applications. The first tool is a light table application that allows a user to take advantage of visual cues within photos to organize and explore the collection, potentially building a rough image mosaic by hand. The second tool is a set of

  4. Assessing the Accuracy of Georeferenced Point Clouds Produced via Multi-View Stereopsis from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Lucieer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor miniaturisation, improved battery technology and the availability of low-cost yet advanced Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV have provided new opportunities for environmental remote sensing. The UAV provides a platform for close-range aerial photography. Detailed imagery captured from micro-UAV can produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis (MVS techniques combining photogrammetry and computer vision. This study applies MVS techniques to imagery acquired from a multi-rotor micro-UAV of a natural coastal site in southeastern Tasmania, Australia. A very dense point cloud ( < 1–3 cm point spacing is produced in an arbitrary coordinate system using full resolution imagery, whereas other studies usually downsample the original imagery. The point cloud is sparse in areas of complex vegetation and where surfaces have a homogeneous texture. Ground control points collected with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS are identified and used for georeferencing via a Helmert transformation. This study compared georeferenced point clouds to a Total Station survey in order to assess and quantify their geometric accuracy. The results indicate that a georeferenced point cloud accurate to 25–40 mm can be obtained from imagery acquired from 50 m. UAV-based image capture provides the spatial and temporal resolution required to map and monitor natural landscapes. This paper assesses the accuracy of the generated point clouds based on field survey points. Based on our key findings we conclude that sub-decimetre terrain change (in this case coastal erosion can be monitored.

  5. Observing Spring and Fall Phenology in a Deciduous Forest with Aerial Drone Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Klosterman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of the effects of global change on terrestrial ecosystems and controls the timing of key ecosystem functions including photosynthesis and transpiration. Aerial drone imagery and photogrammetric techniques promise to advance the study of phenology by enabling the creation of distortion-free orthomosaics of plant canopies at the landscape scale, but with branch-level image resolution. The main goal of this study is to determine the leaf life cycle events corresponding to phenological metrics derived from automated analyses based on color indices calculated from drone imagery. For an oak-dominated, temperate deciduous forest in the northeastern USA, we find that plant area index (PAI correlates with a canopy greenness index during spring green-up, and a canopy redness index during autumn senescence. Additionally, greenness and redness metrics are significantly correlated with the timing of budburst and leaf expansion on individual trees in spring. However, we note that the specific color index for individual trees must be carefully chosen if new foliage in spring appears red, rather than green—which we observed for some oak trees. In autumn, both decreasing greenness and increasing redness correlate with leaf senescence. Maximum redness indicates the beginning of leaf fall, and the progression of leaf fall correlates with decreasing redness. We also find that cooler air temperature microclimates near a forest edge bordering a wetland advance the onset of senescence. These results demonstrate the use of drones for characterizing the organismic-level variability of phenology in a forested landscape and advance our understanding of which phenophase transitions correspond to color-based metrics derived from digital image analysis.

  6. Observing Spring and Fall Phenology in a Deciduous Forest with Aerial Drone Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Stephen; Richardson, Andrew D

    2017-12-08

    Plant phenology is a sensitive indicator of the effects of global change on terrestrial ecosystems and controls the timing of key ecosystem functions including photosynthesis and transpiration. Aerial drone imagery and photogrammetric techniques promise to advance the study of phenology by enabling the creation of distortion-free orthomosaics of plant canopies at the landscape scale, but with branch-level image resolution. The main goal of this study is to determine the leaf life cycle events corresponding to phenological metrics derived from automated analyses based on color indices calculated from drone imagery. For an oak-dominated, temperate deciduous forest in the northeastern USA, we find that plant area index (PAI) correlates with a canopy greenness index during spring green-up, and a canopy redness index during autumn senescence. Additionally, greenness and redness metrics are significantly correlated with the timing of budburst and leaf expansion on individual trees in spring. However, we note that the specific color index for individual trees must be carefully chosen if new foliage in spring appears red, rather than green-which we observed for some oak trees. In autumn, both decreasing greenness and increasing redness correlate with leaf senescence. Maximum redness indicates the beginning of leaf fall, and the progression of leaf fall correlates with decreasing redness. We also find that cooler air temperature microclimates near a forest edge bordering a wetland advance the onset of senescence. These results demonstrate the use of drones for characterizing the organismic-level variability of phenology in a forested landscape and advance our understanding of which phenophase transitions correspond to color-based metrics derived from digital image analysis.

  7. Visualization of simulated urban spaces: inferring parameterized generation of streets, parcels, and aerial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Carlos A; Aliaga, Daniel G; Benes, Bedrich; Waddell, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Urban simulation models and their visualization are used to help regional planning agencies evaluate alternative transportation investments, land use regulations, and environmental protection policies. Typical urban simulations provide spatially distributed data about number of inhabitants, land prices, traffic, and other variables. In this article, we build on a synergy of urban simulation, urban visualization, and computer graphics to automatically infer an urban layout for any time step of the simulation sequence. In addition to standard visualization tools, our method gathers data of the original street network, parcels, and aerial imagery and uses the available simulation results to infer changes to the original urban layout and produce a new and plausible layout for the simulation results. In contrast with previous work, our approach automatically updates the layout based on changes in the simulation data and thus can scale to a large simulation over many years. The method in this article offers a substantial step forward in building integrated visualization and behavioral simulation systems for use in community visioning, planning, and policy analysis. We demonstrate our method on several real cases using a 200 GB database for a 16,300 km2 area surrounding Seattle.

  8. Hourglass-ShapeNetwork Based Semantic Segmentation for High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new convolution neural network (CNN architecture for semantic segmentation of high resolution aerial imagery is proposed in this paper. The proposed architecture follows an hourglass-shaped network (HSN design being structured into encoding and decoding stages. By taking advantage of recent advances in CNN designs, we use the composed inception module to replace common convolutional layers, providing the network with multi-scale receptive areas with rich context. Additionally, in order to reduce spatial ambiguities in the up-sampling stage, skip connections with residual units are also employed to feed forward encoding-stage information directly to the decoder. Moreover, overlap inference is employed to alleviate boundary effects occurring when high resolution images are inferred from small-sized patches. Finally, we also propose a post-processing method based on weighted belief propagation to visually enhance the classification results. Extensive experiments based on the Vaihingen and Potsdam datasets demonstrate that the proposed architectures outperform three reference state-of-the-art network designs both numerically and visually.

  9. Spatial Quality Evaluation of Resampled Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Imagery for Weed Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra-Serrano, Irene; Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-08-12

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) combined with different spectral range sensors are an emerging technology for providing early weed maps for optimizing herbicide applications. Considering that weeds, at very early phenological stages, are similar spectrally and in appearance, three major components are relevant: spatial resolution, type of sensor and classification algorithm. Resampling is a technique to create a new version of an image with a different width and/or height in pixels, and it has been used in satellite imagery with different spatial and temporal resolutions. In this paper, the efficiency of resampled-images (RS-images) created from real UAV-images (UAV-images; the UAVs were equipped with two types of sensors, i.e., visible and visible plus near-infrared spectra) captured at different altitudes is examined to test the quality of the RS-image output. The performance of the object-based-image-analysis (OBIA) implemented for the early weed mapping using different weed thresholds was also evaluated. Our results showed that resampling accurately extracted the spectral values from high spatial resolution UAV-images at an altitude of 30 m and the RS-image data at altitudes of 60 and 100 m, was able to provide accurate weed cover and herbicide application maps compared with UAV-images from real flights.

  10. Open set recognition of aircraft in aerial imagery using synthetic template models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, Aleksander B.; Tran, Jonathan; Koch, Mark W.; Moya, Mary M.; Swahn, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Fast, accurate and robust automatic target recognition (ATR) in optical aerial imagery can provide game-changing advantages to military commanders and personnel. ATR algorithms must reject non-targets with a high degree of confidence in a world with an infinite number of possible input images. Furthermore, they must learn to recognize new targets without requiring massive data collections. Whereas most machine learning algorithms classify data in a closed set manner by mapping inputs to a fixed set of training classes, open set recognizers incorporate constraints that allow for inputs to be labelled as unknown. We have adapted two template-based open set recognizers to use computer generated synthetic images of military aircraft as training data, to provide a baseline for military-grade ATR: (1) a frequentist approach based on probabilistic fusion of extracted image features, and (2) an open set extension to the one-class support vector machine (SVM). These algorithms both use histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) as features as well as artificial augmentation of both real and synthetic image chips to take advantage of minimal training data. Our results show that open set recognizers trained with synthetic data and tested with real data can successfully discriminate real target inputs from non-targets. However, there is still a requirement for some knowledge of the real target in order to calibrate the relationship between synthetic template and target score distributions. We conclude by proposing algorithm modifications that may improve the ability of synthetic data to represent real data.

  11. Delineating wetland catchments and modeling hydrologic connectivity using lidar data and aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In reality, however, many depressions in the DEM are actual wetland landscape features with seasonal to permanent inundation patterning characterized by nested hierarchical structures and dynamic filling–spilling–merging surface-water hydrological processes. Differentiating and appropriately processing such ecohydrologically meaningful features remains a major technical terrain-processing challenge, particularly as high-resolution spatial data are increasingly used to support modeling and geographic analysis needs. The objectives of this study were to delineate hierarchical wetland catchments and model their hydrologic connectivity using high-resolution lidar data and aerial imagery. The graph-theory-based contour tree method was used to delineate the hierarchical wetland catchments and characterize their geometric and topological properties. Potential hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and streams were simulated using the least-cost-path algorithm. The resulting flow network delineated potential flow paths connecting wetland depressions to each other or to the river network on scales finer than those available through the National Hydrography Dataset. The results demonstrated that our proposed framework is promising for improving overland flow simulation and hydrologic connectivity analysis.

  12. Advanced Tie Feature Matching for the Registration of Mobile Mapping Imaging Data and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jende, P.; Peter, M.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping's ability to acquire high-resolution ground data is opposing unreliable localisation capabilities of satellite-based positioning systems in urban areas. Buildings shape canyons impeding a direct line-of-sight to navigation satellites resulting in a deficiency to accurately estimate the mobile platform's position. Consequently, acquired data products' positioning quality is considerably diminished. This issue has been widely addressed in the literature and research projects. However, a consistent compliance of sub-decimetre accuracy as well as a correction of errors in height remain unsolved. We propose a novel approach to enhance Mobile Mapping (MM) image orientation based on the utilisation of highly accurate orientation parameters derived from aerial imagery. In addition to that, the diminished exterior orientation parameters of the MM platform will be utilised as they enable the application of accurate matching techniques needed to derive reliable tie information. This tie information will then be used within an adjustment solution to correct affected MM data. This paper presents an advanced feature matching procedure as a prerequisite to the aforementioned orientation update. MM data is ortho-projected to gain a higher resemblance to aerial nadir data simplifying the images' geometry for matching. By utilising MM exterior orientation parameters, search windows may be used in conjunction with a selective keypoint detection and template matching. Originating from different sensor systems, however, difficulties arise with respect to changes in illumination, radiometry and a different original perspective. To respond to these challenges for feature detection, the procedure relies on detecting keypoints in only one image. Initial tests indicate a considerable improvement in comparison to classic detector/descriptor approaches in this particular matching scenario. This method leads to a significant reduction of outliers due to the limited availability

  13. Pedestrian Detection and Tracking from Low-Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the prominent thermal signature of humans and following the growing availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, more and more research efforts have been focusing on the detection and tracking of pedestrians using thermal infrared images recorded from UAVs. However, pedestrian detection and tracking from the thermal images obtained from UAVs pose many challenges due to the low-resolution of imagery, platform motion, image instability and the relatively small size of the objects. This research tackles these challenges by proposing a pedestrian detection and tracking system. A two-stage blob-based approach is first developed for pedestrian detection. This approach first extracts pedestrian blobs using the regional gradient feature and geometric constraints filtering and then classifies the detected blobs by using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM with a hybrid descriptor, which sophisticatedly combines Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT features in order to achieve accurate detection. This research further proposes an approach for pedestrian tracking. This approach employs the feature tracker with the update of detected pedestrian location to track pedestrian objects from the registered videos and extracts the motion trajectory data. The proposed detection and tracking approaches have been evaluated by multiple different datasets, and the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. This research is expected to significantly benefit many transportation applications, such as the multimodal traffic performance measure, pedestrian behavior study and pedestrian-vehicle crash analysis. Future work will focus on using fused thermal and visual images to further improve the detection efficiency and effectiveness.

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2009 Digital Orthophotos - Bradford County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This metadata describes the digital ortho imagery covering Bradford County, FL. This 1"=200' scale imagery is comprised of natural color orthophotography with a GSD...

  15. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This metadata describes the digital ortho imagery covering Union County, FL. This 1"=200' scale imagery is comprised of natural color orthophotography with a GSD...

  16. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2013 Digital Orthophotos - Calhoun County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This metadata describes the digital ortho imagery covering Calhoun and Gulf Counties, FL. This 1"=200' scale imagery is comprised of natural color orthoimagery with...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2013 Digital Orthophotos - Liberty County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This metadata describes the digital ortho imagery covering Liberty County, FL. This 1"=200' scale imagery is comprised of 24 bit natural color orthophotography with...

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Franklin County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This metadata describes the digital ortho imagery covering Franklin County, FL. This 1"=200' scale imagery is comprised of natural color orthophotography with a GSD...

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Digital Orthophotographs are orthorectified aerial photographs. In this data set all of Johnson County Kansas was flown in color at an altitude of 4800' AMT and orthorectified with a resolution of 0.5 feet (1"=800'). Areas of Lake Quivira and Spring Hil, Published in 2006, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2006. Digital Orthophotographs are orthorectified aerial photographs. In this data set all of...

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Digital orthophographs (DOPs) were derived from black and white aerial photographs taken in the spring of 2000. The DOP scale is 1:4800 (1" = 400') rectified to 18" pixels., Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2000. Digital orthophographs (DOPs) were derived from black and white aerial photographs taken...

  1. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Polk County retained Ayres Associates to acquire digital aerial photography during the spring of 2010 suitable for the production of color orthophotography at a 12-inch ground pixel resolution (approximately 956 sq. miles). The photography was obtained du, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Polk County retained Ayres Associates to acquire digital aerial photography during the...

  2. New interpretations of the Fort Clark State Historic Site based on aerial color and thermal infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Andrew Roland

    The Fort Clark State Historic Site (32ME2) is a well known site on the upper Missouri River, North Dakota. The site was the location of two Euroamerican trading posts and a large Mandan-Arikara earthlodge village. In 2004, Dr. Kenneth L. Kvamme and Dr. Tommy Hailey surveyed the site using aerial color and thermal infrared imagery collected from a powered parachute. Individual images were stitched together into large image mosaics and registered to Wood's 1993 interpretive map of the site using Adobe Photoshop. The analysis of those image mosaics resulted in the identification of more than 1,500 archaeological features, including as many as 124 earthlodges.

  3. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This imagery was acquired through a Federal Grant with Pictometry International. The resolution is 6" in more densly populated areas and 1' in the other areas., Published in 2011, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2011. This imagery was acquired through a Federal Grant with Pictometry International. The...

  4. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This dataset contains imagery of Prince George's County in RGB format. The primary goal was to acquire Countywide Digital Orthoimagery at 6" ground pixel resolution., Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Non-Profit | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. This dataset contains imagery of Prince George's County in RGB format. The primary goal...

  5. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, We have new imagery from Pictometry's AccuPlus flown in March 2010 and to be delivered in October 2010., Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Augusta-Richmond County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. We have new imagery from Pictometry's AccuPlus flown in March 2010 and to be delivered in...

  6. Integrating Pavement Crack Detection and Analysis Using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS

  7. Open-Source Processing and Analysis of Aerial Imagery Acquired with a Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial System to Support Invasive Plant Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. K. Lehmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS is a dynamic evolving technology. UAS are particularly useful in environmental monitoring and management because they have the capability to provide data at high temporal and spatial resolutions. Moreover, data acquisition costs are lower than those of conventional methods such as extensive ground sampling, manned airplanes, or satellites. Small fixed-wing UAS in particular offer further potential benefits as they extend the operational coverage of the area under study at lower operator risks and accelerate data deployment times. Taking these aspects into account, UAS might be an effective tool to support management of invasive plant based on early detection and regular monitoring. A straightforward UAS approach to map invasive plant species is presented in this study with the intention of providing ready-to-use field maps essential for action-oriented management. Our UAS utilizes low-cost sensors, free-of-charge software for mission planning and an affordable, commercial aerial platform to reduce operational costs, reducing expenses with personnel while increasing overall efficiency. We illustrate our approach using a real example of invasion by Acacia mangium in a Brazilian Savanna ecosystem. A. mangium was correctly identified with an overall accuracy of 82.7% from the analysis of imagery. This approach provides land management authorities and practitioners with new prospects for environmental restoration in areas where invasive plant species are present.

  8. INTERGRATION OF LiDAR DATA WITH AERIAL IMAGERY FOR ESTIMATING ROOFTOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POTENTIALS IN CITY OF CAPE TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Adeleke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the drive to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by carbon-intensive economies like South Africa, the recent spate of electricity load shedding across most part of the country, including Cape Town has left electricity consumers scampering for alternatives, so as to rely less on the national grid. Solar energy, which is adequately available in most part of Africa and regarded as a clean and renewable source of energy, makes it possible to generate electricity by using photovoltaics technology. However, before time and financial resources are invested into rooftop solar photovoltaic systems in urban areas, it is important to evaluate the potential of the building rooftop, intended to be used in harvesting the solar energy. This paper presents methodologies making use of LiDAR data and other ancillary data, such as high-resolution aerial imagery, to automatically extract building rooftops in City of Cape Town and evaluate their potentials for solar photovoltaics systems. Two main processes were involved: (1 automatic extraction of building roofs using the integration of LiDAR data and aerial imagery in order to derive its’ outline and areal coverage; and (2 estimating the global solar radiation incidence on each roof surface using an elevation model derived from the LiDAR data, in order to evaluate its solar photovoltaic potential. This resulted in a geodatabase, which can be queried to retrieve salient information about the viability of a particular building roof for solar photovoltaic installation.

  9. DECISION LEVEL FUSION OF LIDAR DATA AND AERIAL COLOR IMAGERY BASED ON BAYESIAN THEORY FOR URBAN AREA CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rastiveis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR generates high-density 3D point clouds to provide a comprehensive information from object surfaces. Combining this data with aerial/satellite imagery is quite promising for improving land cover classification. In this study, fusion of LiDAR data and aerial imagery based on Bayesian theory in a three-level fusion algorithm is presented. In the first level, pixel-level fusion, the proper descriptors for both LiDAR and image data are extracted. In the next level of fusion, feature-level, using extracted features the area are classified into six classes of “Buildings”, “Trees”, “Asphalt Roads”, “Concrete roads”, “Grass” and “Cars” using Naïve Bayes classification algorithm. This classification is performed in three different strategies: (1 using merely LiDAR data, (2 using merely image data, and (3 using all extracted features from LiDAR and image. The results of three classifiers are integrated in the last phase, decision level fusion, based on Naïve Bayes algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a high resolution color orthophoto and LiDAR data over the urban areas of Zeebruges, Belgium were applied. Obtained results from the decision level fusion phase revealed an improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  10. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications using high-resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne L.; Keller, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term monitoring efforts often use remote sensing to track trends in habitat or landscape conditions over time. To most appropriately compare observations over time, long-term monitoring efforts strive for consistency in methods. Thus, advances and changes in technology over time can present a challenge. For instance, modern camera technology has led to an increasing availability of very high-resolution imagery (i.e. submetre and metre) and a shift from analogue to digital photography. While numerous studies have shown that image resolution can impact the accuracy of classifications, most of these studies have focused on the impacts of comparing spatial resolution changes greater than 2 m. Thus, a knowledge gap exists on the impacts of minor changes in spatial resolution (i.e. submetre to about 1.5 m) in very high-resolution aerial imagery (i.e. 2 m resolution or less). This study compared the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications of an area dominated by coastal marsh vegetation in Louisiana, USA, using 1:12,000 scale colour-infrared analogue aerial photography (AAP) scanned at four different dot-per-inch resolutions simulating ground sample distances (GSDs) of 0.33, 0.54, 1, and 2 m. Analysis of the impact of spatial resolution on land/water classifications was conducted by exploring various spatial aspects of the classifications including density of waterbodies and frequency distributions in waterbody sizes. This study found that a small-magnitude change (1–1.5 m) in spatial resolution had little to no impact on the amount of water classified (i.e. percentage mapped was less than 1.5%), but had a significant impact on the mapping of very small waterbodies (i.e. waterbodies ≤ 250 m2). These findings should interest those using temporal image classifications derived from very high-resolution aerial photography as a component of long-term monitoring programs.

  11. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China, for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population.

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Levy County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  13. Coastal Bend Texas Benthic Habitat Mapping Reprocessed DOQQ Aerial Imagery (NODC Accession 0086051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006 and 2007 the NOAA Coastal Services Center purchased services to reprocess existing digital multi-spectral imagery (ADS-40) and create digital benthic habitat...

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  15. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  16. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2009 Digital Orthophotos - Pasco County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2009 Digital Orthophotos - Citrus County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2009 Digital Orthophotos - Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2009 Digital Orthophotos - Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Citrus County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  1. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2009 Digital Orthophotos - Levy County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  2. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2010 Digital Orthophotos - Pasco County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set is one component of a digital orthophoto imagery (DOI) coverage over the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) North District Area, for...

  3. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - 2013 Digital Orthophotos - Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This file references a single orthogonal imagery tile produced from nadir images captured by Pictometry International during the period of December 21st, 2012 to...

  4. Hurricane Ophelia Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the North Carolina Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the North Carolina coast after Hurricane Ophelia made landfall. The regions photographed range from Hubert, North Carolina to...

  5. A semi-automated approach to derive elevation time-series and calculate glacier mass balance from historical aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, E.; Headman, A.; Shean, D. E.; McCann, E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the implications of glacier recession on water resources in the western U.S. requires quantifying glacier mass change across large regions over several decades. Very few glaciers in North America have long-term continuous field measurements of glacier mass balance. However, systematic aerial photography campaigns began in 1957 on many glaciers in the western U.S. and Alaska. These historical, vertical aerial stereo-photographs documenting glacier evolution have recently become publically available. Digital elevation models (DEM) of the transient glacier surface preserved in each imagery timestamp can be derived, then differenced to calculate glacier volume and mass change to improve regional geodetic solutions of glacier mass balance. In order to batch process these data, we use Python-based algorithms and Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry software to semi-automate DEM creation, and orthorectify and co-register historical aerial imagery in a high-performance computing environment. Scanned photographs are rotated to reduce scaling issues, cropped to the same size to remove fiducials, and batch histogram equalization is applied to improve image quality and aid pixel-matching algorithms using the Python library OpenCV. Processed photographs are then passed to Photoscan through the Photoscan Python library to create DEMs and orthoimagery. To extend the period of record, the elevation products are co-registered to each other, airborne LiDAR data, and DEMs derived from sub-meter commercial satellite imagery. With the exception of the placement of ground control points, the process is entirely automated with Python. Current research is focused on: one, applying these algorithms to create geodetic mass balance time series for the 90 photographed glaciers in Washington State and two, evaluating the minimal amount of positional information required in Photoscan to prevent distortion effects that cannot be addressed during co

  6. Extraction of Dems and Orthoimages from Archive Aerial Imagery to Support Project Planning in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, M.; Tonelli, E.; Battaglia, D.; Scaioni, M.

    2017-12-01

    Archive aerial photos represent a valuable heritage to provide information about land content and topography in the past years. Today, the availability of low-cost and open-source solutions for photogrammetric processing of close-range and drone images offers the chance to provide outputs such as DEM's and orthoimages in easy way. This paper is aimed at demonstrating somehow and to which level of accuracy digitized archive aerial photos may be used within a such kind of low-cost software (Agisoft Photoscan Professional®) to generate photogrammetric outputs. Different steps of the photogrammetric processing workflow are presented and discussed. The main conclusion is that this procedure may come to provide some final products, which however do not feature the high accuracy and resolution that may be obtained using high-end photogrammetric software packages specifically designed for aerial survey projects. In the last part a case study is presented about the use of four-epoch archive of aerial images to analyze the area where a tunnel has to be excavated.

  7. EXTRACTION OF DEMS AND ORTHOIMAGES FROM ARCHIVE AERIAL IMAGERY TO SUPPORT PROJECT PLANNING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cogliati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Archive aerial photos represent a valuable heritage to provide information about land content and topography in the past years. Today, the availability of low-cost and open-source solutions for photogrammetric processing of close-range and drone images offers the chance to provide outputs such as DEM’s and orthoimages in easy way. This paper is aimed at demonstrating somehow and to which level of accuracy digitized archive aerial photos may be used within a such kind of low-cost software (Agisoft Photoscan Professional® to generate photogrammetric outputs. Different steps of the photogrammetric processing workflow are presented and discussed. The main conclusion is that this procedure may come to provide some final products, which however do not feature the high accuracy and resolution that may be obtained using high-end photogrammetric software packages specifically designed for aerial survey projects. In the last part a case study is presented about the use of four-epoch archive of aerial images to analyze the area where a tunnel has to be excavated.

  8. A Photogrammetric Workflow for the Creation of a Forest Canopy Height Model from Small Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lejeune

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of operational small unmanned aerial systems (UASs opens the door for their extensive use in forest mapping, as both the spatial and temporal resolution of UAS imagery better suit local-scale investigation than traditional remote sensing tools. This article focuses on the use of combined photogrammetry and “Structure from Motion” approaches in order to model the forest canopy surface from low-altitude aerial images. An original workflow, using the open source and free photogrammetric toolbox, MICMAC (acronym for Multi Image Matches for Auto Correlation Methods, was set up to create a digital canopy surface model of deciduous stands. In combination with a co-registered light detection and ranging (LiDAR digital terrain model, the elevation of vegetation was determined, and the resulting hybrid photo/LiDAR canopy height model was compared to data from a LiDAR canopy height model and from forest inventory data. Linear regressions predicting dominant height and individual height from plot metrics and crown metrics showed that the photogrammetric canopy height model was of good quality for deciduous stands. Although photogrammetric reconstruction significantly smooths the canopy surface, the use of this workflow has the potential to take full advantage of the flexible revisit period of drones in order to refresh the LiDAR canopy height model and to collect dense multitemporal canopy height series.

  9. Geovisualisation of relief in a virtual reality system on the basis of low-level aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halik, Łukasz; Smaczyński, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the following paper was to present the geomatic process of transforming low-level aerial imagery obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) into a digital terrain model (DTM) and implementing the model into a virtual reality system (VR). The object of the study was a natural aggretage heap of an irregular shape and denivelations up to 11 m. Based on the obtained photos, three point clouds (varying in the level of detail) were generated for the 20,000-m2-area. For further analyses, the researchers selected the point cloud with the best ratio of accuracy to output file size. This choice was made based on seven control points of the heap surveyed in the field and the corresponding points in the generated 3D model. The obtained several-centimetre differences between the control points in the field and the ones from the model might testify to the usefulness of the described algorithm for creating large-scale DTMs for engineering purposes. Finally, the chosen model was implemented into the VR system, which enables the most lifelike exploration of 3D terrain plasticity in real time, thanks to the first person view mode (FPV). In this mode, the user observes an object with the aid of a Head- mounted display (HMD), experiencing the geovisualisation from the inside, and virtually analysing the terrain as a direct animator of the observations.

  10. Automatic urban debris zone extraction from post-hurricane very high-resolution satellite and aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated remote sensing methods have not gained widespread usage for damage assessment after hurricane events, especially for low-rise buildings, such as individual houses and small businesses. Hurricane wind, storm surge with waves, and inland flooding have unique damage signatures, further complicating the development of robust automated assessment methodologies. As a step toward realizing automated damage assessment for multi-hazard hurricane events, this paper presents a mono-temporal image classification methodology that quickly and accurately differentiates urban debris from non-debris areas using post-event images. Three classification approaches are presented: spectral, textural, and combined spectral–textural. The methodology is demonstrated for Gulfport, Mississippi, using IKONOS panchromatic satellite and NOAA aerial colour imagery collected after 2005 Hurricane Katrina. The results show that multivariate texture information significantly improves debris class detection performance by decreasing the confusion between debris and other land cover types, and the extracted debris zone accurately captures debris distribution. Additionally, the extracted debris boundary is approximately equivalent regardless of imagery type, demonstrating the flexibility and robustness of the debris mapping methodology. While the test case presents results for hurricane hazards, the proposed methodology is generally developed and expected to be effective in delineating debris zones for other natural hazards, including tsunamis, tornadoes, and earthquakes.

  11. Surface Elevation Change of Transantarctic Outlet Glaciers using Historical Aerial Imagery and Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, S. F.; Stearns, L. A.; Girod, L.

    2017-12-01

    Transantarctic Mountain outlet glaciers drain ice from the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to the Ross Ice Shelf and are generally considered to be stable. However, studies that assess these glaciers typically use data with coarse spatial resolutions (1 - 20 km) and span only the last 15 - 20 years. Here, we use trimetrogon aerial (TMA) photographs collected by the United States Geological Survey from 1960 - 1965 to create historical surface elevation maps. We construct elevations from both the vertical (0° nadir) and oblique photographs using MicMac, a Structure-from-Motion (SfM) software. With typical SfM processing, accurate ground control points (GCPs) are necessary for the best results; however, in situ GCPs are extremely sparse in Antarctica, so we manually identify GCPs using exposed rock outcrops in the WorldView imagery. The historical glacier surface elevations are then compared with present-day elevations derived from WorldView imagery. With this methodology, we assess how Transantarctic outlet glaciers have changed over 55 years. Recent studies indicate thinning of the eastern Ross Ice Shelf, where it borders the Transantarctic Mountains. With long-term records of glacier elevation change, we can differentiate whether ice shelf thinning is driven by changes in glacier or ocean dynamics. These results give us a better understanding of the long-term stability of East Antarctic outlet glaciers, which is essential in improving predictive models of ice sheet behavior.

  12. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sugumaran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixelto-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  13. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds. PMID:27873800

  14. OVERVIEW OF MODERN RESEARCH OF LANDSLIDES ACCORDING TO AERIAL AND SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Lyapishev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of researches of landslides using remote sensing methods such as aerial photography, satellite images, radar interferometry, and their combination with the use of GIS technology. Modern methods of investigation of landslides are very diverse. The authors propose different approaches to the identification, classification and monitoring of landslides. Data analysis techniques can help in creating more sophisticated approach to the analysis of landslides.

  15. Automatic Feature Detection, Description and Matching from Mobile Laser Scanning Data and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussnain, Zille; Oude Elberink, Sander; Vosselman, George

    2016-06-01

    In mobile laser scanning systems, the platform's position is measured by GNSS and IMU, which is often not reliable in urban areas. Consequently, derived Mobile Laser Scanning Point Cloud (MLSPC) lacks expected positioning reliability and accuracy. Many of the current solutions are either semi-automatic or unable to achieve pixel level accuracy. We propose an automatic feature extraction method which involves utilizing corresponding aerial images as a reference data set. The proposed method comprise three steps; image feature detection, description and matching between corresponding patches of nadir aerial and MLSPC ortho images. In the data pre-processing step the MLSPC is patch-wise cropped and converted to ortho images. Furthermore, each aerial image patch covering the area of the corresponding MLSPC patch is also cropped from the aerial image. For feature detection, we implemented an adaptive variant of Harris-operator to automatically detect corner feature points on the vertices of road markings. In feature description phase, we used the LATCH binary descriptor, which is robust to data from different sensors. For descriptor matching, we developed an outlier filtering technique, which exploits the arrangements of relative Euclidean-distances and angles between corresponding sets of feature points. We found that the positioning accuracy of the computed correspondence has achieved the pixel level accuracy, where the image resolution is 12cm. Furthermore, the developed approach is reliable when enough road markings are available in the data sets. We conclude that, in urban areas, the developed approach can reliably extract features necessary to improve the MLSPC accuracy to pixel level.

  16. Estimating Discharge in Low-Order Rivers With High-Resolution Aerial Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    King, Tyler V.; Neilson, Bethany T.; Rasmussen, Mitchell T.

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing of river discharge promises to augment in situ gauging stations, but the majority of research in this field focuses on large rivers (>50 m wide). We present a method for estimating volumetric river discharge in low-order (wide) rivers from remotely sensed data by coupling high-resolution imagery with one-dimensional hydraulic modeling at so-called virtual gauging stations. These locations were identified as locations where the river contracted under low flows, exposing a substa...

  17. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Washington County, NC true color orthophotography - 1 foot resolution in the remainder of the county, Published in 2009, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. Washington County, NC true color orthophotography - 1 foot resolution in the remainder of...

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Washington County, NC true color orthophotography - 1/4 foot resolution over selected areas, Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. Washington County, NC true color orthophotography - 1/4 foot resolution over selected...

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Washington County, NC true color orhophotography - 1/2 foot resolution over selected areas, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. Washington County, NC true color orhophotography - 1/2 foot resolution over selected areas.

  20. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Washburn County had ortho/oblique photography flight done in April of 2009. Pictometry was contracted for the project., Published in 2009, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Washburn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2009. Washburn County had ortho/oblique photography flight done in April of 2009. Pictometry...

  1. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Color orthophotos of York County, SC and the municipalities flown at 400 scale, 1 foot resolution, Published in 2005, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, York County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2005. Color orthophotos of York County, SC and the municipalities flown at 400 scale, 1 foot...

  2. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Spring 2006 - natural color - countywide 12 inch pixel orthophotography - County of Polk, Wisconsin, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2006. Spring 2006 - natural color - countywide 12 inch pixel orthophotography - County of Polk,...

  3. Low aerial imagery - an assessment of georeferencing errors and the potential for use in environmental inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaczyński, Maciej; Medyńska-Gulij, Beata

    2017-06-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being used in close range photogrammetry. Real-time observation of the Earth's surface and the photogrammetric images obtained are used as material for surveying and environmental inventory. The following study was conducted on a small area (approximately 1 ha). In such cases, the classical method of topographic mapping is not accurate enough. The geodetic method of topographic surveying, on the other hand, is an overly precise measurement technique for the purpose of inventorying the natural environment components. The author of the following study has proposed using the unmanned aerial vehicle technology and tying in the obtained images to the control point network established with the aid of GNSS technology. Georeferencing the acquired images and using them to create a photogrammetric model of the studied area enabled the researcher to perform calculations, which yielded a total root mean square error below 9 cm. The performed comparison of the real lengths of the vectors connecting the control points and their lengths calculated on the basis of the photogrammetric model made it possible to fully confirm the RMSE calculated and prove the usefulness of the UAV technology in observing terrain components for the purpose of environmental inventory. Such environmental components include, among others, elements of road infrastructure, green areas, but also changes in the location of moving pedestrians and vehicles, as well as other changes in the natural environment that are not registered on classical base maps or topographic maps.

  4. Cloud-shadow removal for Unmanned Aerial System multispectral imagery based on tensor decomposition methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Wang, Sheng; Garcia, Monica

    2017-01-01

    that are mosaicked into larger images to produce ortho-photomaps. Frequently, especially in northern latitudes, the images to be mosaicked have been acquired under varying irradiance conditions due to moving clouds that create artifacts in the detected signal unrelated to physical changes in vegetation properties......, this study succeeded to remove the cloud shadow effects and image noise in UAS imagery providing normalized reflectance. The comparison between the corrected and un-corrected images shows a significant improvement for reflectance estimation in the shadow areas. Further, analysis of vegetation indices e...

  5. Blanding’s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii Potential Habitat Mapping Using Aerial Orthophotographic Imagery and Object Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. King

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii is a threatened species under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. In southern Québec, field based inventories are ongoing to determine its abundance and potential habitat. The goal of this research was to develop means for mapping of potential habitat based on primary habitat attributes that can be detected with high-resolution remotely sensed imagery. Using existing spring leaf-off 20 cm resolution aerial orthophotos of a portion of Gatineau Park where some Blanding’s turtle observations had been made, habitat attributes were mapped at two scales: (1 whole wetlands; (2 within wetland habitat features of open water, vegetation (used for camouflage and thermoregulation, and logs (used for spring sun-basking. The processing steps involved initial pixel-based classification to eliminate most areas of non-wetland, followed by object-based segmentations and classifications using a customized rule sequence to refine the wetland map and to map the within wetland habitat features. Variables used as inputs to the classifications were derived from the orthophotos and included image brightness, texture, and segmented object shape and area. Independent validation using field data and visual interpretation showed classification accuracy for all habitat attributes to be generally over 90% with a minimum of 81.5% for the producer’s accuracy of logs. The maps for each attribute were combined to produce a habitat suitability map for Blanding’s turtle. Of the 115 existing turtle observations, 92.3% were closest to a wetland of the two highest suitability classes. High-resolution imagery combined with object-based classification and habitat suitability mapping methods such as those presented provide a much more spatially explicit representation of detailed habitat attributes than can be obtained through field work alone. They can complement field efforts to document and track turtle activities and can contribute to

  6. Near real-time shadow detection and removal in aerial motion imagery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme F.; Carneiro, Grace B.; Doth, Ricardo; Amaral, Leonardo A.; Azevedo, Dario F. G. de

    2018-06-01

    This work presents a method to automatically detect and remove shadows in urban aerial images and its application in an aerospace remote monitoring system requiring near real-time processing. Our detection method generates shadow masks and is accelerated by GPU programming. To obtain the shadow masks, we converted images from RGB to CIELCh model, calculated a modified Specthem ratio, and applied multilevel thresholding. Morphological operations were used to reduce shadow mask noise. The shadow masks are used in the process of removing shadows from the original images using the illumination ratio of the shadow/non-shadow regions. We obtained shadow detection accuracy of around 93% and shadow removal results comparable to the state-of-the-art while maintaining execution time under real-time constraints.

  7. Motion Component Supported Boosted Classifier for CAR Detection in Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuermer, S.; Leitloff, J.; Reinartz, P.; Stilla, U.

    2011-04-01

    Research of automatic vehicle detection in aerial images has been done with a lot of innovation and constantly rising success for years. However information was mostly taken from a single image only. Our aim is using the additional information which is offered by the temporal component, precisely the difference of the previous and the consecutive image. On closer viewing the moving objects are mainly vehicles and therefore we provide a method which is able to limit the search space of the detector to changed areas. The actual detector is generated of HoG features which are composed and linearly weighted by AdaBoost. Finally the method is tested on a motorway section including an exit and congested traffic near Munich, Germany.

  8. Determination of Shift/Bias in Digital Aerial Triangulation of UAV Imagery Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Damian

    2017-12-01

    Currently UAV Photogrammetry is characterized a largely automated and efficient data processing. Depicting from the low altitude more often gains on the meaning in the uses of applications as: cities mapping, corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas e.g. forests. Additionally, high-resolution video image (HD and bigger) is more often use for depicting from the low altitude from one side it lets deliver a lot of details and characteristics of ground surfaces features, and from the other side is presenting new challenges in the data processing. Therefore, determination of elements of external orientation plays a substantial role the detail of Digital Terrain Models and artefact-free ortophoto generation. Parallel a research on the quality of acquired images from UAV and above the quality of products e.g. orthophotos are conducted. Despite so fast development UAV photogrammetry still exists the necessity of accomplishment Automatic Aerial Triangulation (AAT) on the basis of the observations GPS/INS and via ground control points. During low altitude photogrammetric flight, the approximate elements of external orientation registered by UAV are burdened with the influence of some shift/bias errors. In this article, methods of determination shift/bias error are presented. In the process of the digital aerial triangulation two solutions are applied. In the first method shift/bias error was determined together with the drift/bias error, elements of external orientation and coordinates of ground control points. In the second method shift/bias error was determined together with the elements of external orientation, coordinates of ground control points and drift/bias error equals 0. When two methods were compared the difference for shift/bias error is more than ±0.01 m for all terrain coordinates XYZ.

  9. The influence of the in situ camera calibration for direct georeferencing of aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitishita, E.; Barrios, R.; Centeno, J.

    2014-11-01

    The direct determination of exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of aerial images via GNSS/INS technologies is an essential prerequisite in photogrammetric mapping nowadays. Although direct sensor orientation technologies provide a high degree of automation in the process due to the GNSS/INS technologies, the accuracies of the obtained results depend on the quality of a group of parameters that models accurately the conditions of the system at the moment the job is performed. One sub-group of parameters (lever arm offsets and boresight misalignments) models the position and orientation of the sensors with respect to the IMU body frame due to the impossibility of having all sensors on the same position and orientation in the airborne platform. Another sub-group of parameters models the internal characteristics of the sensor (IOP). A system calibration procedure has been recommended by worldwide studies to obtain accurate parameters (mounting and sensor characteristics) for applications of the direct sensor orientation. Commonly, mounting and sensor characteristics are not stable; they can vary in different flight conditions. The system calibration requires a geometric arrangement of the flight and/or control points to decouple correlated parameters, which are not available in the conventional photogrammetric flight. Considering this difficulty, this study investigates the feasibility of the in situ camera calibration to improve the accuracy of the direct georeferencing of aerial images. The camera calibration uses a minimum image block, extracted from the conventional photogrammetric flight, and control point arrangement. A digital Vexcel UltraCam XP camera connected to POS AV TM system was used to get two photogrammetric image blocks. The blocks have different flight directions and opposite flight line. In situ calibration procedures to compute different sets of IOPs are performed and their results are analyzed and used in photogrammetric experiments. The IOPs

  10. Aerial Imagery and LIDAR Data Fusion for Unambiguous Extraction of Adjacent Level-Buildings Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola Ebrahimi, S.; Arefi, H.; Rasti Veis, H.

    2017-09-01

    Our paper aims to present a new approach to identify and extract building footprints using aerial images and LiDAR data. Employing an edge detector algorithm, our method first extracts the outer boundary of buildings, and then by taking advantage of Hough transform and extracting the boundary of connected buildings in a building block, it extracts building footprints located in each block. The proposed method first recognizes the predominant leading orientation of a building block using Hough transform, and then rotates the block according to the inverted complement of the dominant line's angle. Therefore the block poses horizontally. Afterwards, by use of another Hough transform, vertical lines, which might be the building boundaries of interest, are extracted and the final building footprints within a block are obtained. The proposed algorithm is implemented and tested on the urban area of Zeebruges, Belgium(IEEE Contest,2015). The areas of extracted footprints are compared to the corresponding areas in the reference data and mean error is equal to 7.43 m2. Besides, qualitative and quantitative evaluations suggest that the proposed algorithm leads to acceptable results in automated precise extraction of building footprints.

  11. Tree detection in urban regions from aerial imagery and DSM based on local maxima points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgür; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we propose an automatic approach for tree detection and classification in registered 3-band aerial images and associated digital surface models (DSM). The tree detection results can be used in 3D city modelling and urban planning. This problem is magnified when trees are in close proximity to each other or other objects such as rooftops in the scenes. This study presents a method for locating individual trees and estimation of crown size based on local maxima from DSM accompanied by color and texture information. For this purpose, segment level classifier trained for 10 classes and classification results are improved by analyzing the class probabilities of neighbour segments. Later, the tree classes under a certain height were eliminated using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). For the tree classes, local maxima points are obtained and the tree radius estimate is made from the vertical and horizontal height profiles passing through these points. The final tree list containing the centers and radius of the trees is obtained by selecting from the list of tree candidates according to the overlapping and selection parameters. Although the limited number of train sets are used in this study, tree classification and localization results are competitive.

  12. Deep convolutional neural network processing of aerial stereo imagery to monitor vulnerable zones near power lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Abdul; Saad, Naufal M.; Kamel, Nidal; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2018-01-01

    The monitoring of vegetation near high-voltage transmission power lines and poles is tedious. Blackouts present a huge challenge to power distribution companies and often occur due to tree growth in hilly and rural areas. There are numerous methods of monitoring hazardous overgrowth that are expensive and time-consuming. Accurate estimation of tree and vegetation heights near power poles can prevent the disruption of power transmission in vulnerable zones. This paper presents a cost-effective approach based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) algorithm to compute the height (depth maps) of objects proximal to power poles and transmission lines. The proposed CNN extracts and classifies features by employing convolutional pooling inputs to fully connected data layers that capture prominent features from stereo image patches. Unmanned aerial vehicle or satellite stereo image datasets can thus provide a feasible and cost-effective approach that identifies threat levels based on height and distance estimations of hazardous vegetation and other objects. Results were compared with extant disparity map estimation techniques, such as graph cut, dynamic programming, belief propagation, and area-based methods. The proposed method achieved an accuracy rate of 90%.

  13. Knowledge Based 3d Building Model Recognition Using Convolutional Neural Networks from LIDAR and Aerial Imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the development of the high resolution data acquisition technologies, many different approaches and algorithms have been presented to extract the accurate and timely updated 3D models of buildings as a key element of city structures for numerous applications in urban mapping. In this paper, a novel and model-based approach is proposed for automatic recognition of buildings' roof models such as flat, gable, hip, and pyramid hip roof models based on deep structures for hierarchical learning of features that are extracted from both LiDAR and aerial ortho-photos. The main steps of this approach include building segmentation, feature extraction and learning, and finally building roof labeling in a supervised pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) framework to have an automatic recognition system for various types of buildings over an urban area. In this framework, the height information provides invariant geometric features for convolutional neural network to localize the boundary of each individual roofs. CNN is a kind of feed-forward neural network with the multilayer perceptron concept which consists of a number of convolutional and subsampling layers in an adaptable structure and it is widely used in pattern recognition and object detection application. Since the training dataset is a small library of labeled models for different shapes of roofs, the computation time of learning can be decreased significantly using the pre-trained models. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the deep learning approach to detect and extract the pattern of buildings' roofs automatically considering the complementary nature of height and RGB information.

  14. Accuracy Assessment of Digital Surface Models from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ Imagery on Glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Gindraux

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV for photogrammetric surveying has recently gained enormous popularity. Images taken from UAVs are used for generating Digital Surface Models (DSMs and orthorectified images. In the glaciological context, these can serve for quantifying ice volume change or glacier motion. This study focuses on the accuracy of UAV-derived DSMs. In particular, we analyze the influence of the number and disposition of Ground Control Points (GCPs needed for georeferencing the derived products. A total of 1321 different DSMs were generated from eight surveys distributed on three glaciers in the Swiss Alps during winter, summer and autumn. The vertical and horizontal accuracy was assessed by cross-validation with thousands of validation points measured with a Global Positioning System. Our results show that the accuracy increases asymptotically with increasing number of GCPs until a certain density of GCPs is reached. We call this the optimal GCP density. The results indicate that DSMs built with this optimal GCP density have a vertical (horizontal accuracy ranging between 0.10 and 0.25 m (0.03 and 0.09 m across all datasets. In addition, the impact of the GCP distribution on the DSM accuracy was investigated. The local accuracy of a DSM decreases when increasing the distance to the closest GCP, typically at a rate of 0.09 m per 100-m distance. The impact of the glacier’s surface texture (ice or snow was also addressed. The results show that besides cases with a surface covered by fresh snow, the surface texture does not significantly influence the DSM accuracy.

  15. INLINING 3D RECONSTRUCTION, MULTI-SOURCE TEXTURE MAPPING AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS USING OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Frommholz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for fac¸ade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the fac¸ades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM. The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained fac¸ade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric

  16. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess-Flores, Mauricio [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-11-10

    reconstruction pre-processing, where an algorithm detects and discards frames that would lead to inaccurate feature matching, camera pose estimation degeneracies or mathematical instability in structure computation based on a residual error comparison between two different match motion models. The presented algorithms were designed for aerial video but have been proven to work across different scene types and camera motions, and for both real and synthetic scenes.

  17. Regional snow-avalanche detection using object-based image analysis of near-infrared aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korzeniowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Snow avalanches are destructive mass movements in mountain regions that continue to claim lives and cause infrastructural damage and traffic detours. Given that avalanches often occur in remote and poorly accessible steep terrain, their detection and mapping is extensive and time consuming. Nonetheless, systematic avalanche detection over large areas could help to generate more complete and up-to-date inventories (cadastres necessary for validating avalanche forecasting and hazard mapping. In this study, we focused on automatically detecting avalanches and classifying them into release zones, tracks, and run-out zones based on 0.25 m near-infrared (NIR ADS80-SH92 aerial imagery using an object-based image analysis (OBIA approach. Our algorithm takes into account the brightness, the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI, the normalised difference water index (NDWI, and its standard deviation (SDNDWI to distinguish avalanches from other land-surface elements. Using normalised parameters allows applying this method across large areas. We trained the method by analysing the properties of snow avalanches at three 4 km−2 areas near Davos, Switzerland. We compared the results with manually mapped avalanche polygons and obtained a user's accuracy of > 0.9 and a Cohen's kappa of 0.79–0.85. Testing the method for a larger area of 226.3 km−2, we estimated producer's and user's accuracies of 0.61 and 0.78, respectively, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.67. Detected avalanches that overlapped with reference data by > 80 % occurred randomly throughout the testing area, showing that our method avoids overfitting. Our method has potential for large-scale avalanche mapping, although further investigations into other regions are desirable to verify the robustness of our selected thresholds and the transferability of the method.

  18. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately, the resulting fine resolution UTC map will be compared with previously created UTC maps of the same area but for earlier dates, producing a canopy change map corresponding to the Worcester area tree removal and replanting effort.

  19. Estimation of mean tree stand volume using high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model, obtained from sUAV and Trestima mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rybakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a remote sensing technique for mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR aerial RGB imagery obtained using a small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV and a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM as well as an innovative technology for field measurements (Trestima. The study area covers approx. 220 ha of forestland in Finland. The work concerns the entire process from remote sensing and field data acquisition to statistical analysis and forest volume wall-to-wall mapping. The study showed that the VHR aerial imagery and the high-resolution DSM produced based on the application of the sUAV have good prospects for forest inventory. For the sUAV based estimation of forest variables such as Height, Basal Area and mean Volume, Root Mean Square Error constituted 6.6 %, 22.6 % and 26.7 %, respectively. Application of Trestima for estimation of the mean volume of the standing forest showed minor difference over the existing Forest Management Plan at all the selected forest compartments. Simultaneously, the results of the study confirmed that the technologies and the tools applied at this work could be a reliable and potentially cost-effective means of forest data acquisition with high potential of operational use.

  20. FEASIBILITY COMPARISON OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA AND 3D-POINT CLOUDS FORMED FROM UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV-BASED IMAGERY USED FOR 3D PROJECTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rilskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New, innovative methods of aerial surveys have changed the approaches to information provision of projecting dramatically for the last 15 years. Nowadays there are at least two methods that claim to be the most efficient way for collecting geospatial data intended for projecting – the airborne laser scanning (LIDAR data and photogrammetrically processed unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based aerial imagery, forming 3D point clouds. But these materials are not identical to each other neither in precision, nor in completeness.Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR is normally being performed using manned aircrafts. LIDAR data are very precise, they allow us to achieve data about relief even overgrown with vegetation, or to collect laser reflections from wires, metal constructions and poles. UAV surveys are normally being performed using frame digital cameras (lightweight, full-frame, or mid-size. These cameras form images that are being processed using 3D photogrammetric software in automatic mode that allows one to generate 3D point cloud, which is used for building digital elevation models, surfaces, orthomosaics, etc.All these materials are traditionally being used for making maps and GIS data. LIDAR data have been popular in design work. Also there have been some attempts to use for the same purpose 3D-point clouds, formed by photogrammetric software from images acquired from UAVs.After comparison of the datasets from these two different types of surveying (surveys were made simultaneously on the same territory, it became possible to define some specific, typical for LIDAR or imagery-based 3D data. It can be mentioned that imagery-based 3D data (3D point clouds, formed in automatic mode using photogrammetry, are much worse than LIDAR data – both in terms of precision and completeness.The article highlights these differences and makes attempts at explaining the origin of these differences. 

  1. Development of Virtual Field Experiences for undergraduate geoscience using 3D models from aerial drone imagery and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchewski, B.; Dolphin, G.; Dutchak, A.; Cooper, J.

    2017-12-01

    In geoscience one must develop important skills related to data collection, analysis and interpretation in the field. The quadrupling of student enrollment in geoscience at the University of Calgary in recent years presents a unique challenge in providing field experience. With introductory classes ranging from 300-500 students, field trips are logistical impossibilities and the impact on the quality of student learning and engagement is major and negative. Field experience is fundamental to geoscience education, but is presently lacking prior to the third year curriculum. To mitigate the absence of field experience in the introductory curricula, we are developing a set of Virtual Field Experiences (VFEs) that approximate field experiences via inquiry-based exploration of geoscientific principles. We incorporate a variety of data into the VFEs including gigapan photographs, geologic maps and high resolution 3D models constructed from aerial drone imagery. We link the data using a web-based platform to support lab exercises guided by a set of inquiry questions. An important feature that distinguishes a VFE is that students explore the data in a nonlinear fashion to construct and revise models that explain the nature of the field site. The aim is to approximate an actual field experience rather than provide a virtual guided tour where the explanation of the site comes pre-packaged. Thus far, our group has collected data at three sites in Southern Alberta: Mt. Yamnuska, Drumheller environs and the North Saskatchewan River valley near the toe of the Saskatchewan Glacier. The Mt. Yamnuska site focusses on a prominent thrust fault in the front ranges of the Western Cordillera. The Drumheller environs site demonstrates the siliciclastic sedimentation and stratigraphy typical of southeastern Alberta. The Saskatchewan Glacier site highlights periglacial geomorphology and glacial recession. All three sites were selected because they showcase a broad range of geoscientific

  2. Estimating chlorophyll with thermal and broadband multispectral high resolution imagery from an unmanned aerial system using relevance vector machines for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarab, Manal; Ticlavilca, Andres M.; Torres-Rua, Alfonso F.; Maslova, Inga; McKee, Mac

    2015-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. Actionable information about crop and field status must be acquired at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high spatial resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial system called AggieAirTM. Simultaneously with the AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling for plant chlorophyll was conducted at precisely determined locations. This study reports the application of a relevance vector machine coupled with cross validation and backward elimination to a dataset composed of reflectance from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery (VIS-NIR), thermal infrared imagery, and vegetative indices, in conjunction with in situ SPAD measurements from which chlorophyll concentrations were derived, to estimate chlorophyll concentration from remotely sensed data at 15-cm resolution. The results indicate that a relevance vector machine with a thin plate spline kernel type and kernel width of 5.4, having LAI, NDVI, thermal and red bands as the selected set of inputs, can be used to spatially estimate chlorophyll concentration with a root-mean-squared-error of 5.31 μg cm-2, efficiency of 0.76, and 9 relevance vectors.

  3. An Automated Technique for Generating Georectified Mosaics from Ultra-High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Imagery, Based on Structure from Motion (SfM Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Watson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are an exciting new remote sensing tool capable of acquiring high resolution spatial data. Remote sensing with UAVs has the potential to provide imagery at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. The small footprint of UAV imagery, however, makes it necessary to develop automated techniques to geometrically rectify and mosaic the imagery such that larger areas can be monitored. In this paper, we present a technique for geometric correction and mosaicking of UAV photography using feature matching and Structure from Motion (SfM photogrammetric techniques. Images are processed to create three dimensional point clouds, initially in an arbitrary model space. The point clouds are transformed into a real-world coordinate system using either a direct georeferencing technique that uses estimated camera positions or via a Ground Control Point (GCP technique that uses automatically identified GCPs within the point cloud. The point cloud is then used to generate a Digital Terrain Model (DTM required for rectification of the images. Subsequent georeferenced images are then joined together to form a mosaic of the study area. The absolute spatial accuracy of the direct technique was found to be 65–120 cm whilst the GCP technique achieves an accuracy of approximately 10–15 cm.

  4. Hurricane Ivan Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Ivan made landfall. The regions photographed range from Gulf...

  5. Hurricane Rita Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast after Hurricane Rita made landfall. The regions photographed range from San Luis Pass, Texas...

  6. Hurricane Katrina Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama after Hurricane Katrina made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  7. Fusion of LiDAR and aerial imagery for the estimation of downed tree volume using Support Vector Machines classification and region based object fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sowmya

    The study classifies 3D small footprint full waveform digitized LiDAR fused with aerial imagery to downed trees using Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm. Using small footprint waveform LiDAR, airborne LiDAR systems can provide better canopy penetration and very high spatial resolution. The small footprint waveform scanner system Riegl LMS-Q680 is addition with an UltraCamX aerial camera are used to measure and map downed trees in a forest. The various data preprocessing steps helped in the identification of ground points from the dense LiDAR dataset and segment the LiDAR data to help reduce the complexity of the algorithm. The haze filtering process helped to differentiate the spectral signatures of the various classes within the aerial image. Such processes, helped to better select the features from both sensor data. The six features: LiDAR height, LiDAR intensity, LiDAR echo, and three image intensities are utilized. To do so, LiDAR derived, aerial image derived and fused LiDAR-aerial image derived features are used to organize the data for the SVM hypothesis formulation. Several variations of the SVM algorithm with different kernels and soft margin parameter C are experimented. The algorithm is implemented to classify downed trees over a pine trees zone. The LiDAR derived features provided an overall accuracy of 98% of downed trees but with no classification error of 86%. The image derived features provided an overall accuracy of 65% and fusion derived features resulted in an overall accuracy of 88%. The results are observed to be stable and robust. The SVM accuracies were accompanied by high false alarm rates, with the LiDAR classification producing 58.45%, image classification producing 95.74% and finally the fused classification producing 93% false alarm rates The Canny edge correction filter helped control the LiDAR false alarm to 35.99%, image false alarm to 48.56% and fused false alarm to 37.69% The implemented classifiers provided a powerful tool for

  8. Towards High-Definition 3D Urban Mapping: Road Feature-Based Registration of Mobile Mapping Systems and Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Javanmardi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Various applications have utilized a mobile mapping system (MMS as the main 3D urban remote sensing platform. However, the accuracy and precision of the three-dimensional data acquired by an MMS is highly dependent on the performance of the vehicle’s self-localization, which is generally performed by high-end global navigation satellite system (GNSS/inertial measurement unit (IMU integration. However, GNSS/IMU positioning quality degrades significantly in dense urban areas with high-rise buildings, which block and reflect the satellite signals. Traditional landmark updating methods, which improve MMS accuracy by measuring ground control points (GCPs and manually identifying those points in the data, are both labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a novel and comprehensive framework for automatically georeferencing MMS data by capitalizing on road features extracted from high-resolution aerial surveillance data. The proposed framework has three key steps: (1 extracting road features from the MMS and aerial data; (2 obtaining Gaussian mixture models from the extracted aerial road features; and (3 performing registration of the MMS data to the aerial map using a dynamic sliding window and the normal distribution transform (NDT. The accuracy of the proposed framework is verified using field data, demonstrating that it is a reliable solution for high-precision urban mapping.

  9. [Retrieval of crown closure of moso bamboo forest using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remotely sensed imagery based on geometric-optical model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Du, Hua-qiang; Zhou, Guo-mo; Xu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Shao-bo; Gao, Guo-long

    2015-05-01

    This research focused on the application of remotely sensed imagery from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with high spatial resolution for the estimation of crown closure of moso bamboo forest based on the geometric-optical model, and analyzed the influence of unconstrained and fully constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA) on the accuracy of the estimated results. The results demonstrated that the combination of UAV remotely sensed imagery and geometric-optical model could, to some degrees, achieve the estimation of crown closure. However, the different SMA methods led to significant differentiation in the estimation accuracy. Compared with unconstrained SMA, the fully constrained linear SMA method resulted in higher accuracy of the estimated values, with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.63 at 0.01 level, against the measured values acquired during the field survey. Root mean square error (RMSE) of approximate 0.04 was low, indicating that the usage of fully constrained linear SMA could bring about better results in crown closure estimation, which was closer to the actual condition in moso bamboo forest.

  10. Monochromatic neutrino beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabeu, Jose; Burguet-Castell, Jordi; Espinoza, Catalina; Lindroos, Mats

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years spectacular results have been achieved with the demonstration of non vanishing neutrino masses and flavour mixing. The ultimate goal is the understanding of the origin of these properties from new physics. In this road, the last unknown mixing [U e3 ] must be determined. If it is proved to be non-zero, the possibility is open for Charge Conjugation-Parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. This will require precision experiments with a very intense neutrino source. Here a novel method to create a monochromatic neutrino beam, an old dream for neutrino physics, is proposed based on the recent discovery of nuclei that decay fast through electron capture. Such nuclei will generate a monochromatic directional neutrino beam when decaying at high energy in a storage ring with long straight sections. We also show that the capacity of such a facility to discover new physics is impressive, so that fine tuning of the boosted neutrino energy allows precision measurements of the oscillation parameters even for a [U e3 ] mixing as small as 1 degree. We can thus open a window to the discovery of CP violation in neutrino oscillations

  11. Comparison of satellite imagery and infrared aerial photography as vegetation mapping methods in an arctic study area: Jameson Land, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf; Mosbech, Anders

    1994-01-01

    Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland......Remote Sensing, vegetation mapping, SPOT, Landsat TM, aerial photography, Jameson Land, East Greenland...

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution RGB orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal communities. Data were collected by Earth Data, under contract to NOAA, using a Leica ADS40 sensor., Published in 2004, University of Connecticut.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2004. Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution RGB orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal...

  13. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, This data set includes georectified, 4 -band digital orthophotos for 213.7 square miles of the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge and Fishing Bay WMA in Dorchester County, MD., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. This data set includes georectified, 4 -band digital orthophotos for 213.7 square miles...

  14. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, April 2012, color and b/w and NIR, tiff and MrSID, section tiles or countywide mosaic- plan to refly in 2017 at same resolution (6" pixel), Published in 2012, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Dodge County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2012. April 2012, color and b/w and NIR, tiff and MrSID, section tiles or countywide mosaic-...

  15. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution CIR orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal communities. Data were collected by Earth Data, under contract to NOAA, using a Leica ADS40 sensor., Published in 2004, University of Connecticut.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2004. Leaf-on September 2004 0.5m resolution CIR orthoimagery that covers Connecticut's coastal...

  16. Low aerial imagery – an assessment of georeferencing errors and the potential for use in environmental inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaczyński Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being used in close range photogrammetry. Real-time observation of the Earth’s surface and the photogrammetric images obtained are used as material for surveying and environmental inventory. The following study was conducted on a small area (approximately 1 ha. In such cases, the classical method of topographic mapping is not accurate enough. The geodetic method of topographic surveying, on the other hand, is an overly precise measurement technique for the purpose of inventorying the natural environment components. The author of the following study has proposed using the unmanned aerial vehicle technology and tying in the obtained images to the control point network established with the aid of GNSS technology. Georeferencing the acquired images and using them to create a photogrammetric model of the studied area enabled the researcher to perform calculations, which yielded a total root mean square error below 9 cm. The performed comparison of the real lengths of the vectors connecting the control points and their lengths calculated on the basis of the photogrammetric model made it possible to fully confirm the RMSE calculated and prove the usefulness of the UAV technology in observing terrain components for the purpose of environmental inventory. Such environmental components include, among others, elements of road infrastructure, green areas, but also changes in the location of moving pedestrians and vehicles, as well as other changes in the natural environment that are not registered on classical base maps or topographic maps.

  17. Early-Season Stand Count Determination in Corn via Integration of Imagery from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS and Supervised Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Varela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is one of the most sensitive crops to planting pattern and early-season uniformity. The most common method to determine number of plants is by visual inspection on the ground but this field activity becomes time-consuming, labor-intensive, biased, and may lead to less profitable decisions by farmers. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, timely, and unbiased method for counting corn plants based on ultra-high-resolution imagery acquired from unmanned aerial systems (UAS to automatically scout fields and applied to real field conditions. A ground sampling distance of 2.4 mm was targeted to extract information at a plant-level basis. First, an excess greenness (ExG index was used to individualized green pixels from the background, then rows and inter-row contours were identified and extracted. A scalable training procedure was implemented using geometric descriptors as inputs of the classifier. Second, a decision tree was implemented and tested using two training modes in each site to expose the workflow to different ground conditions at the time of the aerial data acquisition. Differences in performance were due to training modes and spatial resolutions in the two sites. For an object classification task, an overall accuracy of 0.96, based on the proportion of corrected assessment of corn and non-corn objects, was obtained for local (per-site classification, and an accuracy of 0.93 was obtained for the combined training modes. For successful model implementation, plants should have between two to three leaves when images are collected (avoiding overlapping between plants. Best workflow performance was reached at 2.4 mm resolution corresponding to 10 m of altitude (lower altitude; higher altitudes were gradually penalized. The latter was coincident with the larger number of detected green objects in the images and the effectiveness of geometry as descriptor for corn plant detection.

  18. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF GEOREFERENCED POINT CLOUDS PRODUCED VIA MULTI-VIEW STEREO TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO IMAGERY ACQUIRED VIA UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Harwin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are becoming viable environmental remote sensing tools. Sensor and battery technology is expanding the data capture opportunities. The UAV, as a close range remote sensing platform, can capture high resolution photography on-demand. This imagery can be used to produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis techniques (MVS combining computer vision and photogrammetry. This study examines point clouds produced using MVS techniques applied to UAV and terrestrial photography. A multi-rotor micro UAV acquired aerial imagery from a altitude of approximately 30–40 m. The point clouds produced are extremely dense (<1–3 cm point spacing and provide a detailed record of the surface in the study area, a 70 m section of sheltered coastline in southeast Tasmania. Areas with little surface texture were not well captured, similarly, areas with complex geometry such as grass tussocks and woody scrub were not well mapped. The process fails to penetrate vegetation, but extracts very detailed terrain in unvegetated areas. Initially the point clouds are in an arbitrary coordinate system and need to be georeferenced. A Helmert transformation is applied based on matching ground control points (GCPs identified in the point clouds to GCPs surveying with differential GPS. These point clouds can be used, alongside laser scanning and more traditional techniques, to provide very detailed and precise representations of a range of landscapes at key moments. There are many potential applications for the UAV-MVS technique, including coastal erosion and accretion monitoring, mine surveying and other environmental monitoring applications. For the generated point clouds to be used in spatial applications they need to be converted to surface models that reduce dataset size without loosing too much detail. Triangulated meshes are one option, another is Poisson Surface Reconstruction. This latter option makes use of point normal

  19. Estimating belowground carbon stocks in isolated wetlands of the Northern Everglades Watershed, central Florida, using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Matthew; Comas, Xavier; Hinkle, Ross; Sumner, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global soil carbon (C) pool and comprise 95% of wetland C stocks. While isolated freshwater wetlands in temperate and tropical biomes account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock, most studies of wetland soil C have occurred in expansive peatlands in northern boreal and subarctic biomes. Furthermore, the contribution of small depressional wetlands in comparison to larger wetland systems in these environments is very uncertain. Given the fact that these wetlands are numerous and variable in terms of their internal geometry, innovative methods are needed for properly estimating belowground C stocks and their overall C contribution to the landscape. In this study, we use a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR), aerial imagery, and direct measurements (coring) in conjunction with C core analysis to develop a relation between C stock and surface area, and estimate the contribution of subtropical depressional wetlands to the total C stock of pine flatwoods at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Florida. Additionally, GPR surveys were able to image collapse structures underneath the peat basin of depressional wetlands, depicting lithological controls on the formation of depressional wetlands at the DWP. Results indicate the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors to the landscape C budget at the DWP and the potential of GPR-based approaches for (1) rapidly and noninvasively estimating the contribution of depressional wetlands to regional C stocks and (2) evaluating the formational processes of depressional wetlands.

  20. Estimating Belowground Carbon Stocks in Isolated Wetlands of the Northern Everglades Watershed, Central Florida, Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Matthew; Comas, Xavier; Benscoter, Brian; Hinkle, Ross; Sumner, David

    2017-11-01

    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global soil carbon (C) pool and comprise 95% of wetland C stocks. While isolated freshwater wetlands in temperate and tropical biomes account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock, most studies of wetland soil C have occurred in expansive peatlands in northern boreal and subarctic biomes. Furthermore, the contribution of small depressional wetlands in comparison to larger wetland systems in these environments is very uncertain. Given the fact that these wetlands are numerous and variable in terms of their internal geometry, innovative methods are needed for properly estimating belowground C stocks and their overall C contribution to the landscape. In this study, we use a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR), aerial imagery, and direct measurements (coring) in conjunction with C core analysis to develop a relation between C stock and surface area, and estimate the contribution of subtropical depressional wetlands to the total C stock of pine flatwoods at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Florida. Additionally, GPR surveys were able to image collapse structures underneath the peat basin of depressional wetlands, depicting lithological controls on the formation of depressional wetlands at the DWP. Results indicate the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors to the landscape C budget at the DWP and the potential of GPR-based approaches for (1) rapidly and noninvasively estimating the contribution of depressional wetlands to regional C stocks and (2) evaluating the formational processes of depressional wetlands.

  1. 1954 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  2. 1944 AAF 661 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  3. 1943 AAF 332 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  4. 1941 Otero County CTF Aerial Photo Idnex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  5. 1947 Sandoval County DFD Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. 1946 Eddy County DEO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  7. 1936 Curry County AG Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  8. 1944 AAF 649 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  9. 1944 AAF 547 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  10. NOAA Emergency Response Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...

  11. Identification of areas of recharge and discharge using Landsat-TM satellite imagery and aerial photography mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, R. B.; Tapley, I.; Ishii, T.; Hawkes, G.

    1994-10-01

    Aerial photographs (AP) and Landsat (TM) colour composites were used to map the geomorphology, geology and structures of the Salt River System of Western Australia. Geomorphic features identified are sand plains, dissected etchplain, colluvium, lateritic duricrust and rock outcrops. The hydrogeomorphic units include streams, lakes and playas, palaeochannels and palaeodeltas. The structural features are linear and curvilinear lineaments, ring structures and dolerite dykes. Suture lines control the course of the main river channel. Permeable areas around the circular granitic plutons were found to be the main areas of recharge in the uplands. Recharge was also found to occur in the highly permeable areas of the sandplains. Discharge was shown to be primarily along the main drainage lines, on the edge of the circular sandplains, in depressions and in lakes. The groundwater occurrence and hydrogeological classification of the recharge potential of the different units were used to classify the mapped areas into recharge and discharge zones. The results also show that TM colour composites provide a viable source of data comparable with AP for mapping and delineating areas of recharge and discharge on a regional scale.

  12. An Effective Method for Detecting Potential Woodland Vernal Pools Using High-Resolution LiDAR Data and Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of woodland vernal pools—important components of regional amphibian diversity and ecosystem services—depends on locating and mapping these pools accurately. Current methods for identifying potential vernal pools are primarily based on visual interpretation and digitization of aerial photographs, with variable accuracy and low repeatability. In this paper, we present an effective and efficient method for detecting and mapping potential vernal pools using stochastic depression analysis with additional geospatial analysis. Our method was designed to take advantage of high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR data, which are becoming increasingly available, though not yet frequently employed in vernal pool studies. We successfully detected more than 2000 potential vernal pools in a ~150 km2 study area in eastern Massachusetts. The accuracy assessment in our study indicated that the commission rates ranged from 2.5% to 6.0%, while the proxy omission rate was 8.2%, rates that are much lower than reported errors of previous vernal pool studies conducted in the northeastern United States. One significant advantage of our semi-automated approach for vernal pool identification is that it may reduce inconsistencies and alleviate repeatability concerns associated with manual photointerpretation methods. Another strength of our strategy is that, in addition to detecting the point-based vernal pool locations for the inventory, the boundaries of vernal pools can be extracted as polygon features to characterize their geometric properties, which are not available in the current statewide vernal pool databases in Massachusetts.

  13. SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR MAPPING URBAN TREES FROM INTEGRATED AERIAL LiDAR POINT CLOUD AND DIGITAL IMAGERY DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Dogon-Yaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  14. Semi-Automated Approach for Mapping Urban Trees from Integrated Aerial LiDAR Point Cloud and Digital Imagery Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-Yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-09-01

    Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  15. A Novel Methodology to Estimate Single-Tree Biophysical Parameters from 3D Digital Imagery Compared to Aerial Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Hernández-Clemente

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanner (ALS data provide an enhanced capability to remotely map two key variables in forestry: leaf area index (LAI and tree height (H. Nevertheless, the cost, complexity and accessibility of this technology are not yet suited for meeting the broad demands required for estimating and frequently updating forest data. Here we demonstrate the capability of alternative solutions based on the use of low-cost color infrared (CIR cameras to estimate tree-level parameters, providing a cost-effective solution for forest inventories. ALS data were acquired with a Leica ALS60 laser scanner and digital aerial imagery (DAI was acquired with a consumer-grade camera modified for color infrared detection and synchronized with a GPS unit. In this paper we evaluate the generation of a DAI-based canopy height model (CHM from imagery obtained with low-cost CIR cameras using structure from motion (SfM and spatial interpolation methods in the context of a complex canopy, as in forestry. Metrics were calculated from the DAI-based CHM and the DAI-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the estimation of tree height and LAI, respectively. Results were compared with the models estimated from ALS point cloud metrics. Field measurements of tree height and effective leaf area index (LAIe were acquired from a total of 200 and 26 trees, respectively. Comparable accuracies were obtained in the tree height and LAI estimations using ALS and DAI data independently. Tree height estimated from DAI-based metrics (Percentile 90 (P90 and minimum height (MinH yielded a coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.71 and a root mean square error (RMSE = 0.71 m while models derived from ALS-based metrics (P90 yielded an R2 = 0.80 and an RMSE = 0.55 m. The estimation of LAI from DAI-based NDVI using Percentile 99 (P99 yielded an R2 = 0.62 and an RMSE = 0.17 m2/m−2. A comparative analysis of LAI estimation using ALS-based metrics (laser penetration index

  16. Assessment of In-Season Cotton Nitrogen Status and Lint Yield Prediction from Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ballester

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work assessed the usefulness of a set of spectral indices obtained from an unmanned aerial system (UAS for tracking spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen (N status as well as for predicting lint yield in a commercial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. farm. Organic, inorganic and a combination of both types of fertilizers were used to provide a range of eight N rates from 0 to 340 kg N ha−1. Multi-spectral images (reflectance in the blue, green, red, red edge and near infrared bands were acquired on seven days throughout the season, from 62 to 169 days after sowing (DAS, and data were used to compute structure- and chlorophyll-sensitive vegetation indices (VIs. Above-ground plant biomass was sampled at first flower, first cracked boll and maturity and total plant N concentration (N% and N uptake determined. Lint yield was determined at harvest and the relationships with the VIs explored. Results showed that differences in plant N% and N uptake between treatments increased as the season progressed. Early in the season, when fertilizer applications can still have an effect on lint yield, the simplified canopy chlorophyll content index (SCCCI was the index that best explained the variation in N uptake and plant N% between treatments. Around first cracked boll and maturity, the linear regression obtained for the relationships between the VIs and both plant N% and N uptake was statistically significant, with the highest r2 values obtained at maturity. The normalized difference red edge (NDRE index, and SCCCI were generally the indices that best distinguished the treatments according to the N uptake and total plant N%. Treatments with the highest N rates (from 307 to 340 kg N ha−1 had lower normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI than treatments with 0 and 130 kg N ha−1 at the first measurement day (62 DAS, suggesting that factors other than fertilization N rate affected plant growth at this early stage of the crop. This fact

  17. Use of Aerial high resolution visible imagery to produce large river bathymetry: a multi temporal and spatial study over the by-passed Upper Rhine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béal, D.; Piégay, H.; Arnaud, F.; Rollet, A.; Schmitt, L.

    2011-12-01

    Aerial high resolution visible imagery allows producing large river bathymetry assuming that water depth is related to water colour (Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law). In this paper we aim at monitoring Rhine River geometry changes for a diachronic study as well as sediment transport after an artificial injection (25.000 m3 restoration operation). For that a consequent data base of ground measurements of river depth is used, built on 3 different sources: (i) differential GPS acquisitions, (ii) sounder data and (iii) lateral profiles realized by experts. Water depth is estimated using a multi linear regression over neo channels built on a principal component analysis over red, green and blue bands and previously cited depth data. The study site is a 12 km long reach of the by-passed section of the Rhine River that draws French and German border. This section has been heavily impacted by engineering works during the last two centuries: channelization since 1842 for navigation purposes and the construction of a 45 km long lateral canal and 4 consecutive hydroelectric power plants of since 1932. Several bathymetric models are produced based on 3 different spatial resolutions (6, 13 and 20 cm) and 5 acquisitions (January, March, April, August and October) since 2008. Objectives are to find the optimal spatial resolution and to characterize seasonal effects. Best performances according to the 13 cm resolution show a 18 cm accuracy when suspended matters impacted less water transparency. Discussions are oriented to the monitoring of the artificial reload after 2 flood events during winter 2010-2011. Bathymetric models produced are also useful to build 2D hydraulic model's mesh.

  18. OrthoImagery Submission for Isabella county, MI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains 1-meter resolution imagery derived from the 2005 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) statewide aerial imagery acquisition. Data have...

  19. Characterisation of recently retrieved aerial photographs of Ethiopia (1935-1941) and their fusion with current remotely sensed imagery for retrospective geomorphological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Gebremeskel, Gezahegne; Mohamed, Sultan; Petrie, Gordon; Seghers, Valérie; Meles Hadgu, Kiros; De Maeyer, Philippe; Haile, Mitiku; Frankl, Amaury

    2013-04-01

    8281 assemblages of aerial photographs (APs) acquired by the 7a Sezione Topocartografica during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1935-1941) have recently been discovered, scanned and organised. The oldest APs of the country that are known so far were taken in the period 1958-1964. The APs of the 1930s were analysed for their technical characteristics, scale, flight lines, coverage, use in topographic mapping, and potential future uses. The APs over Ethiopia in 1935-1941 are presented as assemblages on approx. 50 cm x 20 cm cardboard tiles, each holding a label, one nadir-pointing photograph flanked by two low-oblique photographs and one high-oblique photograph. The four APs were exposed simultaneously and were taken across the flight line; the high-oblique photograph is presented alternatively at left and at right; there is approx. 60% overlap between subsequent sets of APs. One of Santoni's glass plate multi-cameras was used, with focal length of 178 mm, flight height at 4000-4500 m a.s.l., which results in an approximate scale of 1:11 500 for the central photograph and 1:16 000 to 1:18 000 for the low-oblique APs. The surveyors oriented themselves with maps of Ethiopia at 1:400 000 scale, compiled in 1934. The flights present a dense AP coverage of Northern Ethiopia, where they were acquired in the context of upcoming battles with the Ethiopian army. Several flights preceded the later advance of the Italian army southwards towards the capital Addis Ababa. Further flights took place in central Ethiopia for civilian purposes. As of 1936, the APs were used to prepare highly detailed topographic maps at 1:100 000 scale. These APs (1935-1941) together with APs of 1958-1964, 1994 and recent high-resolution satellite imagery are currently being used in spatially explicit change studies of land cover, land management and (hydro)geomorphology in Ethiopia over a time span of almost 80 years, the first results of which will be presented.

  20. Physical properties of shallow landslides and their role in landscape evolution investigated with ultrahigh-resolution lidar data and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M. D.; Bryk, A. B.; Fauria, K.; Huang, M. H.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow landslides are often a primary method of sediment transport and a dominant process of hillslope evolution in steep, soil-mantled landscapes. However, detailed studies of single landslides can be difficult to generalize across a landscape and watershed-scale analyses using coarse-resolution digital elevation models often fail to capture the detail necessary to understand the mechanics of individual slides. During February 2017, an intense rainfall event generated over 400 shallow landslides within a 13 km2 field site in Colusa County, Northern California, providing a unique opportunity to investigate how landsliding affects landscape morphology at multiple scales. The hilly grass and oak woodland site is underlain by Great Valley Sequence shale, sandstone, and conglomerate turbidites uniformly dipping 50° east, with ridgelines and valleys following bedding orientation. Here we present results from ultrahigh-resolution ( 100 points per square meter) airborne lidar data and aerial imagery collected directly after the event, as well as high-resolution airborne lidar data collected in 2015 and preliminary findings from field surveys. Of the 136 landslides surveyed so far, the failure surface was at the soil-weathered bedrock boundary in 85%. Only 69% of the landslides traveled down hillslopes and reached active channels, and of these, 37% transformed into debris flows that scoured channel pathways to bedrock. These small landslides have a median width of 3.2 m and average failure depth of 0.4 m. Landslides occurred at a median pre-failure ground surface slope of 35°, and only 56% occurred in convergent or weakly convergent areas. This comprehensive before and after dataset is being used as a rigorous test of shallow landslide models that predict landslide size and location, as well as a lens to investigate patterns in slope stability or failure with across the landscape. After multiple years of fieldwork at this study site where small landslide scars suggested

  1. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #004 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #009 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #062 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. Index for SCS 1934-1937 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #127 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #350 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #387 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #155 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #059 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #221 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #266 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #130 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #410 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #368 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #180 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #349 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #063 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #147 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #032 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #056 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #222 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #122 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #265 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #202 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #364 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #292 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #246 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #371 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1946 Whitewater-Animas DDR Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #370 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #319 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #181 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #173 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1936 Quay County AG Index Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #345 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #272 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #417 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #339 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #490 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #270 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #219 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #145 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #226 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #361 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #126 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #037 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #297 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1947 Dona Ana County DEY Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #124 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #388 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #259 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #373 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #172 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #197 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #179 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #269 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #242 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #049 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #084 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #054 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #057 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #086 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #010 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #079 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #055 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #083 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #035 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #033 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #012 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #008 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #013 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #110 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #011 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #078 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #109 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #036 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #105 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #085 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #007 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #080 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #201 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #061 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #106 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #006 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #058 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #108 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #060 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #030 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #075 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #074 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #176 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #316 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #415 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. Detection and Segmentation of Vine Canopy in Ultra-High Spatial Resolution RGB Imagery Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV: A Case Study in a Commercial Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in viticulture permits the capture of aerial Red-Green-Blue (RGB images with an ultra-high spatial resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that RGB images can be used to monitor spatial variability of vine biophysical parameters. However, for estimating these parameters, accurate and automated segmentation methods are required to extract relevant information from RGB images. Manual segmentation of aerial images is a laborious and time-consuming process. Traditional classification methods have shown satisfactory results in the segmentation of RGB images for diverse applications and surfaces, however, in the case of commercial vineyards, it is necessary to consider some particularities inherent to canopy size in the vertical trellis systems (VSP such as shadow effect and different soil conditions in inter-rows (mixed information of soil and weeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of four classification methods (K-means, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Random Forest (RForest and Spectral Indices (SI to detect canopy in a vineyard trained on VSP. Six flights were carried out from post-flowering to harvest in a commercial vineyard cv. Carménère using a low-cost UAV equipped with a conventional RGB camera. The results show that the ANN and the simple SI method complemented with the Otsu method for thresholding presented the best performance for the detection of the vine canopy with high overall accuracy values for all study days. Spectral indices presented the best performance in the detection of Plant class (Vine canopy with an overall accuracy of around 0.99. However, considering the performance pixel by pixel, the Spectral indices are not able to discriminate between Soil and Shadow class. The best performance in the classification of three classes (Plant, Soil, and Shadow of vineyard RGB images, was obtained when the SI values were used as input data in trained

  8. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L; Walter, Gary R; Stothoff, Stuart A; Larsen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951–1978, 1978–2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval. (letter)

  9. 1935 15' Quad #103 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #103 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #193 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 2 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #146 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #107 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. Deep convolutional neural network training enrichment using multi-view object-based analysis of Unmanned Aerial systems imagery for wetlands classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Abd-Elrahman, Amr

    2018-05-01

    Deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) requires massive training datasets to trigger its image classification power, while collecting training samples for remote sensing application is usually an expensive process. When DCNN is simply implemented with traditional object-based image analysis (OBIA) for classification of Unmanned Aerial systems (UAS) orthoimage, its power may be undermined if the number training samples is relatively small. This research aims to develop a novel OBIA classification approach that can take advantage of DCNN by enriching the training dataset automatically using multi-view data. Specifically, this study introduces a Multi-View Object-based classification using Deep convolutional neural network (MODe) method to process UAS images for land cover classification. MODe conducts the classification on multi-view UAS images instead of directly on the orthoimage, and gets the final results via a voting procedure. 10-fold cross validation results show the mean overall classification accuracy increasing substantially from 65.32%, when DCNN was applied on the orthoimage to 82.08% achieved when MODe was implemented. This study also compared the performances of the support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers with DCNN under traditional OBIA and the proposed multi-view OBIA frameworks. The results indicate that the advantage of DCNN over traditional classifiers in terms of accuracy is more obvious when these classifiers were applied with the proposed multi-view OBIA framework than when these classifiers were applied within the traditional OBIA framework.

  15. Analysis of monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources in imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Orban, Christopher; Pradhan, Anil

    2017-04-01

    We studied biomedical imaging and therapeutic applications of recently developed quasi-monochromatic and monochromatic X-ray sources. Using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4, we found that the quasi-monochromatic 65 keV Gaussian X-ray spectrum created by inverse Compton scattering with relatavistic electron beams were capable of producing better image contrast with less radiation compared to conventional 120 kV broadband CT scans. We also explored possible experimental detection of theoretically predicted K α resonance fluorescence in high-Z elements using the European Synchrotron Research Facility with a tungsten (Z = 74) target. In addition, we studied a newly developed quasi-monochromatic source generated by converting broadband X-rays to monochromatic K α and β X-rays with a zirconium target (Z = 40). We will further study how these K α and K β dominated spectra can be implemented in conjunction with nanoparticles for targeted therapy. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  16. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition

  17. Multitemporal field-based plant height estimation using 3D point clouds generated from small unmanned aerial systems high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S. C.; Putman, E.; Pugh, N. A.; Horne, D. W.; Richardson, G.; Sheridan, R.; Rooney, W. L.; Avant, R.; Vidrine, M.; McCutchen, B.; Baltensperger, D.; Bishop, M.

    2018-02-01

    Plant breeders and agronomists are increasingly interested in repeated plant height measurements over large experimental fields to study critical aspects of plant physiology, genetics and environmental conditions during plant growth. However, collecting such measurements using commonly used manual field measurements is inefficient. 3D point clouds generated from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) images using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques offer a new option for efficiently deriving in-field crop height data. This study evaluated UAS/SfM for multitemporal 3D crop modelling and developed and assessed a methodology for estimating plant height data from point clouds generated using SfM. High-resolution images in visible spectrum were collected weekly across 12 dates from April (planting) to July (harvest) 2016 over 288 maize (Zea mays L.) and 460 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) plots using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS. The study compared SfM point clouds with terrestrial lidar (TLS) at two dates to evaluate the ability of SfM point clouds to accurately capture ground surfaces and crop canopies, both of which are critical for plant height estimation. Extended plant height comparisons were carried out between SfM plant height (the 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles and maximum height) per plot and field plant height measurements at six dates throughout the growing season to test the repeatability and consistency of SfM estimates. High correlations were observed between SfM and TLS data (R2 = 0.88-0.97, RMSE = 0.01-0.02 m and R2 = 0.60-0.77 RMSE = 0.12-0.16 m for the ground surface and canopy comparison, respectively). Extended height comparisons also showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.42-0.91, RMSE = 0.11-0.19 m for maize and R2 = 0.61-0.85, RMSE = 0.12-0.24 m for sorghum). In general, the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile height metrics had higher correlations to field measurements than the maximum metric though differences among them were not statistically significant. The

  18. Improved estimation of leaf area index and leaf chlorophyll content of a potato crop using multi-angle spectral data - potential of unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosjen, Peter P. J.; Brede, Benjamin; Suomalainen, Juha M.; Bartholomeus, Harm M.; Kooistra, Lammert; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.

    2018-04-01

    In addition to single-angle reflectance data, multi-angular observations can be used as an additional information source for the retrieval of properties of an observed target surface. In this paper, we studied the potential of multi-angular reflectance data for the improvement of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) estimation by numerical inversion of the PROSAIL model. The potential for improvement of LAI and LCC was evaluated for both measured data and simulated data. The measured data was collected on 19 July 2016 by a frame-camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a potato field, where eight experimental plots of 30 × 30 m were designed with different fertilization levels. Dozens of viewing angles, covering the hemisphere up to around 30° from nadir, were obtained by a large forward and sideways overlap of collected images. Simultaneously to the UAV flight, in situ measurements of LAI and LCC were performed. Inversion of the PROSAIL model was done based on nadir data and based on multi-angular data collected by the UAV. Inversion based on the multi-angular data performed slightly better than inversion based on nadir data, indicated by the decrease in RMSE from 0.70 to 0.65 m2/m2 for the estimation of LAI, and from 17.35 to 17.29 μg/cm2 for the estimation of LCC, when nadir data were used and when multi-angular data were used, respectively. In addition to inversions based on measured data, we simulated several datasets at different multi-angular configurations and compared the accuracy of the inversions of these datasets with the inversion based on data simulated at nadir position. In general, the results based on simulated (synthetic) data indicated that when more viewing angles, more well distributed viewing angles, and viewing angles up to larger zenith angles were available for inversion, the most accurate estimations were obtained. Interestingly, when using spectra simulated at multi-angular sampling configurations as

  19. The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.; Pavlov, V.N.; Sidorin, A.O.; Yakovenko, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons based on the 22 Na isotope has been designed and constructed at JINR. Positrons emitted from radioactive source 22 Na have a very broad energy spectrum up to 0.5 MeV. To generate monochromatic beam of slow positrons the solid neon is used as a moderator. The solid neon allows forming slow positron beam of the energy of 1.2 eV at the spectrum width of 1 eV. The efficiency of moderation is 1 % of total positron flux

  20. Optimizing Monochromatic Focusing on ThALES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Boehm, M.; Kulda, J.; Roux, S.; Hiess, A.; Steffens, P.; Šaroun, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, A (2014), SA026 ISSN 0031-9015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Monte Carlo ray-tracing * inelastic neutron scattering * Triple-Axis spectrometer * monochromatic focusing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2014

  1. 3-D Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Equation 43 to Πip  a1 0 0 a2 0 a1 0 a3 0 0 1 a4 a2 a3 a4 a5  ΠTip ∼  f 2i 0 0 0 f 2i 0 0 0 1  (45) resulting the... icon along the properties bar (see label D), navigate to the dimension tab, and ensure your frame range starts with 1, terminates at the desired end...the sun in the 3D view represented by a small dot with eight rays radially emanating. (b) Select Object icon from the property bar (see label D) and set

  2. Use of Aerial Hyperspectral Imaging For Monitoring Forest Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton O. Smith; Nolan J. Hess; Stephen Gulick; Lori G. Eckhardt; Roger D. Menard

    2004-01-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of aerial hyperspectral digital imagery in the assessment of forest health of loblolly stands in central Alabama. The imagery covers 50 square miles, in Bibb and Hale Counties, south of Tuscaloosa, AL, which includes intensive managed forest industry sites and National Forest lands with multiple use objectives. Loblolly stands...

  3. Improving settlement type classification of aerial images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , an automated method can be used to help identify human settlements in a fixed, repeatable and timely manner. The main contribution of this work is to improve generalisation on settlement type classification of aerial imagery. Images acquired at different dates...

  4. 2014 Metro, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Portland project area. The imagery coverage is...

  5. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  6. USGS NAIP Imagery Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS NAIP Imagery service from The National Map (TNM) consists of high resolution images that combine the visual attributes of an aerial photograph with the...

  7. 2015 Big Windy, Oregon 4-Band 8 Bit Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are LiDAR orthorectified aerial photographs (8-bit GeoTIFF format) within the Oregon Lidar Consortium Big Windy project area. The imagery coverage is...

  8. Current generation by monochromatic electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, V.S.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Plotnik, I.S.

    1983-01-01

    The generation of longitudinal currents in a magnetically confined plasma with travelling monochromatic electromagnetic waves of finite amplitude propagating at some angle to the external magnetic field is considered. By averaging over the particle cyclotron gyration period, the kinetic equation for the distribution function of electrons interacting with an electromagnetic wave is derived. This equation is solved for the case of low-frequency waves, on the assumption that the bounce period of electrons trapped by the wave field is small compared to the typical times of Coulomb collisions (in which case, the driving current is largest). From the solution obtained, analytic expressions for the driving current and the absorbed power, which are valid for a wide range of wave phase velocities, are found. The current drive method considered and the method using the wave packet are compared. (author)

  9. Historical Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Black and white aerial photographs of Coffeyville, Emporia, Galena, Hays, Hutchinson, Iola, McPherson, Pittsburgh, Salina, and Wichita from various dates between the...

  10. Compton scattering and γ-quanta monochromatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryachev, B.I.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The γ-quanta monochromatization method is proposed for sdudying high-excited states and mechanisms of nuclei photodisintegration. The method is based on the properties of photon Compton scattering. It permits to obtain high energy resolution without accurate analysis of the particle energies taking part in the scattering process. A possible design of the compton γ- monochromator is presented. The γ-quanta scatterer of the elements with a small nucleus charge (e.g. LiH) is placed inside the β-spectrometer of low resolution. The monochromator is expected to operate in the γ-beam of the high-current synchrotron, and it provides for a rather good energy resolution rho(W) while studying the high-excited nucleus states (rho(W) approximately 2% in the range of the giant dipole resonance). With the γ-quanta energy growth rho(W) increases as Wsup(0.6). The monochromator permits to obtain high statistical accuracy for a smaller period of time (at a considerably better energy resolution) than while working with a bremsstrahlung spectrum. The yield of quasimonochromatic photons related to the ΔW(ΔW = rho(W)W) range of energy resolution increases as Wsup(0.6). This fact makes it promjssing to use monochromator in the energy range considerably exceeding the characteristic energy of the gigantic dipole resonance

  11. Imagery Data Base Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...

  12. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J

    2011-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  13. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Colomina, Ismael; Molina, Pere

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last...

  14. High-resolution spatial patterns of Soil Organic Carbon content derived from low-altitude aerial multi-band imagery on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted,UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana Jague, Emilien; Goulding, Keith; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    for monitoring SOC contents in agricultural soils. Remote sensing methods based on multi-spectral images may help map SOC variation in surface soils. Recently, the costs of both Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and multi-spectral cameras have dropped dramatically, opening up the possibility for more widespread...... use of these tools for SOC mapping. Long-term field experiments with distinct SOC contents in adjacent plots, provide a very useful resource for systematically testing remote sensing approaches for measuring SOC. This study focusses on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted (UK). The Broadbalk......Soil organic C (SOC) contents in arable landscapes change as a function of management, climate and topography (Johnston et al, 2009). Traditional methods to measure soil C stocks are labour intensive, time consuming and expensive. Consequently, there is a need for developing low-cost methods...

  15. AMRMS Aerial survey database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An aerial monitoring program was conducted during the period 1962 - 2003 in cooperation with aerial spotters working for the commercial purse seine fleet. Flights...

  16. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  17. Comment on "Collision monochromatization in e+e- colliders"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilov, D.

    2018-02-01

    Bogomyagkov and Levichev [Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20, 051001 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.051001] have recently reported on monochromatization in collision schemes with crossing angle. From their results, in particular, it may seem that: (1) horizontal dispersion at the IP can provide monochromatization factor Λ ≫1 while retaining Piwinski angle ϕ >1 , (2) production rate in such a scheme for FCC-ee at 62.5 GeV can be larger than that in the nominal crab waist collision, and (3) strong rf focusing can be used for monochromatization purposes. We demonstrate here that the first two statements are not correct, and the last one is very doubtful.

  18. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  19. Surfzone monitoring using rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.L.; De Schipper, M.A.; Rynne, P.F.; Graham, F.J.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Macmahan, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surfzone. This paper shows that these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms that can gather nearcontinuous moderate spatial resolution and high temporal resolution imagery from a fixed

  20. Monochromatic and identifiable photons used in photonuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beil, Hans; Bergere, Roland.

    1980-07-01

    A general overview is given of the most common experimental procedures for the production and utilisation of monochromatic and (or) identifiable photon probes actually operational in 1979. Their basic characteristics, merits and drawbacks, together with their respective major domains of experimental physics to which they are usually applied, are also investigated. Methods for producing such monochromatic and (or) identifiable photon probes, with a continuously variable energy from a few MeV up till about 180 GeV, are treated in some detail. Some of the most promising future trends in the ulterior development of such electromagnetic probes are also mentioned

  1. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  2. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (326s-0601) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  3. Lanai Photomosaic 2000 (321-0411) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  4. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (301w-0603) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  5. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (109-111-0420-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  6. Niihau Photomosaic 2000 (116-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  7. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (109w-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  8. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (109-111-0420-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  9. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (310-0620) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  10. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (421n-0429) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  11. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (103-104w-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  12. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (109e-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  13. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (312-313-0524) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  14. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (420s-0619) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  15. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Maui (301w-0603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  16. Lanai Photomosaic 2000 (318n-0506) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  17. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (208-209-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  18. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (331-0524) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  19. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (213-214e-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  20. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (328w-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  1. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (421s-0429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  2. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (417-0620)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  3. Niihau Photomosaic 2000 (115-0511) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  4. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (421s-0429) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  5. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (417-0620) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  6. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (330-0613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  7. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (420s-0619)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  8. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (312-310-0524-0613) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  9. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (326n-0601) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  10. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (331-0524)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  11. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (213-214w-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  12. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (328e-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  13. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (103-104c-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  14. Online Aerial Terrain Mapping for Ground Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a collaborative unmanned aerial and ground vehicle system which utilizes the aerial vehicle’s overhead view to inform the ground vehicle’s path planning in real time. The aerial vehicle acquires imagery which is assembled into a orthomosaic and then classified. These terrain classes are used to estimate relative navigation costs for the ground vehicle so energy-efficient paths may be generated and then executed. The two vehicles are registered in a common coordinate frame using a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS and all image processing is performed onboard the unmanned aerial vehicle, which minimizes the data exchanged between the vehicles. This paper describes the architecture of the system and quantifies the registration errors between the vehicles.

  15. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, http://lasig.epfl.ch/savmap ). The

  16. Everyday imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Allan, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    the gradual disappearance of media from personal consciousness in a digital age. If ceaselessness is a defining characteristic of the current era, our analysis reveals that the use of smartphone cameras is indicative of people affectively and self-consciously deploying the technology to try to arrest......User-based research into the lived experiences associated with smartphone camera practices – in particular, the taking, storing, curating, and sharing of personal imagery in the digital media sphere – remains scarce, especially in contrast to their increasing ubiquity. Accordingly, this article...... social bonds, and encompass a future-oriented perspective. Relatedly, in terms of photographic composition, visual content tends to circulate around the social presence of others, boundedness of event, perceived aesthetic value, and intended shareability. Our findings question certain formulations about...

  17. Imagery - Lake Ashtabula, ND - 2009 4-Band Orthophoto

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 4-band aerial imagery was collected by Fugro Horizons using the Leica ADS40(SH52) camera with 30 percent side overlap on 8/26/09. The flight height was 9,600 feet...

  18. Higher order monochromatic aberrations of the human infant eye

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan

    2005-01-01

    The monochromatic optical aberrations of the eye degrade retinal image quality. Any significant aberrations during postnatal development could contribute to infants’ immature visual performance and provide signals for the control of eye growth. Aberrations of human infant eyes from 5 to 7 weeks old were compared with those of adult subjects using a model of an adultlike infant eye that accounted for differences in both eye and pupil size. Data were collected using the COAS Shack-Hartmann wave...

  19. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  20. Monochromatic X-ray probing of a superdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Romanova, V.M.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Dyakin, V.A.; Pikuz, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigation results are presented of the superdense plasma of an exploding wire by means of a new scheme of X-ray monochromatic probing. The scheme permits not only to obtain the shadow images of bright plasma objects in separate spectral lines with a high spatial resolution but and to lower requirements to a radiation source. Experimental results confirm existence of a small-dense plasma coronae, appeared during the initial stage of a discharge through a wire, and a dense core, existing at the pinch axis in the discharge process. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  2. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...

  3. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  4. Detection of fissionable materials in cargoes using monochromatic photon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Lanza, Richard; O'Day, Buckley; LNSP Team

    2015-04-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (e.g. Pu and U) and nuclear devices in the commercial cargo traffic is one of the challenges posed by the threat of nuclear terrorism. Radiography and active interrogation of heavily loaded cargoes require ~ 1 - 10MeV photons for penetration. In a proof-of-concept system under development at MIT, the interrogating monochromatic photon beam is produced via a 11B(d , nγ) 12C reaction. To achieve this, a boron target is used along with the 3 MeV d+ RFQ accelerator at MIT-Bates. The reactions results in the emission of very narrow 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gammas lines. The photons, after traversing the cargo, are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A spectral analysis of the transmitted gammas allows to independently determine the areal density and the atomic number (Z) of the cargo. The proposed approach could revolutionize cargo inspection, which, in its current fielded form has to rely on simple but high dose bremsstrahlung sources. Use of monochromatic sources would significantly reduce the necessary dose and allow for better determination of the cargo's atomic number. The general methodology will be described and the preliminary results from the proof-of-concept system will be presented and discussed. Supported by NSF/DNDO Collaborative Research ARI-LA Award ECCS-1348328.

  5. A versatile lattice for a tau-charm factory that includes a monochromatization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faus-Golfe, A.; Le Duff, J.

    1992-02-01

    A double ring system with multibunch scheme and high luminosity is discussed. An attempt for beam monochromatization at the crossing point was made by increasing the vertical bending angle, and it succeeded in providing a proper matching. The next step consisted of demonstrating that the new ring geometry that permits a monochromatization scheme could be returned and rematched to operate without monochromatization, allowing only relocation of quadrupoles and readjustment of their gradient in the sloping region. The results of this work are reported after a brief recall of the monochromatization scheme requirements. (K.A.) 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Pilot aerial infrared roof top survey. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-15

    A summary is presented of a pilot aerial infrared roof top study conducted by the Minnesota Energy Agency. Infrared surveys of 27 Minnesota cities were conducted during the fall and winter of the 1976-1977 heating season. In addition, conventional daytime color photographs were taken of several cities. Film processing was done by the Environmental Protection Agency. The University of Minnesota conducted ground tests to verify the aerial infrared imagery. Thermograph dissemination centers were established in each city and training seminars and materials were prepared and delivered to dissemination center staff. A survey of homeowners who viewed their thermograph at a dissemination center were used to determine the energy savings resulting from the program. An Aerial Infrared Program Users Manual was prepared by the Energy Agency and the Remote Sensing Institute of Brookings, South Dakota.

  7. Splitting Terraced Houses Into Single Units Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, D.

    2017-05-01

    This paper introduces a method to subdivide complex building structures like terraced houses into single house units comparable to units available in a cadastral map. 3D line segments are detected with sub-pixel accuracy in traditional vertical true orthomosaics as well as in innovative oblique true orthomosaics and their respective surface models. Hereby high gradient strengths on roofs as well as façades are taken into account. By investigating the coplanarity and frequencies within a set of 3D line segments, individual cut lines for a building complex are found. The resulting regions ideally describe single houses and thus the object complexity is reduced for subsequent topological, semantical or geometrical considerations. For the chosen study area with 70 buidling outlines a hit rate of 80% for cut lines is achieved.

  8. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected - DOQQ 1999 Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 1999 Digital Ortho Quarter Quads. Acquired from SJRWMD (http://sjrwmd.com/). Flight Date Jan, 1999. Can be downloaded in DOQQ Format as JPEGS or MrSIDs from LABINS...

  9. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  10. Fast Aerial Video Stitching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The highly efficient and robust stitching of aerial video captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a challenging problem in the field of robot vision. Existing commercial image stitching systems have seen success with offline stitching tasks, but they cannot guarantee high-speed performance when dealing with online aerial video sequences. In this paper, we present a novel system which has an unique ability to stitch high-frame rate aerial video at a speed of 150 frames per second (FPS. In addition, rather than using a high-speed vision platform such as FPGA or CUDA, our system is running on a normal personal computer. To achieve this, after the careful comparison of the existing invariant features, we choose the FAST corner and binary descriptor for efficient feature extraction and representation, and present a spatial and temporal coherent filter to fuse the UAV motion information into the feature matching. The proposed filter can remove the majority of feature correspondence outliers and significantly increase the speed of robust feature matching by up to 20 times. To achieve a balance between robustness and efficiency, a dynamic key frame-based stitching framework is used to reduce the accumulation errors. Extensive experiments on challenging UAV datasets demonstrate that our approach can break through the speed limitation and generate an accurate stitching image for aerial video stitching tasks.

  11. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, K. D., E-mail: kdf1@cornell.edu; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z. [CHESS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jones, R. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S. [IIa Technologies (Singapore); Jupitz, S. [St. Mary’s College of Maryland, St. Mary’s City, MD (United States); Sagan, D. C. [CLASSE, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  12. High resolution, monochromatic x-ray topography capability at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, K. D.; Pauling, A.; Brown, Z.; Jones, R.; Tarun, A.; Misra, D. S.; Jupitz, S.; Sagan, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    CHESS has a monochromatic x-ray topography capability serving continually expanding user interest. The setup consists of a beam expanding monochromator, 6-circle diffactometer, and CHESS designed CMOS camera with real time sample-alignment capability. This provides rocking curve mapping with angle resolution as small as 2 µradians, spatial resolution to 3 microns, and field of view up to 7mm. Thus far the capability has been applied for: improving CVD-diamond growth, evaluating perfection of ultra-thin diamond membranes, correlating performance of diamond-based electronics with crystal defect structure, and defect analysis of single crystal silicon carbide. This paper describes our topography system, explains its capabilities, and presents experimental results from several applications.

  13. Three-dimensional monochromatic x-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsuneo; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Nishimura, Ktsuyuki; Uyama, Chikao

    1995-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a 3D computed tomography (3D CT) using monochromatic x-rays generated by synchrotron radiation, which performs a direct reconstruction of 3D volume image of an object from its cone-beam projections. For the develpment of 3D CT, scanning orbit of x-ray source to obtain complete 3D information about an object and corresponding 3D image reconstruction algorithm are considered. Computer simulation studies demonstrate the validities of proposed scanning method and reconstruction algorithm. A prototype experimental system of 3D CT was constructed. Basic phantom examinations and specific material CT image by energy subtraction obtained in this experimental system are shown.

  14. Physics Reach with a Monochromatic Neutrino Beam from Electron Capture

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J.; Espinoza, C.; Lindroos, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments from different sources have demonstrated non-vanishing neutrino masses and flavour mixings. The next experiments have to address the determination of the connecting mixing U(e3) and the existence of the CP violating phase. Whereas U(e3) measures the strength of the oscillation probability in appearance experiments, the CP phase acts as a phase-shift in the interference pattern. Here we propose to separate these two parameters by energy dependence, using the novel idea of a monochromatic neutrino beam facility based on the acceleration of ions that decay fast through electron capture. Fine tuning of the boosted neutrino energy allows precision measurements able to open a window for the discovery of CP violation, even for a mixing as small as 1 degree

  15. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  16. The Use of Landsat and Aerial Photography for the Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coastal erosion is a worldwide hazard, the consequences of which can only be mitigated via thorough and efficient monitoring of erosion. This study aimed to employ remote sensing techniques on aerial photographs and Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery for the detection and monitoring of coastal erosion in False Bay, South ...

  17. Within-field Corn Nitrogen Response Related to Aerial Photograph Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture management of nitrogen (N) using aerial imagery of corn [Zea mays L.] canopy color has been a proposed strategy to understand crop N health and base within-season N fertilizer application rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate at field scale the relationship between...

  18. Historical oblique aerial photographs as a powerful tool for communicating landscape changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a potential new form of data generation and data display to be used for communicating landscape change at local scales, utilizing a huge collection of oblique aerial photographs held by the Royal Library in Copenhagen. The collection contains local scale imagery covering all...

  19. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF VERY HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE AND AERIAL ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Agrafiotis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  20. A Simple Aerial Photogrammetric Mapping System Overview and Image Acquisition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenang Anurogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photogrammetry is one of the Alternative technologies for more detailed data, real time, fast and cheaper. Nowadays, many photogrammetric mapping methods have used UAV / unmanned drones or drones to retrieve and record data from an object in the earth. The application of drones in the field of geospatial science today is in great demand because of its relatively easy operation and relatively affordable cost compared to satellite systems especially high - resolution satellite imagery.  This research aims to determine the stage or overview of data retrieval process with DJI Phantom 4 (multi - rotor quad - copter drone with processing using third party software. This research also produces 2 - dimensional high resolution image data on the research area. Utilization of third party software (Agisoft PhotoScan making it easier to acquire and process aerial photogrammetric data. The results of aerial photogrammetric recording with a flying altitude of 70 meters obtained high resolution images with a spatial resolution of 2 inches / pixels.

  1. Fusion of colour and monochromatic images with edge emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade M. Pavlović

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method to fuse true colour images with monochromatic non-visible range images that seeks to encode important structural information from monochromatic images efficiently but also preserve the natural appearance of the available true chromacity information. We utilise the β colour opponency channel of the lαβ colour as the domain to fuse information from the monochromatic input into the colour input by the way of robust grayscale fusion. This is followed by an effective gradient structure visualisation step that enhances the visibility of monochromatic information in the final colour fused image. Images fused using this method preserve their natural appearance and chromacity better than conventional methods while at the same time clearly encode structural information from the monochormatic input. This is demonstrated on a number of well-known true colour fusion examples and confirmed by the results of subjective trials on the data from several colour fusion scenarios. Introduction The goal of image fusion can be broadly defined as: the representation of visual information contained in a number of input images into a single fused image without distortion or loss of information. In practice, however, a representation of all available information from multiple inputs in a single image is almost impossible and fusion is generally a data reduction task.  One of the sensors usually provides a true colour image that by definition has all of its data dimensions already populated by the spatial and chromatic information. Fusing such images with information from monochromatic inputs in a conventional manner can severely affect natural appearance of the fused image. This is a difficult problem and partly the reason why colour fusion received only a fraction of the attention than better behaved grayscale fusion even long after colour sensors became widespread. Fusion method Humans tend to see colours as contrasts between opponent

  2. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  3. Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udin, W S; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications

  4. Automated Archiving of Archaeological Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doneus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of any aerial photo archive is to allow quick access to images based on content and location. Therefore, next to a description of technical parameters and depicted content, georeferencing of every image is of vital importance. This can be done either by identifying the main photographed object (georeferencing of the image content or by mapping the center point and/or the outline of the image footprint. The paper proposes a new image archiving workflow. The new pipeline is based on the parameters that are logged by a commercial, but cost-effective GNSS/IMU solution and processed with in-house-developed software. Together, these components allow one to automatically geolocate and rectify the (oblique aerial images (by a simple planar rectification using the exterior orientation parameters and to retrieve their footprints with reasonable accuracy, which is automatically stored as a vector file. The data of three test flights were used to determine the accuracy of the device, which turned out to be better than 1° for roll and pitch (mean between 0.0 and 0.21 with a standard deviation of 0.17–0.46 and better than 2.5° for yaw angles (mean between 0.0 and −0.14 with a standard deviation of 0.58–0.94. This turned out to be sufficient to enable a fast and almost automatic GIS-based archiving of all of the imagery.

  5. Reconstructing the archaeological landscape of Southern Dobrogea: integrating imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, I. A.; Hanson, W. S.

    2007-10-01

    The recent integrated aerial photographic assessment of Southern Dobrogea, Romania) is part of the first author's British Academy funded research programme 'Contextualizing change on the Lower Danube: Roman impact on Daco-Getic landscapes'. This seeks to study the effect of the Roman conquest and occupation on the native Daco-Getic settlement pattern on the Lower Danube. The methodology involves integrating a range of remotely sensed imagery including: low altitude oblique aerial photographs, obtained through traditional aerial reconnaissance; medium altitude vertical photographs produced by German, British and American military reconnaissance during the Second World War, selected from The Aerial Reconnaissance Achive at Keele University; and high altitude de-classified military satellite imagery (Corona) from the 1960s, acquired from the USGS. The value of this approach lies not just in that it enables extensive detailed mapping of large archaeological landscapes in Romania for the first time, but also that it allows the recording of archaeological features permanently destroyed by more recent development across wide areas. This paper presents some results and addresses some of the problems raised by each method of data acquisition.

  6. Emergency Response Imagery Related to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, A. V.; Madore, B.; Imahori, G.; Woolard, J.; Sellars, J.; Halbach, A.; Helmricks, D.; Quarrick, J.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and Remote Sensing Division acquired and rapidly disseminated emergency response imagery related to the three recent hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Aerial imagery was collected using a Trimble Digital Sensor System, a high-resolution digital camera, by means of NOAA's King Air 350ER and DeHavilland Twin Otter (DHC-6) Aircraft. The emergency response images are used to assess the before and after effects of the hurricanes' damage. The imagery aids emergency responders, such as FEMA, Coast Guard, and other state and local governments, in developing recovery strategies and efforts by prioritizing areas most affected and distributing appropriate resources. Collected imagery is also used to provide damage assessment for use in long-term recovery and rebuilding efforts. Additionally, the imagery allows for those evacuated persons to see images of their homes and neighborhoods remotely. Each of the individual images are processed through ortho-rectification and merged into a uniform mosaic image. These remotely sensed datasets are publically available, and often used by web-based map servers as well as, federal, state, and local government agencies. This poster will show the imagery collected for these three hurricanes and the processes involved in getting data quickly into the hands of those that need it most.

  7. Cell response to quasi-monochromatic light with different coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budagovsky, A V; Solovykh, N V [I.V.Michurin All-Russian Recearch Institute of Fruit Crops Genetics and Breeding (Russian Federation); Budagovskaya, O N [I.V.Michurin All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Gardening, Michurinsk, Tambov region (Russian Federation); Budagovsky, I A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    The problem of the light coherence effect on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is discussed. The origins of ambiguous interpretation of the known experimental results are considered. Using the biological models, essentially differing in anatomy, morphology and biological functions (acrospires of radish, blackberry microsprouts cultivated in vitro, plum pollen), the effect of statistical properties of quasi-monochromatic light (λ{sub max} = 633 nm) on the magnitude of the photoinduced cell response is shown. It is found that for relatively low spatial coherence, the cell functional activity changes insignificantly. The maximal enhancement of growing processes (stimulating effect) is observed when the coherence length L{sub coh} and the correlation radius r{sub cor} are greater than the cell size, i.e., the entire cell fits into the field coherence volume. In this case, the representative indicators (germination of seeds and pollen, the spears length) exceeds those of non-irradiated objects by 1.7 – 3.9 times. For more correct assessment of the effect of light statistical properties on photocontrol processes, it is proposed to replace the qualitative description (coherent – incoherent) with the quantitative one, using the determination of spatial and temporal correlation functions and comparing them with the characteristic dimensions of the biological structures, e.g., the cell size. (biophotonics)

  8. First Sub-arcsecond Collimation of Monochromatic Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Apoorva G; Abbas, Sohrab; Treimer, Wolfgang, E-mail: nintsspd@barc.gov.in

    2010-11-01

    We have achieved the tightest collimation to date of a monochromatic neutron beam by diffracting neutrons from a Bragg prism, viz. a single crystal prism operating in the vicinity of Bragg incidence. An optimised silicon {l_brace}111{r_brace} Bragg prism has collimated 5.26A neutrons down to 0.58 arcsecond. In conjunction with a similarly optimised Bragg prism analyser of opposite asymmetry, this ultra-parallel beam yielded a 0.62 arcsecond wide rocking curve. This beam has produced the first SUSANS spectrum in Q {approx} 10{sup -6} A{sup -1} range with a hydroxyapatite casein protein sample and demonstrated the instrument capability of characterising agglomerates upto 150 {mu}m in size. The super-collimation has also enabled recording of the first neutron diffraction pattern from a macroscopic grating of 200 {mu}m period. An analysis of this pattern yielded the beam transverse coherence length of 175 {mu}m (FWHM), the greatest achieved to date for A wavelength neutrons.

  9. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described

  10. Waste site characterization through digital analysis of historical aerial photographs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Wells, B.; Rofer, C.; Martin, B.

    1995-01-01

    Historical aerial photographs are used to provide a physical history and preliminary mapping information for characterizing hazardous waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. The examples cited show how imagery was used to accurately locate and identify previous activities at a site, monitor changes that occurred over time, and document the observable of such activities today. The methodology demonstrates how historical imagery (along with any other pertinent data) can be used in the characterization of past environmental damage

  11. CERN: an aerial view

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 30th January, when CERN still resembled a winter wonderland, a helicopter with a photographer on board took off on an aerial tour. One sunny morning at the end of January, when the area was waking up to an overnight snowfall, a helicopter took off from the Meyrin site with a CERN photographer on board. CERN has been the subject of aerial photographs ever since its creation. Although its appearance has changed over the years, the Laboratory has aged well. The aerial photographs taken during its fifty-year history bear witness to its expansion, showing how a handful of buildings and a first accelerator have blossomed into an entire machine complex. Let's take to the skies and have a look at some of the photos taken on this crisp January morning: a sight for sore eyes! In the foreground, Building 40 on the Meyrin site is recognisable from its magnet shape.On the right of the Route de Meyrin (crossing the photo diagonally), next to Point 1, the work on the Globe of Innovation, which got underway at the beg...

  12. Imagery Integration Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  13. Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-11-01

    The 3×1 generalized Jones vectors (GJVs) [E(x) E(y) E(z)](t) (t indicates the transpose) that describe the linear, circular, and elliptical polarization states of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) monochromatic light field are determined in terms of the geometrical parameters of the 3-D vibration of the time-harmonic electric field. In three dimensions, there are as many distinct linear polarization states as there are points on the surface of a hemisphere, and the number of distinct 3-D circular polarization states equals that of all two-dimensional (2-D) polarization states on the Poincaré sphere, of which only two are circular states. The subset of 3-D polarization states that results from the superposition of three mutually orthogonal x, y, and z field components of equal amplitude is considered as a function of their relative phases. Interesting contours of equal ellipticity and equal inclination of the normal to the polarization ellipse with respect to the x axis are obtained in 2-D phase space. Finally, the 3×3 generalized Jones calculus, in which elastic scattering (e.g., by a nano-object in the near field) is characterized by the 3-D linear transformation E(s)=T E(i), is briefly introduced. In such a matrix transformation, E(i) and E(s) are the 3×1 GJVs of the incident and scattered waves and T is the 3×3 generalized Jones matrix of the scatterer at a given frequency and for given directions of incidence and scattering.

  14. Monochromatic neutron beam production at Brazilian nuclear research reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiulevicius, Roberto; Rodrigues, Claudio; Parente, Carlos B. R.; Voi, Dante L.; Rogers, John D.

    2000-12-01

    Monochomatic beams of neutrons are obtained form a nuclear reactor polychromatic beam by the diffraction process, suing a single crystal energy selector. In Brazil, two nuclear research reactors, the swimming pool model IEA-R1 and the Argonaut type IEN-R1 have been used to carry out measurements with this technique. Neutron spectra have been measured using crystal spectrometers installed on the main beam lines of each reactor. The performance of conventional- artificial and natural selected crystals has been verified by the multipurpose neutron diffractometers installed at IEA-R1 and simple crystal spectrometer in operator at IEN- R1. A practical figure of merit formula was introduced to evaluate the performance and relative reflectivity of the selected planes of a single crystal. The total of 16 natural crystals were selected for use in the neutron monochromator, including a total of 24 families of planes. Twelve of these natural crystal types and respective best family of planes were measured directly with the multipurpose neutron diffractometers. The neutron spectrometer installed at IEN- R1 was used to confirm test results of the better specimens. The usually conventional-artificial crystal spacing distance range is limited to 3.4 angstrom. The interplane distance range has now been increased to approximately 10 angstrom by use of naturally occurring crystals. The neutron diffraction technique with conventional and natural crystals for energy selection and filtering can be utilized to obtain monochromatic sub and thermal neutrons with energies in the range of 0.001 to 10 eV. The thermal neutron is considered a good tool or probe for general applications in various fields, such as condensed matter, chemistry, biology, industrial applications and others.

  15. Complex Building Detection Through Integrating LIDAR and Aerial Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a new approach on digital building detection through the integration of LiDAR data and aerial imagery. It is known that most building rooftops are represented by different regions from different seed pixels. Considering the principals of image segmentation, this paper employs a new region based technique to segment images, combining both the advantages of LiDAR and aerial images together. First, multiple seed points are selected by taking several constraints into consideration in an automated way. Then, the region growing procedures proceed by combining the elevation attribute from LiDAR data, visibility attribute from DEM (Digital Elevation Model), and radiometric attribute from warped images in the segmentation. Through this combination, the pixels with similar height, visibility, and spectral attributes are merged into one region, which are believed to represent the whole building area. The proposed methodology was implemented on real data and competitive results were achieved.

  16. Aerial in situ survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespirova, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 a detailed exploration of soil contamination took place in the mountainous region Hruby Jesenik located in northeastern part of the Czech Republic. This region was selected for the higher contamination of 137 Cs after Chernobyl accident. For monitoring of an area about 100km 2 aerial monitoring system IRIS (located on board of helicopter MI-17) was used. The parameters of measurement were: flight height above ground 80 m, speed 100 km/h, distance of flight lines 250 m, intervals of spectra recording 1s. For more detailed exploration of ground contamination in this area complementary ground-based mobile group measurements were performed. (author)

  17. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  18. Multi-decadal record of ice dynamics on Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, East Greenland, from satellite imagery and terrestrial measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stearns, L.A.; Hamilton, G.S.; Reeh, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The history of ice velocity and calving front position of Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, a large outlet glacier in East Greenland, is reconstructed from field measurements, aerial photography and satellite imagery for the period 1950-2001. The calving terminus of the glacier has remained in approxima......The history of ice velocity and calving front position of Daugaard Jensen Gletscher, a large outlet glacier in East Greenland, is reconstructed from field measurements, aerial photography and satellite imagery for the period 1950-2001. The calving terminus of the glacier has remained...

  19. Monochromatic x-rays for low-dose digital mammography: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Kwon, Young Man; Choi, Byoung-Jung; Son, Hyun Hwa; Ryu, Cheol Woo; Chon, Kwon Su; Park, Seong Hoon; Juhng, Sun Kwan

    2012-12-01

    The feasibility of using monochromatic x-ray imaging generated from an x-ray tube and a multilayer reflector for digital mammography with a low radiation dose was examined. A multilayer mirror was designed to select the x-ray peak with an energy of 21.5 keV generated from an x-ray tube with a tungsten target and was fabricated by the ion-beam sputtering deposition system. Monochromatic x-ray images were obtained from an experimental digital mammography setup with a scanning stage. The performance of the system was evaluated using a breast phantom, a spectrometer, and a radiation dosimeter. We measured the contrast-to-noise ratio and performed the 10% modulation function test to determine image quality and resolution. The monochromatic beam from the multilayer reflector had a full-width-at-half-maximum of 0.9 keV at 21.5 keV, and the reflectivity was 0.70, which was 90% of the designed value. The polychromatic and monochromatic x-rays showed radiation doses of 0.497 and 0.0415 mGy, respectively. The monochromatic x-ray image shows fibers, calcifications, and masses more clearly than the polychromatic x-ray images do. The image contrast of the monochromatic x-rays was 1.85 times higher than that of the polychromatic x-rays. The experimental mammography setup had a spatial resolution of 7 lp/mm with both x-rays. Monochromatic x-rays generated using a multilayer mirror may be a useful diagnostic tool for breast examination by providing high contrast imaging with a low radiation dose.

  20. Photogrammetry of the Viking Lander imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of photogrammetric mapping which uses Viking Lander photography as its basis is solved in two ways: (1) by converting the azimuth and elevation scanning imagery to the equivalent of a frame picture, using computerized rectification; and (2) by interfacing a high-speed, general-purpose computer to the analytical plotter employed, so that all correction computations can be performed in real time during the model-orientation and map-compilation process. Both the efficiency of the Viking Lander cameras and the validity of the rectification method have been established by a series of pre-mission tests which compared the accuracy of terrestrial maps compiled by this method with maps made from aerial photographs. In addition, 1:10-scale topographic maps of Viking Lander sites 1 and 2 having a contour interval of 1.0 cm have been made to test the rectification method.

  1. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-01-01

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  2. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...... the impact energy. The device has been used to validate the method through experiments, in comparison with a rigid manipulator. The results show that the proposed approach and the developed mechanical system achieve stable impact absorption without bouncing away from the interacting environment. Our work has...

  3. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  4. Ultramap v3 - a Revolution in Aerial Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitinger, B.; Sormann, M.; Zebedin, L.; Schachinger, B.; Hoefler, M.; Tomasi, R.; Lamperter, M.; Gruber, B.; Schiester, G.; Kobald, M.; Unger, M.; Klaus, A.; Bernoegger, S.; Karner, K.; Wiechert, A.; Ponticelli, M.; Gruber, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs) which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  5. ULTRAMAP V3 – A REVOLUTION IN AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reitinger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  6. Comment on “Collision monochromatization in e^{+}e^{-} colliders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shatilov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bogomyagkov and Levichev [Phys. Rev. Accel. Beams 20, 051001 (2017PRABCJ2469-988810.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.051001] have recently reported on monochromatization in collision schemes with crossing angle. From their results, in particular, it may seem that: (1 horizontal dispersion at the IP can provide monochromatization factor Λ≫1 while retaining Piwinski angle ϕ>1, (2 production rate in such a scheme for FCC-ee at 62.5 GeV can be larger than that in the nominal crab waist collision, and (3 strong rf focusing can be used for monochromatization purposes. We demonstrate here that the first two statements are not correct, and the last one is very doubtful.

  7. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2014-09-01

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  8. Monochromatic computed tomography of the human brain using synchrotron x rays: Technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachaliel, E.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Rarback, H.; Stefan, P.M.; Spanne, P.; Luke, P.N.; Pehl, R.; Thompson, A.C.; Miller, M.

    1991-01-01

    A monochromatic computed tomography (CT) scanner is being developed at the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, to image the human head and neck. The system configuration is one of a horizontal fan beam and an upright seated rotating subject. The purpose of the project are to demonstrate improvement in the image contrast and in the image quantitative accuracy that can be obtained in monochromatic CT and to apply the system to specific clinical research programs in neuroradiology. This paper describes the first phantom studies carried out with a prototype system, using the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) method at energies of 20 and 39 Kev. The results show that improvements in image contrast and quantitative accuracy are possible with monochromatic DPA CT. Estimates of the clinical performance of the planned CT system are made on the basis of these initial results

  9. NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  10. NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2017 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  11. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  12. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  13. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Lefmann, K.; Abrahamsen, A.B.; Ronnow, H.M.; Saxild, F.; Jensen, T.B.S.; Udby, L.; Andersen, N.H.; Christensen, N.B.; Jakobsen, H.S.; Larsen, T.; Haefliger, P.S.; Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode

  14. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: christian.bahl@risoe.dk; Lefmann, K. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: kim.lefmann@risoe.dk; Abrahamsen, A.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ronnow, H.M. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Saxild, F. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jensen, T.B.S. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Udby, L. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, N.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Christensen, N.B. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jakobsen, H.S. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, T. [Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Haefliger, P.S. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Streule, S.; Niedermayer, Ch. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator to perform real inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We present the results from inelastic powder, single crystal dispersion and single crystal constant energy mapping experiments. The advantages and complications of performing these experiments are discussed along with a comparison between the imaging mode and the traditional monochromatic focussing mode.

  15. Hypnagogic imagery and EEG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Katoh, K; Hori, T

    1999-04-01

    The relationships between hypnagogic imagery and EEG activity were studied. 7 subjects (4 women and 3 men) reported the content of hypnagogic imagery every minute and the hypnagogic EEGs were classified into 5 stages according to Hori's modified criteria. The content of the hypnagogic imagery changed as a function of the hypnagogic EEG stages.

  16. EVALUATING THE ACCURACY OF DEM GENERATION ALGORITHMS FROM UAV IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ruiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated how the use of different positioning systems affects the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs generated from aerial imagery obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. In this domain, state-of-the-art DEM generation algorithms suffer from typical errors obtained by GPS/INS devices in the position measurements associated with each picture obtained. The deviations from these measurements to real world positions are about meters. The experiments have been carried out using a small quadrotor in the indoor testbed at the Center for Advanced Aerospace Technologies (CATEC. This testbed houses a system that is able to track small markers mounted on the UAV and along the scenario with millimeter precision. This provides very precise position measurements, to which we can add random noise to simulate errors in different GPS receivers. The results showed that final DEM accuracy clearly depends on the positioning information.

  17. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  18. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  19. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  20. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I; Thomas, M; Buchroeder, H; Brummer, C [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  1. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  2. Aerial-Photointerpretation of landslides along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W.-J.; Stohr, C.

    2000-01-01

    A landslide inventory was conducted along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of southern Illinois, between the towns of Olmsted and Chester, Illinois. Aerial photography and field reconnaissance identified 221 landslides of three types: rock/debris falls, block slides, and undifferentiated rotational/translational slides. Most of the landslides are small- to medium-size, ancient rotational/translational features partially ob-scured by vegetation and modified by weathering. Five imagery sources were interpreted for landslides: 1:250,000-scale side-looking airborne radar (SLAR); 1:40,000-scale, 1:20,000-scale, 1:6,000-scale, black and white aerial photography; and low altitude, oblique 35-mm color photography. Landslides were identified with three levels of confidence on the basis of distinguishing characteristics and ambiguous indicators. SLAR imagery permitted identification of a 520 hectare mega-landslide which would not have been identified on medium-scale aerial photography. The leaf-off, 35-mm color, oblique photography provided the best imagery for confident interpretation of detailed features needed for smaller landslides.

  3. Cultural Artifact Detection in Long Wave Infrared Imagery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dylan Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craven, Julia M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ramon, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Detection of cultural artifacts from airborne remotely sensed data is an important task in the context of on-site inspections. Airborne artifact detection can reduce the size of the search area the ground based inspection team must visit, thereby improving the efficiency of the inspection process. This report details two algorithms for detection of cultural artifacts in aerial long wave infrared imagery. The first algorithm creates an explicit model for cultural artifacts, and finds data that fits the model. The second algorithm creates a model of the background and finds data that does not fit the model. Both algorithms are applied to orthomosaic imagery generated as part of the MSFE13 data collection campaign under the spectral technology evaluation project.

  4. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Deusdado

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus’ estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional human-based sampling.

  5. Sediment Sampling in Estuarine Mudflats with an Aerial-Ground Robotic Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusdado, Pedro; Guedes, Magno; Silva, André; Marques, Francisco; Pinto, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Paulo; Lourenço, André; Mendonça, Ricardo; Santana, Pedro; Corisco, José; Almeida, Susana Marta; Portugal, Luís; Caldeira, Raquel; Barata, José; Flores, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robotic team suited for bottom sediment sampling and retrieval in mudflats, targeting environmental monitoring tasks. The robotic team encompasses a four-wheel-steering ground vehicle, equipped with a drilling tool designed to be able to retain wet soil, and a multi-rotor aerial vehicle for dynamic aerial imagery acquisition. On-demand aerial imagery, properly fused on an aerial mosaic, is used by remote human operators for specifying the robotic mission and supervising its execution. This is crucial for the success of an environmental monitoring study, as often it depends on human expertise to ensure the statistical significance and accuracy of the sampling procedures. Although the literature is rich on environmental monitoring sampling procedures, in mudflats, there is a gap as regards including robotic elements. This paper closes this gap by also proposing a preliminary experimental protocol tailored to exploit the capabilities offered by the robotic system. Field trials in the south bank of the river Tagus’ estuary show the ability of the robotic system to successfully extract and transport bottom sediment samples for offline analysis. The results also show the efficiency of the extraction and the benefits when compared to (conventional) human-based sampling. PMID:27618060

  6. Crowdsourcing earthquake damage assessment using remote sensing imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gill

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of recent work on using crowdsourced analysis of remote sensing imagery, particularly high-resolution aerial imagery, to provide rapid, reliable assessments of damage caused by earthquakes and potentially other disasters. The initial effort examined online imagery taken after the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A more recent response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake led to the formation of an international consortium: the Global Earth Observation Catastrophe Assessment Network (GEO-CAN. The success of GEO-CAN in contributing to the official damage assessments made by the Government of Haiti, the United Nations, and the World Bank led to further development of a web-based interface. A current initiative in Christchurch, New Zealand, is underway where remote sensing experts are analyzing satellite imagery, geotechnical engineers are marking liquefaction areas, and structural engineers are identifying building damage. The current site includes online training to improve the accuracy of the assessments and make it possible for even novice users to contribute to the crowdsourced solution. The paper discusses lessons learned from these initiatives and presents a way forward for using crowdsourced remote sensing as a tool for rapid assessment of damage caused by natural disasters around the world.

  7. Periprosthetic Artifact Reduction Using Virtual Monochromatic Imaging Derived From Gemstone Dual-Energy Computed Tomography and Dedicated Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, Exequiel; Capunay, Carlos; Rasumoff, Alejandro; Vallejos, Javier; Carpio, Jimena; Lago, Karen; Carrascosa, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of combined virtual monochromatic imaging and metal artifact reduction software (MARS) for the evaluation of musculoskeletal periprosthetic tissue. Measurements were performed in periprosthetic and remote regions in 80 patients using a high-definition scanner. Polychromatic images with and without MARS and virtual monochromatic images were obtained. Periprosthetic polychromatic imaging (PI) showed significant differences compared with remote areas among the 3 tissues explored (P remote tissues using monochromatic imaging with MARS (P = 0.053 bone, P = 0.32 soft tissue, and P = 0.13 fat). However, such differences were significant using PI with MARS among bone (P = 0.005) and fat (P = 0.02) tissues. All periprosthetic areas were noninterpretable using PI, compared with 11 (9%) using monochromatic imaging. The combined use of virtual monochromatic imaging and MARS reduced periprosthetic artifacts, achieving attenuation levels comparable to implant-free tissue.

  8. Improved sensitivity in patients with peripheral neuropathy: effects of monochromatic infrared photo energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Salvatore L; Carnegie, Dale H; Burke, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The medical records of 1,047 patients (mean age, 73 years) with established peripheral neuropathy were examined to determine whether treatment with monochromatic infrared photo energy was associated with increased foot sensitivity to the 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. The peripheral neuropathy in 790 of these patients (75%) was due to diabetes mellitus. Before treatment with monochromatic infrared photo energy, of the ten tested sites (five on each foot), a mean +/- SD of 7.9 +/- 2.4 sites were insensitive to the 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, and 1,033 patients exhibited loss of protective sensation. After treatment, the mean +/- SD number of insensate sites on both feet was 2.3 +/- 2.4, an improvement of 71%. Only 453 of 1,033 patients (43.9%) continued to have loss of protective sensation after treatment. Therefore, monochromatic infrared photo energy treatment seems to be associated with significant clinical improvement in foot sensation in patients, primarily Medicare aged, with peripheral neuropathy. Because insensitivity to the 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein monofilament has been reported to be a major risk factor for diabetic foot wounds, the use of monochromatic infrared photo energy may be associated with a reduced incidence of diabetic foot wounds and amputations.

  9. Response of TAPS to monochromatic photons with energies between 45 and 790 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, A.R. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Doering, W. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Fuchs, M. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Krusche, B. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Metag, V. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Novotny, R. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Roebig-Landau, M. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Stroeher, H. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Tries, V. (II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)); Molenaar, C. (Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)); Loehner, H. (Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)); Van Pol, J.H

    1994-07-15

    The Two Arm Photon Spectrometer TAPS - comprising 384 plastic-BaF[sub 2] scintillator telescopes - was tested with monochromatic photons in the energy range between 45 and 790 MeV. The energy resolution for a collimated photon beam hitting the central detector module was determined to [sigma]/E=0.59%xE[sup -1/2][sub [gamma

  10. Pustular Palmoplantar Psoriasis Successfully Treated with Nb-UVB Monochromatic Excimer Light: A Case-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Gianfaldoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Barber’s palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP is a form of localised pustular psoriasis, affecting the palmar and plantar surfaces. It is a chronic disease, with a deep impact on the patients’ quality of life. The Authors discuss a case of Baber Psoriasis successfully treated with monochromatic excimer light.

  11. Analysis of monochromatic signals by using data from the detector of Allegro gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Fernanda Gomes de

    2010-01-01

    The present work is developed in the searching for monochromatic gravitational waves signals in ALLEGRO's data. We have two procedures for data analysis based on the periodogram of Welch, which a method for the detection of monochromatic signals in the middle of noise which basically makes power spectrum estimates using averaged modified periodograms. By using this method it was possible to obtain a power spectrum for the data which reinforce peaks due to monochromatic signals. The two procedures of analysis for the years 1997 and 1999, were focused on monitoring a peak that appears in the spectral density of ALLEGRO's detector, so called 'mystery mode' (near 887 Hz). We look for variations in the frequency of the mystery mode that agree with the variation of the Doppler effect. In the rst analysis we have used by the variation of daily and annual Doppler shift. For the second one, we have only searched annual Doppler shift. We have applied the periodogram of Welch in both tests in the raw data of the detector in the search for a real signal and we found some peaks that can be candidates of gravitational radiation only the second analysis. In order to test the method we used in both analysis a simulated gravitational wave signal modulated by the Doppler effect injected in the data. We detected in both methods the artificial signal of GW simulated. Therefore we have reason to conclude that both methods are efficient in the search for monochromatic signals. (author)

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lefmann, Kim; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator...

  13. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation.

  14. Nonlinear behavior of a monochromatic wave in a one-dimensional Vlasov plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a monochromatic wave in a one-dimensional Vlasov plasma is studied numerically. The numerical results are carried out far enough in time for phase mixing to dominate the asymptotic state of the system. A qualitative comparison with previously reported simulations is given

  15. The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, N; Ahmad, A; Zainon, O

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power

  16. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Luedemann, Lutz [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Charite Medical Centre, 13353 Berlin (Germany); TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Applied Photonics e.V., 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Charite Medical Centre, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasi-monochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten K{alpha} emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement

  17. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Luedemann, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasi-monochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten Kα emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement factor

  18. Training visual imagery: Improvements of metacognition, but not imagery strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne Lynn Rademaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual imagery has been closely linked to brain mechanisms involved in perception. Can visual imagery, like visual perception, improve by means of training? Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of sensory imagination – might the metacognition of imagery also improve over the course of training? We had participants imagine colored Gabor patterns for an hour a day, over the course of five consecutive days, and again two weeks after training. Participants rated the subjective vividness and effort of their mental imagery on each trial. The influence of imagery on subsequent binocular rivalry dominance was taken as our measure of imagery strength. We found no overall effect of training on imagery strength. Training did, however, improve participant’s metacognition of imagery. Trial-by-trial ratings of vividness gained predictive power on subsequent rivalry dominance as a function of training. These data suggest that, while imagery strength might be immune to training in the current context, people’s metacognitive understanding of mental imagery can improve with practice.

  19. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  20. Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Research on Aeolian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas, Česnulevičius; Artūras, Bautrėnas; Linas, Bevainis; Donatas, Ovodas; Kęstutis, Papšys

    2018-02-01

    Surface dynamics and instabilities are characteristic of aeolian formation. The method of surface comparison is regarded as the most appropriate one for evaluation of the intensity of aeolian processes and the amount of transported sand. The data for surface comparison can be collected by topographic survey measurements and using unmanned aerial vehicles. Time cost for relief microform fixation and measurement executing topographic survey are very high. The method of unmanned aircraft aerial photographs fixation also encounters difficulties because there are no stable clear objects and contours that enable to link aerial photographs, to determine the boundaries of captured territory and to ensure the accuracy of surface measurements. Creation of stationary anchor points is irrational due to intense sand accumulation and deflation in different climate seasons. In September 2015 and in April 2016 the combined methodology was applied for evaluation of intensity of aeolian processes in the Curonian Spit. Temporary signs (marks) were installed on the surface, coordinates of the marks were fixed using GPS and then flight of unmanned aircraft was conducted. The fixed coordinates of marks ensure the accuracy of measuring aerial imagery and the ability to calculate the possible corrections. This method was used to track and measure very small (micro-rank) relief forms (5-10 cm height and 10-20 cm length). Using this method morphometric indicators of micro-terraces caused by sand dunes pressure to gytia layer were measured in a non-contact way. An additional advantage of the method is the ability to accurately link the repeated measurements. The comparison of 3D terrain models showed sand deflation and accumulation areas and quantitative changes in the terrain very clearly.

  1. Assessing the performance of aerial image point cloud and spectral metrics in predicting boreal forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M.; Korhonen, L.; Kukkonen, M.; Packalen, P.

    2017-07-01

    Canopy cover (CC) is a variable used to describe the status of forests and forested habitats, but also the variable used primarily to define what counts as a forest. The estimation of CC has relied heavily on remote sensing with past studies focusing on satellite imagery as well as Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) using light detection and ranging (lidar). Of these, ALS has been proven highly accurate, because the fraction of pulses penetrating the canopy represents a direct measurement of canopy gap percentage. However, the methods of photogrammetry can be applied to produce point clouds fairly similar to airborne lidar data from aerial images. Currently there is little information about how well such point clouds measure canopy density and gaps. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of aerial image point clouds for CC estimation and compare the results with those obtained using spectral data from aerial images and Landsat 5. First, we modeled CC for n = 1149 lidar plots using field-measured CCs and lidar data. Next, this data was split into five subsets in north-south direction (y-coordinate). Finally, four CC models (AerialSpectral, AerialPointcloud, AerialCombi (spectral + pointcloud) and Landsat) were created and they were used to predict new CC values to the lidar plots, subset by subset, using five-fold cross validation. The Landsat and AerialSpectral models performed with RMSEs of 13.8% and 12.4%, respectively. AerialPointcloud model reached an RMSE of 10.3%, which was further improved by the inclusion of spectral data; RMSE of the AerialCombi model was 9.3%. We noticed that the aerial image point clouds managed to describe only the outermost layer of the canopy and missed the details in lower canopy, which was resulted in weak characterization of the total CC variation, especially in the tails of the data.

  2. Using IKONOS and Aerial Videography to Validate Landsat Land Cover Maps of Central African Tropical Rain Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Laporte, N. T.

    2003-12-01

    Compared to the traditional validation methods, aerial videography is a relatively inexpensive and time-efficient approach to collect "field" data for validating satellite-derived land cover map over large areas. In particular, this approach is valuable in remote and inaccessible locations. In the Sangha Tri-National Park region of Central Africa, where road access is limited to industrial logging sites, we are using IKONOS imagery and aerial videography to assess the accuracy of Landsat-derived land cover maps. As part of a NASA Land Cover Land Use Change project (INFORMS) and in collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society in the Republic of Congo, over 1500km of aerial video transects were collected in the Spring of 2001. The use of MediaMapper software combined with a VMS 200 video mapping system enabled the collection of aerial transects to be registered with geographic locations from a Geographic Positioning System. Video frame were extracted, visually interpreted, and compared to land cover types mapped by Landsat. We addressed the limitations of accuracy assessment using aerial-base data and its potential for improving vegetation mapping in tropical rain forests. The results of the videography and IKONOS image analysis demonstrate the utility of very high resolution imagery for map validation and forest resource assessment.

  3. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Rüdiger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Hütter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2009-06-01

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasimonochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten Kalpha emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement

  4. Selecting optimal monochromatic level with spectral CT imaging for improving imaging quality in hepatic venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun; Luo Xianfu; Wang Shou'an; Wang Jun; Sun Jiquan; Wang Zhijun; Wu Jingtao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of spectral CT monochromatic images for improving imaging quality in hepatic venography. Methods: Thirty patients underwent spectral CT examination on a GE Discovery CT 750 HD scanner. During portal phase, 1.25 mm slice thickness polychromatic images and optimal monochromatic images were obtained, and volume rendering and maximum intensity projection were created to show the hepatic veins respectively. The overall imaging quality was evaluated on a five-point scale by two radiologists. Inter-observer agreement in subjective image quality grading was assessed by Kappa statistics. Paired-sample t test were used to compare hepatic vein attenuation, hepatic parenchyma attenuation, CT value difference between the hepatic vein and the liver parenchyma, image noise, vein-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), the image quality score of hepatic venography between the two image data sets. Results: The monochromatic images at 50 keV were found to demonstrate the best CNR for hepatic vein.The hepatic vein attenuation [(329 ± 47) HU], hepatic parenchyma attenuation [(178 ± 33) HU], CT value difference between the hepatic vein and the liver parenchyma [(151 ± 33) HU], image noise (17.33 ± 4.18), CNR (9.13 ± 2.65), the image quality score (4.2 ± 0.6) of optimal monochromatic images were significantly higher than those of polychromatic images [(149 ± 18) HU], [(107 ± 14) HU], [(43 ±11) HU], 12.55 ± 3.02, 3.53 ± 1.03, 3.1 ± 0.8 (t values were 24.79, 13.95, 18.85, 9.07, 13.25 and 12.04, respectively, P < 0.01). In the comparison of image quality, Kappa value was 0.81 with optimal monochromatic images and 0.69 with polychromatic images. Conclusion: Monochromatic images of spectral CT could improve CNR for displaying hepatic vein and improve the image quality compared to the conventional polychromatic images. (authors)

  5. Real-time people and vehicle detection from UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaszczak, Anna; Breckon, Toby P.; Han, Jiwan

    2011-01-01

    A generic and robust approach for the real-time detection of people and vehicles from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an important goal within the framework of fully autonomous UAV deployment for aerial reconnaissance and surveillance. Here we present an approach for the automatic detection of vehicles based on using multiple trained cascaded Haar classifiers with secondary confirmation in thermal imagery. Additionally we present a related approach for people detection in thermal imagery based on a similar cascaded classification technique combining additional multivariate Gaussian shape matching. The results presented show the successful detection of vehicle and people under varying conditions in both isolated rural and cluttered urban environments with minimal false positive detection. Performance of the detector is optimized to reduce the overall false positive rate by aiming at the detection of each object of interest (vehicle/person) at least once in the environment (i.e. per search patter flight path) rather than every object in each image frame. Currently the detection rate for people is ~70% and cars ~80% although the overall episodic object detection rate for each flight pattern exceeds 90%.

  6. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Cherkasov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at different regimes: during the first survey – with, and the second – without reinjection of used geothermal fluid. Unmanned aerial vehicle Geoscan 201 equipped with digital (Sony DSX-RX1 and thermal imaging (Thermoframe-MX-TTX cameras was used. Besides different images of the geothermal plant obtained by the surveys, 13 thermal anomalies have been identified. Analysis of the shape and temperature facilitated determination of their different sources: fire, heating systems, etc., which was confirmed by a ground reconnaissance. Results of the study demonstrate a high potential of unmanned aerial vehicle based thermal imagery use for environmental and technological monitoring of geothermal fields under operation.

  7. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Nevada Test Site - Areas 18 and 20 Corrective Action Unit 372

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Craig

    2010-01-01

    A series of aerial radiological surveys were conducted over the Little Feller I and II ground zero areas in Area 18 and the Palanquin and Cabriolet ground zero areas in Area 20. The surveys were performed in October and November 2009 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the ground zeros. Gross Counts, inferred exposure rates, man-made activity, and Americium-241 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed areas.

  8. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.

  9. Application Research of Quasi-monochromatic X-ray Machine Replacing 241Am Radioactive Source in Thickness Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Hui1;XIAO Xue-fu2;HOU Yue-xin3;ZHAO Jing1;JIAN Li-min1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the research of BS-03 thickness detector, a self-designed quasi-monochromatic (50-60 keV X-ray machine was studied as a substitution to Am-241 low energy photon source(1.11×109 Bq)The range of output current, the attenuation of X rays through the steel plate, the aluminum plate, and the organic glass plate and stability of quasi-monochromatic X-ray machine was tested. The result showed that quasi-monochromatic X-ray machine could be an applicable replacement of Am-241 radioactive source.

  10. Synthesizing monochromatic 3-D images by multiple-exposure rainbow holography with vertical area-partition approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宏琛; 王明伟; 刘福民; 母国光

    2002-01-01

    We report for the first time the theoretical analysis and experimental results of a white-light reconstructed monochromatic 3-D image synthesizing tomograms by multiple rainbow holo-graphy with vertical-area partition (VAP) approach. The theoretical and experimental results show that 3-D monochromatic image can be synthesized by recording the master hologram by VAP ap-proach without any distortions either in gray scale or in geometrical position. A 3-D monochromatic image synthesized from a series of medical tomograms is presented in this paper for the first time.

  11. Assessing the Impacts of US Landfall Hurricanes in 2012 using Aerial Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, John S.

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing has become a widely-used technology for assessing and evaluating the extent and severity of impacts of natural disasters worldwide. Optical and radar data collected by air- and space-borne sensors have supported humanitarian and economic decision-making for over a decade. Advances in image spatial resolution and pre-processing speeds have meant images with centimetre spatial resolution are now available for analysis within hours following severe disaster events. This paper offers a retrospective view on recent large-scale responses to two of the major storms from the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season: Hurricane Isaac and post-tropical cyclone ("superstorm") Sandy. Although weak on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, these slow-moving storms produced intense rainfall and coastal storm surges in the order of several metres in the Louisiana and Mississippi Gulf Coast (Isaac), and the Atlantic Seaboard (Sandy) of the United States. Data were generated for both events through interpretation of a combination of two types of aerial imagery: high spatial resolution optical imagery captured by fixed aerial sensors deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and digital single lens reflex (DSLR) images captured by volunteers from the US Civil Air Patrol (CAP). Imagery for these events were collected over a period of days following the storms' landfall in the US, with availability of aerial data far outweighing the sub-metre satellite imagery. The imagery described were collected as vertical views (NOAA) and oblique views (CAP) over the whole affected coastal and major riverine areas. A network of over 150 remote sensing experts systematically and manually processed images through visual interpretation, culminating in hundreds of thousands of individual properties identified as damaged or destroyed by wind or surge. A discussion is presented on the challenges of responding at such a fine level of spatial granularity for coastal

  12. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 Angstrom, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3 endash 4 μm. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6 endash 7 μm spatial resolution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 μm. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 μm spatial resolution

  14. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 Angstrom, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 μm in selected places and 2 - 3 μm over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 μm in selected places and 5 μm over the focal spot of the Nike laser. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  15. Establishment Of Illumination System For Investigation Of Monochromatic Lights Combination Effects On In Vitro Plant Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tien Thanh; Le Ngoc Trieu; Nguyen Tuong Mien; Huynh Thi Trung; Phan Quoc Minh

    2014-01-01

    Super blue and red light LEDs and other electric, electronic components are used to design and establish 11 independent illumination systems, each system can arbitrarily control to operate at 55 molarities of illumination which are different from together in monochromatic lights combination and total illumination intensity based on the microcontrollers. Programs for loading to microcontrollers were created to base on theoretical calculation and experimental correction. The illumination cycles can be controlled by setting the timer. These 11 systems and another fluorescent light illumination were used to execute the experiment for investigation the effects of monochromatic lights combination on in vitro shoot proliferation stage in Chrysanthemum and Phalaenopsis orchid. Results from this experiment showed that illumination intensity of 400 lux is suitable for chrysanthemum, 750 lux is suitable for Phalaenopsis orchid and rate of 70% red light-30% blue light are suitable for both kinds of these plants. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional monochromatic x-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsuneo; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Uyama, Chikao

    1998-08-01

    We describe a technique of 3D computed tomography (3D CT) using monochromatic x rays generated by synchrotron radiation, which performs a direct reconstruction of a 3D volume image of an object from its cone-beam projections. For the development, we propose a practical scanning orbit of the x-ray source to obtain complete 3D information on an object, and its corresponding 3D image reconstruction algorithm. The validity and usefulness of the proposed scanning orbit and reconstruction algorithm were confirmed by computer simulation studies. Based on these investigations, we have developed a prototype 3D monochromatic x-ray CT using synchrotron radiation, which provides exact 3D reconstruction and material-selective imaging by using the K-edge energy subtraction technique.

  17. Light trapping for emission from a photovoltaic cell under normally incident monochromatic illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Iizuka, Hideo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Kajino, Tsutomu [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-09-28

    We have theoretically demonstrated a new light-trapping mechanism to reduce emission from a photovoltaic (PV) cell used for a monochromatic light source, which improves limiting conversion efficiency determined by the detailed balance. A multilayered bandpass filter formed on the surface of a PV cell has been found to prevent the light generated inside by radiative recombination from escaping the cell, resulting in a remarkable decrease of the effective solid angle for the emission. We have clarified a guide to design a suitable configuration of the bandpass filter and achieved significant reduction of the emission. The resultant gain in monochromatic conversion efficiency in the radiative limit due to the optimally designed 18-layerd bandpass filters is as high as 6% under normally incident 1064 nm illumination of 10 mW/cm²~ 1 kW/cm², compared with the efficiency for the perfect anti-reflection treatment to the surface of a conventional solar cell.

  18. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Absorption of A Monochromatic Light Controlled by a Radio Frequency Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption of a monochromatic light controlled by a radio frequency field in the cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms are theoretically investigated. These Zeeman sublevels are coupled by a radio frequency (RF) field. Both electromagnetically induced transparency and electromagnetically induced absorption can be obtained by tuning the frequency of RF field for both the linear polarization and elliptical polarization monochromatic lights. When the transfer of coherence via spontaneous emission from the excited state to the ground state is considered, electromagnetically induced absorption can be changed into electromagnetically induced transparency with the change of intensity of radio field. The transparency windows controlled by the RF field can have potential applications in the magnetic-field measurement and quantum information processing. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Towards a Monochromatization Scheme for Direct Higgs Production at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Valdivia Garcia, Marco Alan; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Direct Higgs production in e+e− collisions at the FCC is of interest if the centre-of-mass energy spread can be reduced by at least an order of magnitude. A monochromatization scheme, to accomplish this, can be realized with horizontal dispersion of opposite sign for the two colliding beams at the interaction point (IP). We recall historical approaches to monochromatization, then derive a set of IP parameters which would provide the required performance in FCC e+e− collisions at 62.5 GeV beam energy, compare these with the baseline optics parameters at neighbouring energies (45.6 and 80 GeV), comment on the effect of beamstrahlung, and indicate the modifications of the FCC-ee final-focus optics needed to obtain the required parameters.

  20. The monochromatic imaging mode of a RITA-type neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Andersen, P.; Klausen, S.N.; Lefmann, K.

    2004-01-01

    The imaging monochromatic mode of a neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed RITA analyser system is so far unexplored. We present analytical calculations that define the mode. It is shown that the mode can be realised for PG (0 0 2) analyser crystals, from incident energies of about 3.2 meV and up, allowing the important cases of 3.7, 5.0 and 13.7 meV. Due to beam divergence, the neutron rays from neighbouring analyser blades are found to overlap slightly. Hence, the optimal use of the monochromatic imaging mode would be found by employing an adjustable radial collimator to limit the spread of the ray from each analyser blade

  1. The monochromatic imaging mode of a RITA-type neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: christian.bahl@risoe.dk; Andersen, P. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Klausen, S.N. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lefmann, K. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The imaging monochromatic mode of a neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed RITA analyser system is so far unexplored. We present analytical calculations that define the mode. It is shown that the mode can be realised for PG (0 0 2) analyser crystals, from incident energies of about 3.2 meV and up, allowing the important cases of 3.7, 5.0 and 13.7 meV. Due to beam divergence, the neutron rays from neighbouring analyser blades are found to overlap slightly. Hence, the optimal use of the monochromatic imaging mode would be found by employing an adjustable radial collimator to limit the spread of the ray from each analyser blade.

  2. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  3. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for efficient beach litter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Cecilia

    2018-05-05

    A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.

  4. Estimating plant distance in maize using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Basso, Bruno; Price, Richard F; Putman, Gregory; Shuai, Guanyuan

    2018-01-01

    Distance between rows and plants are essential parameters that affect the final grain yield in row crops. This paper presents the results of research intended to develop a novel method to quantify the distance between maize plants at field scale using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Using this method, we can recognize maize plants as objects and calculate the distance between plants. We initially developed our method by training an algorithm in an indoor facility with plastic corn plants. Then, the method was scaled up and tested in a farmer's field with maize plant spacing that exhibited natural variation. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible to precisely quantify the distance between maize plants. We found that accuracy of the measurement of the distance between maize plants depended on the height above ground level at which UAV imagery was taken. This study provides an innovative approach to quantify plant-to-plant variability and, thereby final crop yield estimates.

  5. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for efficient beach litter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Cecilia; Parkes, Stephen; Zhang, Qiannan; Zhang, Xiangliang; McCabe, Matthew; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    A global beach litter assessment is challenged by use of low-efficiency methodologies and incomparable protocols that impede data integration and acquisition at a national scale. The implementation of an objective, reproducible and efficient approach is therefore required. Here we show the application of a remote sensing based methodology using a test beach located on the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline. Litter was recorded via image acquisition from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, while an automatic processing of the high volume of imagery was developed through machine learning, employed for debris detection and classification in three categories. Application of the method resulted in an almost 40 times faster beach coverage when compared to a standard visual-census approach. While the machine learning tool faced some challenges in correctly detecting objects of interest, first classification results are promising and motivate efforts to further develop the technique and implement it at much larger scales.

  6. Feasibility of Strong and Quasi-Monochromatic Gamma-Ray Generation by the Laser Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Rehman, Haseeb ur; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This is because LCS γ-rays are energy-tunable, quasi-monochromatic, and beam-like. The photon intensity of the mono-chromatic LCS gamma-ray should be high or strong for efficient and high transmutation rate. It was recently reported that a so-called energy-recovery linac system is able to produce a very high-intensity LCS photons in the order of approximately 1013 photons/s economically. It however did not evaluate quality of the LCS photon beam although a quasi-monoenergetic LCS beam is of huge importance in the photo-nuclear transmutation reactions. It is upon this observation that this paper was prepared. Specifically, this work attempts to quantify intensity of the quasi-monochromatic LCS beam from the said linac system. In addition, this paper aims to discuss general characteristics of the LCS photon, and possible approaches to increase its intensity. This paper presents essential characteristics of the laser Compton scattering (LCS) in terms of its photon energy, cross-section and photon intensity. By using different combinations of electron energy, laser energy and scattering angle, we can effectively generate high-intensity and highly-chromatic LCS gamma-rays. Our preliminary analyses indicate that, in view of Compton cross-section, higher-energy photon can be better generated by increasing the electron energy rather than increasing the laser energy. However, in order to maximize the intensity of monochromatic beam, the laser energy should be maximized for a targeted LCS photon energy.

  7. Optimal Monochromatic Energy Levels in Spectral CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583

  8. Optimum angle of incidence for monochromatic interference in transparent films on absorbing substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.H.; Sand, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Angles of incidence for s- and p-polarized light have been computed and confirmed experimentally for which monochromatic interference in transparent thin films on absorbing substrates results in optimum interference fringe contrast (visibility=1). Under these angles of incidence and with polarized light, film thickness determinations which are not possible at normal incidence or with unpolarized light can be carried out by use of thin-film interference

  9. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation monochromatized by multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, R.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Aiginger, H.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.

    1995-01-01

    To achieve lowest detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) synchrotron radiation has been monochromatized by a multilayer structure to obtain a relative broad energy band compared to Bragg single crystals for an efficient excitation. The energy has been set to 14 keV, 17.5 keV, 31 keV and about 55 keV. Detection limits of 20 fg and 150 fg have been achieved for Sr and Cd, respectively. ((orig.))

  10. The use of historical imagery in the remediation of an urban hazardous waste site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    The information derived from the interpretation of historical aerial photographs is perhaps the most basic multitemporal application of remote-sensing data. Aerial photographs dating back to the early 20th century can be extremely valuable sources of historical landscape activity. In this application, imagery from 1918 to 1927 provided a wealth of information about chemical weapons testing, storage, handling, and disposal of these hazardous materials. When analyzed by a trained photo-analyst, the 1918 aerial photographs resulted in 42 features of potential interest. When compared with current remedial activities and known areas of contamination, 33 of 42 or 78.5% of the features were spatially correlated with areas of known contamination or other remedial hazardous waste cleanup activity.

  11. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  12. Curved crystal x-ray optics for monochromatic imaging with a clinical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingölbali, Ayhan; MacDonald, C A

    2009-04-01

    Monochromatic x-ray imaging has been shown to increase contrast and reduce dose relative to conventional broadband imaging. However, clinical sources with very narrow energy bandwidth tend to have limited intensity and field of view. In this study, focused fan beam monochromatic radiation was obtained using doubly curved monochromator crystals. While these optics have been in use for microanalysis at synchrotron facilities for some time, this work is the first investigation of the potential application of curved crystal optics to clinical sources for medical imaging. The optics could be used with a variety of clinical sources for monochromatic slot scan imaging. The intensity was assessed and the resolution of the focused beam was measured using a knife-edge technique. A simulation model was developed and comparisons to the measured resolution were performed to verify the accuracy of the simulation to predict resolution for different conventional sources. A simple geometrical calculation was also developed. The measured, simulated, and calculated resolutions agreed well. Adequate resolution and intensity for mammography were predicted for appropriate source/optic combinations.

  13. Automated Verification of Spatial Resolution in Remotely Sensed Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Vaughn, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Image spatial resolution characteristics can vary widely among sources. In the case of aerial-based imaging systems, the image spatial resolution characteristics can even vary between acquisitions. In these systems, aircraft altitude, speed, and sensor look angle all affect image spatial resolution. Image spatial resolution needs to be verified with estimators that include the ground sample distance (GSD), the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the relative edge response (RER), all of which are key components of image quality, along with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. Knowledge of spatial resolution parameters is important to determine if features of interest are distinguishable in imagery or associated products, and to develop image restoration algorithms. An automated Spatial Resolution Verification Tool (SRVT) was developed to rapidly determine the spatial resolution characteristics of remotely sensed aerial and satellite imagery. Most current methods for assessing spatial resolution characteristics of imagery rely on pre-deployed engineered targets and are performed only at selected times within preselected scenes. The SRVT addresses these insufficiencies by finding uniform, high-contrast edges from urban scenes and then using these edges to determine standard estimators of spatial resolution, such as the MTF and the RER. The SRVT was developed using the MATLAB programming language and environment. This automated software algorithm assesses every image in an acquired data set, using edges found within each image, and in many cases eliminating the need for dedicated edge targets. The SRVT automatically identifies high-contrast, uniform edges and calculates the MTF and RER of each image, and when possible, within sections of an image, so that the variation of spatial resolution characteristics across the image can be analyzed. The automated algorithm is capable of quickly verifying the spatial resolution quality of all images within a data

  14. Visualizing UAS-collected imagery using augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Damon M.; Beidleman, Brittany; McAlinden, Ryan; Borel-Donohue, Christoph C.

    2017-05-01

    One of the areas where augmented reality will have an impact is in the visualization of 3-D data. 3-D data has traditionally been viewed on a 2-D screen, which has limited its utility. Augmented reality head-mounted displays, such as the Microsoft HoloLens, make it possible to view 3-D data overlaid on the real world. This allows a user to view and interact with the data in ways similar to how they would interact with a physical 3-D object, such as moving, rotating, or walking around it. A type of 3-D data that is particularly useful for military applications is geo-specific 3-D terrain data, and the visualization of this data is critical for training, mission planning, intelligence, and improved situational awareness. Advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), photogrammetry software, and rendering hardware have drastically reduced the technological and financial obstacles in collecting aerial imagery and in generating 3-D terrain maps from that imagery. Because of this, there is an increased need to develop new tools for the exploitation of 3-D data. We will demonstrate how the HoloLens can be used as a tool for visualizing 3-D terrain data. We will describe: 1) how UAScollected imagery is used to create 3-D terrain maps, 2) how those maps are deployed to the HoloLens, 3) how a user can view and manipulate the maps, and 4) how multiple users can view the same virtual 3-D object at the same time.

  15. ASPECTS OF DEM GENERATION FROM UAS IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Greiwe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since a few years, micro UAS (unmanned aerial systems with vertical take off and landing capabilities like quadro- or octocopter are used as sensor platform for Aerophotogrammetry. Since the restricted payload of micro UAS with a total weight up of 5 kg (payload only up to 1.5 kg, these systems are often equipped with small format cameras. These cameras can be classified as amateur cameras and it is often the case, that these systems do not meet the requirements of a geometric stable camera for photogrammetric measurement purposes. However, once equipped with a suitable camera system, an UAS is an interesting alternative to expensive manned flights for small areas. The operating flight height of the above described UAS is about 50 up to 150 meters above ground level. This low flight height lead on the one hand to a very high spatial resolution of the aerial imagery. Depending on the cameras focal length and the sensor's pixel size, the ground sampling distance (GSD is usually about 1 up to 5 cm. This high resolution is useful especially for the automatic generation of homologous tie-points, which are a precondition for the image alignment (bundle block adjustment. On the other hand, the image scale depends on the object's height and the UAV operating height. Objects like mine heaps or construction sites show high variations of the object's height. As a result, operating the UAS with a constant flying height will lead to high variations in the image scale. For some processing approaches this will lead to problems e.g. the automatic tie-point generation in stereo image pairs. As precondition to all DEM generating approaches, first of all a geometric stable camera, sharp images are essentially. Well known calibration parameters are necessary for the bundle adjustment, to control the exterior orientations. It can be shown, that a simultaneous on site camera calibration may lead to misaligned aerial images. Also, the success rate of an automatic tie

  16. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  17. Benchmark Imagery FY11 Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-14

    This report details the work performed in FY11 under project LL11-GS-PD06, “Benchmark Imagery for Assessing Geospatial Semantic Extraction Algorithms.” The original LCP for the Benchmark Imagery project called for creating a set of benchmark imagery for verifying and validating algorithms that extract semantic content from imagery. More specifically, the first year was slated to deliver real imagery that had been annotated, the second year to deliver real imagery that had composited features, and the final year was to deliver synthetic imagery modeled after the real imagery.

  18. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  19. Satellite Imagery Assisted Road-Based Visual Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A.; Gibbens, P. W.

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing demand for unmanned aerial systems as autonomous surveillance, exploration and remote sensing solutions. Among the key concerns for robust operation of these systems is the need to reliably navigate the environment without reliance on global navigation satellite system (GNSS). This is of particular concern in Defence circles, but is also a major safety issue for commercial operations. In these circumstances, the aircraft needs to navigate relying only on information from on-board passive sensors such as digital cameras. An autonomous feature-based visual system presented in this work offers a novel integral approach to the modelling and registration of visual features that responds to the specific needs of the navigation system. It detects visual features from Google Earth* build a feature database. The same algorithm then detects features in an on-board cameras video stream. On one level this serves to localise the vehicle relative to the environment using Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM). On a second level it correlates them with the database to localise the vehicle with respect to the inertial frame. The performance of the presented visual navigation system was compared using the satellite imagery from different years. Based on comparison results, an analysis of the effects of seasonal, structural and qualitative changes of the imagery source on the performance of the navigation algorithm is presented. * The algorithm is independent of the source of satellite imagery and another provider can be used

  20. Mapping with MAV: Experimental Study on the Contribution of Absolute and Relative Aerial Position Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Skaloud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the benefit of precise aerial position control in the context of mapping using frame-based imagery taken by small UAVs. We execute several flights with a custom Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV octocopter over a small calibration field equipped with 90 signalized targets and 25 ground control points. The octocopter carries a consumer grade RGB camera, modified to insure precise GPS time stamping of each exposure, as well as a multi-frequency/constellation GNSS receiver. The GNSS antenna and camera are rigidly mounted together on a one-axis gimbal that allows control of the obliquity of the captured imagery. The presented experiments focus on including absolute and relative aerial control. We confirm practically that both approaches are very effective: the absolute control allows omission of ground control points while the relative requires only a minimum number of control points. Indeed, the latter method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified (e.g. the lever-arm between the camera perspective and antenna phase centers does not need to be determined and, second, its principle allows employing a single-frequency antenna and carrier-phase GNSS receiver. This reduces the cost of the system as well as the payload, which in turn increases the flying time.

  1. Application of ERTS imagery in estimating the environmental impact of a freeway through the Knysna area of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D. T.; Gilbertson, B.

    1974-01-01

    In the coastal areas north-east and south-west of Knysna, South Africa lie natural forests, lakes and lagoons highly regarded by many for their aesthetic and ecological richness. A freeway construction project has given rise to fears of the degradation or destruction of these natural features. The possibility was investigated of using ERTS imagery to estimate the environmental impact of the freeway and found that: (1) All threatened features could readily be identified on the imagery. (2) It was possible within a short time to provide an area estimate of damage to indigenous forest. (3) In several important respects the imagery has advantages over maps and aerial photos for this type of work. (4) The imagery will enable monitoring of the actual environmental impact of the freeway when completed.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) data analysis for fertilization dose assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, Antonis; Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Chanioti, Maroulio; Tsitouras, Alexandros; Toulios, Leonidas; Dercas, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    The growth rate monitoring of crops throughout their biological cycle is very important as it contributes to the achievement of a uniformly optimum production, a proper harvest planning, and reliable yield estimation. Fertilizer application often dramatically increases crop yields, but it is necessary to find out which is the ideal amount that has to be applied in the field. Remote sensing collects spatially dense information that may contribute to, or provide feedback about, fertilization management decisions. There is a potential goal to accurately predict the amount of fertilizer needed so as to attain an ideal crop yield without excessive use of fertilizers cause financial loss and negative environmental impacts. The comparison of the reflectance values at different wavelengths, utilizing suitable vegetation indices, is commonly used to determine plant vigor and growth. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have several advantages; because they can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, they are flexible regarding flying height and timing of missions, and they can obtain very high-resolution imagery. In an experimental crop field in Eleftherio Larissa, Greece, different dose of pre-plant and in-season fertilization was applied in 27 plots. A total of 102 aerial photos in two flights were taken using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle based on the scheduled fertilization. Α correlation of experimental fertilization with the change of vegetation indices values and with the increase of the vegetation cover rate during those days was made. The results of the analysis provide useful information regarding the vigor and crop growth rate performance of various doses of fertilization.

  3. ESTIMATION OF CORK PRODUCTION USINGAERIAL IMAGERY1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Surovy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Inventory and prediction of cork harvest over time and space is important to forest managers who must plan and organize harvest logistics (transport, storage, etc.. Common field inventory methods including the stem density, diameter and height structure are costly and generally point (plot based. Furthermore, the irregular horizontal structure of cork oak stands makes it difficult, if not impossible, to interpolate between points. We propose a new method to estimate cork production using digital multispectral aerial imagery. We study the spectral response of individual trees in visible and near infrared spectra and then correlate that response with cork production prior to harvest. We use ground measurements of individual trees production to evaluate the model’s predictive capacity. We propose 14 candidate variables to predict cork production based on crown size in combination with different NDVI index derivates. We use Akaike Information Criteria to choose the best among them. The best model is composed of combinations of different NDVI derivates that include red, green, and blue channels. The proposed model is 15% more accurate than a model that includes only a crown projection without any spectral information.

  4. Assessing Pine Processionary Moth Defoliation Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pine processionary moth (PPM is one of the most destructive insect defoliators in the Mediterranean for many conifers, causing losses of growth, vitality and eventually the death of trees during outbreaks. There is a growing need for cost-effective monitoring of the temporal and spatial impacts of PPM in forest ecology to better assess outbreak spread patterns and provide guidance on the development of measures targeting the negative impacts of the species on forests, industry and human health. Remote sensing technology mounted on unmanned aerial systems (UASs with high-resolution image processing has been proposed to assess insect outbreak impacts at local and forest stand levels. Here, we used UAS-acquired RGB imagery in two pine sites to quantify defoliation at the tree-level and to verify the accuracy of the estimates. Our results allowed the identification of healthy, infested and completely defoliated trees and suggested that pine defoliation estimates using UASs are robust and allow high-accuracy (79% field-based infestation indexes to be derived that are comparable to those used by forest technicians. When compared to current field-based methods, our approach provides PPM impact assessments with an efficient data acquisition method in terms of time and staff, allowing the quantitative estimation of defoliation at tree-level scale. Furthermore, our method could be expanded to a number of situations and scaled up in combination with satellite remote sensing imagery or citizen science approaches.

  5. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    A small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology. (author) 10 refs

  6. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H. W. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration

  7. Kinesthetic imagery of musical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eLotze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Training difficult passages repeatedly has the potential to induce fatigue in tendons and muscles and can ultimately result in the development of dystonia. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are travelling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. Furthermore, slight co-movement, for instance of the fingers, usually occurs when imagining musical performance, a situation different to the laboratory condition where movement execution is strictly controlled. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.

  8. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  9. Vehicle classification in WAMI imagery using deep network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Meng; Yang, Fan; Blasch, Erik; Sheaff, Carolyn; Liu, Kui; Chen, Genshe; Ling, Haibin

    2016-05-01

    Humans have always had a keen interest in understanding activities and the surrounding environment for mobility, communication, and survival. Thanks to recent progress in photography and breakthroughs in aviation, we are now able to capture tens of megapixels of ground imagery, namely Wide Area Motion Imagery (WAMI), at multiple frames per second from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). WAMI serves as a great source for many applications, including security, urban planning and route planning. These applications require fast and accurate image understanding which is time consuming for humans, due to the large data volume and city-scale area coverage. Therefore, automatic processing and understanding of WAMI imagery has been gaining attention in both industry and the research community. This paper focuses on an essential step in WAMI imagery analysis, namely vehicle classification. That is, deciding whether a certain image patch contains a vehicle or not. We collect a set of positive and negative sample image patches, for training and testing the detector. Positive samples are 64 × 64 image patches centered on annotated vehicles. We generate two sets of negative images. The first set is generated from positive images with some location shift. The second set of negative patches is generated from randomly sampled patches. We also discard those patches if a vehicle accidentally locates at the center. Both positive and negative samples are randomly divided into 9000 training images and 3000 testing images. We propose to train a deep convolution network for classifying these patches. The classifier is based on a pre-trained AlexNet Model in the Caffe library, with an adapted loss function for vehicle classification. The performance of our classifier is compared to several traditional image classifier methods using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features. While the SVM+HOG method achieves an accuracy of 91.2%, the accuracy of our deep

  10. Comparison of monochromatic aberrations in young adults with different visual acuity and refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Seyhan; Hewitt, Alex W; Forward, Hannah; McKnight, Charlotte M; Tan, Alex; Mountain, Jenny A; Mackey, David A

    2014-03-01

    To compare the monochromatic aberrations in a large cohort of 20-year-old Australians with differing levels of visual acuity and explore the relationship between these aberrations and refractive error. Lions Eye Institute, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort. Monochromatic aberrations were measured using a Zywave II wavefront aberrometer with natural pupils in a dark room. The logMAR corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was measured monocularly under normal illumination. Cycloplegic autorefraction was also performed. The study enrolled 2039 eyes of 1040 participants. Data from 1007 right eyes were analyzed. The median CDVA and spherical equivalent were -0.06 logMAR (interquartile range [IQR], -0.10 to 0.00) and +0.25 diopters (D) (IQR, -0.38 to 0.63), respectively. The median 6.0 mm higher-order aberration (HOA) was 0.58 μm (IQR, 0.44 to 0.79). Coma-like aberrations and 3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order HOAs were significantly different between subjects with a CDVA of -0.10 logMAR or better and those with a CDVA worse than -0.10 logMAR. Fourth-order aberrations Z(4,-4) (P=.024) and Z(4,-2) (P=.029) and 2nd-order aberration Z(2,0) (Peyes, emmetropic eyes, and hyperopic eyes. Subjects with higher myopia had slightly higher total HOAs. The HOAs in this population were marginally higher than previously reported values. The findings confirm there is a difference in monochromatic aberrations between different vision and refractive groups. Results in this study will benefit decision-making processes in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  12. Optimal Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction Percentage in Dual-energy Monochromatic CT Portal Venography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqin; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Yang, Zhenghan; Wang, Keyang; He, Wen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article was to study the influence of different adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) percentages on the image quality of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) portal venography in portal hypertension patients. DECT scans of 40 patients with cirrhosis (mean age, 56 years) at the portal venous phase were retrospectively analyzed. Monochromatic images at 60 and 70 keV were reconstructed with four ASIR percentages: 0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%. Computed tomography (CT) numbers of the portal veins (PVs), liver parenchyma, and subcutaneous fat tissue in the abdomen were measured. The standard deviation from the region of interest of the liver parenchyma was interpreted as the objective image noise (IN). The contrast-noise ratio (CNR) between PV and liver parenchyma was calculated. The diagnostic acceptability (DA) and sharpness of PV margins were obtained using a 5-point score. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV were compared among the eight groups with different keV + ASIR level combinations. The IN, CNR, DA, and sharpness of PV of different keV + ASIR groups were all statistically different (P ASIR and 70 keV + 0% ASIR (filtered back-projection [FBP]) combination, respectively, whereas the largest and smallest objective IN were obtained in the 60 keV + 0% ASIR (FBP) and 70 keV + 70% combination. The highest DA and sharpness values of PV were obtained at 50% ASIR for 60 keV. An optimal ASIR percentage (50%) combined with an appropriate monochromatic energy level (60 keV) provides the highest DA in portal venography imaging, whereas for the higher monochromatic energy (70 keV) images, 30% ASIR provides the highest image quality, with less IN than 60 keV with 50% ASIR. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of vegetable organisms to quasi-monochromatic light of different duration, intensity and wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budagovsky, A V; Solovykh, N V [I.V.Michurin All-Russian Recearch Institute of Fruit Crops Genetics and Breeding (Russian Federation); Budagovskaya, O N [I.V.Michurin All-Russia Research and Development Institute of Gardening, Michurinsk, Tambov region (Russian Federation); Budagovsky, I A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    By the example of vegetable organisms differing in structure and functional properties it is shown that their response to the action of quasi-monochromatic light from laser sources does not obey the Bunsen – Roscoe dose law. The dependence of biological effect on the irradiation time has the multimodal (multiextremal) form with alternating maxima and minima of the stimulating effect. Such a property manifests itself in the spectral ranges, corresponding to photoinduced conversion of chromoproteins of photocontrol systems and is probably related to the cyclic variations of metabolic activity in vegetable cells. (biophotonics)

  14. Solar monochromatic images in magneto-sensitive spectral lines and maps of vector magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihui, Y.; Jiehai, J.; Minhan, J.

    1985-01-01

    A new method which allows by use of the monochromatic images in some magneto-sensitive spectra line to derive both the magnetic field strength as well as the angle between magnetic field lines and line of sight for various places in solar active regions is described. In this way two dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields may be constructed. This method was applied to some observational material and reasonable results were obtained. In addition, a project for constructing the three dimensional maps of vector magnetic fields was worked out.

  15. Enhancing monochromatic multipole emission by a subwavelength enclosure of degenerate Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2017-07-06

    Sound emission is inefficient at low frequencies as limited by source size. This letter presents enhancing emission of monochromatic monopole and multipole sources by enclosing the source with a subwavelength circular enclosure filled of an anisotropic material of a low radial sound speed. The anisotropy is associated with an infinite tangential density along the azimuth. Numerical simulations show that emission gain is produced at frequencies surrounding degenerate Mie resonant frequencies of the enclosure, and meanwhile the radiation directivity pattern is well preserved. The degeneracy is theoretically analyzed. A realization of the material is suggested by using a space-coiling structure.

  16. X-ray topography under conditions of monochromatic spherical wave diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristov, V.V.; Polovinkina, V.I.; Ibhikawa, Tetsuya; Kiduta, Seishi.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray topographic scheme was developed in which there is a large distance between the X-ray source and the specimen. A monochromatic X-ray beam with an angular divergence 6 x 10 - 5 rad obtained by double successive diffraction in the (n 1 , +n 2 ) setting was used. This scheme enables diffraction focusing of a weakly absorbed wave field onto the exit surface of the crystal to be performed. Topographs of a wedge-shaped silicon crystal were obtained. Interference effects such as focusing, anomalous and ordinary Pendelloesung effects peculiar to X-ray spherical wave diffraction were observed in the topographs with high resolution. (author)

  17. Ascent of arches of a monochromatic corona during the eclipse on July 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delone, A B; Makarova, E A; Sikora, Yu [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' ' ; Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava [Czechoslovakia

    1984-04-01

    Velocities of some details of monochromatic corona on July 31, 1981, were measured in the sky plane at the west limb. The ascent of arches and plasmoids clots in the condensations with velocities of about 10 km/s were observed in the green line Fe 14lambda5303. In the red line Fe10lambda6374 the velocities of ascent of two arches were about 11-25 km/s. Each of the investigated details is seen only in one emission line and is absent bout 11-25 km/s.

  18. Blue cone monochromatism in a female due to skewed X-inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anja Lisbeth; Duno, Morten; Welinder, Lotte G

    2012-01-01

    Blue cone monochromatism (BCM) is a rare cone dystrophy with recessive X-linked inheritance and therefore diagnosed in males whereas females are clinically unaffected. We present a female with clinically manifested BCM. The diagnosis was genetically verified with the identification of one single...... red-green OPN1LW/MW hybrid gene harboring a point mutation c.607C>G, p.Cys203Arg that associates with BCM and in addition a completely biased X-inactivation in DNA isolated from full blood and buccal mucosa. The present case illustrates that females may develop symptoms of recessive X-linked eye...

  19. Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulaal, Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Physical Sciences and Engineering Division Mechanical Engineering Department Master of Science Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Mohammed Abdulaal Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, ash ood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Classical sensing solutions such as xed wireless sensor networks or satellite imagery are either too expensive or too inaccurate. Nevertheless, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles equipped with mobile microsensors could be capable of sensing ash oods in real time for a low overall cost, saving lives and greatly improving the e ciency of the emergency response. Using ood simulation data, we show that this system could be used to detect ash oods. We also present an ongoing implementation of this system using 3D printed sensors and sensor delivery systems on a UAV testbed as well as some preliminary results.

  20. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Nevada Test Site - Area 10 Corrective Action Unit 367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Craig

    2010-01-01

    A series of aerial radiological surveys were conducted over the Sedan, Uncle, and Ess ground zero areas in Area 10. The surveys were performed in November 2009 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the ground zeros. Gross Counts, inferred exposure rates, man-made activity, and Americium-241 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed areas. In addition, spectral products are included that identify Cesium-137, Americium-241 and Cobalt-60 as the primary radionuclides present within the survey area.