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Sample records for monoblock laser capable

  1. Improved Monoblock laser brightness using external reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, A D; Nettleton, John; Barr, Nick; Hough, Nathaniel; Goldberg, Lew

    2014-03-01

    The Monoblock laser has become the laser of choice in long-range, eye-safe laser range finders. It is eye-safe with emission at 1570 nm, high pulse energy, simple construction, and high efficiency when pumped by a laser-diode stack. Although the output beam divergence of a typical Monoblock with a 3  mm×3  mm cross section is relatively large (10-12 mrad), it can be reduced to 2.5× reduction from the unmodified laser. Performance using this technique with various feedback and etalon spacings is presented.

  2. End-pumped 1.5 microm monoblock laser for broad temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Bradley W; Chinn, Stephen R; Hays, A D; Goldberg, Lew; Trussell, C Ward

    2006-09-01

    We describe a next-generation monoblock laser capable of a greater than 10 mJ, 1.5 microm output at 10 pulses/s (pps) over broad ambient temperature extremes with no active temperature control. The transmitter design is based on a Nd:YAG laser with a Cr4+ passive Q switch and intracavity potassium titanyl phosphate optical parametric oscillator. To achieve the repetition rate and efficiency goals of this effort, but still have wide temperature capability, the Nd:YAG slab is end pumped with a 12-bar stack of 100 W (each) diode bars. Different techniques for focusing the pump radiation into the 4.25 mmx4.25 mm end of the slab are compared, including a lensed design, a reflective concentrator, and a lens duct. A wide temperature operation (-20 degrees C to 50 degrees C) for each end-pumped configuration is demonstrated.

  3. Numerical optimization of tungsten monoblock tile in EAST divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiahua [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Ding, Fang, E-mail: fding@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Mao, Hongmin; Luo, Guangnan; Hu, Zhenhua; Xu, Feng; Niu, Guojian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A method based on Kriging model and Uniform Design is developed and applied to the geometry optimization of EAST W tile. • An optimized chamfering geometry is obtained and significantly reduces the maximum temperature on W monoblock. • The incident angle of plasma flux has a strong impact on the optimized chamfering geometry. - Abstract: The ITER-like tungsten divertor with toroidally symmetric 1 mm × 1 mm chamfers on monoblock tiles has been installed in EAST in 2014. Hot spots were experimentally observed mostly along the toridial facing gaps between two columns of W/Cu monoblock units, which are often aggravated by installation misalignment. These hot spots can significantly degrade the power handling capability of W divertor and need to be alleviated. A numerical optimization model for tile chamfering design is built based on the finite element method (FEM), in which the numerical experiments are designed by the uniform table. The calculation results in ANSYS for these experiments are then processed employing the code Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments (DACE) in which the Kriging method is adopted to reconstruct a response surface. The optimum geometry can be derived from the minimum point on the surface. The results show that, under 200 MW/m{sup 2} parallel heat flux with an inclination angle of 3° with respect to tile surface, the maximum temperature on W tile with a 0.5 mm misalignment can be decreased to 2084 °C by adopting an optimized single-sided chamfer, 1.8 times lower than 1 mm × 1 mm symmetrically chamfered tile. The optimum chamfering geometry has a strong dependence on the inclination angle of plasma flux to tile surface. As a result, the monoblock tiles in a flat cassette module need to be chamfered differently to adapt to the varied inclination angles.

  4. The Nike Laser Facility and its Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlin, V.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, L. Y.; Karasik, M.; Kehne, D. M.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Weaver, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Nike laser is a 56-beam krypton fluoride (KrF) system that provides 3 to 4 kJ of laser energy on target. The laser uses induced spatial incoherence to achieve highly uniform focal distributions. 44 beams are overlapped onto target with peak intensities up to 1016 W/cm2. The effective time-averaged illumination nonuniformity is Nike produces highly uniform ablation pressures on target allowing well-controlled experiments at pressures up to 20 Mbar. The other 12 laser beams are used to generate diagnostic x-rays radiographing the primary laser-illuminated target. The facility includes a front end that generates the desired temporal and spatial laser profiles, two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers, a computer-controlled optical system, and a vacuum target chamber for experiments. Nike is used to study the physics and technology issues of direct-drive laser fusion, such as, hydrodynamic and laser-plasma instabilities, studies of the response of materials to extreme pressures, and generation of X rays from laser-heated targets. Nike features a computer-controlled data acquisition system, high-speed, high-resolution x-ray and visible imaging systems, x-ray and visible spectrometers, and cryogenic target capability. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  5. Monoblocks in root canals: a hypothetical or a tangible goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Franklin R; Pashley, David H

    2007-04-01

    The term monoblock has become familiar in the endodontic literature with recent interest in the application of dentin adhesive technology to endodontics. Endodontic monoblocks have generated controversial discussions among academicians and clinicians as to whether they are able to improve the quality of seal in root fillings and to strengthen roots. This review attempts to provide a broader meaning to the term monoblock and to see how this definition may be applied to the materials that have been used in the past and present for rehabilitation of the root canal space. The potential of currently available bondable materials to achieve mechanically homogeneous units with root dentin is then discussed in relation to the classical concept in which the term monoblock was first employed in restorative dentistry and subsequently in endodontics.

  6. MONOBLOCK EMITTERS FOR MELTING OF SYNTHETIC FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Cherepanov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with usage of monoblock emitters for melting of synthetic fatty acids, which are delivered to plants in a solid state and are used in the production of detergents as liquids. In such emitters all lamps are arranged in a common case. Irradiation of the solid phase in the direction of the channel melting axis is done through an output quartz window. This method excludes the possibility of slowing down or stopping the process when one of the tubes is overheated. Halogen lamps are used as light sources, each one is placed in individual transparent body. Combined effect of thermal power supply and the light emission should provide a significant increase in the rate of the channel melting in the solid phase of the synthetic fatty acid. The results of evaluations for achievable rates of the channel melting in the solid phase of the synthetic fatty acids are presented. Melting of the channel with one meter depth can be reached in less than an hour when eight halogen lamps of 100 W power are used. To exclude the possibility of self-ignition of the liquid phase of synthetic fatty acid it is proposed to adjust the luminosity of the emitter and the surface temperature by selecting the number of lamps in the monoblock emitter cavity. The usage of cylindrical quartz tube as a case for monoblock emitter increases the diameter of the melting channel due to side effects of light on the solid and liquid phases.

  7. A new approach to modelling and designing mono-block dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hunter; F. Alister; Möller, J.; J. Alister

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is present a new approach to modelling and design the low cost mono-block dental implants based on the integration of the computer aided techniques. This approach provides the automation of the design process of the mono-block dental implants.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop the modelling and design of the mono-block dental implants are based on the parametrization of the main geometric features of the implants. This approach allows to generate ...

  8. Develop mono-block tooth implants using automate design and FEM analysis

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Alister; J. Moller,; F. Alister; R. Hunter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is present a new approach to modelling and design the low cost mono-block dental implants based on the integration of the computer aided techniques. This approach provides the automation of the design process of the mono-block dental implants.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop the modelling and design of the mono-block dental implants are based on the parametrization of the main geometric features of the implants. This approach allows to ...

  9. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Capabilities and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    sample preparation. 14 6. References 1. Cremers D.A.; Radziemski, L. J. Handbook of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy; West Sussex, England...30 (21), 2882–2884. 17. Salle, B.; Lacour, J. L.; Vors, E.; Fichet, P.; Maurice, S.; Cremers , D. A.; et al. Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy...90. Martin , M. Z.; Labbe, N.; Andre, N.; Harris, R.; Ebinger, M.; Wullschleger, S. D.; et al. High Resolution Applications of Laser-Induced

  10. Influence of aerosols on off-axis laser detection capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation coming from a laser which operates in the coastal zone can be detected not only when a detector is placed in front of the laser beam but also when it is located outside the main beam direction. The reason is that in a real detection scheme the power collected by a detector not only com

  11. Near-Term Laser Launch Capability: The Heat Exchanger Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kare, Jordin T.

    2003-05-01

    The heat exchanger (HX) thruster concept uses a lightweight (up to 1 MW/kg) flat-plate heat exchanger to couple laser energy into flowing hydrogen. Hot gas is exhausted via a conventional nozzle to generate thrust. The HX thruster has several advantages over ablative thrusters, including high efficiency, design flexibility, and operation with any type of laser. Operating the heat exchanger at a modest exhaust temperature, nominally 1000 C, allows it to be fabricated cheaply, while providing sufficient specific impulse (~600 seconds) for a single-stage vehicle to reach orbit with a useful payload; a nominal vehicle design is described. The HX thruster is also comparatively easy to develop and test, and offers an extremely promising route to near-term demonstration of laser launch.

  12. Transient thermal finite element analysis of CFC–Cu ITER monoblock using X-ray tomography data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Ll.M., E-mail: llion.evans@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Margetts, L. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Williamson Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Casalegno, V. [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Lever, L.M. [IT Services for Research, University of Manchester, Devonshire House, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bushell, J.; Lowe, T.; Wallwork, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Young, P. [Simpleware Ltd., Bradninch Hall, Castle Street, Exeter EX4 3PL (United Kingdom); Lindemann, A. [NETZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH, Wittelsbacherstraße 42, D-95100 Selb, Bayern (Germany); Schmidt, M.; Mummery, P.M. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Thermal performance of a fusion power heat exchange component was investigated. • Microstructures effecting performance were determined using X-ray tomography. • This data was used to perform a microstructurally faithful finite element analysis. • FEA demonstrated that manufacturing defects had an appreciable effect on performance. • This image-based modelling showed which regions could be targeted for improvements. - Abstract: The thermal performance of a carbon fibre composite-copper monoblock, a sub-component of a fusion reactor divertor, was investigated by finite element analysis. High-accuracy simulations were created using an emerging technique, image-based finite element modelling, which converts X-ray tomography data into micro-structurally faithful models, capturing details such as manufacturing defects. For validation, a case study was performed where the thermal analysis by laser flash of a carbon fibre composite-copper disc was simulated such that computational and experimental results could be compared directly. Results showed that a high resolution image-based simulation (102 million elements of 32 μm width) provided increased accuracy over a low resolution image-based simulation (0.6 million elements of 194 μm width) and idealised computer aided design simulations. Using this technique to analyse a monoblock mock-up, it was possible to detect and quantify the effects of debonding regions at the carbon fibre composite-copper interface likely to impact both component performance and expected lifetime. These features would not have been accounted for in idealised computer aided design simulations.

  13. Laser Beam Profile Influence on LIBS Analytical Capabilities: Single vs. Multimode Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lednev, Vasily N; Bunkin, Alexey F

    2013-01-01

    Single vs. multimode laser beams have been compared for laser ablation on steel samples. Laser plasma properties and analytical capabilities (precision, limit of detection) were used as key parameters for comparison. Peak fluence at focal spot has been observed to be higher for Gaussian beam despite ~14-fold lower pulse energy. A comparison of Gaussian and multimode beams with equal energy was carried out in order to estimate influence of beam profile only. Single mode lasing (Gaussian beam) results in better reproducibility of analytical signals compared to multimode lasing while laser energy reproducibility was the same for both cases. Precision improvements were attributed to more stable laser ablation due to better reproducibility of beam profile fluence at laser spot. Plasma temperature and electron density were higher for Gaussian laser beam. Calibration curves were obtained for four elements under study (Cr, Mn, Si, Cu). Two sampling (drilling and scanning procedures) and two optical detection schemes ...

  14. Development of residual thermal stress-relieving structure of CFC monoblock target for JT-60SA divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Daigo, E-mail: tsuru.daigo@jaea.go.jp; Sakurai, Shinji; Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Ozaki, Hidetsugu; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We carried out numerical simulations on residual thermal stress of targets for the JT-60SA divertor. • We developed three measures to reduce residual thermal stress. • We proposed two structures of CFC monoblock target for the JT-60SA divertor. • We confirmed the effectiveness of the structure by infrared thermography inspection and high heat flux test. - Abstract: Carbon fibre-reinforced carbon composite (CFC) monoblock target for JT-60SA divertor is under development towards the mass-production. CFC monoblocks, WCu interlayers and a CuCrZr cooling tube at the centre of the monoblocks were bonded by vacuum brazing in a high temperature, to a target. If residual thermal stress due to difference of thermal expansions between CFC and CuCrZr exceeds the maximum allowable stress of the CFC after the bonding, cracks are generated in the CFC monoblock and heat removal capacity of the target degrades. In this paper, new structures of the targets were proposed, to reduce residual thermal stress and to mitigate the degradation of heat removal capacity of the targets. Some measures, including slitting of the CFC monoblock aside of the cooling tube, replacement of the interlayer material and shifting the position of the cooling tube, were implemented. The effectiveness of the measures was evaluated by numerical simulations. Target mock-ups with the proposed structures were manufactured. Infrared thermography inspection and high heat flux test were carried out on the mock-ups in order to evaluate the heat removal capacity.

  15. Impact of fiber ring laser configuration on detection capabilities in FBG based sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuch, Tomasz; Kossek, Tomasz; Markowski, Konrad

    2014-11-01

    In this paper fiber ring lasers (FRL) as interrogation units for distributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based sensor networks are studied. In particular, two configurations of the fiber laser with erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) as gain medium were analyzed. In the case of EDFA-based fiber interrogation systems, CW as well as active-mode locking operation were taken into account. The influence of spectral overlapping of FBGs spectra on detection capabilities of examined FRLs are presented. Experimental results show that the SOA-based fiber laser interrogation unit can operate as a multi-parametric sensing system. In turn, using an actively mode-locked fiber ring laser with an EDFA, an electronically switchable FBG based sensing system can be realized.

  16. Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rachit; Thomas, Manuel S.; Yadav, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a) to predictably stop microbial activity (b) to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c) to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal. PMID:26430310

  17. Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a to predictably stop microbial activity (b to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal.

  18. Evaluation of the analytical capability of NIR femtosecond laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takafumi; Kon, Yoshiaki

    2008-03-01

    A laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (LA-ICPMS) technique utilizing a titanium-sapphire (TiS) femtosecond laser (fs-laser) has been developed for elemental and isotopic analysis. The signal intensity profile, depth of the ablation pit and level of elemental fractionation were investigated in order to evaluate the analytical capability of the present fs-laser ablation-ICPMS technique. The signal intensity profile of (57)Fe, obtained from iron sulfide (FeS(2)), demonstrated that the resulting signal intensity of (57)Fe achieved by the fs-laser ablation was almost 4-times higher than that obtained by ArF excimer laser ablation under a similar energy fluence (5 J/cm(2)). In fs-laser ablation, there is no significant difference in a depth of the ablation pit between glass and zircon material, while in ArF laser ablation, the resulting crater depth on the zircon crystal was almost half the level than that obtained for glass material. Both the thermal-induced and particle size-related elemental fractionations, which have been thought to be main sources of analytical error in the LA-ICPMS analysis, were measured on a Harvard 91500 zircon crystal. The resulting fractionation indexes on the (206)Pb/(238)U (f(Pb/U)) and (238)U/(232)Th (f(U/Th)) ratios obtained by the present fs-laser ablation system were significantly smaller than those obtained by a conventional ArF excimer laser ablation system, demonstrative of smaller elemental fractionation. Using the present fs-laser ablation technique, the time profile of the signal intensity of (56)Fe and the isotopic ratios ((57)Fe/(54)Fe and (56)Fe/(54)Fe) have been measured on a natural pyrite (FeS(2)) sample. Repeatability in signal intensity of (56)Fe achieved by the fs-laser ablation system was significantly better than that obtained by ArF excimer laser ablation. Moreover, the resulting precision in (57)Fe/(54)Fe and (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratio measurements could be improved by the fs-laser ablation system

  19. Development of a Fiber Laser Welding Capability for the W76, MC4702 Firing Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samayoa, Jose

    2010-05-12

    Development work to implement a new welding system for a Firing Set is presented. The new system is significant because it represents the first use of fiber laser welding technology at the KCP. The work used Six-Sigma tools for weld characterization and to define process performance. Determinations of workable weld parameters and comparison to existing equipment were completed. Replication of existing waveforms was done utilizing an Arbitrary Pulse Generator (APG), which was used to modulate the fiber laser’s exclusive continuous wave (CW) output. Fiber laser weld process capability for a Firing Set is demonstrated.

  20. A Transformative Imaging Capability Using Laser Driven Multi MeV Photon Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald; Espy, Michelle; Palaniyappan, Sasi; Mendez, Jacob; Nelson, Ronald; Hunter, James; Fernandez, Juan; los alamos national laboratory Team

    2016-10-01

    Recent results from the LANL Trident Laser demonstrate the practical use of a laser of this class ( 70 J, 600 fs) as a multi MeV photon source. The utilization of novel targets operating in the relativistic transparency regime of laser-plasmas has enabled this development. The electron population made from these targets, when coupled to a suitable high-Z converter foil placed near the laser target, produces an intense >1 MeV photon source with a small source size compared to conventional sources. When coupled with efficient imaging detectors, this laser-driven hard x-ray source provides new capabilities to address current non-destructive and dynamic testing problems that require a quantum jump in resolution. ``Flash'' (pulse picosecond) photon imaging, micro-focus resolution enhancement, good object penetration, and magnification (4x) with sufficient dose (>10 Rad/sr) for practical application have all been demonstrated at the LANL Trident Laser, as summarized in this presentation.

  1. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  2. Single-step brazing process for mono-block joints and mechanical testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, V.; Ferraris, M.; Salvo, M.; Rizzo, S. [Politecnico di Torino, Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Dept., Torino (Italy); Merola, M. [ITER International Team, llER Joint Work Site, Cadarache, 13 - St Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Plasma facing components act as actively cooled thermal shields to sustain thermal and particle loads during normal and transient operations in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The plasma-facing layer is referred to as 'armour', which is made of either carbon fibre reinforced carbon composite (CFC) or tungsten (W). CFC is the reference design solution for the lower part of the vertical target of the ITER divertor. The armour is joined onto an actively cooled substrate, the heat sink, made of precipitation hardened copper alloy CuCrZr through a thin pure copper interlayer to decrease, by plastic deformation, the joint interface stresses; in fact, the CFC to Cu joint is affected by the CTE mismatch between the ceramic and metallic material. A new method of joining CFC to copper and CFC/Cu to CuCrZr alloy was effectively developed for the flat-type configuration; the feasibility of this process also for mono-block geometry and the development of a procedure for testing mono-block-type mock-ups is described in this work. The mono-block configuration consists of copper alloy pipe shielded by CFC blocks. It is worth noting that in mono-block configuration, the large thermal expansion mismatch between CFC and copper alloy is more significant than for flat-tile configuration, due to curved interfaces. The joining technique foresees a single-step brazing process: the brazing of the three materials (CFC-Cu-CuCrZr) can be performed in a single heat treatment using the same Cu/Ge based braze. The composite surface was modified by solid state reaction with chromium with the purpose of increasing the wettability of CFC by the brazing alloy. The CFC substrate reacts with Cr which, forming a carbide layer, allows a large reduction of the contact angle; then, the brazing of CFC to pure copper and pure copper to CuCrZr by the same treatment is feasible. This process allows to obtain good joints using a non

  3. Infrared thermography inspection for monoblock divertor target in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shigetoshi, E-mail: nakamura.shigetoshi@jaea.go.jp; Sakurai, Shinji; Ozaki, Hidetsugu; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Sakasai, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Infrared thermography inspection is modified to inspect JT-60SA divertor targets. • Infrared thermography inspection is effective to detect joining defects of targets. • Numerical analysis is in good agreement with inspection results of mock-up targets. • Database for setting screening criteria has been constructed by numerical analysis. - Abstract: Carbon fiber composite (CFC) monoblock divertor target is required for power handling in JT-60SA. Quality of the targets depends on a joining technology in manufacturing process. To inspect the quality of more than 900 target pieces, efficient non-destructive inspection is needed. An infrared thermography inspection (IR inspection), has been proposed by ITER and IRFM, where the quality between CFC and a cooling tube is examined by a use of transient thermal response at a rapid switch from hot to cold water flow. In JT-60SA divertor target, a screw tube will be employed to obtain high heat transfer efficiency with simple structure. Since the time response of the screw tube is much faster than that of smooth tube, it is required to confirm the feasibility of this IR inspection. Thus, the effect of joining defects on transient thermal response of the targets has been investigated experimentally by using the mock-up targets containing defects which are artificially made. It was found that the IR inspection can detect the defects. Moreover, screening criteria of IR inspection for acceptable monoblock target is discussed.

  4. Numerical Calculation of the Peaking Factor of a Water-Cooled W/Cu Monoblock for a Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Xu, Tiejun

    2015-09-01

    In order to accurately predict the incident critical heat flux (ICHF, the heat flux at the heated surface when CHF occurs) of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock for a divertor, the exact knowledge of its peaking factors (fp) under one-sided heating conditions with different design parameters is a key issue. In this paper, the heat conduction in the solid domain of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock is calculated numerically by assuming the local heat transfer coefficients (HTC) of the cooling wall to be functions of the local wall temperature, so as to obtain fp. The reliability of the calculation method is validated by an experimental example result, with the maximum error of 2.1% only. The effects of geometric and flow parameters on the fp of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock are investigated. Within the scope of this study, it is shown that the fp increases with increasing dimensionless W/Cu monoblock width and armour thickness (the shortest distance between the heated surface and Cu layer), and the maximum increases are 43.8% and 22.4% respectively. The dimensionless W/Cu monoblock height and Cu thickness have little effect on fp. The increase of Reynolds number and Jakob number causes the increase of fp, and the maximum increases are 6.8% and 9.6% respectively. Based on the calculated results, an empirical correlation on peaking factor is obtained via regression. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of water-cooled divertors. supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005) and Funding of Jiangsu Innovation Program for Graduate Education, China (CXLX12_0170), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  5. Design and evaluation of an optimized W/Cu interlayer for W monoblock components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Aurelia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Greuner, H., E-mail: henri.greuner@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Balden, M.; Bolt, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Divertor plasma-facing components of future fusion reactors should be able to withstand heat fluxes of 10-20 MW/m{sup 2} in stationary operation. Tungsten blocks with an inner cooling tube made of CuCr1Zr, so-called monoblocks, are potential candidates for such water-cooled components. To increase the strength and reliability of the interface between the W and the cooling tube of a Cu-based alloy (CuCr1Zr), a novel advanced W-fibre/Cu metal matrix composite (MMC) was developed for operation temperatures up to 550 deg. C. Based on optimization results to enhance the adhesion between fibre and matrix, W fibres (W{sub f}) were chemically etched, coated by physical vapour deposition with a continuously graded W/Cu{sub PVD} interlayer and then heated to 800 deg. C. The W{sub f}/Cu MMC was implemented by hot-isostatic pressing and brazing process in monoblock mock-ups reinforcing the interface between the plasma-facing material and the cooling channel. The suitability of the MMC as an efficient heat sink interface for water-cooled divertor components was tested in the high heat flux (HHF) facility GLADIS. Predictions from finite element simulations of the thermal behaviour of the component under loading conditions were confirmed by the HHF tests. The W{sub f}/Cu MMC interlayer of the mock-ups survived cyclic heat loads above 10 MW/m{sup 2} without any damage. One W block of each tested mock-up showed stable thermal behaviour at heat fluxes of up to 10.5 MW/m{sup 2}.

  6. Flap prefabrication and stem cell-assisted tissue expansion: how we acquire a monoblock flap for full face resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao; Li, Haizhou; Zhou, Shuangbai; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Xie, Feng; Xie, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Total face skin and soft-tissue defects remain one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Reconstruction of the entire face with uniform coverage and delicate features is difficult to achieve. To avoid the patchwork result seen in multiple flaps and skin grafts, 1 monoblock flap that has similar color, texture, and thickness might be an ideal option to minimize the incisional scars and several surgical procedures but is unavailable with current approaches because of the lack of sufficient matched tissue and the unreliable blood supply for such a large flap. To acquire a monoblock flap for full face reconstruction, we combine the prefabricated flaps, skin overexpansion, and bone marrow mononuclear stem cell transplantation for total facial resurfacing. In this article, we present our experience from our case series that provides universally matched skin and near-normal facial contour. It is a reliable and an excellent reconstructive option for massive facial skin defect.

  7. A biomechanical assessment of modular and monoblock revision hip implants using FE analysis and strain gage measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papini Marcello

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bone loss associated with revision surgery or pathology has been the impetus for developing modular revision total hip prostheses. Few studies have assessed these modular implants quantitatively from a mechanical standpoint. Methods Three-dimensional finite element (FE models were developed to mimic a hip implant alone (Construct A and a hip implant-femur configuration (Construct B. Bonded contact was assumed for all interfaces to simulate long-term bony ongrowth and stability. The hip implants modeled were a Modular stem having two interlocking parts (Zimmer Modular Revision Hip System, Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA and a Monoblock stem made from a single piece of material (Stryker Restoration HA Hip System, Stryker, Mahwah, NJ, USA. Axial loads of 700 and 2000 N were applied to Construct A and 2000 N to Construct B models. Stiffness, strain, and stress were computed. Mechanical tests using axial loads were used for Construct A to validate the FE model. Strain gages were placed along the medial and lateral side of the hip implants at 8 locations to measure axial strain distribution. Results There was approximately a 3% average difference between FE and experimental strains for Construct A at all locations for the Modular implant and in the proximal region for the Monoblock implant. FE results for Construct B showed that both implants carried the majority (Modular, 76%; Monoblock, 66% of the 2000 N load relative to the femur. FE analysis and experiments demonstrated that the Modular implant was 3 to 4.5 times mechanically stiffer than the Monoblock due primarily to geometric differences. Conclusions This study provides mechanical characteristics of revision hip implants at sub-clinical axial loads as an initial predictor of potential failure.

  8. High heat flux testing of EU tungsten monoblock mock-ups for the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavila, P., E-mail: pierre.gavila@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Riccardi, B. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Pintsuk, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ritz, G. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique France, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Kuznetsov, V. [JCS “Efremov Institute”, Doroga na Metallostroy 3, Metallostroy, Saint-Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation); Durocher, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • All the tested items sustained the ITER Full W divertor qualification program requirements. This confirms that the technology for the manufacturing of the first set of the ITER Divertor is available in Europe. • The surface roughening and local melting of the W surface under high heat flux was proven to be significantly reduced for an armour thickness lower or equal to 6 mm. • However, this campaign highlighted some specific areas of improvement to be implemented ideally before the upcoming ITER Divertor IVT serial production. • The issue of the self-castellation of the W monoblocks, which typically appears after a few tenths of cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2}, is critical because it generates some uncontrolled defects at the amour to heat sink joints. Besides, they create a gap which exposure is almost perpendicular to the magnetic field lines and which might lead to local W melting in the strike point region. • This campaign also evidenced that the minimum IO requirements on the CuCrZr ductility could be revised to avoid the occurrence of rather early fatigue failures. Although the W material characterization program has been set up by the IO, the strategy on the CuCrZr still needs to be defined. - Abstract: With the aim to assess the option to start the ITER operation with a full tungsten divertor, an R&D program was launched in order to evaluate the performances of tungsten (W) armoured plasma facing components (PFCs) under high heat flux. The F4E program consisted in the manufacturing and high heat flux (HHF) testing of W monoblock mock-ups and medium scale prototypes up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. During the test campaign, 26 W mock-ups and two medium scale prototypes manufactured by Plansee SE (Austria) and by Ansaldo Nucleare (Italy) have been tested at the FE200 (AREVA, Le Creusot, France) and ITER Divertor Test Facility (IDTF) (Efremov Institute Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation) electron beam test facilities. The high heat flux (HHF) testing

  9. Capabilities of laser technology for manufacturing diagnostic peptide matrices with maximal density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, O. I.; Shcherbakov, E. M.; Nesterov-Müller, A.; Sobol', E. N.

    2016-02-01

    The process of manufacturing a matrix-gel biochip is modelled by means of laser fused deposition of a layer of polymer microparticles, containing a sensitive peptide element, onto a glass substrate. The limits of acceptable ranges and the optimal values of laser parameters, at which the melting of the polymer coating occurs without damaging the sensitive elements of the biochip, are theoretically determined. The results of the experiments on laser fused deposition of a layer of microparticles having the size 3 - 4 μm confirm the conservation of the functions of the biological complexes at optimal irradiation regimes. The parameters of the laser impact affecting the possible minimal separation between the zones of laser fused deposition are investigated. The essential role of heat conductivity and thermoplasticity of the polymer in increasing the size of the melted droplet is demonstrated. Using the laser radiation with the wavelength 532 nm focused into a spot with the diameter 6 μm (the laser pulse duration being 10 ms) the laser fused deposition density of 110000 spots per 1 cm2 is achieved. The maximal estimated density of laser fused deposition for the studied system amounts to 250000 spots per 1 cm2.

  10. Design of a water cooled monoblock divertor for DEMO using Eurofer as structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.richou@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Li-Puma, Antonella [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Visca, Eliseo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, IT-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    The performed investigation focus on a monoblock type design for a water cooled DEMO divertor using Eurofer as structural material. In 2013, a study case of such a concept was presented. It was shown that basic concepts using Eurofer as structural material are limited to an incident heat flux of 8 MW m{sup −2}. Since, the EFDA agency issued new specifications. In this study, the conceptual design is reassessed with regard to specifications. Then, steady state thermal analyses and thermo-mechanical elastic analyses have been performed to define an upgrade of the geometry taking into account new specifications, design criteria and the maximum heat flux requirement of 10 MW m{sup −2}. An analysis of the influence of each adjustable geometrical parameter on thermo-mechanical design criteria was performed. As a consequence, geometrical parameters were set in order to fit to materials requirements. For defined hydraulic conditions taken in the most favourable configuration, the limit of this design is estimated to an incident heat flux of 10 MW m{sup −2}. Margin to critical heat flux and rules against progressive deformation/ratcheting in structural material limit the design.

  11. ITER-W monoblocks under high pulse number transient heat loads at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenhoff, Th., E-mail: T.Loewenhoff@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Linke, J., E-mail: J.Linke@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Pintsuk, G., E-mail: G.Pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Pitts, R.A., E-mail: Richard.Pitts@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Riccardi, B., E-mail: Bruno.Riccardi@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pla No. 2 – T B3 7/01, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    In the context of using a full-tungsten (W) divertor for ITER, thermal shock resistance has become even more important as an issue that may potentially influence the long term performance. To address this issue a unique series of experiments has been performed on ITER-W monoblock mock ups in three EU high heat flux facilities: GLADIS (neutral beam), JUDITH 2 (electron beam) and Magnum-PSI (plasma beam). This paper discusses the JUDITH 2 experiments. Two different base temperatures, 1200 °C and 1500 °C, were chosen superimposed by ∼18,000/100,000 transient events (Δt = 0.48 ms) of 0.2 and 0.6 GW/m{sup 2}. Results showed a stronger surface deterioration at higher base temperature, quantified by an increase in roughening. This is intensified if the same test is done after preloading (exposure to high temperature without transients), especially at higher base temperature when the material recrystallizes.

  12. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  13. Enhanced In Situ Sampling Capabilities with a Compact UV Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A miniaturized, solid-state frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser system  will be tested for performance and mechnically packaged to support future mission-driven...

  14. X-ray Free-Electron Lasers - Present and Future Capabilities [Invited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John; Ratner, John Arthur:a Daniel F.; White, William E.; /SLAC

    2011-11-16

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is now in operation as an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. It produces coherent pulses of 550-10,000 eV X-rays of duration adjustable from <10 fsto500 fs. Typical peak power is in excess of 20 GW. The facility will soon be joined by several X-ray FELs under construction around the world. This article will provide an abridged history of free-electron lasers, a description of some basic physics regarding free-electron laser light amplification, and an overview of the rapidly growing list of examples in which lasers will be used in the control and operation of X-ray FELs.

  15. X-ray free-electron lasers--present and future capabilities [Invited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N.; Arthur, John; Ratner, Daniel F.; White, William E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is now in operation as an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. It produces coherent pulses of 550-10,000 eV X-rays of duration adjustable from <10 fs to 500 fs. Typical peak power is in excess of 20 GW. The facility will soon be joined by several X-ray FELs under construction around the world. This article will provide an abridged history of free-electron lasers, a description of some basic physics regarding free-electron laser light amplification, and an overview of the rapidly growing list of examples in which lasers will be used in the control and operation of X-ray FELs.

  16. A high-precision Jacob's staff with improved spatial accuracy and laser sighting capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patacci, Marco

    2016-04-01

    A new Jacob's staff design incorporating a 3D positioning stage and a laser sighting stage is described. The first combines a compass and a circular spirit level on a movable bracket and the second introduces a laser able to slide vertically and rotate on a plane parallel to bedding. The new design allows greater precision in stratigraphic thickness measurement while restricting the cost and maintaining speed of measurement to levels similar to those of a traditional Jacob's staff. Greater precision is achieved as a result of: a) improved 3D positioning of the rod through the use of the integrated compass and spirit level holder; b) more accurate sighting of geological surfaces by tracing with height adjustable rotatable laser; c) reduced error when shifting the trace of the log laterally (i.e. away from the dip direction) within the trace of the laser plane, and d) improved measurement of bedding dip and direction necessary to orientate the Jacob's staff, using the rotatable laser. The new laser holder design can also be used to verify parallelism of a geological surface with structural dip by creating a visual planar datum in the field and thus allowing determination of surfaces which cut the bedding at an angle (e.g., clinoforms, levees, erosion surfaces, amalgamation surfaces, etc.). Stratigraphic thickness measurements and estimates of measurement uncertainty are valuable to many applications of sedimentology and stratigraphy at different scales (e.g., bed statistics, reconstruction of palaeotopographies, depositional processes at bed scale, architectural element analysis), especially when a quantitative approach is applied to the analysis of the data; the ability to collect larger data sets with improved precision will increase the quality of such studies.

  17. High frequency modulation capabilities and quasi single-sideband emission from a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangauer, Andreas; Spinner, Georg; Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

    2014-09-22

    Both intensity- (IM) and frequency-modulation (FM) behavior of a directly modulated quantum cascade laser (QCL) are measured from 300 Hz to 1.7 GHz. Quantitative measurements of tuning coefficients has been performed and the transition from thermal- to electronic-tuning is clearly observed. A very specific FM behavior of QCLs has been identified which allows for optical quasi single sideband (SSB) modulation through current injection and has not been observed in directly modulated semiconductor lasers before. This predestines QCLs in applications where SSB is required, such as telecommunication or high speed spectroscopy. The experimental procedure and theoretical modeling for data extraction is discussed.

  18. Effect of low-energy laser irradiation on colony formation capability in different human tumor cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, R.; Dasdia, T.; Melloni, E.; Rocca, E.

    1989-01-01

    Fibroblasts and lymphocytes are the most widely used cells for studying the so-called biostimulative effect of low-power laser in vitro. In contrast, stimulation of cancer cells by laser light has not been investigated extensively. The present study attempted to evaluate whether or not human tumor cells could exhibit an increase in colony-forming capability following low-watt laser irradiation. LoVo and HT29 (colon carcinoma), MCF7 (breast carcinoma), M14 and JR1 (malignant melanoma) cell lines were irradiated at different doses of light delivered from an argon or an argon-dye laser. Radiant exposures between 4.2 and 150 kJ/m2 at irradiances ranging from 35 to 500 W/m2 were delivered. Results were mixed. Of the 41 experiments performed, five showed a significant statistical increase in the number of colonies (P less than 0.05), whereas three showed a decrease (P less than 0.05). Nevertheless, the trend of most data was toward an increase in colony formation, and Wilcoxon's signed-ranks test suggested that light increases tumor cell culture growth (P less than 0.03).

  19. Laser micropolishing of AISI 304 stainless steel surfaces for cleanability and bacteria removal capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Chiara; Furlan, Valentina; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Tallarita, Elena; Candiani, Gabriele; Previtali, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    In this work, laser micropolishing (LμP) was employed to reduce the surface roughness and waviness of cold-rolled AISI 304 stainless steel sheets. A pulsed fibre laser operating in the ns regime was used and the influence of laser parameters in a N2-controlled atmospheres was evaluated. In the optimal conditions, the surface remelting induced by the process allowed to reduce the surface roughness by closing cracks and defects formed during the rolling process. Other conditions that did not improve the surface quality were analysed for defect typology. Moreover, laser treatments allowed the production of more hydrophobic surfaces, and no surface chemistry modification was identified. Surface cleanability was investigated with Escherichia coli (E. coli), evaluating the number of residual bacteria adhering to the substrate after a washing procedure. These results showed that LμP is a suitable way to lower the average surface roughness by about 58% and average surface waviness by approximately 38%. The LμP process proved to be effective on the bacteria cleanability as approximately five times fewer bacteria remained on the surfaces treated with the optimized LμP parameters compared to the untreated surfaces.

  20. Examination of the capability of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique as the emerging laser-based analytical tool for analyzing trace elements in coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Ramli, M.; Mahidin, Hedwig, R.; Lie, Z. S.; Kurniawan, K. H.

    2014-09-01

    Due to its superior advantageous over the conventional analytical tools, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique nowadays is becoming an emerging analytical tools and it is expected to be new future super star of analytical tool. This technique is based on the use of optical emission from the laser-induced plasma for analyzing spectrochemically the constituent and content of the sampled object. The capability of this technique is examined on analysis of trace elements in coal sample. Coal is one difficult sample to analyze due to its complex chemical composition and physical properties. It is inherent that coal contains trace element including heavy metal, thus mining, beneficiation and utilization poses hazard to environment and to human beings. The LIBS apparatus used was composed by a laser system (Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and optical detector (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny-Turner) equipped with Andor I*Star intensified CCD 1024×256 pixels. The emitted laser was focused onto coal sample with a focusing lens of +250 mm. The plasma emission was collected by a fiber optics and sent to the the spectrograph. The coal samples were taken from Province of Aceh. As the results, several trace elements including heavy metal (As, Mn, Pb) can surely be observed, implying the eventuality of LIBS technique to analysis the presence of trace element in coal.

  1. Manufacturing and testing of W/Cu mono-block small scale mock-up for EAST by HIP and HRP technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Qin, Sigui [Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Wang, Wanjing; Qi, Pan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China); Roccella, Selanna; Visca, Eliseo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Liu, Guohui [Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: liqiang577@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2013-10-15

    ITER-like W/Cu mono-block plasma-facing components (PFCs) will be used in vertical target regions of the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) divertor. The first W/Cu mono-block small scale mock-up with five W mono-blocks has been manufactured successfully by technological combination of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and hot radial pressing (HRP). The joining of a W mono-block and a pure copper interlayer was achieved by means of HIP technology and the bonding strength was over 150 MPa. The good bonding between the pure copper interlayer and a CuCrZr cooling tube was obtained by means of HRP technology. In order to understand deeply the process of HRP, the stress distribution of the mock-up during HRP process was simulated using ANSYS code. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing (NDT) of the W/Cu and Cu/CuCrZr interfaces was performed, showing that excellent bonding of the W/Cu and Cu/CuCrZr interfaces. The thermal cycle fatigue testing of the mock-up has been carried out by means of an e-beam device in Southwest Institute of Physics, Chengdu (SWIP) and the mock-up withstood 1000 cycles of heat loads up to 8.4 MW/m{sup 2} with the cooling water of 2 m/s, 20 °C, 0.2 MPa.

  2. Laser fabrication of Ag-HA nanocomposites on Ti6Al4V implant for enhancing bioactivity and antibacterial capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Man, H C

    2017-01-01

    For titanium alloy implants, both surface bioactivity and antibacterial infection are the two critical factors in determining the success of clinical implantation of these metallic implants. In the present work, a novel nanocomposite layer of nano-silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) was prepared on the surface of biomedical Ti6Al4V by laser processing. Analysis using SEM, EDS and XRD shows the formation of an Ag-HA layer of about 200μm fusion bonded to the substrate. Mineralization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite layer favors the deposition of apatite on the surface of the implants. Antibacterial tests confirmed that all Ag-HA nanocomposite layers can kill bacteria while a higher Ag content would lower the cytocompatibility of these coatings. Cell viability decreases when the Ag content reaches 5% in these coatings, due to the larger amount of Ag leached out, as confirmed by ion release evaluation. Our results reveal that laser fabricated Ag-HA nanocomposite coatings containing 2% Ag show both excellent cytocompatibility and antibacterial capability.

  3. Time transfer capability of standard small form factor pluggable laser modules based on photon counting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanek, Pavel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef

    2017-05-01

    We are reporting on timing parameters of commonly used standard Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP) laser modules using single photon counting method. Photon counting is a promising approach for laser time transfer via optical fiber communication hardware. The sub-picosecond precision and stability may be achieved. We have performed several experiments with the aim to measure main parameters of the modules, such as time delay precision, time stability and temperature stability, all being critical for optical time transfer applications. Two standard 16 and 10 Gbit/s at 850 nm SFP modules were examined. The ultimate precision of possible time transfer of 800 fs for averaging times of hours was achieved. The modules together with their driving circuits exhibited very good temperature stability. The temperature drift as low as 300+/-200 fs/K was measured. The achieved timing parameters will enable to use the standard SFP modules for a new method of two way time transfer where the time differences between two distant time scales are measured in parallel to data transfer on existing optical data links without any communication interference.

  4. Diagnostic capability of scanning laser polarimetry with and without enhanced corneal compensation and optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-del-Castillo, Javier; Martinez, Antonio; Regi, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    To compare the abilities of the current commercially available versions of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), SLP-variable corneal compensation (VCC), SLP-enhanced corneal compensation (ECC), and high-definition (HD) OCT, in discriminating between healthy eyes and those with early-to-moderate glaucomatous visual field loss. Healthy volunteers and patients with glaucoma who met the eligibility criteria were consecutively enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects underwent complete eye examination, automated perimetry, SLP-ECC, SLP-VCC, and HD-OCT. Scanning laser polarimetry parameters were recalculated in 90-degree segments (quadrants) in the calculation circle to be compared. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCs) were calculated for every parameter in order to compare the ability of each imaging modality to differentiate between normal and glaucomatous eyes. Fifty-five normal volunteers (mean age 59.1 years) and 33 patients with glaucoma (mean age 63.8 years) were enrolled. Average visual field mean deviation was -6.69 dB (95% confidence interval -8.07 to -5.31) in the glaucoma group. The largest AUROCs were associated with nerve fiber indicator (0.880 and 0.888) for the SLP-VCC and SLP-ECC, respectively, and with the average thickness in the HD-OCT (0.897). The best performing indices for the SLP-VCC, SLP-ECC, and HD OCT gave similar AUROCs, showing moderate diagnostic accuracy in patients with early to moderate glaucoma. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ability of these technologies to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes.

  5. The diagnostic capability of laser induced fluorescence in the characterization of excised breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmed, A. H.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2017-08-01

    Differentiating between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues is one of the major worldwide challenges that need a quantitative, fast and reliable technique in order to avoid personal errors in diagnosis. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a promising technique that has been applied for the characterization of biological tissues including breast tissue. Unfortunately, only few studies have adopted a quantitative approach that can be directly applied for breast tissue characterization. This work provides a quantitative means for such characterization via introduction of several LIF characterization parameters and determining the diagnostic accuracy of each parameter in the differentiation between normal, benign and malignant excised breast tissues. Extensive analysis on 41 lyophilized breast samples using scatter diagrams, cut-off values, diagnostic indices and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, shows that some spectral parameters (peak height and area under the peak) are superior for characterization of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues with high sensitivity (up to 0.91), specificity (up to 0.91) and accuracy ranking (highly accurate).

  6. Upgrade of Langmuir probe diagnostic in ITER-like tungsten mono-block divertor on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. C.; Wang, L.; Xu, G. S.; Luo, G. N.; Yao, D. M.; Li, Q.; Cao, L.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Liu, S. C.; Wang, H. Q.; Jia, M. N.; Feng, W.; Deng, G. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J.; Sun, Y. W.; Guo, H. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to withstand rapid increase in particle and power impact onto the divertor and demonstrate the feasibility of the ITER design under long pulse operation, the upper divertor of the EAST tokamak has been upgraded to actively water-cooled, ITER-like tungsten mono-block structure since the 2014 campaign, which is the first attempt for ITER on the tokamak devices. Therefore, a new divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system (DivLP) was designed and successfully upgraded on the tungsten divertor to obtain the plasma parameters in the divertor region such as electron temperature, electron density, particle and heat fluxes. More specifically, two identical triple probe arrays have been installed at two ports of different toroidal positions (112.5-deg separated toroidally), which can provide fundamental data to study the toroidal asymmetry of divertor power deposition and related 3-dimension (3D) physics, as induced by resonant magnetic perturbations, lower hybrid wave, and so on. The shape of graphite tip and fixed structure of the probe are designed according to the structure of the upper tungsten divertor. The ceramic support, small graphite tip, and proper connector installed make it possible to be successfully installed in the very narrow interval between the cassette body and tungsten mono-block, i.e., 13.5 mm. It was demonstrated during the 2014 and 2015 commissioning campaigns that the newly upgraded divertor Langmuir probe diagnostic system is successful. Representative experimental data are given and discussed for the DivLP measurements, then proving its availability and reliability.

  7. An investigation on capability of hybrid Nd:YAG laser-TIG welding technology for AA2198 Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Amir Hosein; Moradi, Mahmoud; Goodarzi, Massoud; Colucci, Pietro; Maletta, Carmine

    2017-09-01

    This paper surveys the capability of the hybrid laser-arc welding in comparison with lone laser welding for AA2198 aluminum alloy experimentally. In the present research, a continuous Nd:YAG laser with a maximum power of 2000 W and a 350 A electric arc were used as two combined welding heat sources. In addition to the lone laser welding experiments, two strategies were examined for hybrid welding; the first one was low laser power (100 W) accompanied by high arc energy, and the second one was high laser power (2000 W) with low arc energy. Welding speed and arc current varied in the experiments. The influence of heat input on weld pool geometry was surveyed. The macrosection, microhardness profile and microstructure of the welded joints were studied and compared. The results indicated that in lone laser welding, conduction mode occurred and keyhole was not formed even in low welding speeds and thus the penetration depth was so low. It was also found that the second approach (high laser power accompanied with low arc energy) is superior to the first one (low laser power accompanied with high arc energy) in hybrid laser-arc welding of Al2198, since lower heat input was needed for full penetration weld and as a result a smaller HAZ was created.

  8. Analysis of the temperature and thermal stress in pure tungsten monoblock during heat loading and the influences of alloying and dispersion strengthening on these responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Makoto, E-mail: makoto.fukuda@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-aza Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei; Guan, Wenhai; Hasegawa, Akira [Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-aza Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The heat load response of pure W and its alloys monoblock was investigated by FEA. • The effect of alloying on heat load response of W was not clearly observed. • The possibility of cracking during cooling phase after heat load was suggested. • The effects of recrystallization and irradiation embrittlement were discussed. • W alloys will show better reliability than pure W during fusion reactor operation. - Abstract: The effects of 3% Re addition and K-bubble dispersion on temperature and stress values and the distributions thereof in a W monoblock during heat loading were investigated using finite element analysis. K-doped W-3%Re exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance but showed a higher surface temperature than pure W or K-doped W during the heat loading. The effect of K-bubble dispersion and 3% Re addition on thermal stress distribution during heat loading was not clearly observed, and residual tensile stress after heat loading, which could possibly cause cracking, was observed at the top surfaces of all materials. Because of the higher strength and temperature at which recrystallization starts for the K-doped W-3%Re and K-doped W, the probability of crack formation at the top surface might be lower compared to that in pure W. The improvement in the material properties and resistance to crack initiation and propagation in W during cyclic heat loading is crucial for the design and development of plasma-facing components. This work suggests possibility of the crack formation in a pure W monoblock in the cooling phase after a 20 MW/m{sup 2} heat loading cycle and the effectiveness of K-bubble dispersion and Re addition for improving the heat loading resistance of monoblock W.

  9. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.

    2015-01-01

    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  10. ISS Efforts to Fully Utilize its Target Acquisition Capability Serves as an Analog for Future Laser Pointing Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ISS is an outstanding platform for developing, testing and refining laser communications systems for future exploration. A recent ISS project which improved ISS communications satellite acquisition performance proves the platform’s utility as a laser communications systems testbed.

  11. Potential and limits of water cooled divertor concepts based on monoblock design as possible candidates for a DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li-Puma, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.lipuma@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Richou, Marianne; Magaud, Philippe; Missirlian, Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Visca, Eliseo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, IT-00044 Frascati (Italy); Ridolfini, Vincenzo Pericoli [EFDA-CSU Garching, PPPT department, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper water-cooled divertor concepts based on tungsten monoblock design identified in previous studies as candidate for fusion power plant have been reviewed to assess their potential and limits as possible candidates for a DEMO concept deliverable in a short to medium term (“conservative baseline design”). The rationale and technology development assumptions that have led to their selection are revisited taking into account present factual information on reactor parameters, materials properties and manufacturing technologies. For that purpose, main parameters impacting the divertor design are identified and their relevance discussed. The state of the art knowledge on materials and relevant manufacturing techniques is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to material properties change after irradiation; phenomenon thresholds (if any) and possible operating ranges are identified (in terms of temperature and damage dose). The suitability of various proposed heat sink/structural and sacrificial layer materials, as proposed in the past, are re-assessed (e.g. with regard to the possibility of reducing peak heat flux and/or neutron radiation damages). As a result, potential and limits of various proposed concepts are highlighted, ranges in which they could operate (if any) defined and possible improvements are proposed. Identified missing point in materials database and/or manufacturing techniques knowledge that should be uppermost investigated in future R and D activities are reported. This work has been carried out in the frame of EFDA PPPT Work Programme activities.

  12. Scaling of Fiber Laser Systems Based on Novel Components and High Power Capable Packaging and Joining Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    l ri Laser Splicing/ Welding r li i / l i Contact Bonding t t i Wafer Level Bonding Mineralic, Fusion. Anodic, Eutectic, Glass-frit, liquid...diode Bonding and Packaging of Optical Components Solder Bumping Thickfilm Au Metallization Laser diode Fiber Assembly element Asphere Ceramic System

  13. Experimental capabilities of 0.4 PW, 1 shot/min Scarlet laser facility for high energy density science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P L; Willis, C; Daskalova, R L; George, K M; Feister, S; Jiang, S; Snyder, J; Marketon, J; Schumacher, D W; Akli, K U; Van Woerkom, L; Freeman, R R; Chowdhury, E A

    2016-06-10

    We report on the recently completed 400 TW upgrade to the Scarlet laser at The Ohio State University. Scarlet is a Ti:sapphire-based ultrashort pulse system that delivers >10  J in 30 fs pulses to a 2 μm full width at half-maximum focal spot, resulting in intensities exceeding 5×1021  W/cm2. The laser fires at a repetition rate of once per minute and is equipped with a suite of on-demand and on-shot diagnostics detailed here, allowing for rapid collection of experimental statistics. As part of the upgrade, the entire laser system has been redesigned to facilitate consistent, characterized high intensity data collection at high repetition rates. The design and functionality of the laser and target chambers are described along with initial data from commissioning experimental shots.

  14. Interpretation of the deep cracking phenomenon of tungsten monoblock targets observed in high-heat-flux fatigue tests at 20 MW/m{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A theoretical interpretation is presented for deep crack of W monoblocks at 20 MW/m{sup 2}. • A consecutive process of crack initiation and growth was modeled in two stages. • The lifetime to crack initiation and the driving force of fracture are assessed. • Numerical predictions in this study agree well with the experimental findings. - Abstract: The HHF qualification tests conducted on the ITER divertor target prototypes showed that the tungsten monoblock armor suffered from deep cracking due to fatigue, when the applied high-heat-flux load approaches 20 MW/m{sup 2}. In spite of the critical implication of the deep cracking of armor on the structural integrity of a whole target component, no rigorous interpretation has been given to date. In this paper, a theoretical interpretation of the observed deep cracking feature is presented. A two-stage modeling approach is employed where deep cracking is thought to be a consecutive process of crack initiation and crack growth, which is assumed to be caused by plastic fatigue and brittle facture, respectively. The fatigue lifetime to crack initiation on the armor surface and the crack tip load of brittle fracture are assessed as a function of crack length and heat flux loads. The potential mechanisms of deep cracking are discussed for a typical slow transient high-heat-flux load cycle. It is shown that the quantitative predictions delivered in this study agree well with the observed findings offering insight into the nature of tungsten armor failure.

  15. Detection and Analytical Capabilities for Trace Level of Carbon in High-Purity Metals by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy with a Frequency Quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ohata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS with a frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser was examined to the analysis of trace level of carbon (C in high-purity metals and its detection and analytical capabilities were evaluated. Though C signal in a wavelength of 247.9 nm, which showed the highest sensitivity of C, could be obtained from Cd, Ti, and Zn ca. 7000 mg kg−1 C in Fe could not be detected due to the interferences from a lot of Fe spectra. Alternative C signal in a wavelength of 193.1 nm could not be also detected from Fe due to the insufficient laser output energy of the frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser. The depth analysis of C by LIBS was also demonstrated and the C in Cd and Zn was found to be contaminated in only surface area whereas the C in Ti was distributed in bulk. From these results, the frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser, which was adopted widely as a commercial laser ablation (LA system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS for trace element analysis in solid materials, could be used for C analysis to achieve simultaneous measurements for both C and trace elements in metals by LIBS and LA-ICPMS, respectively.

  16. A Compact, Solid-State UV (266 nm) Laser System Capable of Burst-Mode Operation for Laser Ablation Desorption Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Coyle, Barry; Paulios, Demetrios; Stysley, Paul; Feng, Steve; Getty, Stephanie; Binkerhoff, William

    2015-01-01

    Compared to wet chemistry and pyrolysis techniques, in situ laser-based methods of chemical analysis provide an ideal way to characterize precious planetary materials without requiring extensive sample processing. In particular, laser desorption and ablation techniques allow for rapid, reproducible and robust data acquisition over a wide mass range, plus: Quantitative, spatially-resolved measurements of elemental and molecular (organic and inorganic) abundances; Low analytical blanks and limits-of-detection ( ng g-1); and, the destruction of minimal quantities of sample ( g) compared to traditional solution and/or pyrolysis analyses (mg).

  17. Analytical capability of the plasma induced by IR TEA CO2 laser pulses on copper based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of nanosecond infrared (IR transversely excited atmospheric (TEA CO2 laser, operating at 10.6 μm and 100 ns pulse length (initial spike, induced plasma under reduced air pressure for spectrochemical analysis of bronze and brass samples was investigated. The plasma consisted of two clearly distinguished and spatially separated regions and expanded to a distance of about 10 mm from the surface. Elemental composition of the samples was determined using a time-integrated space-resolved laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (TISR-LIPS technique. Sharp and well resolved spectral lines mostly atomic, and negligibly low background emission, were obtained from a plasma region 7 mm from the target surface. Good signal to background and signal to noise ratios were obtained. Estimated detection limits for trace elements Mg, Fe, Al and Ca were in the order of 10 ppm in bronze and around 50 ppm in brass. Damage on the investigated samples induced by TEA CO2 laser radiation was negligible. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  18. Influence of multi-hit capability on quantitative measurement of NiPtSi thin film with laser-assisted atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinno, T., E-mail: teruyuki.kinno@toshiba.co.jp [Corporate Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Akutsu, H.; Tomita, M. [Corporate Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Kawanaka, S. [Center for Semiconductor Research and Development, Toshiba Corporation Semiconductor and Storage Products Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Sonehara, T. [Advanced Memory Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Semiconductor and Storage Products Company, 800 Yamano-Isshiki-cho, Yokkaichi, Mie 512-8550 (Japan); Hokazono, A. [Center for Semiconductor Research and Development, Toshiba Corporation Semiconductor and Storage Products Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Renaud, L.; Martin, I.; Benbalagh, R.; Salle, B. [Cameca SAS, 29 Quai des Gresillons, 92622 Gennevilliers Cedex (France); Takeno, S. [Corporate Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser-assisted atom probe tomography was applied to NiPtSi films on Si substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of depth profiles of single-hit events and those of multi-hit events. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {approx}80% of Pt atoms were detected in multi-hit events. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple-ion detection is important for Laser-assisted atom probe tomography. - Abstract: Laser-assisted atom probe tomography (LA-APT) was applied to NiPtSi (0, 30, and 50% Pt contents) thin films on Si substrates. Consistent results with those of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (HR-RBS) were obtained. Based on the obtained data sets, the composition profiles from only the signals of single-hit events, meaning detection of one ion by one laser pulse, were compiled. The profiles from only the signals of multi-hit events, meaning detection of multiple ions by one laser pulse, were also compiled. There were large discrepancies with respect to Ni and Pt concentrations among the compiled profiles and the original profiles including the signals of both types of detection events. Additionally, the profiles compiled from single-hit events showed that Si concentration in NiPtSi layer became smaller toward the surface, differing from the original profiles and the multi-hit profiles. These results suggest that capability of simultaneous multiple-ion detection is important for appropriate LA-APT analyses.

  19. Free Electron Laser For The Siberian Centre For Photochemical Reseach Software And Capabilities Of Beam Position Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Dementyev, E N; Medvedko, A S; Oreshkov, A D; Serednyakov, S I; Shubin, E N; Vinokurov, N A

    2004-01-01

    The system for electron beam position measurement in microtron-recuperator, using the electrostatic pick-up electrodes is described. Option of simultaneous detection of accelerated and decelerated electron beams is considered. The software and its capability of integration to the Epics control system using Epics Channel Access protocol are discussed.

  20. Development of a fiber-optic laser delivery system capable of delivering 213 and 266 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation for tissue ablation in a fluid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Yu, Paula K; Cringle, Stephen J; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2011-02-20

    Ultraviolet (UV) lasers have the capability to precisely remove tissue via ablation; however, due to strong absorption of the applicable portion the UV spectrum, their surgical use is currently limited to extraocular applications at the air/tissue boundary. Here we report the development and characterization of a fiber-optic laser delivery system capable of outputting high-fluence UV laser pulses to internal tissue surfaces. The system has been developed with a view to intraocular surgical applications and has been demonstrated to ablate ocular tissue at the fluid/tissue boundary. The fifth (213 nm) and fourth(266 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser were launched into optical fibers using a hollow glass taper to concentrate the beam. Standard and modified silica/silica optical fibers were used, all commercially available. The available energy and fluence as a function of optical fiber length was evaluated and maximized. The maximum fluence available to ablate tissue was affected by the wavelength dependence of the fiber transmission; this maximum fluence was greater for 266 nm pulses (8.4 J/cm2) than for 213 nm pulses (1.4 J/cm2). The type of silica/silica optical fiber used did not affect the transmission efficiency of 266 nm pulses, but transmission of 213 nm pulses was significantly greater through modified silica/silica optical fiber. The optical fiber transmission efficiency of 213 nm pulses decreased as a function of number of pulses transmitted, whereas the transmission efficiency of 266 nm radiation was unchanged. Single pulses have been used to ablate fresh porcine ocular tissue. In summary, we report a method for delivering the fifth (213 nm) and fourth (266 nm) harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser to the surface of immersed tissue, the reliability and stability of the system has been characterized, and proof of concept via tissue ablation of porcine ocular tissue demonstrates the potential for the intraocular surgical application of this

  1. Investigation of Copper Vapor Pulsed Laser with Industrial Active Elements of “Kulon” Series using One Convex Mirror Mode and Its Capabilities for Technological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the given paper spatial, time and energy characteristics of a copper vapor laser (CVL| have been investigated in the mode of one convex mirror using the most powerful industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series: 15 W GL-206D model and 20 W GL-206I model in order to define the capabilities of using its one-beam radiation for effective microprocessing of materials.The carried out calculations and experimental investigations showed that one can vary the radiation beam divergence within a wide range by changing the radius of curvature of CVL convex mirror; and one can reach values close to diffraction limit at radii of curvature one-two orders lower than the distance from the mirror to AE output aperture. At small radii of mirror curvature (R = 6-30 mm the CVL output radiation beam divergence can only 2-3 times (0.15- 0.35 mrad differ from diffraction limit. At these divergences the peak power density in a focused spot can reach 109…1010 W/cm2 values.With the increase of AE discharge channel length the CVL output radiation beam divergence in one-mirror mode decreases and tends to diffraction limit, while power increases, which in the aggregate leads to the sharp increase of peak power density. Therefore, from practical point of view the industrial AEs “Crystal” GL-205А and GL-205B with 0.93 and 1.23 m discharge channel length and 20 mm diameter are the most effective ones. Besides the formation of one high quality beam, the advantages of one-mirror mode include a high axis stability of directivity pattern of this beam and pulsed energy, which increase the quality of microprocessing of materials.Practical experience of using CVL with one convex mirror shows that 109 W/cm2 peak power density level is sufficient only for efficient microprocessing of foiled materials and solder cutouts (0.02-0.1 мм. The use of this CVL as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving

  2. Capability Paternalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    A capability approach prescribes paternalist government actions to the extent that it requires the promotion of specific functionings, instead of the corresponding capabilities. Capability theorists have argued that their theories do not have much of these paternalist implications, since promoting c

  3. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  4. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theor

  5. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theor

  6. Is green-wavelength Terrestrial Laser Scanning capable of capturing reliable underwater data in the cascade unit of a mountain channel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoko; Asano, Yuko

    2015-04-01

    Recent global climate change has brought heavy rains which cause more severe flood and sediment related disaster in Japan. Since more than 60 percent of the national land is made up by mountains and forests in Japan, it is important to understand how the water and sediment flow in mountain channels for better risk management. Although detailed and quantitative measurement of channel and stream-bed structure would provide valuable information for fluvial disaster management, we have not had means for such measurement until recently. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is a system that has a laser scanner mounted generally on a tripod. It has been developed and mainly used in surveying, providing highly accurate 3D information of the object on the ground. As the recent advance of the technology, the application of TLS expanded to fluvial environment. In particular, green-wavelength TLS has shown promising results in acquiring underwater data at grain-scale. Our previous research demonstrated good performance of green-wavelength TLS for measurement of submerged stream-bed in the pool unit of a steep mountain channel. This paper examines whether TLS is capable of capturing reliable underwater data in the cascade unit of a mountain channel where large boulders form steps and water flows down with foam creating complex channel structure. The results suggest that accuracy of TLS measurement was considerably lowered in this area due to water foam, complex channel bed morphology and difficulty in applying water refraction correction. Since much of channel bed is generally above water level in cascades and steps, and TLS measurement can be conducted with high accuracy for objects above water, it is effective to acquire TLS data when the water is scarce to reduce errors in the cascade unit. For the area where water foams over and where there are narrow gaps between rocks, conventional line survey would complement the error of TLS measurement to increase accuracy of derived data

  7. Dynamic capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    it was dominated by a lack of systematism, assessment, monitoring, marketing speculations and feasibility calculation. Furthermore, the sphere was dictated by asymmetric supplier-customer relationships and negotiation power leading, among other possible factors, to meager profitability.......The consequences of dynamic capabilities (i.e. innovation performance and profitability) is an under researched area in the growing body of literature on dynamic capabilities and innovation management. This study aims to examine the relationship between dynamic capabilities, innovation performance...... and profitability of small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises operating in volatile environments. A multi-case study design was adopted as research strategy. The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case companies, as we would expect. It was...

  8. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  9. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networks...

  10. Dynamic capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    and profitability of small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises operating in volatile environments. A multi-case study design was adopted as research strategy. The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case companies, as we would expect. It was...... it was dominated by a lack of systematism, assessment, monitoring, marketing speculations and feasibility calculation. Furthermore, the sphere was dictated by asymmetric supplier-customer relationships and negotiation power leading, among other possible factors, to meager profitability....

  11. Preparations for the Launch of the EXOMARS Raman Laser Spectrometer — A Review of Recent Studies Which Highlight the Astrobiological and Geological Capabilities of Portable Raman Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. B.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Ingley, R.; Harris, L.; McHugh, M.; Malherbe, C.; Jehlicka, J.; Marshall, C.; Parnell, J.

    2014-06-01

    A review of experiments performed on natural and analogue samples with prototype/portable instrumentation in preparation for the launch of the Raman Laser Spectrometer instrument on the ExoMars rover.

  12. Test of the Capability of Laser Line Scan Technology to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping in Coral Reef Ecosystems, Maui Island, November 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The utility of Laser Line Scan (LLS) Technology for optical validation of benthic habitat map data from coral reef ecosystems was tested with a deployment of a...

  13. [Lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental capabilities of the GARPUN MTW Ti : sapphire - KrF laser facility for investigating the interaction of subpicosecond UV pulses with targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Goncharov, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Ryabchuk, S. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the first experiments carried out on the GARPUN MTW Ti : sapphire - KrF hybrid laser facility and aimed at gaining insight into the interaction of subpicosecond UV pulses with solid and structured low-density carbon nanotube targets at peak intensities of ~1016 W cm-2 in a focal spot ~70 μm in size. Using X-ray absorbers, the plasma electron temperature has been measured to be ~850 eV. In our experiments, we used an optimal configuration: direct double-pass ultrashort-pulse (USP) amplification in KrF amplifier stages, with multiple laser beam filamentation suppression in a xenon-filled cell. The highest energy on a target was 0.25 J at a USP contrast relative to amplified spontaneous emission of ~3 × 1010 for intensities and ~3 × 105 for fluences. Owing to two-photon resonance in the UV spectral region, the use of xenon, with a negative nonlinear refractive index, allowed us to make the cross-sectional fluence distribution more uniform and reduce the beam divergence to 0.14 mrad (at the 10 % intensity level). Reducing the USP duration via negatively chirped pulse amplification and filamentation suppression and reducing the focal spot size on a target by using parabolic short-focus optics are expected to ensure an increase in the intensity incident on the target by one to two orders of magnitude. Presented at the ECLIM 2016 conference (Moscow, 18 - 23 September 2016.

  16. Copper Vapor Laser with One-Beam Radiation of Diffraction Quality and Its Capabilities for Microprocessing of Materials for Electronic Engineering Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, spatial, time and energy characteristics of copper vapor laser radiation (CVL with optical resonators possessing high spatial selectivity have been investigated: with an unstable resonator (UR with two convex mirrors and telescopic UR, and the conditions to form one-beam radiation with diffraction divergence and high stability of directivity pattern axis have been defined.The most weighty and prospective application of CVL with UR with two convex mirrors is to use it as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving oscillator – power amplifier (DO – PA when diffraction beam radiating power and power density in a focused spot of 10-20 µm in diameter increases by 1-2 orders. Using industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series with an average radiation power of 15-25 W as PAs the peak power density increases up to 1011 W/cm 2 while an application of AE “Crystal” with 30- 50 W power gives up to 1012 W/cm 2 , which is sufficient for efficient and qualitative microprocessing of materials up to 1…2 mm thick. Such a CVLS has become the basis for creating up-to-date automated laser technological installations (ALTI of “Karavella-1” and “Karavella-1M” types to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.5 mm thick and of non-metal up to 1.5…1.8 mm thick.CVL with a telescopic UR with an average power of 5-6 W diffraction radiation beam has become the basis for creating industrial ALTI “Karavella-2” and “Karavella-2M” to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.3 mm thick and of non-metal up to 0.5 – 0.7 mm thick.Practical work on all types of ALTI “Karavella” has shown a set of significant advantages of a laser way of pulsed microprocessing over the traditional ones, including electro-erosion machining: a wide range of structural metal and non-metal materials to be

  17. Enhanced capabilities for imaging gangliosides in murine brain with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to ion mobility separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrášková, Karolina; Claude, Emmanuelle; Jones, Emrys A; Towers, Mark; Ellis, Shane R; Heeren, Ron M A

    2016-07-15

    The increased interest in lipidomics calls for improved yet simplified methods of lipid analysis. Over the past two decades, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been established as a powerful technique for the analysis of molecular distribution of a variety of compounds across tissue surfaces. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MSI is widely used to study the spatial distribution of common lipids. However, a thorough sample preparation and necessity of vacuum for efficient ionization might hamper its use for high-throughput lipid analysis. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is a relatively young MS technique. In DESI, ionization of molecules occurs under ambient conditions, which alleviates sample preparation. Moreover, DESI does not require the application of an external matrix, making the detection of low mass species more feasible due to the lack of chemical matrix background. However, irrespective of the ionization method, the final information obtained during an MSI experiment is very complex and its analysis becomes challenging. It was shown that coupling MSI to ion mobility separation (IMS) simplifies imaging data interpretation. Here we employed DESI and MALDI MSI for a lipidomic analysis of the murine brain using the same IMS-enabled instrument. We report for the first time on the DESI IMS-MSI of multiply sialylated ganglioside species, as well as their acetylated versions, which we detected directly from the murine brain tissue. We show that poly-sialylated gangliosides can be imaged as multiply charged ions using DESI, while they are clearly separated from the rest of the lipid classes based on their charge state using ion mobility. This represents a major improvement in MSI of intact fragile lipid species. We additionally show that complementary lipid information is reached under particular conditions when DESI is compared to MALDI MSI.

  18. 片状石墨增强树脂基复合材料的耐激光烧蚀性能研究%Ablation Capability of Flake Graphite Reinforced Barium-phenolic Resin Composite under Long Pulse Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆春; 万红

    2012-01-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced phenolic resin composite is widely used as a thermal protection material because of its excellent thermal ablation. A novel flake graphite reinforced barium-phenolic resin composite was made by roller coating technology and its thermal ablation capability under long pulse laser irradiation was studied. The results show that the thermal ablation rate of the flake graphite reinforced barium-resin composite is 32.8 ug/J at 1700 W/cm2 irradiation power density, which is much lower than that of the carbon fiber reinforced barium-resin composite or barium-phenolic resin obviously. The anti-ablative mechanism of the flake graphite reinforced barium-phenolic resin composite is investigated by the observation of its microstructure and the calculation of the laser en-. Ergy coupling with the material. It is found that the flake graphite is arrayed homogeneous alignment as sandwich among the composite. When the laser radiation gets on the composite, the flake graphite plays as a mirror and reflects part of the laser, and then the laser radiation energy deposition on the composite is reduced. It is also found that the size of the flake graphite also affects the ablation capability. The composite with the flake graphite diameter of about 0.5 mm has the lowest thermal ablation rate.%采用刷涂的方法制备了一种新型的片状石墨增强钡酚醛树脂基复合材料,并采用重频激光辐照的方法,对其耐烧蚀性能进行了研究.研究结果表明:片状石墨增强钡酚醛树脂基复合材料在平均功率密度为1700 J/cm2的重频激光辐照下的热烧蚀率为32.8 μg/J,耐激光烧蚀性能明显高于碳纤维增强的钡酚醛树脂基复合材料和钡酚醛树脂;片状石墨增强钡酚醛树脂基复合材料中的片状石墨呈近平行的层状分布方式,在激光辐照过程中能对入射激光起到平面反射作用,从而有效地降低激光辐照的能量沉积;片状石墨的片型对复合材料

  19. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  20. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  1. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  2. Dynamic capabilities, Marketing Capability and Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Roseli Wünsch Takahashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to investigate the influence of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance and the role of marketing capabilities as a mediator in this relationship in the context of private HEIs in Brazil. As a research method we carried out a survey with 316 IES and data analysis was operationalized with the technique of structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the dynamic capabilities have influence on organizational performance only when mediated by marketing ability. The marketing capability has an important role in the survival, growth and renewal on educational services offerings for HEIs in private sector, and consequently in organizational performance. It is also demonstrated that mediated relationship is more intense for HEI with up to 3,000 students and other organizational profile variables such as amount of courses, the constitution, the type of institution and type of education do not significantly alter the results.

  3. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabilities...... empirical studies through the dynamic capabilities lens and develops propositions for future research. The second paper is an empirical study on the origins of firm-level absorptive capacity; it explores how organization-level antecedents, through their impact on individual-level antecedents, influence...... firms’ ability to absorb and leverage new knowledge. The third paper is an empirical study which conceptualizes top managers’ resource cognition as a managerial capability underlying firms’ resource adaptation; it empirically examines the performance implications of this capability and organizational...

  4. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....

  5. Developing Alliance Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimeriks, Koen H.; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    capability. However, empirical testing in this field is scarce and little is known as to what extent different learning mechanisms are indeed useful in advancing a firm's alliance capability. This paper analyzes to what extent intra-firm learning mechanisms help firms develop their alliance capability......This paper assesses the differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the development of alliance capabilities. Prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which specific intra-firm learning mechanisms are used to enhance a firm's alliance....... Differential learning may explain in what way firms yield superior returns from their alliances in comparison to competitors. The empirical results show that different learning mechanisms have different performance effects at different stages of the alliance capability development process. The main lesson from...

  6. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic capabilities are widely considered to incorporate those processes that enable organizations to sustain superior performance over time. In this paper, we argue theoretically and demonstrate empirically that these effects are contingent on organizational structure and the competitive...... are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  7. Flex: RSRE's capability computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. M.

    The Flex capability based computer architecture is described. It supports a multilanguage environment, and compilers for ALGOL 168 and PASCAL exist; an Ada compiler is being completed. The idea of capabilities is used on backing store as well as main store, so that all kinds of structured object which can be held in main store can also be held on any of the packing stores with the same degree of protection. Capabilities are used across a network of Flex computers, so that capabilities for data in one machine may be passed to and held in another. Flex uses true procedure values in the sense of Landin (1964).

  8. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S

    2002-01-01

    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  9. Telematics Options and Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This presentation describes the data tracking and analytical capabilities of telematics devices. Federal fleet managers can use the systems to keep their drivers safe, maintain a fuel efficient fleet, ease their reporting burden, and save money. The presentation includes an example of how much these capabilities can save fleets.

  10. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    organizational conditions, such as organizational design, support the emergence and performance of such capabilities. In detail, the dissertation consists of three self-contained research papers. The first paper is a systematic, multilevel review of the innovation literature; it reinterprets evidence from prior...... firms’ ability to absorb and leverage new knowledge. The third paper is an empirical study which conceptualizes top managers’ resource cognition as a managerial capability underlying firms’ resource adaptation; it empirically examines the performance implications of this capability and organizational...... empirical studies through the dynamic capabilities lens and develops propositions for future research. The second paper is an empirical study on the origins of firm-level absorptive capacity; it explores how organization-level antecedents, through their impact on individual-level antecedents, influence...

  11. Defence Capability Plan 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    financed lease , or elements of both. Background Initially, an improved rotary wing training capability was to be provided under two projects – Phase 7A...Destroyer (AWD), Super Hornet and New Air Combat Capability (NACC). Through-life Support The Commonwealth seeks a ‘ turnkey ’ service providing aerial...combination: > Commercial- and/or Military-off-the-Shelf; or > open tender for ADF ownership or lease . Through-life Support Depending on the procurement (ADF

  12. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration project will advance optical communications technology, expanding industry’s capability to produce competitive,...

  13. Structural Capability of an Organization toward Innovation Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Momeni, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    competitive advantage in the organizations is the innovation capability. The innovation capability is associated with other organizational capabilities, and many organizations have focused on the need to identify innovation capabilities.This research focuses on recognition of the structural aspect...... of innovation capability and proposes a conceptual framework based on a Qualitative Meta Synthesis of academic literature on organizations innovation capability. This is proposed for the development of the concept of innovation capability in the organizations and this paper includes an expert based validation...... Capability and Structural Capability. Also, it offers the most important components and indices which directly influence and are related to the structural capability of innovation capability....

  14. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  15. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  16. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  17. Manufacturing With Lasers Developments and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. S. Booth

    2004-01-01

    Developments and opportunities for manufacturing with lasers are considered in three broad themes. Process enhancements, in particular hybrid-laser arc welding and twin spot laser welding are described. Two examples of novel manufacturing processes (laser joining of aluminium to steel and laser direct metal deposition) are considered. Finally, a new laser source (Yb: YAG fibre laser) is introduced as an additional competing processing capability.

  18. Kokkos? Task DAG Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Harold C.; Ibanez, Daniel Alejandro

    2017-09-01

    This report documents the ASC/ATDM Kokkos deliverable "Production Portable Dy- namic Task DAG Capability." This capability enables applications to create and execute a dynamic task DAG ; a collection of heterogeneous computational tasks with a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of "execute after" dependencies where tasks and their dependencies are dynamically created and destroyed as tasks execute. The Kokkos task scheduler executes the dynamic task DAG on the target execution resource; e.g. a multicore CPU, a manycore CPU such as Intel's Knights Landing (KNL), or an NVIDIA GPU. Several major technical challenges had to be addressed during development of Kokkos' Task DAG capability: (1) portability to a GPU with it's simplified hardware and micro- runtime, (2) thread-scalable memory allocation and deallocation from a bounded pool of memory, (3) thread-scalable scheduler for dynamic task DAG, (4) usability by applications.

  19. Campus Capability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arsenlis, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brase, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brenner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Camara, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carlton, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cheng, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chrzanowski, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Colson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); East, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Farrell, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferranti, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gursahani, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Helms, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hernandez, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jeffries, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Larson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mercer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Skeate, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sueksdorf, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zucca, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Le, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ancria, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leininger, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gagliardi, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gash, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chung, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hobson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meeker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanchez, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zagar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Quivey, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sommer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atherton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Campus Capability Plan for 2018-2028. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of three national laboratories that are part of the National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNL provides critical expertise to strengthen U.S. security through development and application of world-class science and technology that: Ensures the safety, reliability, and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile; Promotes international nuclear safety and nonproliferation; Reduces global danger from weapons of mass destruction; Supports U.S. leadership in science and technology. Essential to the execution and continued advancement of these mission areas are responsive infrastructure capabilities. This report showcases each LLNL capability area and describes the mission, science, and technology efforts enabled by LLNL infrastructure, as well as future infrastructure plans.

  20. Ultra-Short-Pulse Laser Effects Research and Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables research into advanced laser countermeasure techniques. DESCRIPTION: This laser facility has a capability to produce very high peak power levels of...

  1. Ultra-Short-Pulse Laser Effects Research and Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables research into advanced laser countermeasure techniques.DESCRIPTION: This laser facility has a capability to produce very high peak power levels of...

  2. Management Innovation Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Mie

    Management innovation is the implementation of a new management practice, process, technique or structure that significantly alters the way the work of management is performed. This paper presents a typology categorizing management innovation along two dimensions; radicalness and complexity. Then......, the paper introduces the concept of management innovation capabilities which refers to the ability of a firm to purposefully create, extend and modify its managerial resource base to address rapidly changing environments. Drawing upon behavioral theory of the firm and the dynamic capabilities framework......, the paper proposes a model of the foundations of management innovation. Propositions and implications for future research are discussed....

  3. Sandia QIS Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad set of capabilities in quantum information science (QIS), including elements of quantum computing, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. The Sandia QIS program is built atop unique DOE investments at the laboratories, including the MESA microelectronics fabrication facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) facilities (joint with LANL), the Ion Beam Laboratory, and ASC High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Sandia has invested $75 M of LDRD funding over 12 years to develop unique, differentiating capabilities that leverage these DOE infrastructure investments.

  4. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...... a quick overview of what is possible today by the state of the art, what the HiMicro consortium can do and what metrological requirements we have concerning the HiMicro industrial demonstrators....

  5. Capabilities Composition (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-22

    and support , , processes (including ITIL v3) • Understanding of Governance is still evolving Engineering Acquisition and Operational Governance...L – Logistics • NC – Net-Centric • CPM – Capability Portfolio Management • ITIL v3 – Information Technology • ONR – Office of Naval Research

  6. Building server capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    -only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...

  7. Building Server Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    -only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...

  8. Capabilities Report 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    74 Biosurveillance - Rapid Identification of Unknown Microorganisms...RSI is dedicated to the effort and capabilities of enabling biosurveillance through coordinated and integrated national and international systems...natural, accidental, or deliberate in nature. These initiatives include: biosurveillance , outbreak recognition and avoidance, pathogen characterization

  9. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  10. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  11. ISOPHOT - Capabilities and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, D.; Klaas, U.; Abolins, J.

    1996-01-01

    ISOPHOT covers the largest wavelength range on ISO from 2.5 to 240 mu m. Its scientific capabilities include multi filter and multi-aperture photometry, polarimetry, imaging and spectrophotometry. All modes can optionally include a focal plane chopper. The backbone of the photometric calibration...

  12. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  13. The Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2011-01-01

    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary mora

  14. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths.

  15. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, L.M.

    2000-03-23

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties in laboratories that conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM and T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. These parameters are summarized.

  16. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, L.M.

    2003-11-12

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/214/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  17. Capabilities and Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    thesis deals with a new Danish innovative policy (Act. no. 564 of 2007), a social work and educational intervention for mentally challenged Young people and other young people with special needs, the so-called individually arranged youth education (STU). The investigated area has lately been taken......The author, Christian Christrup Kjeldsen, presents a comprehensive capability-oriented study of high excellence. For this work he has recieved the doctor titel Dr.phil (Doktor der Philosophie) from Bielefeld University, Germany 2013 with the highest possible grade "ausgezeichnet". The doctoral...... into international consideration in relation to the implementation of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. As for the theoretical basis, the research makes use of the sociological open-ended and relational concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and the normative yardstick of the Capability Approach...

  18. Capabilities and Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    The author, Christian Christrup Kjeldsen, presents a comprehensive capability-oriented study of high excellence. For this work he has recieved the doctor titel Dr.phil (Doktor der Philosophie) from Bielefeld University, Germany 2013 with the highest possible grade "ausgezeichnet". The doctoral...... thesis deals with a new Danish innovative policy (Act. no. 564 of 2007), a social work and educational intervention for mentally challenged Young people and other young people with special needs, the so-called individually arranged youth education (STU). The investigated area has lately been taken...... into international consideration in relation to the implementation of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. As for the theoretical basis, the research makes use of the sociological open-ended and relational concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and the normative yardstick of the Capability Approach...

  19. Joint Forces Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    for countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in space. The Space Operations Center ( SPOC ), USSPACECOM is the single point...of contact for assessing space capabilities. Combatant commanders, subordinate JFCs, and Services can access this information from the SPOC via the...special operations forces SPOC Space Operations Center SSBN fleet ballistic missile submarine SST space support team UJTL Universal Joint Task List UN

  20. Capabilities for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Bamberger, Simon Grandjean

    2012-01-01

    is a survey that collected information from 601 firms belonging to the private urban sector in Denmark. The survey was carried out in late 2010. Keywords: dynamic capabilities/innovation/globalization/employee/employer cooperation/Nordic model Acknowledgment: The GOPA study was financed by grant 20080053113....../12-2008-09 from the Foundation for Research of Work Environment, Denmark. The funders played no part in the conduct or reporting of the research....

  1. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  2. CO2 laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R E

    2001-07-01

    The CO2 Laser offers a variety of unique features in resurfacing facial photodamage and acne scarring. These include hemostasis, efficient removal of the epidermis in a single pass, thermally induced tissue tightening, and safe, predictable tissue interaction. Knowledge of these mechanisms will result in the capability of using the CO2 laser effectively and safely whether the goal is superficial or deep treatment.

  3. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  4. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  5. Knowledge Management Capabilities Rubrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah B.A. Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently researchers discerned the vitality and importance of Knowledge Management Capabilities (KMC evaluation in organizations. In fact evaluation of KMC helps to prevent failure in Knowledge Management (KM projects. Approach: One of the most popular methods in the phase of evaluating KMC is Fuzzy method which evaluates seven attributes of KMC. Fuzzy needs KM experts to give their opinion about these attributes as input data. However in some organizations these experts are not available. Results: Therefore in this study a rubric matrix is developed as an assessment tool with ordered rank (very high, medium and very low of descriptive characteristics of criteria (seven attributes that organizations wish to evaluate. Conclusion: This rubric is applicable for members of an organization which are not familiar completely with KMC and also will be maintained by analyzing and surveying many different researches.

  6. PHOBOS physics capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-07-15

    PHOBOS is the name of a detector and of a research program to study systematically the physics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions over a large range of impact parameters and nuclear species. Collisions with a center mass energy of 200 A GeV at RHIC are expected to produce the highest energy densities ever accessible in the laboratory. In this writeup, the authors outline the physics capabilities of the PHOBOS detector and describe the detector design in terms of the general philosophy behind the PHOBOS research program. In order to make the discussion concrete, they then focus on two specific examples of physics measurements that they plan to make at RHIC: dN/d{eta} for charged particles and the mass spectrum from {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup {minus}} decays.

  7. Developing Collaborative Product Development Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Tran, Yen

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative product development capabilities support a company’s product innovation activities. In the context of the fast fashion sector, this paper examines the development of the product development capabilities (PDC) that align product development capabilities in a dual innovation context, ......-level, simultaneous learning processes and highlight the role of human agency in capability development with partners. Building on our analyses, we advance propositions for future research and managerial practices on developing dynamic collaboration capabilities....

  8. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  9. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  10. Optical Design Capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J K

    2002-12-30

    Optical design capabilities continue to play the same strong role at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that they have played in the past. From defense applications to the solid-state laser programs to the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), members of the optical design group played critical roles in producing effective system designs and are actively continuing this tradition. This talk will explain the role optical design plays at LLNL, outline current capabilities and summarize a few activities in which the optical design team has been recently participating.

  11. LHC Capabilities for Quarkonia

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushanko, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the charmonium and bottomonium resonances in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides crucial information on high-density QCD matter. First, the suppression of quarkonia production is generally agreed to be one of the most direct probes of quark-gluon plasma formation. The observation of anomalous J/$\\psi$ suppression at the CERN-SPS and at RHIC is well established but the clarification of some important remaining questions requires equivalent studies of the $\\Upsilon$ family, only possible at the LHC energies. Second, the production of heavy-quarks proceeds mainly via gluon-gluon fusion processes and, as such, is sensitive to saturation of the gluon density at low-x in the nucleus. Measured departures from the expected vacuum quarkonia cross-sections in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC will thus provide valuable information not only on the thermodynamical state of the produced partonic medium, but also on the initial-state modifications of the nuclear parton distribution functions. The capabilities ...

  12. Impact of Personnel Capabilities on Organizational Innovation Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Momeni, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    One of the most dynamic capabilities that lead to the strongest competitive advantage in the organizations is the innovation capability. Analysing the development of a firm’s innovation capability is an important research project, and can help organizations to achieve competitive advantage in thi...

  13. Small rover exploration capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make the vehicles easier to handle, safer to use and more efficient in the field to cross an obstacle. The final recommendation is to use winches and ramps, which already are widely used by quad drivers. We report on the extension of the reachable areas if such tools were available. This work has been supported by ILEWG, EuroMoonMars and the Austrian Space Forum (OEWF).

  14. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional implication

  15. The development of capability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Paul; Hunter, Graham; Carter, Ian; Dowding, Keith; Guala, Francesco; Van Hees, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper is motivated by sustained interest in the capabilities approach to welfare economics combined with the paucity of economic statistics that measure capabilities at the individual level. Specifically, it takes a much discussed account of the normatively desirable capabilities constitutive o

  16. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  17. Capability-based computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Capability-Based Computer Systems focuses on computer programs and their capabilities. The text first elaborates capability- and object-based system concepts, including capability-based systems, object-based approach, and summary. The book then describes early descriptor architectures and explains the Burroughs B5000, Rice University Computer, and Basic Language Machine. The text also focuses on early capability architectures. Dennis and Van Horn's Supervisor; CAL-TSS System; MIT PDP-1 Timesharing System; and Chicago Magic Number Machine are discussed. The book then describes Plessey System 25

  18. Transforming organizational capabilities in strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -term evolvements within the companies. We develop our framework of understanding organizational capabilities drawing on dynamic capability, relational capability and strategy as practice concepts, appreciating the performative aspects of developing new routines. Our two cases are taken from one author’s Ph......Offshored and networked enterprises are becoming an important if not leading organizational form and this development seriously challenges their organizational capabilities. More specifically, over the last years, SMEs have commenced entering these kinds of arrangements. As the organizational...... capabilities of SMEs are limited at the outset, even more emphasis is needed regarding the issues of developing relevant organizational capabilities. This paper aims at investigating how capabilities evolve during an offshoring process of more than 5 years in two Danish SMEs, i.e. not only short- but long...

  19. Capabilities and Incapabilities of the Capabilities Approach to Health Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This first part of this article critiques Sridhar Venkatapuram's conception of health as a capability. It argues that Venkatapuram relies on the problematic concept of dignity, implies that those who are unhealthy lack lives worthy of dignity (which seems politically incorrect), sets a low bar for health, appeals to metaphysically problematic thresholds, fails to draw clear connections between appealed-to capabilities and health, and downplays the importance/relevance of health functioning. It concludes by questioning whether justice entitlements should pertain to the capability for health versus health achievements, challenging Venkatapuram's claims about the strength of health entitlements, and demonstrating that the capabilities approach is unnecessary to address social determinants of health.

  20. Technological Dynamics and Social Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Jan; Feldman, Maryann; Srholec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes factors shaping technological capabilities in USA and European countries, and shows that the differences between the two continents in this respect are much smaller than commonly assumed. The analysis demonstrates a tendency toward convergence in technological capabilities...... for the sample as a whole between 1998 and 2008. The results indicate that social capabilities, such as well-developed public knowledge infrastructure, an egalitarian distribution of income, a participatory democracy and prevalence of public safety condition the growth of technological capabilities. Possible...

  1. Lasers in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Juzeniene, Asta; Chen, Jiyao; Svaasand, Lars O.; Warloe, Trond; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Moan, Johan

    2008-05-01

    It is hard to imagine that a narrow, one-way, coherent, moving, amplified beam of light fired by excited atoms is powerful enough to slice through steel. In 1917, Albert Einstein speculated that under certain conditions atoms could absorb light and be stimulated to shed their borrowed energy. Charles Townes coined the term laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) in 1951. Theodore Maiman investigated the glare of a flash lamp in a rod of synthetic ruby, creating the first human-made laser in 1960. The laser involves exciting atoms and passing them through a medium such as crystal, gas or liquid. As the cascade of photon energy sweeps through the medium, bouncing off mirrors, it is reflected back and forth, and gains energy to produce a high wattage beam of light. Although lasers are today used by a large variety of professions, one of the most meaningful applications of laser technology has been through its use in medicine. Being faster and less invasive with a high precision, lasers have penetrated into most medical disciplines during the last half century including dermatology, ophthalmology, dentistry, otolaryngology, gastroenterology, urology, gynaecology, cardiology, neurosurgery and orthopaedics. In many ways the laser has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of a disease. As a surgical tool the laser is capable of three basic functions. When focused on a point it can cauterize deeply as it cuts, reducing the surgical trauma caused by a knife. It can vaporize the surface of a tissue. Or, through optical fibres, it can permit a doctor to see inside the body. Lasers have also become an indispensable tool in biological applications from high-resolution microscopy to subcellular nanosurgery. Indeed, medical lasers are a prime example of how the movement of an idea can truly change the medical world. This review will survey various applications of lasers in medicine including four major categories: types of lasers, laser

  2. Connecting Curriculum, Capabilities and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Depasquale, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reported research aims to examine the extent to which sustainability capabilities have been delivered by a specific example of Education for Sustainability (EfS) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), and how important the capabilities have been in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach Students who participated in an…

  3. A business analytics capability framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Cosic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Business analytics (BA capabilities can potentially provide value and lead to better organisational performance. This paper develops a holistic, theoretically-grounded and practically relevant business analytics capability framework (BACF that specifies, defines and ranks the capabilities that constitute an organisational BA initiative. The BACF was developed in two phases. First, an a priori conceptual framework was developed based on the Resource-Based View theory of the firm and a thematic content analysis of the BA literature. Second, the conceptual framework was further developed and refined using a three round Delphi study involving 16 BA experts. Changes from the Delphi study resulted in a refined and confirmed framework including detailed capability definitions, together with a ranking of the capabilities based on importance. The BACF will help academic researchers and industry practitioners to better understand the capabilities that constitute an organisational BA initiative and their relative importance. In future work, the capabilities in the BACF will be operationalised to measure their as-is status, thus enabling organisations to identify key areas of strength and weakness and prioritise future capability improvement efforts.

  4. Connecting Curriculum, Capabilities and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Depasquale, James

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The reported research aims to examine the extent to which sustainability capabilities have been delivered by a specific example of Education for Sustainability (EfS) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), and how important the capabilities have been in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach Students who participated in an…

  5. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...... W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening and its origin....

  6. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...... W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening and its origin....

  7. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...... monolithic 350 W cw fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)....

  8. Regenerative similariton laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault North

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-pulsating lasers based on cascaded reshaping and reamplification (2R are capable of initiating ultrashort pulses despite the accumulation of large amounts of nonlinearities in all-fiber resonators. The spectral properties of pulses in self-similar propagation are compatible with cascaded 2R regeneration by offset filtering, making parabolic pulses suitable for the design of a laser of this recently introduced class. A new type of regenerative laser giving birth to similaritons is numerically investigated and shows that this laser is the analog of regenerative sources based solely on self-phase modulation and offset filtering. The regenerative similariton laser does not suffer from instabilities due to excessive nonlinearities and enables ultrashort pulse generation in a simple cavity configuration.

  9. Solid-state led-pumped YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ ring laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belozerov, S.A.; Korniyenko, L.S.; Kravtsov, N.V.; Kuratev, I.I.; Rusakov, S.I.; Stel' makh, M.F.; Shelayev, A.A.; Shelayev, A.N.

    1984-01-12

    The article is a report on attainment of stimulated emission in a YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ solid-state ring laser (lambda = 1.06 ..mu..m) with both cw and pulsed pumping by light-emitting diodes. The YAG:Nd/sup 3 +/ crystal was 1.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long with Brewster faces. The laser was made as a monoblock in which channels were drilled for the laser beam. Total losses on the mirrors did not exceed 0.2%. Cavity perimeter was 22 cm. Pumping was by two lines of LEDs based on epitaxial heterostructure Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As. In the pulsed pumping mode maximum pulse duration was 8 ms, and maximum recurrence rate was 100 Hz. The threshold pumping current in the pulsed mode was about 1.1 A with prf of 10 Hz, pulse duration of 0.5 ms and temperature of 300 K. Maximum admissible current in this mode is 6 A. In cw pumping, the LED lines were fed by a stabilized DC source at voltage of about 40 V. Threshold pumping current was about 1.5 A, i.e., the threshold power was about 60 W. The optimum maximum current in the cw mode was about 2.0 A. Emission power was a near-linear function of current through the LEDs in either pumping mode. It was experimentally demonstrated that a rotating ring laser can produce stable beats with both cw and pulsed LED pumping. It should be possible to use self-switching modes to measure non-reciprocal effects. 5 references, 2 figures.

  10. Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2000-05-15

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.

  11. Transforming organizational capabilities in strategizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Offshored and networked enterprises are becoming an important if not leading organizational form and this development seriously challenges their organizational capabilities. More specifically, over the last years, SMEs have commenced entering these kinds of arrangements. As the organizational cap...

  12. Advanced Capabilities for Combat Medics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor A; Cooke, William H; Salinas, Jose; Holcomb, John B

    2004-01-01

    The US Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has the lead for directing the Research Program Area for Advanced Triage Capabilities for Combat Medics in the Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC...

  13. MCNP: Multigroup/adjoint capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.C.; Redmond, E.L. II; Palmtag, S.P.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses various aspects related to the use and validity of the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP for multigroup/adjoint calculations. The increased desire to perform comparisons between Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, along with the ever-present desire to increase the efficiency of large MCNP calculations has produced a greater user demand for the multigroup/adjoint capabilities. To more fully utilize these capabilities, we review the applications of the Monte Carlo multigroup/adjoint method, describe how to generate multigroup cross sections for MCNP with the auxiliary CRSRD code, describe how to use the multigroup/adjoint capability in MCNP, and provide examples and results indicating the effectiveness and validity of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint treatment. This information should assist users in taking advantage of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint capabilities.

  14. Stress distribution in Co-Cr implant frameworks after laser or TIG welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Gabriela Cassaro; de Araújo, Cleudmar Amaral; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio de Arruda

    2013-01-01

    Lack of passivity has been associated with biomechanical problems in implant-supported prosthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the passivity of three techniques to fabricate an implant framework from a Co-Cr alloy by photoelasticity. The model was obtained from a steel die simulating an edentulous mandible with 4 external hexagon analog implants with a standard platform. On this model, five frameworks were fabricated for each group: a monoblock framework (control), laser and TIG welding frameworks. The photoelastic model was made from a flexible epoxy resin. On the photoelastic analysis, the frameworks were bolted onto the model for the verification of maximum shear stress at 34 selected points around the implants and 5 points in the middle of the model. The stresses were compared all over the photoelastic model, between the right, left, and center regions and between the cervical and apical regions. The values were subjected to two-way ANOVA, and Tukey's test (α=0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups and studied areas (p>0.05). It was concluded that the stresses generated around the implants were similar for all techniques.

  15. What makes for a successful laser application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    Industrial application of lasers are within several different niches. A few of these niches are so large that standard equipment are on the market. However, most applications are more or less custom designed.The industrial laser market is new, the market size is small, and therefore the systems...... suppliers do normally not pocess internal ressources for efficient application development, except for their key market segments.The industrial laser market is further characterized by the large divertisement in products: Is the optimum laser for a certain job a CO2- or a ND-YAG-laser? Ore perhaps a Copper...... Vapour Laser? Should the CO2-laser be a slow-flow-laser with excellent pulsing capability or a larger fast-axial-flow-laser?The choises are many.Imagin a morning in the office at the application laboratory in one of the largest laser companies. The daily mail has arrived and the 3 engineers has opened...

  16. High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser apllications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, S. Brandon

    2011-03-01

    OPS lasers have found applications in various industrial and scientific laser applications due to their power scaling capability, their wide range of emission wavelengths, physical size and their superior reliability. This paper provides an overview of commercially available OPS lasers and the applications in which they are used including biotechnology, medical, holography, Titanium-Sapphire laser pumping, non-lethal defense, forensics, and entertainment.

  17. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randal G.; Robinson, Elisa L.

    1988-01-01

    The Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES), which supports the Hellfire missile and Copperhead projectile laser seekers, is discussed. The ALSPES capabilities in manual and automatic operation are described, and the ALSPES test hardware is examined, including the computer system, the laser/attenuator, optics systems, seeker test fixture, and the measurement and test equipment. The calibration of laser energy and test signals in ALSPES is considered.

  18. Multiphysical Simulation of Laser Material Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Koch, Holger; Vazquez, Rodrigo Gomez

    Within this paper a multiphysical simulation model is presented that is capable for simulating a wide range of laser processes like e.g. laser beam welding, brazing, cutting, drilling or ablation. Some important aspects of the model are explained more in detail and results from test cases are compared with analytical solutions revealing the high accuracy of the model. Finally exemplary results from process simulations on laser beam remote cutting of steel and laser beam scribing of silicon wafers are given.

  19. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  20. Development of a Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here, we propose to develop a breadboard laser system that is capable of producing radiation in two UV wavelengths.  This Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser...

  1. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Lasers Technology Program of IPEN is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of optical materials and new technologies, as well to laser applications in several areas: Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. The Program is basically divided into two main areas: Material and Laser Development and Laser Applications.

  2. Improving Capabilities for Irregular Warfare. Volume 2. Capabilities Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    ranged from the Israelis and other Jews buying up all the land in Iraq, to the Coca -Cola logo (sup- posedly owned by Jews) as saying “No Mecca, No...Insurgencies en- tail especially demanding learning curves. Not only does one have to master the structure, TTPs, and capabilities of the insurgents, but a

  3. Physical capability scale: psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Boltz, Marie; Galik, Elizabeth; Wells, Chris

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the psychometric testing of the Basic Physical Capability Scale. The study was a secondary data analysis of combined data sets from three studies. Study participants included 93 older adults, recruited from 2 acute-care settings and 110 older adults living in long-term care facilities. Rasch analysis was used for the testing of the measurement model. There was some support for construct validity based on the fit of the items to the scale across both samples. In addition, there was support for hypothesis testing as physical function was significantly associated with physical capability. There was evidence for internal consistency (Alpha coefficients of .77-.83) and interrater reliability based on an intraclass correlation of .81. This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Basic Physical Capability Scale, and guidance for scale revisions and continued use.

  4. A unifying process capability metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jay Flaig

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new economic approach to process capability assessment is presented, which differs from the commonly used engineering metrics. The proposed metric consists of two economic capability measures – the expected profit and the variation in profit of the process. This dual economic metric offers a number of significant advantages over other engineering or economic metrics used in process capability analysis. First, it is easy to understand and communicate. Second, it is based on a measure of total system performance. Third, it unifies the fraction nonconforming approach and the expected loss approach. Fourth, it reflects the underlying interest of management in knowing the expected financial performance of a process and its potential variation.

  5. CLAS Capabilities at Higher Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepan Stepanyan

    1998-06-01

    In order to study the capability of the Hall B CLAS detector at high energies, we studied the resolution and the acceptance for various final states in the electroproduction on a proton target at 10 GeV beam energy. We find that, although CLAS can do some of the interesting physics at higher energies in the present configuration, several modifications can significantly improve the overall physics acceptable to CLAS at high energies. In this report, we present some of the results of those studies with suggestions on possible detector improvements to optimize the physics capabilities of CLAS.

  6. Nanofabrication principles, capabilities and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Nanofabrication is one of the most comprehensive introductions on nanofabrication technologies and processes. A practical guide and reference, this book introduces readers to all of the developed technologies that are capable of making structures below 100nm. The principle of each technology is introduced and illustrated with minimum mathematics involved. Also analyzed are the capabilities of each technology in making sub-100nm structures, and the limits of preventing a technology from going further down the dimensional scale. This book provides readers with a toolkit that will help with any of their nanofabrication challenges.

  7. Lasers for bio-optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sona, Alberto

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are being increasingly used in bioptics and in life sciences in general, especially for medical applications for therapy and diagnostics. Lasers are also broadly used in environment sciences to monitor atmospheric parameters and concentrations of molecular species of natural origin or coming from human activities such as the various kind of pollutants. The peculiar features of lasers exploited in these areas are mainly the capability of developing an action or performing a measurement without physical contact with the target and, if required, from a remote position with the assistance of suitable beam delivery systems such as telescopes, microscopes, or optical fibers. These features are directly related to the space and time coherence of the laser light and to the energy storage capability of the laser material which allow an extremely effective concentration of the beam energy in space, direction frequency, or time. A short description of the principle of operation and relevant properties of lasers are given and the most significant properties of the laser emission are briefly reviewed. Lasers for medical applications (mainly for therapy) will be mentioned, pointing out the specific property exploited for the various applications. Finally, examples of laser applications to the environmental sciences will be reported. A summary of the properties exploited in the various bio-optical applications is shown.

  8. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimriks, Koen H.

    We discuss the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories of micro-level components underlying routines...

  9. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Tippo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimericks, Koen H.;

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Special Issue and discusses the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories...

  10. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...

  11. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  12. ABOUT SOLIDWORKS SUSTAINABILITY MODULE CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the SolidWorks analysis steps to be taken in order to study sustainability of parts or assemblies designed. There are presented the software capabilities and the settings that have to be done for such analysis and the results shown by software.

  13. Simulation of laser penetration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semak, V. V.; Miller, T. F.

    2013-09-01

    The results of numerical simulation of laser beam interaction with a hypothetical metallic material with properties similar to a steel alloy are reported. The numerical simulation was performed using a physical model that includes detailed consideration of surface evaporation, evaporative cooling of the surface and evaporation recoil induced melt ejection. The laser beam ‘penetration’ is considered in terms of melting through the sample or drilling through the sample due to both evaporation and recoil ejection of material. As a demonstration of the predictive capabilities of the model, the average velocity of penetration through a material with steel-like properties is numerically predicted for various laser interaction parameters such as, laser beam radius, laser pulse duration (including CW regime), laser pulse energy and pulse repetition. In particular, the average penetration velocities through a sample due to melting are compared for pulsed and CW lasers of the same power. For the sake of another demonstration of penetration simulation, the temporal dynamics of the position of melt front relative to the sample surface irradiated by a laser beam was computed for different laser pulse repetition rates and constant average laser power. An illustration of the penetration efficiency (W parameter) defined as the amount of energy per unit volume delivered into a target in order to achieve either melting of drilling through a target wall is shown in a wide range of laser pulse parameters covering regimes corresponding to domination of melting through and drilling through.

  14. Laser therapy of muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Munqith S; Al-Salihi, Anam Rasheed; Qasim, Amenah Wala'a

    2013-05-01

    Low-level lasers are used in general therapy and healing process due to their good photo-bio-stimulation effects. In this paper, the effects of diode laser and Nd:YAG laser on the healing process of practically managed skeletal muscle trauma has been successfully studied. Standard impact trauma was induced by using a specially designed mechanical device. The impacted muscle was left for 3 days for complete development of blunt trauma. After that it was irradiated by five laser sessions for 5 days. Two types of lasers were used; 785-nm diode laser and 1.064-nm Nd:YAG laser, both in continuous and pulsed modes. A special electronic circuit was designed and implemented to modulate the diode laser for this purpose. Tissue samples of crushed skeletal muscle have been dissected from the injured irradiated muscle then bio-chemically analyzed for the regeneration of contractile and collagenous proteins using Lowry assay for protein determination and Reddy and Enwemeka assay for hydroxyproline determination. The results showed that both lasers stimulate the regeneration capability of traumatized skeletal muscle. The diode laser in CW and pulsed modes showed better results than the Nd:YAG in accelerating the preservation of the normal tissue content of collagenous and contractile proteins beside controlling the regeneration of non-functional fibrous tissue. This study proved that the healing achieved by the laser treatment was faster than the control group by 15-20 days.

  15. Erosion evaluation capability of the IVVS for ITER applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Ferri de Collibus, Mario; Florean, Marco; Francucci, Massimo; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Neri, Carlo; Rossi, Paolo [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Dubus, Gregory; Damiani, Carlo [Fusion For Energy c/Josep Pla, 2 Torres Diagonal Litoral, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •High resolution laser radar range images for hostile environment (IVVS). •Evaluation of the erosion on the surface scanned by IVVS laser radar. •Erosion evaluation procedure and software. •Test and results of the erosion evaluation procedure. -- Abstract: In ITER it is foreseen the use of the In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS), whose scanning head is a 3D laser imaging system able to obtain high-resolution intensity and range images in hostile environments. The IVVS will be permanently installed into a port extension, therefore it has to be compliant with ITER primary vacuum requirements. In the frame of a Fusion for Energy Grant, an investigation of the expected IVVS metrology performances was required to evaluate the device capability to detect erosions on ITER first wall and divertor and to estimate the amount of eroded material. In ENEA Frascati laboratories, an IVVS probe prototype was developed along with a method and a computational procedure applied to a reference erosion plate target simulating ITER vessel components and their possible erosions. Experimental tests were carried out by this system performing several scans of the reference target with different incidence angles, estimating the eroded volume and comparing this volume with its true value. A dedicated study has been also done by changing the power of the laser source; a discussion about the quality of the 3D laser images is reported. The main results obtained during laboratory tests and data processing are presented and discussed.

  16. Full spatially resolved laser modeling and design using GLOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Jared; Decker, Mark; Koroshetz, John

    2016-05-01

    L-3 ALST has developed a Generalized Laser and Optics Simulation Suite (GLOSS) to quickly and reliably design high performance laser transmitters. GLOSS uses state of the art wave propagation based algorithms to rigorously simulate the dynamics of laser oscillation. Laser pulse energy, pulse width, beam size, beam shape, and divergence are among the many key performances parameters GLOSS models have the capability to predict. The GLOSS modeling methodology will be discussed and examples of its powerful capability will be demonstrated. Model predictions within 10-15% of actual laser performance data from a sample of experimental lasers will also be shown.

  17. Rapid Capability Fielding Toolbox Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    should  inventory  and  leverage  the  substantial  capabilities  currently existing across  the  department  in M&S  (game and virtual environment...Northwestern University, and  Samsung .   One example project  that  included  significant  use of UCD  tools was  the development of  the Chicago Bus Rapid...Establish C2E training and career development programs for DoD engineers.  Recommendation:   Inventory  DoD Laboratory Capabilities  The DoD  should

  18. Judgmental Forecasting of Operational Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper explores a new judgmental forecasting indicator, the Employee Sensed Operational Capabilities (ESOC). The purpose of the ESOC is to establish a practical prediction tool that can provide early signals about changes in financial performance by gauging frontline employees’ sensing...... can predict financial performance. Monthly data were collected from frontline employees in three different companies during an 18-month period, and the initial results indicate that the ESOChas predictive power....... of changes in the firm’s operational capabilities. We present the first stage of the development of ESOC by applying a formative measurement approach to test the index in relation to financial performance and against an organizational commitment scale. We use distributed lag models to test whether the ESOC...

  19. Improving the RPC rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Iuppa, R; Liberti, B; Paolozzi, L; Pastori, E; Santonico, R; Toppi, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper has the purpose to study the rate capability of the Resistive Plate Chamber, RPC, starting from the basic physics of this detector. The effect of different working parameters determining the rate capability is analysed in detail, in order to optimize a new family of RPCs for applications to heavy irradiation environments and in particular to the LHC phase 2. A special emphasis is given to the improvement achievable by minimizing the avalanche charge delivered in the gas. The paper shows experimental results of Cosmic Ray tests, performed to study the avalanche features for different gas gap sizes, with particular attention to the overall delivered charge. For this purpose, the paper studies, in parallel to the prompt electronic signal, also the ionic signal which gives the main contribution to the delivered charge. Whenever possible the test results are interpreted on the base of the RPC detector physics and are intended to extend and reinforce our physical understanding of this detector.

  20. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  1. Human-Centered Design Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Howard, Robert

    2009-01-01

    For NASA, human-centered design (HCD) seeks opportunities to mitigate the challenges of living and working in space in order to enhance human productivity and well-being. Direct design participation during the development stage is difficult, however, during project formulation, a HCD approach can lead to better more cost-effective products. HCD can also help a program enter the development stage with a clear vision for product acquisition. HCD tools for clarifying design intent are listed. To infuse HCD into the spaceflight lifecycle the Space and Life Sciences Directorate developed the Habitability Design Center. The Center has collaborated successfully with program and project design teams and with JSC's Engineering Directorate. This presentation discusses HCD capabilities and depicts the Center's design examples and capabilities.

  2. Determining your organization's 'risk capability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Bill; Hancock, Melinda

    2014-05-01

    An assessment of a provider's level of risk capability should focus on three key elements: Business intelligence, including sophisticated analytical models that can offer insight into the expected cost and quality of care for a given population. Clinical enterprise maturity, marked by the ability to improve health outcomes and to manage utilization and costs to drive change. Revenue transformation, emphasizing the need for a revenue cycle platform that allows for risk acceptance and management and that provides incentives for performance against defined objectives.

  3. Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

  4. Laser processing with specially designed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asratyan, A. A.; Bulychev, N. A.; Feofanov, I. N.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Lyabin, N. A.; Pogosyan, L. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zakharyan, R. A.

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using laser systems to form beams with special spatial configurations has been studied. The laser systems applied had a self-conjugate cavity based on the elements of copper vapor lasers (LT-5Cu, LT-10Cu, LT-30Cu) with an average power of 5, 10, or 30 W. The active elements were pumped by current pulses of duration 80-100 ns. The duration of laser generation pulses was up to 25 ns. The generator unit included an unstable cavity, where one reflector was a special mirror with a reflecting coating. Various original optical schemes used were capable of exploring spatial configurations and energy characteristics of output laser beams in their interaction with micro- and nanoparticles fabricated from various materials. In these experiments, the beam dimensions of the obtained zones varied from 0.3 to 5 µm, which is comparable with the minimum permissible dimensions determined by the optical elements applied. This method is useful in transforming a large amount of information at the laser pulse repetition rate of 10-30 kHz. It was possible to realize the high-precision micromachining and microfabrication of microscale details by direct writing, cutting and drilling (with the cutting width and through-hole diameters ranging from 3 to 100 µm) and produce microscale, deep, intricate and narrow grooves on substrate surfaces of metals and nonmetal materials. This system is used for producing high-quality microscale details without moving the object under treatment. It can also be used for microcutting and microdrilling in a variety of metals such as molybdenum, copper and stainless steel, with a thickness of up to 300 µm, and in nonmetals such as silicon, sapphire and diamond with a thickness ranging from 10 µm to 1 mm with different thermal parameters and specially designed laser beam.

  5. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser....

  6. The potential application of a Cobalt Chrome Molybdenum femoral stem with functionally graded orthotropic structures manufactured using Laser Melting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, K B; Wang, C J; Stanford, M

    2013-12-01

    The cementless fixation of porous coated femoral stems is a common technique employed for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). With the rate of revision surgery appearing to rise and younger more active patients requiring primary surgery it can be thought that alternative methods for increasing implant longevity need to be considered. The stress shielding of periprosthetic bone still remains a contributing factor to implant loosening, caused through a mismatch in stiffness between the implant and the bone. However, the ability to achieve stiffness matching characteristics is being realised through the use of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM). This paper proposes an alternative design methodology for a monoblock Cobalt Chrome Molybdenum (CoCrMo) femoral stem. It hypothesises that a femoral stem suitable for cementless fixation can be manufactured using Laser Melting (LM) technology offering orthotropic functionally graded porous structures with similar mechanical properties to human bone. The structure and mechanical properties of the natural femur have been used as a basis for the design criteria which hypothesises that through a combination of numerical analysis and physical testing, an optimal design can be proposed to provide a lightweight, customised femoral stem that can reduce the risk of implant loosening through stress shielding whilst maintaining bone-implant interface stability.

  7. Blue Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  8. Practitioner Perspectives on Foundational Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the “foundational capabilities” (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. Objective: To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. Design: In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term “foundational capabilities,” as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Setting: Telephone-based interviews. Participants: Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Main Outcome Measures: Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Results: Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Conclusions: Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational

  9. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  10. Formation capability of bacterial biofilm on titanium plate versus necrotic bone Characterization with confocal laser scanning microscope%激光共聚焦显微镜观察钛板和死骨表面细菌生物膜的形成能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宏; 孙效棠; 冯安平; 王万明

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacteria attachment and biofilm formation at the surface of metal implants and sequestrum are major reasons for chronic infection of musculoskeletal system. OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare the formation capability of bacterial biofilm on titanium plate and necrotic bone. METHODS: The model of bacterial biofilm was developed with modified stroma culture approach. Ten titanium plate cylinders and ten pieces of necrotic bone were randomly matched. Each pair was placed in one culture flask and immersed in bacteria solution. The biofilm of each group was stained with fluorochrome, observed and photographed using confocal laser scanning microscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the necrotic bone, the thickness of bacterial biofilm on the titanium plate was less (P < 0.05) and the percentage of live bacteria in the medium layer and the bottom layer was higher (P < 0.05). Results indicate that the bacterial biofilm tends to more easily develop on the surface of necrotic bone than on the surface of titanium plate.%背景:细菌在金属植入物和死骨表面附着并形成的生物膜是造成骨骼肌肉系统的慢性感染的根本原因.目的:观察并比较细菌在钛板和死骨表面形成细菌生物膜的能力.方法:用改良的基质培养法制备细菌生物膜模型,将10块钛板圆柱和10片死骨随机配对,每一对放置在同一个培养瓶中用其菌液浸泡淹没,在同一个培养环境中培养.用荧光染料对各组细菌生物膜进行染色,激光共聚焦显微镜下观察并采集图像.结果与结论:与死骨相比,钛板表面的细菌生物膜厚度较小(P < 0.05),其细菌生物膜中层和深层的活菌率较高(P < 0.05).说明细菌在死骨形表面成细菌生物膜的能力强于钛板.

  11. Pulsed Laser Centre (CLPU). The Salamanca peta watt laser; Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU). El laser de Petavatio de Salamanca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    With pulses lasting 30 photo seconds, the CLPU VEGA laser is capable of generating a peak power level of one peta watt, this making it one of the worlds most powerful lasers. When focussed it can reach extreme intensities. The way in which a pulse of this nature interacts with an atom or what its applications might be are among the questions answered by this article. (Author)

  12. Plasmonic laser printing for functional metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Carstensen, M. S.; Vannahme, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances can be created. This technology creates a laser printer capable of producing color images with a resolution up to 127,000 DPI. With tailored trains of laser pulses, multiple optical states are flatiron onto the metasurface film with a nanoscale......Recently, we show a method of color printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures [1]. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface...

  13. New opportunities for cutting with lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Thomas; Mairhörmann, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    Laser microcutting is a leading technology for the manufacture of surgical instruments and medical implants. This article assesses its capabilities for stents and surgical-needle manufacture and for other tube-cutting applications that require microscaled designs.

  14. Laser based refurbishment of steel mill components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kazadi, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser refurbishment capabilities were demonstrated and promising results were obtained for repair of distance sleeves, foot rolls, descaler cassette, idler rolls. Based on the cost projections and the results of the in-situ testing, components which...

  15. Automated Laser Seeker Performance Evaluation System (ALSPES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides complete open-loop test capability for semi-active laser (SAL) seekers/sensors operating at 1.064 microns. ALSPES provides characterizations...

  16. Laser Lithography: Heidelberg DWL-66FS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Name: Laser Writer High resolution pattern generator for low volume mask making and direct writing. Specifications / Capabilities: 1x1 to 6x6 inch...

  17. What makes for a successful laser application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    suppliers do normally not pocess internal ressources for efficient application development, except for their key market segments.The industrial laser market is further characterized by the large divertisement in products: Is the optimum laser for a certain job a CO2- or a ND-YAG-laser? Ore perhaps a Copper...... Vapour Laser? Should the CO2-laser be a slow-flow-laser with excellent pulsing capability or a larger fast-axial-flow-laser?The choises are many.Imagin a morning in the office at the application laboratory in one of the largest laser companies. The daily mail has arrived and the 3 engineers has opened...... the 10 new letters with requests from their sales offices around the world. The requests are sorted in three equal sized stacks: One for straight forwards jobs, one for possible jobs and one for impossible or very difficult jobs. What will they do? They will of course try to demonstrate the feasability...

  18. Laser welding of polymers using high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Friedrich G.; Russek, Ulrich A.

    2003-09-01

    Laser welding of polymers using high power diode lasers offers specific process advantages over conventional technologies, such as short process times while providing optically and qualitatively valuable weld seams, contactless yielding of the joining energy, absence of process induced vibrations, imposing minimal thermal stress and avoiding particle generation. Furthermore this method exhibits high integration capabilities and automatization potential. Moreover, because of the current favorable cost development within the high power diode laser market laser welding of polymers has become more and more an industrially accepted joining method. This novel technology permits both, reliable high quality joining of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive micro components and hermetic sealing of macro components. There are different welding strategies available, which are adaptable to the current application. Within the frame of this discourse scientific and also application oriented results concerning laser transmission welding of polymers using preferably diode lasers are presented. Besides the used laser systems the fundamental process strategies as well as decisive process parameters are illustrated. The importance of optical, thermal and mechanical properties is discussed. Applications at real technical components will be presented, demonstrating the industrial implementation capability and the advantages of a novel technology.

  19. Solid State Laser Rangefinders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mansharamani

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Describes the development of solid-state laser rangefinders, during the last thirty years. The laser rangefinders using solid-state laser materials operating in visible, near and mid-infrared spectrum of light are in use. Considering the cost, efficiency, atmospheric transmission and detection capability, neodymium laser rangefinders operating in near-infrared region are still the state-of-the-art and are more in use as compared to rangefinders using other solid-state materials. The neodymium laser rangefinders in different configurations and use, developed in this Establishment are also described. The neodymium and diode lasers with improved detection capability in multiple pulse operation with pulse correlation techniques are under development to make these rangefinders eyesafe.

  20. Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    The human capabilities approach developed by the economist Amartya Sen links development, quality of life and freedom. This article explores the key ideas in the capability approach of: capability, functioning, agency, human diversity and public participation in generating valued capabilities. It then considers how these ideas relate specifically…

  1. Professionals and Public Good Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Walker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Martha Nussbaum (2011 reminds us that, all over the world people are struggling for a life that is fully human - a life worthy of human dignity. Purely income-based and preference-based evaluations, as Sen (1999 argues, do not adequately capture what it means for each person to have quality of life. There are other things that make life good for a person, including access to publicly provided professional services. The question then is what version of education inflects more towards the intrinsic and transformational possibilities of professional work and contributions to decent societies? This paper suggests that we need a normative approach to professional education and professionalism; it is not the case that any old version will do. We also need normative criteria to move beyond social critique and to overcome a merely defensive attitude and to give a positive definition to the potential achievements of the professions. Moreover universities are connected to society, most especially through the professionals they educate; it is reasonable in our contemporary world to educate professional graduates to be in a position to alleviate inequalities, and to have the knowledge, skills and values to be able to do so. To make this case, we draw on the human capabilities approach of Sen (1999, 2009 and Nussbaum (2000, 2011 to conceptualise professional education for the public good as an ally of the struggles of people living in poverty and experiencing inequalities, expanding the well-being of people to be and to do in ways they have reason to value – to be mobile, cared for, respected, and so on. In particular we are interested in which human capabilities and functionings are most needed for a professional practice and professionalism that can contribute to transformative social change and how professional development is enabled via pedagogical arrangements.

  2. Integrated sensors for robotic laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Beyer, E.; Dausinger, F; Ostendorf, A; Otto, A.

    2005-01-01

    A welding head is under development with integrated sensory systems for robotic laser welding applications. Robotic laser welding requires sensory systems that are capable to accurately guide the welding head over a seam in three-dimensional space and provide information about the welding process as

  3. Future Capabilities and Technologies for the Air Force in 2030. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    as a foil to evaluate future systems and technologies, to deter- mine the optimum path forward for Air Force investment. These senior officers each...attacks are being designed to degrade adversary command and control and early- warning capabilities. Finally, submarines, destroyers, aircraft, mines ...Paralysis in Military Operations Jan S. Breemer, December 2000 20 Using Lasers in Space: Laser Orbital Debris Removal and Asteroid Deflection Jonathon

  4. State-of-the-art of laser materials processing; Saikin no laser kakono genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsuna, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-12-31

    The use of laser in the field of materials processing is stated. For the processing of materials, devices have been developed for CO2 laser, YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) laser, excimer laser, and semiconductor laser. A 45kW output CO2 laser device and a 10kW YAG laser device are already on the market, and research and development is in progress for processes still higher in efficiency. The welding of 30-40mm thick steel slabs is already in actual use, with the aid of a 45kW CO2 laser device. In the field of cutting, a 6kW device has come into use in ship building and bridge construction and in steel frame fabrication. The progress of YAG laser development is remarkable, and a flexible manufacturing system has been constructed using 0.6mm diameter optical fibers. The system is about to be utilized in the automobile industry etc. Diode laser devices capable of 2.5kW have been developed in Germany and America, which will be installed on robot arm tips for application to 3-dimensional laser processing. Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., has developed a 10kW chemical iodine laser, which is a YAG device excited by a laser diode. Described in the text are the characteristics of laser-aided processing, kinds of laser-aided processing, applications in industrial fields, etc. (NEDO)

  5. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners.

  6. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...

  7. Lasers (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1969-01-01

    A laser is an instrument that produces an enormously intense pencil-thin beam of light. In this booklet we shall learn what there is about the laser that gives it so much promise. We shall investigate what it is, how it works, and the different kinds of lasers there are.

  8. Properties and Applications of Laser Generated X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R F; Key, M H

    2002-02-25

    The rapid development of laser technology and related progress in research using lasers is shifting the boundaries where laser based sources are preferred over other light sources particularly in the XUV and x-ray spectral region. Laser based sources have exceptional capability for short pulse and high brightness and with improvements in high repetition rate pulsed operation, such sources are also becoming more interesting for their average power capability. This study presents an evaluation of the current capabilities and near term future potential of laser based light sources and summarizes, for the purpose of comparison, the characteristics and near term prospects of sources based on synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Conclusions are drawn on areas where the development of laser based sources is most promising and competitive in terms of applications potential.

  9. Comparison of Capabilities of Quadcopters for Use in Cryospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld Mayer, M. U.; Herzfeld, U. C.

    2014-12-01

    Quadcopters, small unmanned aircraft with 4 wings and 4 rotors, have developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, we examine and compare the capabilities of quadcopters with respect of their capabilities for use in observations of glaciers and sea ice. We compare the following: Payload, size of aircraft, range and endurance, flight altitude, operation restrictions. Special consideration is given to the type of remote-sensing instrumentation that can be operated, such as video and still cameras, laser altimeters, geolocation such as GPS, and data storage and data transmission and communication. For illustration, we include examples from remote-sensing observations collected from other types of small unmanned and manned aircraft of glaciers and sea ice environments.

  10. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  11. OPSAID improvements and capabilities report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Chavez, Adrian R.

    2011-08-01

    Process Control System (PCS) and Industrial Control System (ICS) security is critical to our national security. But there are a number of technological, economic, and educational impediments to PCS owners implementing effective security on their systems. Sandia National Laboratories has performed the research and development of the OPSAID (Open PCS Security Architecture for Interoperable Design), a project sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE/OE), to address this issue. OPSAID is an open-source architecture for PCS/ICS security that provides a design basis for vendors to build add-on security devices for legacy systems, while providing a path forward for the development of inherently-secure PCS elements in the future. Using standardized hardware, a proof-of-concept prototype system was also developed. This report describes the improvements and capabilities that have been added to OPSAID since an initial report was released. Testing and validation of this architecture has been conducted in another project, Lemnos Interoperable Security Project, sponsored by DOE/OE and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  12. Atmospheric Laser Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer(, Kenneth W.; Witiw, Michael R.; Baars+, Jeffrey A.; Oke, T. R.

    2004-05-01

    Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly through the atmosphere via laser beams over paths from a few meters to 4 km or longer. FSL uses lasers in the near-infrared spectrum, typically at wavelengths of 850 or 1550 nm. Given these wavelengths, atmospheric attenuation must be considered, and an adequate margin of optical power (dB) must exist to support high system availability (the percentage of time that an FSL link is in operation, typically 99.9%). A visual range of 100 m can attenuate a laser beam at a rate of nearly 130 dB km-1. For short links (rain, and snow frequently become issues. To address these issues, long-term climate data are analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of low visibilities and low-cloud ceilings. To estimate availability at a site of interest, adjustments to airport climate data are made to accommodate differences in altitude, geography, and the effects of the urban heat island. In sum, communication via FSL is a feasible alternative to fiber optic cable when atmospheric conditions are considered and properly analyzed.(Current affiliation: The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington+Current affiliation: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

  13. The refurbished Z facility : capabilities and recent experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeper, Ramon Joe; Long, Finis W.; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Hall, Clint Allen; Atherton, Briggs W.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Donovan, Guy Louis; McKee, G. Randall; Weinbrecht, Edward A.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Struve, Kenneth William; Stygar, William A.; Kiefer, Mark Linden; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Schneider, Larry X.

    2008-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment Project was completed in September 2007. Prior to the shutdown of the Z facility in July 2006 to install the new hardware, it provided currents of {le} 20 MA to produce energetic, intense X-ray sources ({approx} 1.6 MJ, > 200 TW) for performing high energy density science experiments and to produce high magnetic fields and pressures for performing dynamic material property experiments. The refurbishment project doubled the stored energy within the existing tank structure and replaced older components with modern, conventional technology and systems that were designed to drive both short-pulse Z-pinch implosions and long-pulse dynamic material property experiments. The project goals were to increase the delivered current for additional performance capability, improve overall precision and pulse shape flexibility for better reproducibility and data quality, and provide the capacity to perform more shots. Experiments over the past year have been devoted to bringing the facility up to full operating capabilities and implementing a refurbished suite of diagnostics. In addition, we have enhanced our X-ray backlighting diagnostics through the addition of a two-frame capability to the Z-Beamlet system and the addition of a high power laser (Z-Petawatt). In this paper, we will summarize the changes made to the Z facility, highlight the new capabilities, and discuss the results of some of the early experiments.

  14. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  15. Laser thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    Laser propulsion can reduce fuel by 57 t to 105 t over chemical propulsion for a 144 t Lunar base, with no significant increase in trip time. Laser propulsion reduces trip time by a factor of 40 to 120 over nuclear electric propulsion and time in radiation belts by a factor of 100 to 1700. Either solar or nuclear driven laser diode arrays could produce multimegawatt beams, typically 3,700 t for a 235 MW laser system. Laser diode arrays have high payoff due to short wavelength (850 nm) and high diode efficiency (70 percent). A dry laser OTV of 8790 kg and 60 percent efficiency can transport a 144 t lunar base. Laser propulsion could carry both personnel and cargo safely to the lunar base.

  16. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  17. Organizational Economics of Capability and Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyres, Nicholas S.; Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul;

    2012-01-01

    For decades, the literatures on firm capabilities and organizational economics have been at odds with each other, specifically relative to explaining organizational boundaries and heterogeneity. We briefly trace the history of the relationship between the capabilities literature and organizationa...

  18. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: computation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This report characterizes the computation systems capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. 9 figures.

  19. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  20. DESIGNING AND MEASURING CAPABILITY. A NEW PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COCENESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capability has long been a topic for debate among planners. The main benefit brought by it is that of ensuring the connection between objectives and necessary financial resources. Thus, capability is a median element within the process of integrated planning. In this context, there are sceptics who consider that capability cannot be measured. However, this article aims at presenting a pattern and a formula for measuring and interpreting the level of capability.

  1. STRATEGIC AIRLIFT CAPABILITY: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar VASILESCU

    2011-01-01

    Strategic airlift remains a critical supporting capability that should be achieved, maintained and improved. This capability ensures the ability to deploy and sustain military forces across possible distant battlefields. The paper analyses the growing strategic airlift capabilities gap between operational needs and current realities, and underlines the need for an enhanced strategic airlift capability to meet current and future NATO alliance needs. By analyzing requirements against the existi...

  2. Monoblock versus modular polyethylene insert in uncemented total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Rathsach; Winther, Nikolaj; Lind, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Backside wear of the polyethylene insert in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can produce clinically significant levels of polyethylene debris, which can lead to loosening of the tibial component. Loosening due to polyethylene debris could theoretically be reduced in tibial...... as maximum total point motion (MTPM)) of the 2 different implant designs. Results - We did not find any statistically significant difference in MTPM between the groups at 3 months (p = 0.2) or at 6 months (p = 0.1), but at 12 and 24 months of follow-up there was a significant difference in MTPM of 0.36 mm (p...

  3. TOTAL EAR RECONSTRUCTION WITH MONOBLOCK CARTILAGE AND TEMPOROPARIETAL FASCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Microtia is a congenital ear deformity with incidence of 1:6000. Anotia can be of traumatic origin also. It is one of the greatest challenges to the plastic surgeon to the reconstruct the ear from autologus material . Various developments have occurred in the ear reconstruction from the era of Tanzer. It can be done in a single stage or multiple stages. Single stage ear reconstruction require technical precision, avoids multiple admission of the patient. MATERIAL AND M ETHOD : Between 2007 to 2013 six cases of total ear reconstruction was done in two stage method using autologus coastal cartilage in the department of M.K.C.G medical college by a single surgeon. In the first stage lobule rotation, fabrication of the cartil aginous framework and its implantation were performed. In the second stage elevation of the auricle and formation of tragus was done. All of them underwent stage 1 procedure among them 2 had not turned up for staged 2 procedure. RESULT S: 4 were females and 2 were male. 4 had congenital microtia and two were traumatic amputation of the ear. All had unilateral microtia. The follow up was done for up to 1 year. CONCLUSION: One patient had lost follow up.5 patient had unacceptable ear. Though it is impossible t o reconstruct ear that appear exactly the same as opposite ear , the new ears which were made of correct size and in normal position

  4. The capabilities conception of the individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper advances a capabilities conception of the individual, and considers some of the problems involved in developing such a conception. It also makes claims about the nature of the capability space as a whole, frames personal development in terms of the idea of moving though the capability spa

  5. Biotechnology: Opportunities to Enhance Army Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    capabilities for field repair. Also, bioplastics could replace traditional synthetic materials used in equipment because of I greater strength, lighter...robots will require many of the same novel synthetic raterials as commercial robots. However, bioceramics, biopolymers, and bioplastics more suited...biological capability or performance enhanced by electronic or electrochemical devices I Bioplast - a minute quantity of living protoplasm capable of

  6. Selecting Capabilities for Quality of Life Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    The capability approach advocates that interpersonal comparisons be made in the space of functionings and capabilities. However, Amartya Sen has not specified which capabilities should be selected as the relevant ones. This has provoked two types of criticism. The stronger critique is Martha Nussbaum's claim that Sen should endorse one specific…

  7. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Kemp, A J; Debayle, A; Johzaki, T; Mori, W B; Patel, P K; Sentoku, Y; Silva, L O

    2013-01-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the compa...

  8. Modified diamond dies for laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, R.A.

    1978-06-21

    A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 ..mu..m resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.

  9. Coherent Laser Radar Metrology System for Large Scale Optical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of laser radar metrology inspection system is proposed that incorporates a novel, dual laser coherent detection scheme capable of eliminating both...

  10. Coherent Laser Radar Metrology System for Large Scale Optical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of laser radar metrology inspection system is proposed that incorporates a novel, dual laser coherent detection scheme capable of eliminating both...

  11. A comprehensive estimation method for enterprise capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Kuzhda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive business world, the need for efficient enterprise capability management is greater than ever. As more enterprises begin to compete on a global scale, the effective use of enterprise capability will become imperative for them to improve their business activities. The definition of socio-economic capability of the enterprise has been given and the main components of enterprise capability have been pointed out. The comprehensive method to estimate enterprise capability that takes into account both social and economic components has been offered. The methodical approach concerning integrated estimation of the enterprise capability has been developed. Novelty deals with the inclusion of summary measure of the social component of enterprise capability to define the integrated index of enterprise capability. The practical significance of methodological approach is that the method allows assessing the enterprise capability comprehensively through combining two kinds of estimates – social and economic and converts them into a single integrated indicator. It provides a comprehensive approach to socio-economic estimation of enterprise capability, sets a formal basis for making decisions and helps allocate enterprise resources reasonably. Practical implementation of this method will affect the current condition and trends of the enterprise, help to make forecasts and plans for its development and capability efficient use.

  12. Genomic Physics. Multiple Laser Beam Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The synapses affected by Alzheimer's disease can be rejuvenated by the multiple ultrashort wavelength laser beams.[2] The guiding lasers scan the whole area to detect the amyloid plaques based on the laser scattering technique. The scanning lasers pinpoint the areas with plaques and eliminate them. Laser interaction is highly efficient, because of the focusing capabilities and possibility for the identification of the damaging proteins by matching the protein oscillation eigen-frequency with laser frequency.[3] Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, La Jolla, California, USA.

  13. Capability Development in an Offshoring Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaura, Manya

    Capability development can be defined as deliberate firm-level investment involving a search and learning process aimed at modifying or enhancing existing capabilities. Increasingly, firms are relocating advanced services to offshore locations resulting in the challenge of capability development...... in the offshore unit. Guided by the research question – what drives or impedes capability development in an offshoring context – the purpose of this thesis is to investigate how an idiosyncratic offshoring context affects capability development. The thesis consists of three papers using various datasets...... and qualitative methods that investigate capability development in an offshoring context. The first paper investigates how capability development takes place for a service-provider firm at the activity level. The second paper examines the transition made by a captive offshore unit, from performing standardized...

  14. Activity-based resource capability modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shao-wu; XU Xiao-fei; WANG Gang; SUN Xue-dong

    2008-01-01

    To analyse and optimize a enterprise process in a wide scope, an activity-based method of modeling resource capabilities is presented. It models resource capabilities by means of the same structure as an activity, that is, resource capabilities are defined by input objects, actions and output objects. A set of activity-based re-source capability modeling rules and matching rules between an activity and a resource are introduced. This method can not only be used to describe capability of manufacturing tools, but also capability of persons and applications, etc. It unifies methods of modeling capability of all kinds of resources in an enterprise and supports the optimization of the resource allocation of a process.

  15. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...

  16. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.; Syundzo, Yo.

    1984-06-19

    It is reported that an improved gas laser design using pumping of the active medium has been developed. A diagram of the laser system is given in graph form and its principle of operation is briefly described. A special sealing element is used in such lasers to seal the reservoir containing the oil in the pump which pumps the gas active medium. When the sealing element fails, there is the danger of oil penetration into the active laser medium. It is proposed that an additional pump which continually evacuates the oil reservoir during laser system operation be used. Thus, a low pressure is maintained in the reservoir. If the sealing element fails, the secondary pump generates a gas flow from the pumping system to the reservoir and eliminates gas penetration into the laser medium.

  17. The Mercury Laser Advances Laser Technology for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, C A; Caird, J; Moses, E

    2009-01-21

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is on target to demonstrate 'breakeven' - creating as much fusion-energy output as laser-energy input. NIF will compress a tiny sphere of hydrogen isotopes with 1.8 MJ of laser light in a 20-ns pulse, packing the isotopes so tightly that they fuse together, producing helium nuclei and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. The achievement of breakeven will culminate an enormous effort by thousands of scientists and engineers, not only at Livermore but around the world, during the past several decades. But what about the day after NIF achieves breakeven? NIF is a world-class engineering research facility, but if laser fusion is ever to generate power for civilian consumption, the laser will have to deliver pulses nearly 100,000 times faster than NIF - a rate of perhaps 10 shots per second as opposed to NIF's several shots a day. The Mercury laser (named after the Roman messenger god) is intended to lead the way to a 10-shots-per-second, electrically-efficient, driver laser for commercial laser fusion. While the Mercury laser will generate only a small fraction of the peak power of NIF (1/30,000), Mercury operates at higher average power. The design of Mercury takes full advantage of the technology advances manifest in its behemoth cousin (Table 1). One significant difference is that, unlike the flashlamp-pumped NIF, Mercury is pumped by highly efficient laser diodes. Mercury is a prototype laser capable of scaling in aperture and energy to a NIF-like beamline, with greater electrical efficiency, while still running at a repetition rate 100,000 times greater.

  18. Industrial laser welding evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hella, R.; Locke, E.; Ream, S.

    1974-01-01

    High power laser welding was evaluated for fabricating space vehicle boosters. This evaluation was made for 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. aluminum (2219) and 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. D6AC steel. The Avco HPL 10 kW industrial laser was used to perform the evaluation. The objective has been achieved through the completion of the following technical tasks: (1) parameter study to optimize welding and material parameters; (2) preparation of welded panels for MSFC evaluation; and (3) demonstration of the repeatability of laser welding equipment. In addition, the design concept for a laser welding system capable of welding large space vehicle boosters has been developed.

  19. Biocavity Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  20. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  1. Image processing for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard R.; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Miller-Kamm, Victoria; Orth, Charles; Roberts, Randy; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2016-09-01

    The Advance Radiographic Capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a laser system that employs up to four petawatt (PW) lasers to produce a sequence of short-pulse kilo-Joule laser pulses with controllable delays that generate X-rays to provide backlighting for high-density internal confinement fusion (ICF) capsule targets. Multi-frame, hard-X-ray radiography of imploding NIF capsules is a capability which is critical to the success of NIF's missions. ARC is designed to employ up to eight backlighters with tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution, to record the dynamics and produce an X-ray "motion picture" of the compression and ignition of cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets. ARC will generate tens-of-picosecond temporal resolution during the critical phases of ICF shots. Additionally, ARC supports a variety of other high energy density experiments including fast ignition studies on NIF. The automated alignment image analysis algorithms use digital camera sensor images to direct ARC beams onto the tens-of-microns scale metal wires. This paper describes the ARC automatic alignment sequence throughout the laser chain from pulse initiation to target with an emphasis on the image processing algorithms that generate the crucial alignment positions for ARC. The image processing descriptions and flow diagrams detail the alignment control loops throughout the ARC laser chain beginning in the ARC high-contrast front end (HCAFE), on into the ARC main laser area, and ending in the ARC target area.

  2. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  3. Using superconducting undulator for enhanced imaging capabilities of MaRIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yampolsky, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    MaRIE x-ray free electron laser (FEL) is envisioned to deliver a burst of closely spaced in time pulses for enabling the capability of studying the dynamic processes in a sample. MaRIE capability can be largely enhanced using the superconducting undulator, which has the capability of doubling its period. This technology will allow reaching the photon energy as low as ~200-500 eV. As a result, the MaRIE facility will have a broader photon energy range enabling a larger variety of experiments. The soft x-ray capability is more likely to achieve the 3D imaging of dynamic processes in noncrystal materials than the hard x-ray capability alone.

  4. Graphical Visualization of Human Exploration Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Erica M.; Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale C.; Simon, Matthew A.; Williams, Phillip A.; Barsoum, Christopher; Cowan, Tyler; Larman, Kevin T.; Hay, Jason; Burg, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's pioneering space strategy will require advanced capabilities to expand the boundaries of human exploration on the Journey to Mars (J2M). The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture serves as a framework to identify critical capabilities that need to be developed and tested in order to enable a range of human exploration destinations and missions. Agency-wide System Maturation Teams (SMT) are responsible for the maturation of these critical exploration capabilities and help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the EMC-identified capabilities. Systems Capability Organization Reporting Engine boards (SCOREboards) were developed to integrate the SMT data sets into cohesive human exploration capability stories that can be used to promote dialog and communicate NASA's exploration investments. Each SCOREboard provides a graphical visualization of SMT capability development needs that enable exploration missions, and presents a comprehensive overview of data that outlines a roadmap of system maturation needs critical for the J2M. SCOREboards are generated by a computer program that extracts data from a main repository, sorts the data based on a tiered data reduction structure, and then plots the data according to specified user inputs. The ability to sort and plot varying data categories provides the flexibility to present specific SCOREboard capability roadmaps based on customer requests. This paper presents the development of the SCOREboard computer program and shows multiple complementary, yet different datasets through a unified format designed to facilitate comparison between datasets. Example SCOREboard capability roadmaps are presented followed by a discussion of how the roadmaps are used to: 1) communicate capability developments and readiness of systems for future missions, and 2) influence the definition of NASA's human exploration investment portfolio through capability-driven processes. The paper concludes with a description

  5. Analysis of the Capability Portfolio Review (CPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    TRAC-M-TR-14-021 June 2014 Analysis of the Capability Portfolio Review ( CPR ) TRADOC Analysis Center 700...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK TRAC-M-TR-14-021 June 2014 Analysis of the Capability Portfolio Review ( CPR ) Authors LTC Thomas Deveans...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analysis of the Capability Portfolio Review ( CPR ) 5. PROJECT NUMBERS TRAC Project Code 060097 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC Deveans

  6. Compilation of Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundergan, C. D.; Mead, P. L. [eds.

    1975-11-01

    This report is a compilation of 17 individual documents that together summarize the technical capabilities of Sandia Laboratories. Each document in this compilation contains details about a specific area of capability. Examples of application of the capability to research and development problems are provided. An eighteenth document summarizes the content of the other seventeen. Each of these documents was issued with a separate report number (SAND 74-0073A through SAND 74-0091, except -0078). (RWR)

  7. Dynamic Capabilities within the Project Management Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic Capabilities is a contemporary popular notion, incorporating the ability to adjust a company’s resources adequately to exploit opportunities, prevent threats and consequently retain competitive advantage. Teece et al. (1997) coined Dynamic Capabilities and triggered a wave of research on the topic. However the notion is still in its infancy through academic disputes, different viewpoints and multiple definitions. Consequently tool, measure and procedures of Dynamic Capabilities are ab...

  8. Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mingook Lee; Sungjoo Lee

    2016-01-01

    As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsiste...

  9. Understanding dynamic capabilities through knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Paarup

    2006-01-01

    In the paper eight knowledge management activities are identified; knowledge creation, acquisition, capture, assembly, sharing, integration, leverage and exploitation. These activities are assembled into the three dynamic capabilities of knowledge development, knowledge (re)combination and knowle......In the paper eight knowledge management activities are identified; knowledge creation, acquisition, capture, assembly, sharing, integration, leverage and exploitation. These activities are assembled into the three dynamic capabilities of knowledge development, knowledge (re......)combination and knowledge use. The dynamic capabilities and the associated knowledge management activities create flows to and from the firm’s stock of knowledge and they support the creation and use of organizational capabilities....

  10. Developing Technological Capabilities in Agro-Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence and trajectory of a new agro-industry in Ghana, the pineapple export industry, using the technological capabilities approach. It explains the limited expansion of the industry and its declining competitiveness in the face of new competition by looking at how...... Ghanaian exporters developed technological capabilities initially and the incentives and disincentives to building on those capabilities. The article argues that at the heart of the industry's crisis was an inability to further develop technological capabilities. The crisis had systemic features that have...

  11. Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities, Equipment, and Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The following facilities, equipment, and capabilities are available in the Aerodynamics Laboratory Facilities and Equipment (1) Subsonic, open-jet wind tunnel with...

  12. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B Sai Prasad; Salvatore Siano

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in researches related to the application of lasers in conservation, analysis and diagnostics of artwork surfaces. Among the many interesting problems to be tackled, one issue was drawing more interest because of the limitations it can impose on the use of lasers. Laser yellowing is a phenomenon wherein artwork surfaces assume a yellow hue when cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers in particular. Here the effect of yellowing has been studied and quantified for artwork surfaces (marble) using SFR Nd:YAG and LQS Nd:YAG lasers. Colorimetric measurements by employing a spectroradiometer helps to quantify the effect of yellowing by analysing three variables (chromaticity coordinates) of interest.

  13. Trends In Materials Processing With Laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herziger, G.; Kreutz, E. W.

    1989-04-01

    The objectives of reactive chemical and nonreactive thermal processing with laser radiation are outlined giving indication that processing with laser radiation is governed by a hierarchy of time constants originating from photon-matter interaction, phase transition dynamics, laser source excitation fluctuations,, and optical feedback in combination with the influence of beam delivery systems, processing/shielding gas flow configurations, robotics, production lines and environment. The minimization of losses by heat flow, reflection and transmission and the stringent need for quality assurance require as first approach the control of processing, which is mainly due to the capability of laser radiation source. The current status of laser radiation sources is reported giving information on the state of the art of processing with laser radiation in combination with subsequent demonstration of future trends and developments with respect to radiation sources, beam delivery, beam shaping, materials, processing and quality assurance.

  14. Trends in materials processsing with laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herziger, Gerd; Kreutz, Ernst W.

    1989-03-01

    The objectives of reactive chemical and nonreactive thermal processing with laser radiation are outlined giving indication that processing with laser radiation is governed by a hierarchy of time constants originating from photon-matter interaction, phase transition dynamics, laser source excitation fluctuations, and optical feedback in combination with the influence of beam delivery systems, processing/shielding gas flow configurations, robotics, production lines and environment. The minimization of losses by heat flow, reflection and transmission and the stringent need for quality assurance require as first approach the control of processing, which is mainly due to the capability of laser radiation source. The current status of laser radiation sources is reported giving information on the state of the art of processing with laser radiation in combination with subsequent demonstration of future trends and developments with respect to radiation sources, beam delivery, beam shaping, materials, processing and quality assurance.

  15. Sandia's Z-Backlighter Laser Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, P.; Schwarz, J.; Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M.; Smith, I.; Kimmel, M.; Speas, C.; Shores, J.; Armstrong, D.; Bellum, J.; Field, E.; Kletecka, D.; Porter, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories was developed to enable high energy density physics experiments in conjunction with the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories, with an emphasis on backlighting. Since the first laser system there became operational in 2001, the facility has continually evolved to add new capability and new missions. The facility currently has several high energy laser systems including the nanosecond/multi-kilojoule Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL), the sub-picosecond/kilojoule- class Z-Petawatt (ZPW) Laser, and the smaller nanosecond/100 J-class Chaco laser. In addition to these, the backlighting mission requires a regular stream of coated consumable optics such as debris shields and vacuum windows, which led to the development of the Sandia Optics Support Facility to support the unique high damage threshold optical coating needs described.

  16. Video sensor with range measurement capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jeri M. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor); Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Broderick, David J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A video sensor device is provided which incorporates a rangefinder function. The device includes a single video camera and a fixed laser spaced a predetermined distance from the camera for, when activated, producing a laser beam. A diffractive optic element divides the beam so that multiple light spots are produced on a target object. A processor calculates the range to the object based on the known spacing and angles determined from the light spots on the video images produced by the camera.

  17. High throughput laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2016-12-27

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  18. Laser-propelled ram accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science

    2000-11-01

    The concept of 'laser-propelled ram accelerator (L-RAMAC)' is proposed. Theoretically it is capable of achieving a higher launch speed than that by a chemical ram accelerator because a higher specific energy can be input to the propellant gas. The laser beam is supplied through the muzzle, focused as an annulus behind the base of the projectile. The performance of L-RAMAC is analized based on generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relations, suggesting that a superorbital muzzle speed is achievable out of this device. (orig.)

  19. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  20. Methodological Individualism and the Organizational Capabilities Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    critical individual-levelconsiderations, including individual action and heterogeneity. In this note we do not denyor reject the notion of routines or capabilities per se, but rather call for an increasedemphasis on how these collective structures originate and change as a result of individualactions.......Key words: Organizational capabilities, methodological individualism, philosophy ofsocial science...

  1. Methodological Individualism and the Organizational Capabilities Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    critical individual-levelconsiderations, including individual action and heterogeneity. In this note we do not denyor reject the notion of routines or capabilities per se, but rather call for an increasedemphasis on how these collective structures originate and change as a result of individualactions.......Key words: Organizational capabilities, methodological individualism, philosophy ofsocial science...

  2. Design for Development: A Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterlaken, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I suggest a ‘capability approach’ towards designing for society, and particularly, the world’s poor. I will explain that this approach assigns a central place to human capabilities in our discussions of justice and development and criticizes a focus on utility or preference satisfact

  3. Cultivating Human Capabilities in Venturesome Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Padraig

    2013-01-01

    The notion of competencies has been a familiar feature of educational reform policies for decades. In this essay, Padraig Hogan begins by highlighting the contrasting notion of capabilities, pioneered by the research of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. An educational variant of the notion of capabilities then becomes the basis for exploring…

  4. Technology support for military capability based acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaba, Mphahlela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available gap between capability planning and acquisition of product systems in the SANDF. (Thaba J et al, 2015). The need for decision support tools and technologies to assist capability planners to close this gap and make sound decisions has become more...

  5. Knowledge Perspectives on Advancing Dynamic Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijsen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Capability is the organizational capacity to timely adapt to a changing market environment by reconfiguring resources and routines in order to stay competitive. Although dynamic capability is considered the Holy Grail of strategic management, a connection to the knowledge management domain i

  6. Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...

  7. Building Organisational Capability the Private Provider Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Organisational capability is recognised as a key to organisational success. The combination of human capital (peoples' skills and knowledge), social capital (relationships between people) and organisational capital (the organisation's processes), is central to building an organisation's capability. This paper, presented at the 2008 annual…

  8. STRATEGIC AIRLIFT CAPABILITY: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar VASILESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic airlift remains a critical supporting capability that should be achieved, maintained and improved. This capability ensures the ability to deploy and sustain military forces across possible distant battlefields. The paper analyses the growing strategic airlift capabilities gap between operational needs and current realities, and underlines the need for an enhanced strategic airlift capability to meet current and future NATO alliance needs. By analyzing requirements against the existing/potential solutions, this paper further ponders over options like the organic national capability, partnerships such as the Strategic Airlift Consortium (SAC or leasing aircraft through a venture such as the Strategic Airlift Interim Solution (SALIS. The paper also evaluates the feasibility of applying these solutions to European Union airlift needs.

  9. [Lipolysis lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, J-M

    2009-10-01

    We use lipolysis lasers for around five years. The principle of those lasers is that, for some wavelengths, the fat, located in the adipocytes reacts as a chromophor. In order to allow the direct exposure of the adipocytes to the optical fiber (around 1mm diameter), this has to be inserted in the hypodermis, then move back and forth inside the treated areas. The theorical benefits, compared to the liposuction procedures are related to the fact that the thermal effect of the laser emission allows to avoid laxity, sometimes observed after a liposuction. If we consider the first publications related to this emerging procedure, the profile of tolerance seems good, and even possibly better than the liposuctions. Nevertheless, this procedure with lasers is still a surgical procedure, exposing theorically to the side effects related in and after each surgery: infections, ecchymosis... Recently, some cases of severe side effects (infection of the skin, and necrosis) have been reported. They seem to be related to a homogeneous distribution of the energy inducing an excessive thermal injury. Some new improvements, with the last generation lasers, could allow us to avoid, or at least to dramatically reduce those side effects. The efficacy of those lasers is visibly satisfying; the key question is to precise the optimal modalities of use : in a surgery room, after an optimal training, with the last generation lasers?

  10. Overview of laser technology at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G. K.; Cremers, D. A.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has had a long history of involvement in laser sciences and has been recognized both for its large laser programs and smaller scale developments in laser technology and applications. The first significant program was with the Rover nuclear-based rocket propulsion system in 1968 to study laser initiated fusion. From here applications spread to programs in laser isotope separation and development of large lasers for fusion. These programs established the technological human resource base of highly trained laser physicists, engineers, and chemists that remain at the Laboratory today. Almost every technical division at Los Alamos now has some laser capability ranging from laser development, applications, studies on nonlinear processes, modeling and materials processing. During the past six years over eight R&D-100 Awards have been received by Los Alamos for development of laser-based techniques and instrumentation. Outstanding examples of technology developed include LIDAR applications to environmental monitoring, single molecule detection using fluorescence spectroscopy, a laser-based high kinetic energy source of oxygen atoms produced by a laser-sustained plasma, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for compositional, analysis, thin film high temperature superconductor deposition, multi-station laser welding, and direct metal deposition and build-up of components by fusing powder particles with a laser beam.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This

  12. Laser desorption ionization and peptide sequencing on laser induced silicon microcolumn arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertes, Akos [Reston, VA; Chen, Yong [San Diego, CA

    2011-12-27

    The present invention provides a method of producing a laser-patterned silicon surface, especially silicon wafers for use in laser desorption ionization (LDI-MS) (including MALDI-MS and SELDI-MS), devices containing the same, and methods of testing samples employing the same. The surface is prepared by subjecting a silicon substrate to multiple laser shots from a high-power picosecond or femtosecond laser while in a processing environment, e.g., underwater, and generates a remarkable homogenous microcolumn array capable of providing an improved substrate for LDI-MS.

  13. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E.; Qiu, S. Roger; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

  14. Advanced capabilities for in situ planetary mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Benna, M.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Li, X.; Grubisic, A.; Cornish, T.; Hovmand, L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA GSFC has delivered highly capable quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS) for missions to Venus (Pioneer Venus), Jupiter (Galileo), Saturn/Titan (Cassini-Huygens), Mars (MSL and MAVEN), and the Moon (LADEE). Our understanding of the Solar System has been expanded significantly by these exceedingly versatile yet low risk and cost efficient instruments. GSFC has developed more recently a suite of advanced instrument technologies promising enhanced science return while selectively leveraging heritage designs. Relying on a traditional precision QMS, the Analysis of Gas Evolved from Samples (AGES) instrument measures organic inventory, determines exposure age and establishes the absolute timing of deposition/petrogenesis of interrogated samples. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars 2018 rover employs a two-dimensional ion trap, built analogously to heritage QMS rod assemblies, which can support dual ionization sources, selective ion enrichment and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The same miniaturized analyzer serves as the core of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) instrument, which offers negative ion detection (switchable polarity) and an extended mass range (>2000 Da). Time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS) have been interfaced to a range of laser sources to progress high-sensitivity laser ablation and desorption methods for analysis of inorganic and non-volatile organic compounds, respectively. The L2MS (two-step laser mass spectrometer) enables the desorption of neutrals and/or prompt ionization at IR (1.0 up to 3.1 µm, with an option for tunability) or UV wavelengths (commonly 266 or 355 nm). For the selective ionization of specific classes of organics, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, a second UV laser may be employed to decouple the desorption and ionization steps and limit molecular fragmentation. Mass analyzers with substantially higher resolving powers (up to m/Δm > 100,000), such as the Advanced Resolution Organic

  15. Laser Science & Technology Program Annual Report - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H-L

    2001-03-20

    The Laser Science and Technology (LS&T) Program Annual Report 2001 provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL LS&T Program during the April 2001 to March 2002 period using three formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the year; (2) brief summaries of research and development activity highlights within the four Program elements: Advanced Lasers and Components (AL&C), Laser Optics and Materials (LO&M), Short Pulse Laser Applications and Technologies (SPLAT), and High-Energy Laser System and Tests (HELST); and (3) a compilation of selected articles and technical reports published in reputable scientific or technology journals in this period. All three elements (Annual Overview, Activity Highlights, and Technical Reports) are also on the Web: http://laser.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. The underlying mission for the LS&T Program is to develop advanced lasers, optics, and materials technologies and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the Laboratory and the nation. This mission statement has been our guide for defining work appropriate for our Program. A major new focus of LS&T beginning this past year has been the development of high peak power short-pulse capability for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). LS&T is committed to this activity.

  16. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  17. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  18. Semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K.; Shyuue, M.

    1982-09-25

    A distributed feedback semiconductor laser is proposed which generates several beams with equal wavelengths in different directions. For this purpose, 1 millimeter grooves are cut into the surface of an n-type conductance GaAs plate in three different directions; these grooves form a diffraction grating. The center of this plate has no grooves and is bombarded by an He/Ne laser beam. The diffraction gratings provide resonance properties and generate laser beams with wavelengths of 8850, 9000 and 9200 angstroms.

  19. Electro-Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Capability Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D

    2008-02-06

    This is the Final Report for LDRD 04-ERD-086, 'Electro-Thermal-Mechanical Simulation Capability'. The accomplishments are well documented in five peer-reviewed publications and six conference presentations and hence will not be detailed here. The purpose of this LDRD was to research and develop numerical algorithms for three-dimensional (3D) Electro-Thermal-Mechanical simulations. LLNL has long been a world leader in the area of computational mechanics, and recently several mechanics codes have become 'multiphysics' codes with the addition of fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and chemistry. However, these multiphysics codes do not incorporate the electromagnetics that is required for a coupled Electro-Thermal-Mechanical (ETM) simulation. There are numerous applications for an ETM simulation capability, such as explosively-driven magnetic flux compressors, electromagnetic launchers, inductive heating and mixing of metals, and MEMS. A robust ETM simulation capability will enable LLNL physicists and engineers to better support current DOE programs, and will prepare LLNL for some very exciting long-term DoD opportunities. We define a coupled Electro-Thermal-Mechanical (ETM) simulation as a simulation that solves, in a self-consistent manner, the equations of electromagnetics (primarily statics and diffusion), heat transfer (primarily conduction), and non-linear mechanics (elastic-plastic deformation, and contact with friction). There is no existing parallel 3D code for simulating ETM systems at LLNL or elsewhere. While there are numerous magnetohydrodynamic codes, these codes are designed for astrophysics, magnetic fusion energy, laser-plasma interaction, etc. and do not attempt to accurately model electromagnetically driven solid mechanics. This project responds to the Engineering R&D Focus Areas of Simulation and Energy Manipulation, and addresses the specific problem of Electro-Thermal-Mechanical simulation for design and analysis of energy

  20. Community psychology and the capabilities approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Marybeth

    2015-06-01

    What makes for a good life? The capabilities approach to this question has much to offer community psychology, particularly with respect to marginalized groups. Capabilities are freedoms to engage in valued social activities and roles-what people can do and be given both their capacities, and environmental opportunities and constraints. Economist Amartya Sen's focus on freedoms and agency resonates with psychological calls for empowerment, and philosopher Martha Nussbaum's specification of requirements for a life that is fully human provides an important guide for social programs. Community psychology's focus on mediating structures has much to offer the capabilities approach. Parallels between capabilities, as enumerated by Nussbaum, and settings that foster positive youth development, as described in a National Research Council Report (Eccles and Gootman (Eds) in Community programs to promote youth development. National Academy Press, Washington, 2002) suggest extensions of the approach to children. Community psychologists can contribute to theory about ways to create and modify settings to enhance capabilities as well as empowerment and positive youth development. Finally, capabilities are difficult to measure, because they involve freedoms to choose but only choices actually made or enacted can be observed. The variation in activities or goals across members of a setting provides a measure of the capabilities that the setting fosters.

  1. CTH reference manual : composite capability and technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Christopher T.; Schumacher, Shane C.

    2009-02-01

    The composite material research and development performed over the last year has greatly enhanced the capabilities of CTH for non-isotropic materials. The enhancements provide the users and developers with greatly enhanced capabilities to address non-isotropic materials and their constitutive model development. The enhancements to CTH are intended to address various composite material applications such as armor systems, rocket motor cases, etc. A new method for inserting non-isotropic materials was developed using Diatom capabilities. This new insertion method makes it possible to add a layering capability to a shock physics hydrocode. This allows users to explicitly model each lamina of a composite without the overhead of modeling each lamina as a separate material to represent a laminate composite. This capability is designed for computational speed and modeling efficiency when studying composite material applications. In addition, the layering capability also allows a user to model interlaminar mechanisms. Finally, non-isotropic coupling methods have been investigated. The coupling methods are specific to shock physics where the Equation of State (EOS) is used with a nonisotropic constitutive model. This capability elastically corrects the EOS pressure (typically isotropic) for deviatoric pressure coupling for non-isotropic materials.

  2. Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingook Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsistent results when different models are used. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological capabilities in energy companies by considering the complex properties of technological knowledge. For this purpose, we first explored various factors affecting technological capabilities and divided the factors into three categories: individual, organizational, and technology competitiveness. Second, we identified appropriate evaluation items for each category to measure the technological capability. Finally, by using a hybrid approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed an evaluation method for each item and suggested a method to combine the results. The proposed framework was then verified with an energy generation and supply company to investigate its practicality. As one of the earliest attempts to evaluate multi-faceted technological capabilities, the suggested model can support technology and strategic planning.

  3. Community Psychology and the Capabilities Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    What makes for a good life? The capabilities approach to this question has much to offer community psychology, particularly with respect to marginalized groups. Capabilities are freedoms to engage in valued social activities and roles—what people can do and be given both their capacities, and environmental opportunities and constraints. Economist Amartya Sen’s focus on freedoms and agency resonates with psychological calls for empowerment, and philosopher Martha Nussbaum’s specification of requirements for a life that is fully human provides an important guide for social programs. Community psychology’s focus on mediating structures has much to offer the capabilities approach. Parallels between capabilities, as enumerated by Nussbaum, and settings that foster positive youth development, as described in a National Research Council Report (Eccles and Gootman (Eds) in Community programs to promote youth development. National Academy Press, Washington, 2002) suggest extensions of the approach to children. Community psychologists can contribute to theory about ways to create and modify settings to enhance capabilities as well as empowerment and positive youth development. Finally, capabilities are difficult to measure, because they involve freedoms to choose but only choices actually made or enacted can be observed. The variation in activities or goals across members of a setting provides a measure of the capabilities that the setting fosters. PMID:25822113

  4. Laser Program annual report, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufer, M.L.; Murphy, P.W. (eds.)

    1986-11-01

    This volume presents the unclassified activities and accomplishments of the Inertial Confinement Fusion and Advanced Laser Development elements of the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the calendar year 1985. This report has been organized into major sections that correspond to our principal technical activities. Section 1 provides an overview. Section 2 comprises work in target theory, design, and code development. Target development and fabrication and the related topics in materials science are contained in Section 3. Section 4 presents work in experiments and diagnostics and includes developments in data acquisition and management capabilities. In Section 5 laser system (Nova) operation and maintenance are discussed. Activities related to supporting laser and optical technologies are described in Section 6. Basic laser research and development is reported in Section 7. Section 8 contains the results of studies in ICF applications where the work reported deals principally with the production of electric power with ICF. Finally, Section 9 is a comprehensive discussion of work to date on solid state lasers for average power applications. Individual sections, two through nine, have been cataloged separately.

  5. Laser Refractography

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkevichyus, B.S; Raskovskaya, I.L

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of laser refractography, a flexible new diagnostic tool for measuring optically inhomogeneous media and flows. Laser refractography is based on digital imaging and computer processing of structured laser beam refraction (SLR) in inhomogeneous transparent media. Laser refractograms provide both qualitative and quantitative measurements and can be used for the study of fast and transient processes. In this book, the theoretical basis of refractography is explored in some detail, and experimental setups are described for measurement of transparent media using either 2D (passed radiation) or 3D (scattered radiation) refractograms. Specific examples and applications are discussed, including visualization of the boundary layer near a hot or cold metallic ball in water, and observation of edge effects and microlayers in liquids and gases. As the first book to describe this new and exciting technique, this monograph has broad cross-disciplinary appeal and will be of interest t...

  6. Laser Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whitening procedures. What are the benefits of using dental lasers? There are several advantages. Dentists may not need to use a drill or administer anesthesia in some procedures, allowing the patient to enjoy ...

  7. Laser Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Weijian; Ng, Kar Wei; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the coupling between the optical field and the mechanical oscillation to induce cooling and regenerative oscillation in a mechanical oscillator. So far, optomechanics relies on the detuning between the cavity and an external pump laser, where the laser acts only as a power supply. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator that supports a mirror of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and the optical field, greatly enhancing the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we used an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror in a VCSEL, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity with > 550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micro-mechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical. This new scheme not only offers an efficient approach for high-...

  8. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  9. [Laser myringotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmann-Poznańska, Elzbieta; Skotnicka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the qualities of laser-assisted myringotomy (LAM) as a treatment for acute and secretory otitis media. Laser-assisted myringotomy was performed on 65 children (113 ears) mean age 6.2 years diagnosed with secretory otitis media (80%), recurrent secretory otitis media (11%) and acute otitis media (9%). Myringotomy was performed under general anesthesia using the OtoLAM device (ESC/Sharplan, Israel). In 64 ears pressure equalisation tubes were inserted after fenestration of the tympanic membrane with laser. Adenoidectomy alone or with tonsillectomy was performed at the same time in 51 cases. Laser tympanostomies remained patent for 7-32 days. All tympanostomies healed with no noticeable scarring. LAM appears to be a safe, and easy to performed, alternative technique in the treatment of otitis media.

  10. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.

    1984-06-19

    It is reported that an improved laser design employing pumping of the active gas medium has been developed. A diagram of the laser system is given and its principle of operation is described in detail. Gas pumping is achieved using a pump whose oil reservoir is sealed by a sealing element. When the sealing element fails, the oil from the reservoir pollutes the laser substance. It is proposed that an additional oil reservoir pumping loop be used to maintain a lower pressure. The reservoir pressure is recorded by a sensor. When the sealing element fails, the pressure in the reservoir increases. The sensor records the change in pressure and generates a signal which shuts down the laser system. Thus, the possibility for oil penetration into the gas system is totally eliminated.

  11. A Capability Approach for the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Eiffe, Franz F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new concept for the EU in order to define and measure poverty no longer on the basis of income1, but on so called capabilities to argue for a capability oriented social policy. The capability approach (CA) was originally developed by Nobel laureate Amartya Sen2 and can be interpreted as critique of the utilitarian tradition of standard economics. In Sen's view, mainstream economic analysis operates on a very narrow base and does not include central inform...

  12. Photovoltaic Systems Test Facilities: Existing capabilities compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, K.

    1982-01-01

    A general description of photovoltaic systems test facilities (PV-STFs) operated under the U.S. Department of Energy's photovoltaics program is given. Descriptions of a number of privately operated facilities having test capabilities appropriate to photovoltaic hardware development are given. A summary of specific, representative test capabilities at the system and subsystem level is presented for each listed facility. The range of system and subsystem test capabilities available to serve the needs of both the photovoltaics program and the private sector photovoltaics industry is given.

  13. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  14. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  15. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Spies, M.; Spies, H.

    2011-07-01

    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investigations for estimation of their influence. Finally, the transmission models are applied for signal generation in a newly developed laser radar target simulator providing - to our knowledge - worldwide first HIL test capability for automotive laser radar systems.

  16. Decoherence bounds on the capabilities of cold trapped ion quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D.F.V.; Hughes, R.J.; Knill, E.H. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Using simple physical arguments we investigate the capabilities of a quantum computer based on cold trapped ions of the type recently proposed by Cirac and Zoller. From the limitations imposed on such a device by decoherence due to spontaneous decay, laser phase coherence times, ion heating and other possible sources of error, we derive bounds on the number of laser interactions and on the number of ions that may be used. As a quantitative measure of the possible performance of these devices, the largest number which may be factored using Shor`s quantum factoring algorithm is determined for a variety of species of ion.

  17. Classifying organisational capabilities by their nature and role for technological capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousseva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Based on critical literature review this research highlights a number of gaps in the existing treatment of technological and organisational capabilities. It has been recognised that organisational capabilities have an important role to play in development of technological capabilities both in lateco

  18. The Impact of IT Capability on Employee Capability, Customer Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Business Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Ho-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically examines the impact of IT capability on firms' performance and evaluates whether firms' IT capabilities play a role in improving employee capability, customer value, customer satisfaction, and ultimately business performance. The results were based on comparing the business performance of the IT leader companies with that of…

  19. The Impact of IT Capability on Employee Capability, Customer Value, Customer Satisfaction, and Business Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Ho-Chang

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically examines the impact of IT capability on firms' performance and evaluates whether firms' IT capabilities play a role in improving employee capability, customer value, customer satisfaction, and ultimately business performance. The results were based on comparing the business performance of the IT leader companies with that of…

  20. New Lidar Laser Configuration for Earth Science Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR Phase 1 program, Fibertek successfully developed and demonstrated a breadboard version of a pulsed fiber laser capable of high-spectral resolution lidar...

  1. The Capabilities of the Offshore Middlemen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Wareham, Jonathan

    preliminary theoretical justification for the emergence of offshore intermediaries; describe how and why they develop intermediation capabilities; and offer initial evidence substantiating their function and processes in intermediating transnational offshoring relationships in software development...

  2. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  3. Establishment of a corner turning test capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcraft, R.W.; West, G.T.

    1978-11-01

    A corner turning test capability has been established. While the test is not suited to be the sole criterion for lot qualification, it provides valuable information regarding explosive behavior near failure. Light enhancement and film record analysis techniques are discussed.

  4. Identity Building in Organisations: Proactive Capability Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    Identity building in organisations is often viewed as legitimacy of value systems of the organisation. Based on empirical studies the task of this article is to argue that such a legitimacy approach risks failing in the longer perspective, if the proactive capability development is neglected....... The participatory scenario method presented in this article is one of the possible methods to enhance identity building based on proactive capability development....

  5. Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Lee; Hurst, Aaron; Kelly, John; Kondev, Filip; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Nesaraja, Caroline; Slaybaugh, Rachel; Sonzogni, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Workshop on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications (NDNCA) was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on 27-29 May 2015. The goals of NDNCA were compile nuclear data needs across a wide spectrum of applied nuclear science, and to provide a summary of associated capabilities (accelerators, reactors, spectrometers, etc.) available for required measurements. This document represents the results of the workshop and a compilation of other recent documents assessing nuclear data needs for the above-mentioned applications.

  6. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  7. Expanding Lookout Capabilities for Architectural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, B.

    SMC/SYSW/ENY's Lookout tool provides a M&S capability for architectural analysis. It models the contributions of ground and space-based assets in several mission threads and scenarios to quantify overall Space Situational Awareness (SSA) capability. Plotting performance results versus costs enables decision makers to identify and evaluate Best Value families of systems and combinations of architectures. Currently, SMC intends to use Lookout to impact the Fiscal Year 2012 budget programming cycle, the National SSA Initial Capabilities Document (ICD) and Architecture definition effort, planning for programs of record, and AFSPC & SMC leadership. Ultimately, Lookout will enable additional space superiority analysis. Previous Lookout work focused on modeling the metric tracking capabilities of the Space Surveillance Network (detecting and tracking) and proposed concepts to close identified collection shortfalls. SMC/SYSW/ENY leveraged some of the lessons learned in developing and implementing the metric tracking models to expand Lookout to develop an initial characterization capability, including non-resolved space object identification (SOI), imaging, and Foreign Instrumentation and Signals (FIS) Intelligence. Characterization collection phenomenologies added in FY08 and FY09 include mechanical tracking and phased array radars, visible telescopes, and signals collection. Lookout enables evaluating the characterization collections for quantity, quality, and timeliness. Capturing the Tasking, Collection, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination processes represent one of the biggest challenges in including characterization capabilities in mission thread and scenario-based analysis. The SMC/SYSW/ENY team met with several representatives of the community and held community-wide Technical Interchange Meetings. Based on feedback from these meetings, SMC created an infrastructure for modeling the tasking processes and scales to relate collection quality to intelligence

  8. Creativity takes courage (and digital capabilities)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinny, Kerry; Elliott, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Our session will detail the work undertaken at the University of Lincoln (Educational Development and Enhancement Unit, 2016; Pinny, 2015; Elliott, 2016) to support staff to develop their digital capabilities. We will detail our journey from the adoption of the Jisc framework and development of an institutional digital capabilities strategy, to gaining senior management buy in, piloting of the Jisc Discovery Tool (2016) and support resources, including a Lynda.com pilot. This session will ...

  9. Essential Medical Capabilities and Medical Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    15-001098 Copy Essential Medical Capabilities and Medical Readiness John E. Whitley Joseph F. Adams Joseph J. Angello Jennifer T. Brooks Sarah K...other national challenges. Essential Medical Capabilities and Medical Readiness John E. Whitley Joseph F. Adams Joseph J. Angello Jennifer T. Brooks...noted that the ability of the Military Health System to provide operational healthcare is measured by the readiness of its medical personnel and

  10. Descriptors of server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2013-01-01

    China with the huge market potential it possesses is an important issue for subsidiaries of western multinational companies. The objective of this paper is therefore to strengthen researchers’ and practitioners’ perspectives on what are the descriptors of server capabilities. The descriptors...... are relevant to determine subsidiary roles and as an indication of the capabilities required. These descriptors are identified through extensive literature review and validated by case studies of two Danish multinational companies subsidiaries operating in China. They provided the empirical basis...

  11. Freeform beam shaping for high-power multimode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2014-03-01

    Widening of using high power multimode lasers in industrial laser material processing is accompanied by special requirements to irradiance profiles in such technologies like metal or plastics welding, cladding, hardening, brazing, annealing, laser pumping and amplification in MOPA lasers. Typical irradiance distribution of high power multimode lasers: free space solid state, fiber-coupled solid state and diodes lasers, fiber lasers, is similar to Gaussian. Laser technologies can be essentially improved when irradiance distribution on a workpiece is uniform (flattop) or inverse-Gauss; when building high-power pulsed lasers it is possible to enhance efficiency of pumping and amplification by applying super-Gauss irradiance distribution with controlled convexity. Therefore, "freeform" beam shaping of multimode laser beams is an important task. A proved solution is refractive field mapping beam shaper like Shaper capable to control resulting irradiance profile - with the same unit it is possible to get various beam profiles and choose optimum one for a particular application. Operational principle of these devices implies transformation of laser irradiance distribution by conserving beam consistency, high transmittance, providing collimated low divergent output beam. Using additional optics makes it possible to create resulting laser spots of necessary size and round, elliptical or linear shape. Operation out of focal plane and, hence, in field of lower wavefront curvature, allows extending depth of field. The refractive beam shapers are implemented as telescopes and collimating systems, which can be connected directly to fiber-coupled lasers or fiber lasers, thus combining functions of beam collimation and irradiance transformation.

  12. Laser Technology for Advanced Acceleration: Accelerating Beyond TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jonathan; Mourou, Gérard; Tajima, Toshiki

    The implementation of the suggestion of thin film compression (TFC) allows the newest class of high power, ultrafast laser pulses (typically 20fs at near-infrared wavelengths) to be compressed to the limit of a single-cycle laser pulse (2fs). Its simplicity and high efficiency, as well as its accessibility to a single-cycle laser pulse, introduce a new regime of laser-plasma interaction that enhances laser acceleration. Single-cycle laser acceleration of ions is a far more efficient and coherent process than the known laser-ion acceleration mechanisms. The TFC-derived single-cycle optical pulse is capable of inducing a single-cycle X-ray laser pulse (with a far shorter pulse length and thus an extremely high intensity) through relativistic compression. The application of such an X-ray pulse leads to the novel regime of laser wakefield acceleration of electrons in the X-ray regime, yielding a prospect of “TeV on a chip.” This possibility of single-cycle X-ray pulses heralds zeptosecond and EW lasers (and zeptoscience). The additional invention of the coherent amplification network (CAN) fiber laser pushes the frontier of high repetition, high efficiency lasers, which are the hallmark of needed applications such as laser-driven LWFA colliders and other, societal applications. CAN addresses the crucial aspect of intense lasers that have traditionally lacked the above properties.

  13. Generation of 7-fs laser pulse directly from a compact Ti:sapphire laser with chirped mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A compact femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser resonator consisting of three chirped mirrors and one output coupler was designed. By accurately balancing the intra- cavity dispersions between Ti:sapphire crystal, air and chirped mirrors, we directly generated the laser pulse shorter than 7 fs at the average power of 340 mW with 3.1 W pump. The repetition rate of the laser oscillator is 173 MHz at the centre wavelength of 791 nm, and the ultrabroaden spectrum covers from 600 nm to 1000 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the simplest laser resonator capable of generating sub-10 fs laser pulse.

  14. Generation of 7-fs laser pulse directly from a compact Ti:sapphire laser with chirped mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO YanYing; WANG Peng; ZHANG Wei; TIAN JinRong; WEI ZhiYi

    2007-01-01

    A compact femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser resonator consisting of three chirped mirrors and one output coupler was designed. By accurately balancing the intracavity dispersions between Ti:sapphire crystal, air and chirped mirrors, we directly generated the laser pulse shorter than 7 fs at the average power of 340 mW with 3.1 W pump. The repetition rate of the laser oscillator is 173 MHz at the centre wavelength of 791 nm, and the ultrabroaden spectrum covers from 600 nm to 1000 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the simplest laser resonator capable of generating sub-10 fs laser pulse.

  15. Novel instantaneous laser Doppler velocimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor, J M

    1974-02-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter capable of directly measuring instantaneous velocities is described. The new LDV uses a novel detection technique based on the utilization of a static slightly defocused spherical Fabry-Perot interferometer used in conjunction with a special mask for the detection of instantaneous Doppler frequency shifts. The essential characteristics of this LDV are discussed, and such a system recently developed is described. Results of turbulent flow measurements show good agreement with data obtained using hot wire anemometry.

  16. ROMANIAN YOUNG LEADERS CAPABILITIES: AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA-OLIMPIA LOBONEA OLTEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to disseminate the results of a study focused on young leaders, designed to fill the gap in the specialty literature about the capabilities of young leaders in Romania. Capabilities - in our opinion, represents the leader's potentialities, the engine of transformation. They exist in a latent state and by activation they generate economic effects. Through this study we want to identify young Romanian people's attitudes towards capabilities; when we say capabilities, we understand potential. In this article we will present the capabilities from the perspective of potential. Sure, there are also other classifications, but from an economical perspective we consider that the potential of a leader is relevant through the following components: emotional potential, social potential, cognitive potential, managerial potential and behavioral potential. The overall conclusion is that in the realized study we have identified the following key capabilities of young Romanian leaders: character, confidence, empathy, credibility, leadership style, vision, memory, ability to be proactive, optimism, ability to generate respect.

  17. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  18. Open architecture for rapid deployment of capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Modern warfare has drastically changed from conventional to non-conventional and from fixed threats to dynamic ones over the past several decades. This unprecedented fundamental shift has now made our adversaries and their weapons more nebulous and ever changing. Our current acquisition system however is not suited to develop, test and deploy essential capability to counter these dynamic threats in time to combat them. This environment requires a new infrastructure in our system design to rapidly adopt capabilities that we do not currently plan for or even know about. The key to enabling this rapid implementation is Open Architecture in acquisition. The DoD has shown it can rapidly prototype capabilities such as unmanned vehicles but has severely struggled in moving from the prototyping to deployment. A major driver of this disconnect is the lack of established infrastructure to employ said capability such as launch and recovery systems and command and control. If we are to be successful in transitioning our rapid capability to the warfighter we must implement established well defined interfaces and enabling technologies to facilitate the rapid adoption of capability so the warfighter has the tools to effectively counter the threat.

  19. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  20. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  1. Accurate manipulation using laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Willem

    1997-08-01

    In the industrial production of electrical, optical, and micro-mechanical components, progress in miniaturization requires improved adjusting techniques. Sub-micrometer accuracy adjustment must be obtained within seconds, and the accuracy should be stable over many years. All methods that are presently applied for manipulation in sub-micron dimensions are cumbersome, time-consuming, and tedious, and require expensive equipment. A novel method, laser adjustment, is being explored in which permanent deformation of thin metal sheets are obtained by using thermo-mechanical stresses that occur when the sheets are locally heated using short, intense laser pulses. Manipulation along several degrees of freedom can be realized by both out-of-plane and in-plane laser adjustment or a combination thereof. Within the Brite-Euram project AMULET this new automated micro- manufacturing technology for mass production is developed in order to assemble components where tolerance conditions and accessibility are beyond human capability.

  2. Recent developments in UV laser micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, R.; Pätzel, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Stable, high energy excimer lasers providing pulsed output energies ranging from 100 mJ up to over 1000 mJ in the ultraviolet region with photon energies as high as 5 eV (248 nm), 6.3 eV (193 nm) or 7.9 eV (157 nm) lend maximum flexibility to laser microprocessing, since virtually every material is amenable to accurate, high resolution material ablation without subsequent cleaning. Due to the UV photons provided with no up-conversion required as direct output by excimer lasers, output powers of many hundred watts are easily achievable and are key to high throughput, and up-scaling capability of manufacturing processes. Most important for reproducible production results is a temporally and spatially stable behavior of consecutive laser pulses as well as utmost lateral homogeneity of the on-sample energy density (fluence). These requirements constitute the superiority of excimer lasers over other pulsed UV laser sources such as lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. Pulse-to-pulse stabilities of less than 1 %, rms as easily provided by excimer laser systems which cannot be achieved with frequency converted Nd:YAG. Laser systems. In particular, the large flat-top excimer laser profile is well-suited for most efficient parallel processing of two and three dimensional microstructures. Spectral properties, temporal pulse and laser beam parameters of state of the art UV excimer lasers and beam delivery systems will be compared with frequency converted, flash-lamp pumped Nd:YAG lasers.

  3. Laser Physics and Laser Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Other types of laser-assisted materials process- Planck Institute for Quantum Optics. Garching . West ing and machining, including laser cutting, welding...detectors with microstructured electrodes, 134[ G. N. Maracas. G. L. Harrs, C. A. Lee. and R. A. McFarlane. Opt. Le’tt., vol. 7, pp. 575-577, Dcc . 1982...A. E. Siegman Max-Planck Institut f’r Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching , West Germany and E. L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford

  4. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  5. Miniature Laser Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Robert; Brown, Andy

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a miniature laser magnetometer (MLM) that will measure the scalar magnitude and vector components of near-Earth magnetic fields. The MLM incorporates a number of technical innovations to achieve high-accuracy and high-resolution performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on small satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). and electronics sections that has the capability of measuring both the scalar magnetic field magnitude and the vector magnetic field components. Further more, the high-accuracy scalar measurements are used to calibrate and correct the vector component measurements in order to achieve superior vector accuracy and stability. The correction algorithm applied to the vector components for calibration and the same cell for vector and scalar measurements are major innovations. The separate sensor and electronics section of the MLM instrument allow the sensor to be installed on a boom or otherwise located away from electronics and other noisy magnetic components. The MLM s miniaturization will be accomplished through the use of advanced miniaturized components and packaging methods for the MLM sensor and electronics. The MLM conceptual design includes three key innovations. The first is a new non-magnetic laser package that will allow the placement of the laser pump source near the helium cell sensing elements. The second innovation is the design of compact, nested, triaxial Braunbek coils used in the vector measurements that reduce the coil size by a factor of two compared to existing Helmholtz coils with similar field-generation performance. The third innovation is a compact sensor design that reduces the sensor volume by a factor of eight compared to MLM s predecessor.

  6. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  7. Header For Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Spadin, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Header designed to contain laser diode. Output combined incoherently with outputs of other laser diodes in grating laser-beam combiner in optical communication system. Provides electrical connections to laser diode, cooling to thermally stabilize laser operation, and optomechanical adjustments that steer and focus laser beam. Range of adjustments provides for correction of worst-case decentering and defocusing of laser beam encountered with laser diodes. Mechanical configuration made simple to promote stability and keep cost low.

  8. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  9. Information Technologies for the 1980's: Lasers and Microprocessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, William D.

    This discussion of the development and application of lasers and microprocessors to information processing stresses laser communication in relation to capacity, reliability, and cost and the advantages of this technology to real-time information access and information storage. The increased capabilities of microprocessors are reviewed, and a…

  10. Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jimmy; Watkins, Sharmila; Baumann, David

    2010-01-01

    During missions to the Moon or Mars, the crew will need medical capabilities to diagnose and treat disease as well as for maintaining their health. The Exploration Medical Capability Element develops medical technologies, medical informatics, and clinical capabilities for different levels of care during space missions. The work done by team members in this Element is leading edge technology, procedure, and pharmacological development. They develop data systems that protect patient's private medical information, aid in the diagnosis of medical conditions, and act as a repository of relevant NASA life sciences experimental studies. To minimize the medical risks to crew health the physicians and scientists in this Element develop models to quantify the probability of medical events occurring during a mission. They define procedures to treat an ill or injured crew member who does not have access to an emergency room and who must be cared for in a microgravity environment where both liquids and solids behave differently than on Earth. To support the development of these medical capabilities, the Element manages the development of medical technologies that prevent, monitor, diagnose, and treat an ill or injured crewmember. The Exploration Medical Capability Element collaborates with the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), the Department of Defense, other Government-funded agencies, academic institutions, and industry.

  11. Machine Process Capability Information Through Six Sigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, M.F.

    1998-03-13

    A project investigating details concerning machine process capability information and its accessibility has been conducted. The thesis of the project proposed designing a part (denoted as a machine capability workpiece) based on the major machining features of a given machine. Parts are machined and measured to gather representative production, short-term variation. The information is utilized to predict the expected defect rate, expressed in terms of a composite sigma level process capability index, for a production part. Presently, decisions concerning process planning, particularly what machine will statistically produce the minimum amount of defects based on machined features and associated tolerances, are rarely made. Six sigma tools and methodology were employed to conduct this investigation at AlliedSignal FM and T. Tools such as the thought process map, factor relationship diagrams, and components of variance were used. This study is progressing toward completion. This research study was an example of how machine process capability information may be gathered for milling planar faces (horizontal) and slot features. The planning method used to determine where and how to gather variation for the part to be designed is known as factor relationship diagramming. Components-of-variation is then applied to the gathered data to arrive at the contributing level of variation illustrated within the factor relationship diagram. The idea of using this capability information beyond process planning to the other business enterprise operations is proposed.

  12. On Capability Approach, Poverty and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojiu Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of development is to face up with the challenge of the issue of poverty, which directly is associated with the ultimate goal of social, political and economic development. If the poverty has not been properly handled, development will be inefficient and unsustainable. This paper briefly indicates the main idea of Amartya Sen’s capability approach, then utilizing the approach to analyze poverty and the bottleneck in dealing such issues. It illustrates the inter-relationship of capability, poverty and corruption, and demonstrates that corruption is both the cause and the consequence of poverty and the failure of capability. When there corruption comes, the essential power to alleviate and eliminate poverty such as political accountability, transparency, engagement and openness are all spoiled and even wiped off. Political accountability, transparence, engagement are of great importance to both anti-corruption and poverty and promotion of capability. Economic aid for the poor and needy should be reinforced by fostering and promoting the capability of the poor and needy, so that the purpose of eliminating poverty and corruption could be achieved.

  13. Picosecond lasers: the next generation of short-pulsed lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua R; Kaufman, Joely; Metelitsa, Andrea I; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-12-01

    Selective photothermolysis, first discussed in the context of targeted microsurgery in 1983, proposed that the optimal parameters for specific thermal damage rely critically on the duration over which energy is delivered to the tissue. At that time, nonspecific thermal damage had been an intrinsic limitation of all commercially available lasers, despite efforts to mitigate this by a variety of compensatory cooling mechanisms. Fifteen years later, experimental picosecond lasers were first reported in the dermatological literature to demonstrate greater efficacy over their nanosecond predecessors in the context of targeted destruction of tattoo ink. Within the last 4 years, more than a decade after those experiments, the first commercially available cutaneous picosecond laser unit became available (Cynosure, Westford, Massachusetts), and several pilot studies have demonstrated its utility in tattoo removal. An experimental picosecond infrared laser has also recently demonstrated a nonthermal tissue ablative capability in soft tissue, bone, and dentin. In this article, we review the published data pertaining to dermatology on picosecond lasers from their initial reports to the present as well as discuss forthcoming technology.

  14. Dyestuff laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, U.; Raue, R.; Schellhammer, C.; Telle, H.

    1981-06-16

    Laser light in the wavelength range of 400 - 480 nm is obtained with a dyestuff laser containing a dyestuff of the general formula wherein E denotes one of the radicals R1-R4 independently of one another denote hydrogen, alkyl, trifluoromethyl, alkoxy, aralkoxy, halogen, alkenyloxy, the carboxyl, cyano, alkylsulphone, arylsulphone, carboxamide or sulphonamide group or the carboxylic acid ester group, or R1 and R2, or R3 and R4, conjointly represent a fused benzene ring and M and N independently of one another denote 0, 1 or 2, with the proviso that the radical E contains at least one sulphonic acid group if M and N represent 0, and wherein the radical E can be further substituted, in a solvent which does not interfere with the emission, at a concentration, which emits laser beams, of, preferably, 10-2 to 10-5 mols/liter.

  15. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.

    1984-06-19

    The development of an improved gas laser system employing pumping of the active gaseous medium is reported. The layout of the design is given and its principle of operation is described in detail. The oil reservoir in the vacuum pump which pumps the gas through the laser system is separated by a sealing element; when this element fails, the oil may pollute the active medium. It is proposed that an additional oil reservoir pumping loop be used with the pump that operates continuously and maintains a lower pressure in the reservoir. The pressure in the reservoir is monitored by a special sensor. When the sealing element fails, the pressure sensor records the pressure drop in the oil reservoir. A signal is then generated and the laser system ceases operation, and eliminates the possibility for the oil penetrating into the pumping system.

  16. Analysis and evaluation of enterprise risk management capability elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Research on enterprise risk management capability is conducted with a view of discerning and processing risks, in which an evaluation index system and an evaluation model of enterprise risk management capabilities are constructed. The risk management capability consists of four aspects, i.e. risk identification capability, risk assessment capability, risk planning capability and risk control capability. Risk identification and assessment capabilities reflect the level of enterprises on finding and analyzing...

  17. An Evaluation of the Cutting Potential of Different Types of High Power Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2006-01-01

    Laser cutting is a widespread industrial process. The boundaries for the performance of the lasers in terms of cutting capabilities is steadily moving towards higher cutting rates and thicker section cutting. In this paper the potential of different high power laser sources in cutting is evaluate...

  18. Laser barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Kevin R.; Shiels, David; Rash, Tim

    2001-02-06

    A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

  19. Laser Heterodyning

    CERN Document Server

    Protopopov, Vladimir V

    2009-01-01

    Laser heterodyning is now a widespread optical technique, based on interference of two waves with slightly different frequencies within the sensitive area of a photo-detector. Its unique feature – preserving phase information about optical wave in the electrical signal of the photo-detector – finds numerous applications in various domains of applied optics and optoelectronics: in spectroscopy, polarimetry, radiometry, laser radars and Lidars, microscopy and other areas. The reader may be surprised by a variety of disciplines that this book covers and satisfied by detailed explanation of the phenomena. Very well illustrated, this book will be helpful for researches, postgraduates and students, working in applied optics.

  20. Cosmopolitan capabilities in the HE classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Crosbie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, concerning the development of cosmopolitan citizenship, draws on theories of human development and capabilities (Sen 1999; Nussbaum 2000 from a social justice perspective, where individual wellbeing is articulated as having the freedom to live a life of one’s choosing. In the context of an English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL classroom this involves paying attention to pedagogical strategies, power dynamics and curriculum content as a means of developing valued beings and doings (or capabilities and functionings as they are described in the literature. Sample activities are presented and evaluated to see to what extent they achieve the desired end. These include critical pedagogical interventions, students’ artefacts and extracts from focus group interviews, class reports and reflective journals.  Results from the textual data offer research evidence of successful curriculum change, demonstrating that the learning that takes place there can make a difference: in terms of the learners’ identity development, capability enhancement and cosmopolitan citizenship.

  1. Capabilitarian Sufficiency: Capabilities and Social Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests an account of sufficientarianism—i.e. that justice is fulfilled when everyone has enough—laid out within a general framework of the capability approach. In doing so, it seeks to show that sufficiency is especially plausible as an ideal of social justice when constructed around...... key capabilitarian insights such as freedom, pluralism, and attention to empirical interconnections between central capabilities. Correspondingly, we elaborate on how a framework for evaluating social justice would look when constructed in this way and give reasons for why capabilitarians should...... of a social being. In each category, we argue, achieving sufficiency requires different distributional patterns depending on how the capabilities themselves work and interrelate. This argument adds a new dimension to the way capabilitarians think about social justice and changes how we should target instances...

  2. Dynamic capabilities, creative action, and poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald MacLean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on dynamic capabilities explores how businesses change enables enterprises to remain competitive. However, theory on dynamic capabilities still struggles to capture novelty, the essence of change. This study argues that a full understanding of strategic change requires us to sharpen our focus on real people and experiences; in turn, we must incorporate other faculties, which almost always operate alongside our logical ones, into our theory. We must pay more attention to the “non­-rational” sides of ourselves—including, but not limited to, our imaginations, intuitions, attractions, biographies, preferences, and aesthetic faculties and capabilities. We argue that all such faculties, on the one hand, are central to our abilities to comprehend and cope with complexity and, on the other hand, foster novel understandings, potential responses, and social creativity. This study intro­duces the possibility of an alternative form of inquiry that highlights the role of poetic faculties in strategic behavior and change.

  3. Grid sensitivity capability for large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Gopal K.; Wallerstein, David V.

    1989-01-01

    The considerations and the resultant approach used to implement design sensitivity capability for grids into a large scale, general purpose finite element system (MSC/NASTRAN) are presented. The design variables are grid perturbations with a rather general linking capability. Moreover, shape and sizing variables may be linked together. The design is general enough to facilitate geometric modeling techniques for generating design variable linking schemes in an easy and straightforward manner. Test cases have been run and validated by comparison with the overall finite difference method. The linking of a design sensitivity capability for shape variables in MSC/NASTRAN with an optimizer would give designers a powerful, automated tool to carry out practical optimization design of real life, complicated structures.

  4. Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the

  5. ANTECEDENTS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuleu Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management, as a process to manage customer relationship initiation, maintenance and termination to maximize the value of the relationship portfolio, is an evolving process. In recent years, the development of interactive technologies (social media have revolutionized the interaction between firms and their customers and between customers. The impact of technology on CRM is improving ways of collecting and processing customer information and transforming communication with customers. In the context of the development of social networks, the introduction of social media applications in customer relationship management activities bring important changes in this area. Thus, managers need to pay attention to the interaction management as an important process of CRM and enhance the customer relationship management capabilities. The study propose a conceptual research model of several antecedents of customer relationship managements capabilities and provide the linkage between this antecedents and CRM capabilities. First, following review of existing research literature related to customer relationship management, there are some conceptual clarification on customer relationship management. Second, are presented the working concepts: the adoption of interactive technologies, customer concept, customer empowerment, customer relationship orientation and customer-centric management system. Then, it is proposed the conceptual model and finally are presented conclusions, managerial implications, limitations and research directions. From a theoretical perspective, this paper highlights the importance of marketing actions at the individual customer level and reveal the impact of adoption by companies of interactive technologies so that organizations have the opportunity to engage in conversations with customers and respond in real time the requirements that they launched the online environment. Nowadays, customers feel empowered and play

  6. Improving Social Security's Financial Capability Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Birkenmaier, Julie; Norman, Marc

    2016-07-01

    When Social Security beneficiaries are incapable of managing their benefits, the agency can appoint a representative payee to administer benefits on their behalf. A committee of the Institute of Medicine was asked by the Social Security Administration to review the process by which financial capability determinations are made and to recommend improvements. The committee's conclusions and recommendations include the following: giving priority to real-world financial performance in assessing capability, providing clearer instructions to informants, developing systematic approaches to identifying beneficiaries at risk of incapability, exploring the use of a supervised direct payment option, and instituting regular data collection to assist in improving operations.

  7. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lentine, Tony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mudrick, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodrigues, Arun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  8. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lentine, Anthony L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mudrick, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Okandan, Murat [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodrigues, Arun F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  9. Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    PRETREATMENT CAPABILITIES AND BENEFITS OF ELECTROCOAGULATION Michael Mickley Mickley & Associates Boulder, Colorado...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pretreatment Capabilities and Benefits of Electrocoagulation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...4 2.1 Background for Electrocoagulation Technology ………………………. 4 2.1.1 Applications ……………………………………………………. 4 2.1.2

  10. Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vang, Leng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In collaborating scientific research arena it is important to have an environment where analysts have access to a shared of information documents, software tools and be able to accurately maintain and track historical changes in models. A new cloud-based environment would be accessible remotely from anywhere regardless of computing platforms given that the platform has available of Internet access and proper browser capabilities. Information stored at this environment would be restricted based on user assigned credentials. This report reviews development of a Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities (CAC) as a web portal for PRA tools.

  11. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    , the capability of a 2 MW DFIG to ride through asymmetrical grid faults can be estimated at the existing design of the power electronics converter. Finally, a control scheme aimed to improve the DFIG capability is proposed and the simulation results validate its feasibility.......In the wind power application, different asymmetrical types of the grid fault can be categorized after the Y/d transformer, and the positive and negative components of a single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault, and two-phase fault can be summarized. Due to the newly introduced negative and even...

  12. UAV-borne lidar with MEMS mirror-based scanning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Abhishek; Milanovic, Veljko; Atwood, Bryan H.; Yang, James

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, we demonstrated a wirelessly controlled MEMS scan module with imaging and laser tracking capability which can be mounted and flown on a small UAV quadcopter. The MEMS scan module was reduced down to a small volume of tracking. Also, a "point-and-range" LiDAR module was developed for UAV applications based on low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) gimbal-less MEMS mirror beam-steering technology and off-the-shelf OEM LRF modules. For demonstration purposes of an integrated laser range finder module, we used a simple off-the-shelf OEM laser range finder (LRF) with a 100m range, +/-1.5mm accuracy, and 4Hz ranging capability. The LRFs receiver optics were modified to accept 20° of angle, matching the transmitter's FoR. A relatively large (5.0mm) diameter MEMS mirror with +/-10° optical scanning angle was utilized in the demonstration to maintain the small beam divergence of the module. The complete LiDAR prototype can fit into a small volume of UAV's battery. The MEMS mirror based LiDAR system allows for ondemand ranging of points or areas within the FoR without altering the UAV's position. Increasing the LRF ranging frequency and stabilizing the pointing of the laser beam by utilizing the onboard inertial sensors and the camera are additional goals of the next design.

  13. Laser device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source for light circuits on a silicon platform. A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region arranged between a first mirror structure and a second mirror structure, both acting as mirrors, by forming a grating region including an active material...

  14. The (Proper) Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Sidney Winter (2011), Brian Pentland (2011), and Geoffrey Hodgson and Thorbjørn Knudsen (2011) take issue with the arguments in Teppo Felin and Nicolai J. Foss (2011), along with more generally critiquing the ‘microfoundations project’ related to routines and capabilities. In this rejoinder we...

  15. Unifying Capability Integration Analysis - Initial Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    requiring different protocols for information passing and handling. This was caused by the rather compressed timeframe available to do this post-processing...included, denoted by , Cij’, is defined as Nd A Cij’ = Cij (1-(Did Ckd ...dependency on the capability associated with Deficiency d and Ckd was the closure of Deficiency d provided the selection of one its alternatives, specifically

  16. Happiness and capability : introduction to the symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, A.A.J. van; Riad el Mabsout, R.; Sent, E.-M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this symposium is to move beyond the established, narrow measures of well-being. It does so by bringing together insights from the happiness approach and the capability approach, both of which are at the forefront of theorizing on welfare in economics. The reason is that the connection ha

  17. Methodology for Conducting Analyses of Army Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Agency Under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel EDGAR M. JOHNSON MICHAEL D. SHALER Technical Director COL, AR Commanding...10 of O&O plan below). 65 Table 2. Outline of O&0 Plan Orinal Section Proposed Chanae 1. Title No Change 2. Need Refer to Functional Capability Plans

  18. 78 FR 63901 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly available documents online in the NRC... capabilities. This regulatory basis documents the reasons why the NRC determined rulemaking was the appropriate...). III. Non-Concurrence Several NRC staff members did not agree with some content of the regulatory...

  19. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  20. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability.

  1. Capabilities and Equality of Health II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    The concept of capabilities, introduced originally by Sen, has inspired many researchers but has not found any simple formal representation which might be instrumental in the construction of a comprehensive theory of equality. In a previous paper (Keiding, 2005), we investigated whether preferences...

  2. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  3. Negative Capability? Measuring the Unmeasurable in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This introductory article to the special issue of "Comparative Education" on measuring the unmeasurable in education considers measurement as reflecting facts and uncertainties. The notion of negative capability is used metaphorically to depict some limits of what is measurable, and portray aspects of the process of education, associated…

  4. Organizational Strategic Learning Capability: Exploring the Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hanna; Sejong, Wendy; Valentine, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: How to build and enhance the strategic learning capability (SLC) of an organization becomes crucial to both research and practice. This study was designed with the purpose to conceptualize SLC by translating and interpreting the related literature to develop empirical dimensions that could be tested and used in a survey instrument.…

  5. COMPLEMENTARITY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND MARKETING CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAUL ALEXANDRU HUȚU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper study the relation between information technology and marketing capabilities. The interface between marketing and information technology forms the subject of numerous empirical and conceptual research. The expanding adoption of information technology in marketing implies the knowledge about the e-marketing capabilities development factors and the potential of these capabilities to generate competitive advantage and to improve firm’s performance. The results of recent studies highlight that organizations witch integrate information technology in marketing processes can improve results in customer acquisition and retention processes, also provides other benefits like share growth and cost reduction and it also improve the firms marketing functions. The aim of this exploratory research is to identify the antecedents of e-marketing and technological capabilities of the firm. Understanding this link is arguably one of the key challenges facing organizations in today’s highly dynamic environment.. It is also critical for marketing managers not only for determining strategic investments of resources but also for demonstrating marketing return on activities. E-marketing not only has a tremendous potential for growth but also poses unique challenges for all organisations, incumbents or new entrants.

  6. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  7. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  8. New Directions and Capabilities in Analytical Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary M. HIEFTJE; Timothy L. DANIELSON; Andrew M. LEACH; Denise M. MCCLENATHAN; Radislav A. POTYRAILO; Steven J. RAY; Andrew W. SZUMLAS; Michael R. WEBB; William C. WETZEL

    2003-01-01

    In this presentation, a number of recent activities in our research group will be highlighted. The studies represent a broad range in the general field of spectrochemical analysis, sometimes take entirely new directions, usually employ novel instrumentation, and all provide important new capabilities in analytical measurements.

  9. Towards an Organizational Economics of Heterogeneous Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    The notion of “capability” has long been influential in management research as an approach to address firm-level heterogeneity and heterogeneity in competitive outcomes. I discuss how recent advances in economics may allow for a more rigorous understanding and measurement of capability that take...

  10. The Capability Approach: Enabling Musical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Amartya Sen's capability approach offers a new perspective for educators throughout the curriculum. This new insight has the potential to promote a music education that is inherently tailored to the individual. In essence it asks the question: What is music education going to offer to this student? This article represents an initial enquiry into…

  11. Truth and the Capability of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and truth, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of truth and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of truth is understood to be…

  12. Critical Capability Pedagogies and University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The article argues for an alliance of the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen with ideas from critical pedagogy for undergraduate university education which develops student agency and well being on the one hand, and social change towards greater justice on the other. The purposes of a university education in this article are taken to…

  13. Enabling Joint Interdependence through Capability Portfolio Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, or SWOT . Strengths and weaknesses are the product of an internal analysis and represent capabilities...product portfolio analysis . Competitor Analysis : Identity, strategic groups, performance, image, objectives, strategies, culture, cost structure...competitive external environment. The opportunities and threats portion of the SWOT analysis provides insight into what strategic options are available

  14. Capabilities and accessibility: a model for progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Tyler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility is seen to be a core issue which relates directly to the quality of life: if a person cannot reach and use a facility then they cannot take advantage of the benefits that the facility is seeking to provide. In some cases this is about being able to take part in an activity for enjoyment, but in some it is a question of the exercise of human rights – access to healthcare, education, voting and other citizens’ rights. This paper argues that such an equitable accessibility approach requires understanding of the relationships between the capabilities that a person has and the capabilities required of them by society in order to achieve the accessibility they seek. The Capabilities Model, which has been developed at UCL is an attempt to understand this relationship and the paper sets out an approach to quantifying the capabilities in a way that allows designers and implementers of environmental construction and operation to have a more robust approach to their decisions about providing accessibility.

  15. Organizational capabilities and new market entry processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Andersen, Poul Houman; Drejer, Ina

    This is a conceptual paper that addresses the question of organizational capabilities in the context of firms entering markets that are new to them. The purpose of this work is to outline the theoretical debate on the topic, and propose avenues for empirical investigation....

  16. Determining Optimum Propellants, Pulse Lengths, and Laser Intensity for Ablative Laser Propulsion Using the Pals Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Frederick P.

    2004-10-01

    Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP) can potentially reduce the cost of launching payloads into near earth orbit by a factor of 100. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated high efficiency, coupling coefficient, and specific impulse that would be suitable for applications. These experiments, however, were performed at wavelengths not usable in the atmosphere and at pulse energies and spot sizes much smaller than will be required for application. The parameters of the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) high-energy iodine laser, other than wavelength: pulse energy, pulse length, and beam diameter, are equal to those required for application. While its wavelength is a little shorter than required, it is closer than any other laser available and, due to PALS' 2ω and 3ω capability, the wavelength dependence can be studied and the results extrapolated to application values. In fact, PALS is probably the only laser in the world with parameters suitable for definitive ALP studies. PALS also has a suitable infrastructure for measuring plasma parameters already and only an instrument for measuring momentum transfer, such as a ballistic pendulum, would have to be added.

  17. Ensuring US National Aeronautics Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. leadership in aeronautics depends on ready access to technologically advanced, efficient, and affordable aeronautics test capabilities. These systems include major wind tunnels and propulsion test facilities and flight test capabilities. The federal government owns the majority of the major aeronautics test capabilities in the United States, primarily through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD). However, changes in the Aerospace landscape, primarily the decrease in demand for testing over the last 20 years required an overarching strategy for management of these national assets. Therefore, NASA established the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) as a two-pronged strategic initiative to: (1) retain and invest in NASA aeronautics test capabilities considered strategically important to the agency and the nation, and (2) establish a strong, high level partnership with the DoD. Test facility utilization is a critical factor for ATP because it relies on user occupancy fees to recover a substantial part of the operations costs for its facilities. Decreasing utilization is an indicator of excess capacity and in some cases low-risk redundancy (i.e., several facilities with basically the same capability and overall low utilization). However, low utilization does not necessarily translate to lack of strategic importance. Some facilities with relatively low utilization are nonetheless vitally important because of the unique nature of the capability and the foreseeable aeronautics testing needs. Unfortunately, since its inception, the customer base for ATP has continued to shrink. Utilization of ATP wind tunnels has declined by more than 50% from the FY 2006 levels. This significant decrease in customer usage is attributable to several factors, including the overall decline in new programs and projects in the aerospace sector; the impact of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on the design, development, and research

  18. Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C.; Larrue, A.; Wilhelm, C.; Soci, C.

    2015-05-01

    We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D) nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  19. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  20. Laser micro machining of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Y

    2009-01-01

    Excimer and increasingly ultra-short-pulsed lasers are important tools in the creation of microstructures and nanostructures. Capabilities of the latest systems are described, which include drilling 30-microm diameter holes in 50 to 100 microm thick metal foils and subsurface engraving of transparent materials.

  1. Progress of ITER full tungsten divertor technology qualification in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezato, K., E-mail: ezato.koichiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyma, Naka-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, S.; Seki, Y.; Mohri, K.; Yokoyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyma, Naka-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Escourbiac, F.; Hirai, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Kuznetcov, V. [NIIEFA, 3 doroga na Metallostroy, Metallostroy, St. Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • JAEA has demonstrated tungsten monoblock technology for ITER divertor that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. This includes as follows; • Bonding technologies between W and Cu interlayer, and between Cu interlayer and CuCrZr tube. • Non-destructive examination techniques, especially, ultrasonic testing method, and. • Load carrying capability of W monoblock attachment to support structure of ITER divertor. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is in progress for technology qualification toward full-tungsten (W) ITER divertor outer vertical target (OVT), especially, tungsten monoblock technology that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2}. To demonstrate the armor heat sink bonding technology and heat removal capability, 6 small-scale W monoblock mock-ups manufactured by different bonding technologies using different W materials in addition to 4 full-scale prototype plasma-facing units (PFUs). After non-destructive test, the W components were tested under high heat flux (HHF) in ITER Divertor Test Facility (IDTF) at NIIEFA. Consequently, all of the W monoblocks endured the repetitive heat load at 20 MW/m{sup 2} for 1000 cycles (requirements 20 MW/m{sup 2} for 300 cycles) without any failure. In addition to the armor to heat sink joints, the load carrying capability test on the W monoblock with a leg attachment was carried out. In uniaxial tensile test, all of the W monoblock attachments with different bonding technologies such as brazing and HIPping withstand the tensile load exceeding 20 kN that is the value more than twice the design value. The failures occurred at the leg attachments or the W monoblocks, rather than the bonding interface of the W monoblocks to the leg attachment.

  2. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  3. Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.

  4. Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, T. D.; Bible, J. B.; Mueller, R. E.

    1993-10-01

    A program is underway to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. This workstation, called Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS), will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use in constructing the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1996, will be constructed as three modules using standard Get-Away-Special (GAS) canisters. The first module holds the laser head and cooling system, while the second contains a high peak power electrical supply. The third module houses the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. The laser head and workstation cansisters are linked by a fiber-optic cable to transmit the laser light. The team assembled to carry out this project includes Lumonics Industrial Products (laser), Tennessee Technological University (structural analysis and fabrication), Auburn University Center for Space Power (electrical engineering), University of Waterloo (low-g laser process consulting), and CSTAR/UTSI (data acquisition, control, software, integration, experiment design). This report describes the SAILS program and highlights recent activities undertaken at CSTAR.

  5. Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, T. D.; Bible, J. B.; Mueller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    A program is underway to develop a YAG laser based materials processing workstation to fly in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. This workstation, called Space Applications Industrial Laser System (SAILS), will be capable of cutting and welding steel, aluminum, and Inconel alloys of the type planned for use in constructing the Space Station Freedom. As well as demonstrating the ability of a YAG laser to perform remote (fiber-optic delivered) repair and fabrication operations in space, fundamental data will be collected on these interactions for comparison with terrestrial data and models. The flight system, scheduled to fly in 1996, will be constructed as three modules using standard Get-Away-Special (GAS) canisters. The first module holds the laser head and cooling system, while the second contains a high peak power electrical supply. The third module houses the materials processing workstation and the command and data acquisition subsystems. The laser head and workstation cansisters are linked by a fiber-optic cable to transmit the laser light. The team assembled to carry out this project includes Lumonics Industrial Products (laser), Tennessee Technological University (structural analysis and fabrication), Auburn University Center for Space Power (electrical engineering), University of Waterloo (low-g laser process consulting), and CSTAR/UTSI (data acquisition, control, software, integration, experiment design). This report describes the SAILS program and highlights recent activities undertaken at CSTAR.

  6. Micro pulse laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  7. Physico-technical background of metal vapor laser systems and their application in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armichev, A. V.; Ivanov, Andrei V.; Kazaryan, Mishik A.

    1996-01-01

    Some results of the copper and gold vapor lasers and of helium-cadmium lasers used in medical practice are presented. The most in medical use copper vapor laser is commonly applied for low-intensity laser therapy and endoscopic surgery. A universal capability of dye lasers oscillating in 600 - 670 red region for excitation of the preparates used in photodynamic therapy is demonstrated. The copper vapor lasers are shown also to effectively coagulate pre- tumor neoplasms. A new method of laser beams shaping fitted to tumor configuration basing on quantum optical systems including image brightness amplifiers is described. Variability of the irradiating beam contrast is displayed, including the contrast inversion. Possibilities of the copper vapor lasers use for tumors drugless phototherapy and the two-step and two-stage methods of the photodynamic therapy are discussed. Some Russian medical systems based on the copper vapor lasers and dye lasers pumped by them are specified in parameters.

  8. Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    SLL 80 676 copy 1 SAN D78-2306 Unlimited Release UC-21 aM* m ml 8 H Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications Research Progress...Printed Copy $6.00; Microfiche $3.00 Accession Number: 3885 Publication Date: Dec 01,1978 Title: Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications...Document: Archive, RRI, DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Laser Development Fusion Application Oscillator Amplifier Geometry Electron Beam Iodine Hydrogen

  9. Laser Science and Technology Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H L; Hackel, L A

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LS&T) Program's mission is to develop advanced solid-state lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the Nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to ensure activation success. LS&T provides the NIF Programs with core competencies and supports its economic viability. The primary objectives of LS&T activities in fiscal year (FY) 2001 have been threefold: (1) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance lasers and optics performance for NIF, (2) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DoD), and (3) to invent, develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and U.S. industry. Special efforts have also been devoted to building and maintaining our capabilities in three technology areas: high-power solid-state lasers, high-power optical materials, and applications of advanced lasers.

  10. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  11. Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices

    OpenAIRE

    Gittard, Shaun D; Narayan, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based direct writing of materials has undergone significant development in recent years. The ability to modify a variety of materials at small length scales and using short production times provides laser direct writing with unique capabilities for fabrication of medical devices. In many laser-based rapid prototyping methods, microscale and submicroscale structuring of materials is controlled by computer-generated models. Various laser-based direct write methods, including selective las...

  12. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  13. Addition of Tomographic Capabilities to NMIS

    CERN Document Server

    Mullens, J A

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes tomographic capabilities for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). The tomographic capabilities add weapons component spatial and material properties information that result in a more detailed item signature (template) and provide more information for physical attributes analyses. The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) is used routinely to confirm the identity of HEU components in sealed containers. It does this through a radiation signature acquired by shining a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source through the container and measuring the radiation at four detectors stacked vertically on the other side. This measurement gives a gamma and neutron radiation transmission profile of the weapons component, mixed with the radiation production due to the induced fissions in the fissile materials. This information is sufficient to match an ''unknown'' weapons component signature to a template signature from a reference item when measuring under controlled conditions. Tomography m...

  14. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  15. Measurement capability overview in PolyNano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    requirements such as low uncertainty, high repeatability and resolution, adequate measuring range and availability among the different project partners. Based on the present measurement capability overview and in relation to the objective of PolyNano to “remove the technology barrier between lab‐scale proof......A measurement capability overview has been conducted to evaluate, among the most used instruments in the field of nanometrology, where the PolyNano project should focus its research. The deliverable presents the most relevant instruments to achieve the best possible measurements accuracy matching...... of principle and high volume low cost production”, WP6 future work will be on standardizing new measuring methods through traceable procedures which will enable product quality control implemented in‐line with micro/nano manufacturing processing technologies....

  16. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis.

  17. Mental capability of higher school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кorobeynikov G.V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mental capability of higher school students of different specialties: technical (27 male and 35 female, natural (32 male and 30 female and humanitarian (20 male and 26 female were studied. The parameters: perception, attention, memory, thinking and mental capability was studied. The results are showed that the forming of psychophysiological organization of informational processing system in higher school students of different specialties is characterized by geterocronyisms with direction relation of specialty preparation. The learning of technical specialties to results of associative links determined and abstracts concepts forming under the analysis of the concretes objects. The natural specialties to promote of cognitive functions determined and times interval perception forming. The humanitarian specialties characterized of determined of attention and associative thinking functions.

  18. Rope Climbing Robot with Surveillance Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanza Zafar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past different engineers and researcher developed robots capable of climbing for various purposes. In this paper we have developed a robot capable of rope climbing in both horizontal and vertical direction. Furthermore, the robot has the ability to perform surveillance using a camera mounted on top of the robot. The quality of the transmitted video from the camera to the computer is clear and stable. Hence the developed robot is a good choice for surveillance purposes. In addition, it can be used to traverse floors of a building. It uses an IR sensor to sense strips attached at each floor. Once the strips are sensed, a dropping mechanism is activated in which a specific object is dropped to the targeted floor or location. The robot can work in automatic mode or manual through RF signals from an RF transmitter. Finally the robot is cost effective compared to many other developed robots for rope climbing.

  19. NASA DOEPOD NDE Capabilities Data Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    This data book contains the Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection (POD) Capability of NDE Systems (DOEPOD) analyses of the nondestructive inspection data presented in the NTIAC, Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities Data Book. DOEPOD is designed as a decision support system to validate inspection system, personnel, and protocol demonstrating 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes, a90/95. Although 0.90 POD with 95% confidence at critical flaw sizes is often stated as an inspection requirement in inspection documents, including NASA Standards, NASA critical aerospace applications have historically only accepted 0.978 POD or better with a 95% one-sided lower confidence bound exceeding 0.90 at critical flaw sizes, a90/95.

  20. Exploring unconventional capabilities of holographic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. J.; Pagliusi, P.; Provenzano, C.; Cipparrone, G.

    2011-06-01

    We report an investigation of manipulation and trapping capabilities of polarization holographic tweezers. A polarization gradient connected with a modulation of the ellipticity shows an optical force related to the polarization of the light that can influence optically isotropic particles. While in the case of birefringent particles an unconventional trapping in circularly polarized fringes is observed. A liquid crystal emulsion has been adopted to investigate the capabilities of the holographic tweezers. The unusual trapping observed for rotating bipolar nematic droplets has suggested the involvement of the lift hydrodynamic force responsible of the Magnus effect, originating from the peculiar optical force field. We show that the Magnus force which is ignored in the common approach can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

  1. RILIS laser room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  2. RILIS laser room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  3. Laser processing for manufacturing nanocarbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Hai Hoang

    CNTs have been considered as the excellent candidate to revolutionize a broad range of applications. There have been many method developed to manipulate the chemistry and the structure of CNTs. Laser with non-contact treatment capability exhibits many processing advantages, including solid-state treatment, extremely fast processing rate, and high processing resolution. In addition, the outstanding monochromatic, coherent, and directional beam generates the powerful energy absorption and the resultant extreme processing conditions. In my research, a unique laser scanning method was developed to process CNTs, controlling the oxidation and the graphitization. The achieved controllability of this method was applied to address the important issues of the current CNT processing methods for three applications. The controllable oxidation of CNTs by laser scanning method was applied to cut CNT films to produce high-performance cathodes for FE devices. The production method includes two important self-developed techniques to produce the cold cathodes: the production of highly oriented and uniformly distributed CNT sheets and the precise laser trimming process. Laser cutting is the unique method to produce the cathodes with remarkable features, including ultrathin freestanding structure (~200 nm), greatly high aspect ratio, hybrid CNT-GNR emitter arrays, even emitter separation, and directional emitter alignment. This unique cathode structure was unachievable by other methods. The developed FE devices successfully solved the screening effect issue encounter by current FE devices. The laser-control oxidation method was further developed to sequentially remove graphitic walls of CNTs. The laser oxidation process was directed to occur along the CNT axes by the laser scanning direction. Additionally, the oxidation was further assisted by the curvature stress and the thermal expansion of the graphitic nanotubes, ultimately opening (namely unzipping) the tubular structure to

  4. Maritime emergency management capabilities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roud, Ensieh Kheiri Pileh; Borch, Odd Jarl; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    several institutions and management levels are included. Host nation support from neighboring countries may be in demand. Experiences from the accident with the cruise ship “Maxim Gorkiy” in the ice south-west of Svalbard are highlighted together with the experiences from large-scale exercises in the High...... North. We illuminate the capabilities needed, and the training of key personnel responsible for coordinating such operations....

  5. BIM Innovation Capability Programme - Irish BIM Study

    OpenAIRE

    McAuley, Barry; Hore, Alan; West, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 the Royal Institute of Architects Ireland (RIAI) conducted a survey which found that BIM adoption within Ireland was quite low at 16%. Over the last five years these figures have risen significantly, with the 2016 Irish Digital Transition Survey reporting that 76% of respondents possess confidence in their organisation’s BIM skills and knowledge. This represents a significant shift of BIM adoption in Ireland over the last five years. The BIM Innovation Capability Programme (BICP) I...

  6. Logistics capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Erik; Abrahamsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainable competitive advantage is generated in two Swedish best practice companies that successfully exploit logistics as a source for competitive advantage. Using a theoretical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm, this research elaborates on the links between operational and dynamic logistics capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. The findings conclude that a sustainable competitive advantage is based on a combina...

  7. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Annual Industrial Capabilities Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    currently fielded M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (M291 SDK) or begin full rate production of Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion ( RSDL ). The study...concluded that exclusive award of RSDL will shrink the supplier base for the M291 SDK because the Department of Defense is the major buyer of the...product. The sole award of RSDL or M291 SDK will not have any long-term adverse impact on the sector, future capabilities, and manufacturing capacity

  9. Entrepreneurship and human development: A capability approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Thomas; Naudé, Wim

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal model of entrepreneurship in human development. The framework is provided by the capabilities approach (CA). Hence we extend not only the conceptualisation of entrepreneurship in development, but the reach of the CA into entrepreneurship. From a CA view, entrepreneurship is not only a production factor, or a means to an end, as is often taken to be the case by economists, but also an end in itself. Entrepreneurship can be a human functioning and can contribute towards expa...

  10. P and e identification capabilities CAPRICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The cosmic antiparticle ring imaging Cherenkov experiment (CAPRICE) flew on a stratospheric balloon 8-9 August 1994 over northern Canada and collected data for more than 21 hours with less than 5 g/cm{sup 2} of residual atmosphere. The instrument includes a solid radiator RICH detector and an electromagnetic calorimeter for particle identification in the magnetic spectrometer. Preliminary antiproton and positron identification capabilities are presented.

  11. Satellite-based Tropical Cyclone Monitoring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M.; Yang, S.; Lee, T. F.; Sampson, C. R.; Solbrig, J.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Miller, S. D.; Kent, J.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing capabilities to monitor tropical cyclone (TC) location, structure, and intensity have evolved by utilizing a combination of operational and research and development (R&D) sensors. The microwave imagers from the operational Defense Meteorological Satellite Program [Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS)] form the "base" for structure observations due to their ability to view through upper-level clouds, modest size swaths and ability to capture most storm structure features. The NASA TRMM microwave imager and precipitation radar continue their 15+ yearlong missions in serving the TC warning and research communities. The cessation of NASA's QuikSCAT satellite after more than a decade of service is sorely missed, but India's OceanSat-2 scatterometer is now providing crucial ocean surface wind vectors in addition to the Navy's WindSat ocean surface wind vector retrievals. Another Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) onboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-2 satellite is slated for launch soon. Passive microwave imagery has received a much needed boost with the launch of the French/Indian Megha Tropiques imager in September 2011, basically greatly supplementing the very successful NASA TRMM pathfinder with a larger swath and more frequent temporal sampling. While initial data issues have delayed data utilization, current news indicates this data will be available in 2013. Future NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) sensors starting in 2014 will provide enhanced capabilities. Also, the inclusion of the new microwave sounder data from the NPP ATMS (Oct 2011) will assist in mapping TC convective structures. The National Polar orbiting Partnership (NPP) program's VIIRS sensor includes a day night band (DNB) with the capability to view TC cloud structure at night when sufficient lunar illumination exits. Examples highlighting this new capability will be discussed in concert with additional data fusion efforts.

  12. Business Models for Cost Sharing & Capability Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    business models need to adapt in a continuous process in most cases, notably the major platforms and technologies featured in this research. Demil and...capability or availability. The business model, as seen by Demil and Lecocq (2010), delivers dynamic consistency by ensuring that profitability and...business of projects. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Demil , B., & Lecocq, X. (2010). Business model evolution: In search of dynamic

  13. The Logic of Resources and Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the logic of resources and (agents') capabilities (LRC) as a logic designed to describe and reason about key aspects of social behaviour in organizations. The results of the present paper (soundness, completeness, canonicity, conservative analytic calculus with cut-elimination and subformula property) lay at the intersection of the algebraic theory of unified correspondence and the theory of multi-type calculi in structural proof theory. Case studies are discussed which ...

  14. Maritime emergency management capabilities in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roud, Ensieh Kheiri Pileh; Borch, Odd Jarl; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    several institutions and management levels are included. Host nation support from neighboring countries may be in demand. Experiences from the accident with the cruise ship “Maxim Gorkiy” in the ice south-west of Svalbard are highlighted together with the experiences from large-scale exercises in the High...... North. We illuminate the capabilities needed, and the training of key personnel responsible for coordinating such operations....

  15. Two-mirrored galvanometer laser light sheet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, B. D.; Franke, J. M.; Jones, S. B.; Rhodes, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    Light sheets generated with either laser or noncoherent sources have found widespread application to flow visualization. Previous light sheet generating systems were usually dedicated to a specific viewing geometry. The technique with the most flexibility is the galvanometer mirror based laser light sheet system. A two-mirrored system was designed and developed to provide flexibility and adaptability to a wide range of applications. The design includes the capability to control the size and location of the laser light sheet in real time, to generate horizontal or vertical sheets, to sweep the sheet repeatedly through a volume, to generate multiple sheets with controllable separation and to rotate single or multiple laser light sheets. The system is capable of producing up to 12 sheets of laser light at an angular divergence of + or - 20 degrees. Maximum scan rate of any one line is 500 Hertz. This system has proven to be uniquely versatile and a patent has been applied for.

  16. Laser Drilling Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and the relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.

  17. Heutagogic approach to developing capable learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Komattil, Ramnarayan

    2017-03-01

    The twenty-first century higher education sector has come a long way after undergoing continuous metamorphosis from pedagogy to andragogy. Most of the educational approaches adopted in medical schools are directed towards developing more of competencies and less of capability, which is the ability to use competencies in novel contexts. Competencies alone are not sufficient to thrive in the present day work place as medical profession subsumes complex contexts; it is in this scenario that, medical educators are entrusted with the challenging task of developing "capable learners". In the heutagogical approach, learners are required to decide upon what to learn and how to learn and therefore the control of the learning process is on the learner and the role of the teacher becomes that of a navigator. This paper highlights the current higher educational practices based on heutagogy, considers its application in the context of Problem-based learning and also discusses a few challenges in incorporating this approach in the existing undergraduate medical curriculum. The article proposes the use of social media in order to support learner autonomy, which in turn improves learners' cognitive engagement with content and tasks, thereby assisting the development of attributes associated with capability.

  18. Assessment of cold neutron radiography capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Roberts, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors goals were to demonstrate and assess cold neutron radiography techniques at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Manual Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), and to investigate potential applications of the capability. The authors have obtained images using film and an amorphous silicon detector. In addition, a new technique they have developed allows neutron radiographs to be made using only a narrow range of neutron energies. Employing this approach and the Bragg cut-off phenomena in certain materials, they have demonstrated material discrimination in radiography. They also demonstrated the imaging of cracks in a sample of a fire-set case that was supplied by Sandia National Laboratory, and they investigated whether the capability could be used to determine the extent of coking in jet engine nozzles. The LANSCE neutron radiography capability appears to have applications in the DOE stockpile maintenance and science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) programs, and in industry.

  19. Gendering dynamic capabilities in micro firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgen Bogodistov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues are well-researched in the general management literature, particular in studies on new ventures. Unfortunately, gender issues have been largely ignored in the dynamic capabilities litera­ture. We address this gap by analyzing the effects of gender diversity on dynamic capabilities among micro firms. We consider the gender of managers and personnel in 124 Ukrainian tourism micro firms. We examine how a manager’s gender affects the firm’s sensing capacities and investigate how it moderates team gender diversity’s impact on sensing capacities. We also investigate how person­nel composition impacts seizing and reconfiguration capacities. We find that female managers have several shortcomings concerning a firm’s sensing capacity but that personnel gender diversity increa­ses this capacity. Team gender diversity has positive effects on a firm’s seizing and reconfiguration abilities. Our study advances research on gender diversity and its impact on firm capabilities and illustrates its relevance for staffing practices in micro firms.

  20. Jason 2: A Review of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, R. L.; Bowen, A. D.; Heintz, M. C.; Naiman, M.; Taylor, C. L.; Sellers, W. J.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Howland, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    The family of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) for the United States oceanographic research community through the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), represent some of the most advanced tools and technology available for accomplishing a wide variety of deep submergence science and operations. Over the past five years, research done using these vehicles has provided major contributions to the understanding of deep-sea geological, chemical and biological processes at mid-ocean ridges (MORs). The ROV systems have also contributed to successful deployment of ocean floor observatory monitors and various sensors that seek to understand the geophysical and geotechnical properties of young crust and provide an ability to make routine time series measurements. As a result of experience gained during over 25 cruises with Jason and its companion vehicles and input from the user community and the DEep Submergence Science Committee (DESSC) of UNOLS, WHOI has recently completed an upgrade to the Jason vehicle. This has resulted in substantive additions to the vehicle's capabilities, particularly in the area of propulsion power and manipulative capabilities. During its first complete year of operation, the vehicle has operated a cumulative total of approximately 60 days in the water at depths up to a maximum of 6,500 meters. This poster will describe the capabilities of the new Jason vehicle and briefly review if achievements.

  1. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  2. Capable and credible? Challenging nutrition science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Wolters, Anna; Feskens, Edith F; Brouns, Fred; Huber, Machteld; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Navis, Gerjan; Ockhuizen, Theo; Plat, Jogchum; Sikkema, Jan; Stasse-Wolthuis, Marianne; van 't Veer, Pieter; Verweij, Marcel; de Vries, Jan

    2017-07-17

    Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis for food regulations and dietary guidelines. Its collaborative and interdisciplinary research has accomplished much, scientifically and socially. Despite this, nutrition science appears to be in crisis and is currently confronted with a public reluctance to trust nutritional insights. Though deflating trust is a general phenomenon surrounding the scientific community, its impact on nutrition science is particularly strong because of the crucial role of nutrition in everyone's daily life. We, a Dutch collective of nutritionists, medical doctors, philosophers and sociologists of science ( http://www.nutritionintransition.nl ), have diagnosed that nutrition science is meeting inherent boundaries. This hampers conceptual and methodological progress and the translation of novel insights into societal benefit and trust. In other words, nutrition science is facing limitations to its capability and credibility, impeding its societal value. We take up the challenge to halt the threatening erosion of nutrition science's capability and credibility, and explore a way forward. We analyse limitations to capability and credibility, then argue that nutrition science is caught in a vicious circle, and end by offering some suggestions to transcend the limitations and escape the current deadlock. We invite nutritional experts as well as scholars from adjacent disciplines to engage in the discussion.

  3. Mirrorless lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hema Ramachandran

    2002-02-01

    Experimental realization of mirrorless lasers in the last decade have resulted in hectic activity in this field, due to their novelty, simplicity and ruggedness and their great potential for application. In this article, I will review the various developments in this field in roughly chronological order, and discuss some possible applications of this exciting phenomenon, also termed as ‘random lasing’.

  4. Nanowire Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Couteau C.; Larrue A.; Wilhelm C.; Soci C.

    2015-01-01

    We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D) nature, fl...

  5. NOVA laser facility for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1983-11-30

    The NOVA laser consists of ten beams, capable of concentrating 100 to 150 kJ of energy (in 3 ns) and 100 to 150 TW of power (in 100 ps) on experimental targets by 1985. NOVA will also be capable of frequency converting the fundamental laser wavelength (1.05 ..mu..m) to its second (0.525 ..mu..m) or third (0.35 ..mu..m) harmonic. This additional capability (80 to 120 kJ at 0.525 ..mu..m, 40 to 70 kJ at 0.35 ..mu..m) was approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1982. These shorter wavelengths are much more favorable for ICF target physics. Current construction status of the NOVA facility, intended for completion in the autumn of 1984, will be presented.

  6. Threshold Determination and Analysis of Laser Pulse Range Finder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷聪; 韩绍坤; 刘巽亮; 张化朋; 赵跃进

    2003-01-01

    Under different conditions, the highest detection probability should be acquired while receiving laser echo during laser pulse range finding. The threshold voltage of the signal detection can be set corresponding to different conditions by using resistor network. As a feedback loop, automatic noise threshold circuit could change the threshold voltage following the noise level. The threshold can track the noise closely, rapidly and accurately by adopting this combination. Therefore, the receiving capability of laser echo receiving system will be maximized, and it can detect weaker laser pulse from noise.

  7. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  8. Twin-Mirrored-Galvanometer Laser-Light-Sheet Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple, rotating laser-light sheets generated to illuminate flows in wind tunnels. Designed and developed to provide flexibility and adaptability to wide range of applications. Design includes capability to control size and location of laser-light sheet in real time, to generate horizontal or vertical sheets, to sweep sheet repeatedly through volume, to generate multiple sheets with controllable separation, and to rotate single or multiple laser-light sheets. Includes electronic equipment and laser mounted on adjustable-height platform. Twin-mirrored galvanometer unit supported by tripod to reduce vibration. Other possible applications include use in construction industry to align beams of building. Artistic or display applications also possible.

  9. Aurora inertial confinement fusion laser control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowling, P.S.; Burczyk, L.; Dingler, R.D.; Shurter, R.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., P.O. Box 1663, AT-8 MS H811, Los Alamos, NM 87545)

    1987-05-01

    Aurora is a complex krypton fluoride excimer research laser supported by a computerized control and data acquisition system. Aurora's requirements for control, data aquisition, and data analysis are met with specific application of minicomputer and microcomputer capabilities coupled with internally developed custom hardware and software. A control system that provides an operator with the ability to charge and fire the integrated laser system safely and remotely is described. A data aquisition system that acquires, stores, and processes laser system data is also described. This data acquisition system provides the experimentalists with support tools for better understanding the laser system.

  10. Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Q. Le

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO. These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.

  11. Laser puncture therapy of nervous system disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anishchenko, G.; Kochetkov, V.

    1984-08-29

    The authors discuss experience with treatment of nervous system disorders by means of laser-puncture therapy. Commenting on the background of the selection of this type of treatment, they explain that once researchers determined the biological action of laser light on specific nerve receptors of the skin, development of laser apparatus capable of concentrating the beam in the millimeter band was undertaken. The devices that are being used for laser-puncture are said to operate in the red helium-neon band of light. The authors identify beam parameters that have been selected for different groups of acupuncture points of the skin, and the courses of treatment (in seconds of radiation) and their time intervals. They go on to discuss the results of treatment of over 800 patients categorized in a group with disorders of the peripheral nervous system and a second group with disorders of the central nervous system.

  12. Laser processing of ceramics for microelectronics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposili, Robert S.; Bovatsek, James; Patel, Rajesh

    2017-03-01

    Ceramic materials are used extensively in the microelectronics, semiconductor, and LED lighting industries because of their electrically insulating and thermally conductive properties, as well as for their high-temperature-service capabilities. However, their brittleness presents significant challenges for conventional machining processes. In this paper we report on a series of experiments that demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of pulsed nanosecond UV and green lasers in machining ceramics commonly used in microelectronics manufacturing, such as aluminum oxide (alumina) and aluminum nitride. With a series of laser pocket milling experiments, fundamental volume ablation rate and ablation efficiency data were generated. In addition, techniques for various industrial machining processes, such as shallow scribing and deep scribing, were developed and demonstrated. We demonstrate that lasers with higher average powers offer higher processing rates with the one exception of deep scribes in aluminum nitride, where a lower average power but higher pulse energy source outperformed a higher average power laser.

  13. Remote Sensing Capabilities to Detect Maritime Vessels in Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Rudolph K.; Green, John M.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Rais, Houra

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility for conducting research and development for search and rescue as charged under the National Search and Rescue Plan. For over two decades this task has been undertaken by the Search and Rescue Mission Office at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The technology used by the highly successful beacon locating satellite system, Cospas-Sarsat, was conceived and developed at GSFC and is managed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Using beacon-less remote sensing to find people and vessels in distress complements the demonstrated life saving capabilities of this satellite system. The Search and Rescue Mission Office has been investigating the use of fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar to locate crashed aircraft. An overview of this effort and potential maritime applications of Search and Rescue Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) will be presented. The Mission Office has also developed a Laser search and rescue system called L-SAR. The prototype instrument was designed and built by SenSyTech Inc. It specifically targets the location of novel retro-reflective material easily applied to rescue equipment and vessels in distress. An overview of this effort will also be presented.

  14. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  15. Lasers in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viherkoski, E

    1990-01-01

    Since its discovery, the laser has been intensively investigated and used in medicine, first in ophthalmology then in ear, nose and throat surgery, gynaecology, neurosurgery etc. Development spans from the ruby and argon lasers in outpatient eye surgery to the carbon dioxide and Nd:YAG lasers in the operating theatres and further on to the PDT-dye lasers, excimer and solid state angioplasty lasers or flash lamp pumped "gallstone cracker" lasers. The CO2-Nd: YAG laser combination will be described as the state-of-art surgical laser. This simultaneous, coaxial and coherent combination laser offers a new possibility to cut and coagulate effectively at the same time. Operating times are shortened and bleeding volumes minimised. The CO2-Nd: YAG laser represents a new type of interaction between laser and tissue, laser enhanced tissue absorption, which will be described.

  16. Laser therapy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laser is used for many medical purposes. Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it enables ... without injuring surrounding tissue. Some uses of the laser are retinal surgery, excision of lesions, and cauterization ...

  17. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  18. A review of laser and synchrotron based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay (France). LSAI; Key, M.H. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay (France). LSAI; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The rapid development of laser technology and related progress in research using lasers is shifting the boundaries where laser based sources are preferred over other light sources particularly in the XUV and X-ray spectral region. Laser based sources have exceptional capability for short pulse and high brightness and with improvements in high repetition rate pulsed operation, such sources are also becoming more interesting for their average power capability. This study presents an evaluation of the current capabilities and near term future potential of laser based light sources and summarises, for the purpose of comparison, the characteristics and near term prospects of sources based on synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Relative comparisons are given within charts of peak brightness. (orig.)

  19. Monolithically integrated Ge CMOS laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo

    2014-02-01

    Ge-on-Si devices are explored for photonic integration. Through the development of better growth techniques, monolithic integration, laser design and prototypes, it was possible to probe Ge light emitters with emphasis on lasers. Preliminary worked shows thermal photonic behavior capable of enhancing lamination at high temperatures. Increase luminescence is observed up to 120°C from L-band contribution. Higher temperatures show contribution from Δ -band. The increase carrier thermal contribution suggests high temperature applications for Ge light emitters. A Ge electrically pumped laser was probed under 0.2% biaxial strain and doping concentration ~4.5×1019cm-3 n-type. Ge pnn lasers exhibit a gain >1000cm-1 with 8mW power output, presenting a spectrum range of over 200nm, making Ge the ideal candidate for Si photonics. Large temperatures fluctuations and process limit the present device. Theoretically a gain of >4000cm- gain is possible with a threshold of as low as 1kA/cm2. Improvements in Ge work

  20. Expanding capabilities of the debris analysis workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, David B.; Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.; Shubert, Ann J.; Gerhart, Charlotte M.; Yates, Ken W.; Leake, Michael

    1996-10-01

    Determining the hazards from debris-generating events is a design and safety consideration for a number of space systems, both currently operating and planned. To meet these and other requirements, the United States Air Force (USAF) Phillips Laboratory (PL) Space Debris Research Program has developed a simulation software package called the Debris Analysis Workstation (DAW). This software provides an analysis capability for assessing a wide variety of debris hazards. DAW integrates several component debris analysis models and data visualization tools into a single analysis platform that meets the needs for Department of Defense space debris analysis, and is both user friendly and modular. This allows for studies to be performed expeditiously by analysts who are not debris experts. The current version of DAW includes models for spacecraft breakup, debris orbital lifetime, collision hazard risk assessment, and collision dispersion, as well as a satellite catalog database manager, a drag inclusive propagator, a graphical user interface, and data visualization routines. Together they provide capabilities to conduct several types of analyses, ranging from range safety assessments to satellite constellation risk assessment. Work is progressing to add new capabilities with the incorporation of additional models and improved designs. The existing tools are in their initial integrated form, but the 'glue' that will ultimately bring them together into an integrated system is an object oriented language layer scheduled to be added soon. Other candidate component models under consideration for incorporation include additional orbital propagators, error estimation routines, other dispersion models, and other breakup models. At present, DAW resides on a SUNR workstation, although future versions could be tailored for other platforms, depending on the need.

  1. Medical Data Architecture Project Capabilities and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middour, C.; Krihak, M.; Lindsey, A.; Marker, N.; Wolfe, S.; Winther, S.; Ronzano, K.; Bolles, D.; Toscano, W.; Shaw, T.

    2017-01-01

    Mission constraints will challenge the delivery of medical care on a long-term, deep space exploration mission. This type of mission will be restricted in the availability of medical knowledge, skills, procedures and resources to prevent, diagnose, and treat in-flight medical events. Challenges to providing medical care are anticipated, including resource and resupply constraints, delayed communications and no ability for medical evacuation. The Medical Data Architecture (MDA) project will enable medical care capability in this constrained environment. The first version of the system, called "Test Bed 1," includes capabilities for automated data collection, data storage and data retrieval to provide information to the Crew Medical Officer (CMO). Test Bed 1 seeks to establish a data architecture foundation and develop a scalable data management system through modular design and standardized interfaces. In addition, it will demonstrate to stakeholders the potential for an improved, automated, flow of data to and from the medical system over the current methods employed on the International Space Station (ISS). It integrates a set of external devices, software and processes, and a Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan (SOAP) note commonly used by clinicians. Medical data like electrocardiogram plots, heart rate, skin temperature, respiration rate, medications taken, and more are collected from devices and stored in the Electronic Medical Records (EMR) system, and reported to crew and clinician. Devices integrated include the Astroskin biosensor vest and IMED CARDIAX electrocardiogram (ECG) device with INEED MD ECG Glove, and the NASA-developed Medical Dose Tracker application. The system is designed to be operated as a standalone system, and can be deployed in a variety of environments, from a laptop to a data center. The system is primarily composed of open-source software tools, and is designed to be modular, so new capabilities can be added. The software

  2. Orbital maneuvering vehicle: A new capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, William G.

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a reusable, remotely controlled, free-flying vehicle being developed by NASA to perform a wide range of on-orbit missions and services in support of orbiting spacecraft. The OMV is capable of satellite delivery, retrieval, reboost, controlled deorbit, viewing, and subsatellite support missions. It is an important extension to the Space Transportation System and a key element of the Space Station operational scenario. The OMV can operate from the Shuttle, the Space Station, or can be space based. The OMV, being 15 ft in diameter and approximately 4 1/2 thick, mounts directly into the Shuttle payload bay. The vehicle design is highly modular, consisting of a Short Range Vehicle containing both hydrazine and cold gas RCS systems and all the avionics systems for electrical power, communications, data management, guidance, navigation, and 6-degree of freedom control. This vehicle weighs approximately 6,500 lb and can accomplish a high percentage of the project missions. For high delta-velocity missions, a bipropellant Propulsion Module (approximately 11,000lb) is added, giving a total weight of 17,500 lb. This module can be exchanged on orbit to effect bipropellant refueling. All the RCS and avionics modules are replaceable on orbit for maintenance. The OMV development program was initiated in 1986 with the selection of TRW as the prime contractor. The first flight is projected for 1991. An early planned use of OMV is to reboost the Hubble Space Telescope when required because of atmospheric drag. This paper contains details of the program status, vehicle description, and mission capabilities. The purpose of the paper is to acquaint the international space community with OMV capabilities and to stimulate the identification of new and unique mission applications.

  3. Gasdynamic lasers: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are covered: elementary physics, thermodynamics and vibrational kinetics of the CO/sub 2/--N/sub 2/--H/sub 2/O or He gasdynamic laser, calculation of gasdynamic laser performance, comparison between theory and experiment, inversions behind normal shock waves, CO/sub 2/--N/sub 2/ gasdynamic lasers: state-of-the-art, the carbon monoxide gasdynamic laser, downstream mixing gasdynamic lasers, optical cavity considerations for gasdynamic lasers, aerodynamic windows, and diffusers. (MHR)

  4. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  5. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  6. Radio Frequency Simulation System (RFSS) Capabilities Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    S- 0LEVEL-- TECHNICAL REPORT TD -77-8 RADIO FREQUENCY SIMULATION SYSTEM (RFSS) CAPABILITIES SUMMARY 00 SAeroballistios Directorate Advanced Simulation...gAttn: DRDMT - TD /AMCMS 63 303.214131101 RedstngArj gUAl. Alabmt 35809______________ It CONTITL.uNG OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS CoMuaa ner US Army Missile...r ~- -- 0 0 0 1 N -4 -- -~ *5 0 - 5e41 -A I: a 00 I I. S Jto cc iI us V A U. II I’~z’LF~iJ - - - - -> 3-cc dc -4 -.40 =! Jo -AZC 4 C - 442q 0 M~A $Ji a

  7. New multivariable capabilities of the INCA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly, efficient environment for the design and analysis of control systems, specifically spacecraft control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. The (INCA) program was initially developed as a comprehensive classical design analysis tool for small and large order control systems. The latest version of INCA, expected to be released in February of 1990, was expanded to include the capability to perform multivariable controls analysis and design.

  8. Molecular Contamination Investigation Facility (MCIF) Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This facility was used to guide the development of ASTM E 1559 center dot Multiple Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCMs), large sample and spectral effects capability center dot Several instrumented, high vacuum chamber systems are used to evaluate the molecular outgassing characteristics of materials, flight components and other sensitive surfaces. Test materials for spacecraft/instrument selection center.Test flight components for acceptable molecular outgas levels center dot Determine time/temperature vacuum bake-out requirements center. Data used to set limits for use of materials and specific components center. Provide Input Data to Contamination Transport Models -Applied to numerous flight projects over the past 20 years.

  9. Computational Scenario-based Capability Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Abbass, Hussein; Dam, Helen; Baker, Stephen; Whitacre, James M; Sarker, Ruhul; 10.1145/1389095.1389378

    2009-01-01

    Scenarios are pen-pictures of plausible futures, used for strategic planning. The aim of this investigation is to expand the horizon of scenario-based planning through computational models that are able to aid the analyst in the planning process. The investigation builds upon the advances of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to create a novel, flexible and customizable computational capability-based planning methodology that is practical and theoretically sound. We will show how evolutionary computation, in particular evolutionary multi-objective optimization, can play a central role - both as an optimizer and as a source for innovation.

  10. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Osman, Mohammed; Godso, David; King, Brent; Ricciardi, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the design developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC system design. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has six chapters, a bibliography, three appendices and one attachment.

  11. Conceptual Model of IT Infrastructure Capability and Its Empirical Justification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xianfeng; LAN Boxiong; GUO Zhenwei

    2008-01-01

    Increasing importance has been attached to the value of information technology (IT) infrastructure in today's organizations. The development of efficacious IT infrastructure capability enhances business performance and brings sustainable competitive advantage. This study analyzed the IT infrastructure capability in a holistic way and then presented a concept model of IT capability. IT infrastructure capability was categorized into sharing capability, service capability, and flexibility. This study then empirically tested the model using a set of survey data collected from 145 firms. Three factors emerge from the factor analysis as IT flexibility, IT service capability, and IT sharing capability, which agree with those in the conceptual model built in this study.

  12. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  13. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  14. Laser biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    This issue of Quantum Electronics presents the papers that reflect the state-of-the-art of laser technologies used in biomedical studies and medical practice. Among the new technologies, one can note the methods of correlation and Doppler spectroscopy, as well as THz spectroscopy, in which biologically significant molecules are characterised by specific resonances. The latter topic is considered in the paper by Nazarov et al., where the dielectric function of aqueous solutions of glucose and albumin is studied using pulsed THz spectroscopy.

  15. Tonopah Test Range capabilities: technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhart, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    This manual describes Tonopah Test Range (TTR), defines its testing capabilities, and outlines the steps necessary to schedule tests on the Range. Operated by Sandia National Laboratories, TTR is a major test facility for DOE-funded weapon programs. The Range presents an integrated system for ballistic test vehicle tracking and data acquisition. Multiple radars, optical trackers, telemetry stations, a central computer complex, and combined landline/RF communications systems assure full Range coverage for any type of test. Range operations are conducted by a department within Sandia's Field Engineering Directorate. While the overall Range functions as a complete system, it is operationally divided into the Test Measurements, Instrumentation Development, and Range Operations divisions. The primary function of TTR is to support DOE weapons test activities. Management, however, encourages other Government agencies and their contractors to schedule tests on the Range which can make effective use of its capabilities. Information concerning Range use by organizations outside of DOE is presented. Range instrumentation and support facilities are described in detail. This equipment represents the current state-of-the-art and reflects a continuing commitment by TTR management to field the most effective tracking and data acquisition system available.

  16. SAPHIRE 8 New Features and Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) software performs probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculations. SAPHIRE is used in support of NRC’s risk-informed programs such as the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program, Management Directive 8.3, “NRC Incident Investigation Program,” or the Significance Determination Process (SDP). It is also used to develop and run the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models. SAPHIRE Version 8 is a new version of the software with an improved interface and capabilities to support risk-informed programs. SAPHIRE Version 8 is designed to easily handle larger and more complex models. Applications of previous SAPHIRE versions indicated the need to build and solve models with a large number of sequences. Risk assessments that include endstate evaluations for core damage frequency and large, early release frequency evaluations have greatly increased the number of sequences required. In addition, the complexity of the models has increased since risk assessments evaluate both potential internal and external events, as well as different plant operational states. Special features of SAPHIRE 8 help create and run integrated models which may be composed of different model types. SAPHIRE 8 includes features and capabilities that are new or improved over the current Version 7 to address the new requirements for risk-informed programs and SPAR models. These include: • Improved User Interfaces • Model development • Methods • General Support Features

  17. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Rubin, David; Reyes, David; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions to beyond low Earth orbit destinations such as Mars will present significant new challenges to crew health management during a mission compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its integrative goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system guiding principles, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Mobel-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  18. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions that reach destinations beyond low Earth orbit, such as Mars, will present significant new challenges to crew health management. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system goals, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  19. Collaborative environments for capability-based planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuay, William K.

    2005-05-01

    Distributed collaboration is an emerging technology for the 21st century that will significantly change how business is conducted in the defense and commercial sectors. Collaboration involves two or more geographically dispersed entities working together to create a "product" by sharing and exchanging data, information, and knowledge. A product is defined broadly to include, for example, writing a report, creating software, designing hardware, or implementing robust systems engineering and capability planning processes in an organization. Collaborative environments provide the framework and integrate models, simulations, domain specific tools, and virtual test beds to facilitate collaboration between the multiple disciplines needed in the enterprise. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is conducting a leading edge program in developing distributed collaborative technologies targeted to the Air Force's implementation of systems engineering for a simulation-aided acquisition and capability-based planning. The research is focusing on the open systems agent-based framework, product and process modeling, structural architecture, and the integration technologies - the glue to integrate the software components. In past four years, two live assessment events have been conducted to demonstrate the technology in support of research for the Air Force Agile Acquisition initiatives. The AFRL Collaborative Environment concept will foster a major cultural change in how the acquisition, training, and operational communities conduct business.

  20. Resistive Plate Chamber Efficiency & Rate Capability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candocia, Max

    2012-10-01

    Bakelite-based resistive plate chambers (RPCs) are particle detectors commonly used in muon trigger systems for high-energy physics experiments. Bakelite RPCs combine fast response, sufficient position resolution and low cost, and they can be operated at instantaneous background rates up to approximately 1.5 kHz/cm^2. Current and future collider experiments will demand operation of trigger RPCs under background rates higher than what is currently achieved. The rate capability is related to the bulk and surface conductivities of the Bakelite material used for the plates bordering the active gas volume in the RPCs. At the LHC and RHIC, these surfaces are coated with linseed oil, which lowers the surface resistivity of the Bakelite, which, to a point, improves the rate capability of the detectors. We have doped our own plates with various concentrations of carbon black. Over the past year we have tested RPCs with Bakelite plates of different resistivity using cosmic ray muons and radioactive Fe55 sources to emulate different levels of background in the detector. Results on the RPC efficiencies at different background rates and for different Bakelite coatings will be presented.

  1. Power Harvesting Capabilities of SHM Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Delebarre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that classical Structural Health Monitoring ultrasonic sensors may provide some power harvesting capabilities from a wide variety of vibration sources. In other words, the authors developed an integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting sensor capable of operating a dual mode, that is, carrying out vibration power harvesting and Structural Health Monitoring. First, vibrations signals of an A380 aircraft recorded during different phases of flight are presented to show the need of a wideband piezoelectric energy harvester. Then, the voltage response of a piezoelectric power harvester bonded onto an aluminium cantilever plate and excited by an electromechanical shaker is measured. A finite element model of the energy harvester system is also presented. This model provides the voltage response of the harvester due to a mechanical excitation of the host structure and allows a better understanding of the energy harvesting process. In many cases, a good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. A power measurement also showed the ability of piezoelectric SHM sensors to harvest power over an extended frequency range present in spectra collected in aircrafts. This result could lead to numerous applications even though this kind of power harvester sensor has been initially designed to operate onboard aircrafts.

  2. Evaluation of SMART load follow operation capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun

    1998-07-01

    The daily load follow operation capability of SMART, which is 330 MWth integral reactor with boron free operation concept, was evaluated. In the boron free operation core the axial offset(AO) can not be limited or limited by wider range than the typical PWR that uses soluble boron. Current SMART conceptual core design does not have the limit for the axial offset and the operation is limited by three dimensional local power peak. In this report, the capability of load follow operation is evaluated for 14-2-6-2 daily load follow by 50% power reduction that is very typical in the large commercial power reactors. The cycle length of SMART is limited by three dimensional local power peak and the nominal axial power distribution is top skewed at the end of cycle. When the power returns to 100%, control rod should be withdrawn for the compensation of reactivity decrease due to the xenon buildup. The control rod withdrawal results in the increase of three dimensional local power peak. To solve this problem, an operation strategy for the control of local peak. To solve this problem, an operation strategy for the control of local peak was established and it was shown that the strategy is effective in controlling the local peak less than target value of the three dimensional local power peak. (author). 7 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  3. Design Mechanism as Territorial Strategic Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current exigencies that a territory must faced in order to its’ optimalpositioning in future regional competition requires the ability to design theappropriate mechanism which better valorize the territory capability. Such aconstruct is vital for territorial sustainable development and supposes thecreation of a specific body of knowledge from distinctive local resourceexploitation and unique value creation and allocation. Territorial mechanismdesign is a typical management decision about identification, ownership andcontrol of specific strategic capabilities and their combination in a distinctiveterritorial portfolio. The most difficult responsibility is to allocate the territorialvalue added which is a source of conflict among territorial components. Ourcurrent paper research covers the basics of two complementary territorialpillars-rural and tourism potential and proves the lack of specific designmechanisms which explain the current diminishing value of Galati Brailaregion. The proposed management system, relying upon territorial controlmechanism, will ensure knowledge sharing process via collaborative learning,with the final role of appropriate territorial attractivity signals, reinforcingidentity as key factor of territorial attractability. Our paper is fully documentedon there years of data analyzing from territorial area of interest. This offers usthe necessary empiric contrasting for our proposed solution.

  4. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimerly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of propelling the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  5. Laser ranging ground station development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of ground to conduct radar range measurements of the lunar distance is discussed. The advantages of additional ground stations for this purpose are analyzed. The goals which are desirable for any new type of ranging station are: (1) full time availability of the station for laser ranging, (2) optimization for signal strength, (3) automation to the greatest extent possible, (4) the capability for blind pointing, (5) reasonable initial and modest operational costs, and (6) transportability to enhance the value of the station for geophysical purposes.

  6. Laser glass process development for the next generation of ICF lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Alfred J.; Hayden, Joseph S.

    1997-12-01

    The next generation of high energy laser systems for ICF research demands an unprecedented volume of laser glass to be produced over a limited manufacturing period while still meeting ambitious targets of internal quality and overall cost. To meet this challenge, Schott has conceived a continuous manufacturing unit capable of producing 5,000 meter class PH 4 slabs of platinum particle-free phosphate laser glass within a three-year time period. This manufacturing unit concept draws on years of prior production experience with phosphate laser glass and other high quality optical materials but still represents a significant departure from the proven discontinuous manufacturing technology successfully employed over the last ten years for platinum-free phosphate laser glass. In addition, Schott has developed a new phosphate laser glass that simultaneously offers improvements in properties that relate to both laser performance and to characteristics related to forming the glass into large, high quality slabs. In this paper we will describe the key technology issues addressed in the manufacturing development and present a brief description of the planned manufacturing method to be employed. Lastly, the status of the development will be reviewed including characterization of pilot production melts of the new laser glass and the schedule for completion of the development program.

  7. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  8. New laser glass for short pulsed laser applications: the BLG80 (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Simi A.

    2017-03-01

    For achieving highest peak powers in a solid state laser (SSL) system, significant energy output and short pulses are necessary. For mode-locked lasers, it is well-known from the Fourier theorem that the largest gain bandwidths produce the narrowest pulse-widths; thus are transform limited. For an inhomogeneously broadened line width of a laser medium, if the intensity of pulses follow a Gaussian function, then the resulting mode-locked pulse will have a Gaussian shape with the emission bandwidth/pulse duration relationship of pulse ≥ 0.44?02/c. Thus, for high peak power SSL systems, laser designers incorporate gain materials capable of broad emission bandwidths. Available energy outputs from a phosphate glass host doped with rare-earth ions are unparalleled. Unfortunately, the emission bandwidths achievable from glass based gain materials are typically many factors smaller when compared to the Ti:Sapphire crystal. In order to overcome this limitation, a hybrid "mixed" laser glass amplifier - OPCPA approach was developed. The Texas petawatt laser that is currently in operation at the University of Texas-Austin and producing high peak powers uses this hybrid architecture. In this mixed-glass laser design, a phosphate and a silicate glass is used in series to achieve a broader bandwidth required before compression. Though proven, this technology is still insufficient for the future compact petawatt and exawatt systems capable of producing high energies and shorter pulse durations. New glasses with bandwidths that are two and three times larger than what is now available from glass hosts is needed if there is to be an alternative to Ti:Sapphire for laser designers. In this paper, we present new materials that may meet the necessary characteristics and demonstrate the laser and emission characteristics these through the internal and external studies.

  9. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used.

  10. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  11. NASA Biomedical Informatics Capabilities and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, for use on Earth, low Earth orbit & exploration class missions. Biomedical Informatics is an emerging discipline that has been defined as the study, invention, and implementation of structures and algorithms to improve communication, understanding and management of medical information. The end objective of biomedical informatics is the coalescing of data, knowledge, and the tools necessary to apply that data and knowledge in the decision-making process, at the time and place that a decision needs to be made.

  12. IAC-1.5 - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and a database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a database, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automating data transfer among analysis programs. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation modules are supplied for building and viewing models. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model Integration via Mesh Interpolation Coefficients), which transforms field values from one model to another; LINK, which simplifies incorporation of user specific modules into IAC modules; and DATAPAC, the National Bureau of Standards statistical analysis package. The IAC database contains structured files which provide a common basis for communication between modules and the executive system, and can contain unstructured files such as NASTRAN checkpoint files, DISCOS plot files

  13. Capability enhancement in compact digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weijuan; Wen, Yongfu; Wang, Zhaomin; Yang, Fang; Asundi, Anand

    2015-03-01

    A compact reflection digital holographic microscopy (DHM) system integrated with the light source and optical interferometer is developed for 3D topographic characterization and real-time dynamic inspection for Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Capability enhancement methods in lateral resolution, axial resolving range and large field of view for the compact DHM system are presented. To enhance the lateral resolution, the numerical aperture of a reflection DHM system is analyzed and optimum designed. To enhance the axial resolving range, dual wavelengths are used to extend the measuring range. To enable the large field of view, stitching of the measurement results is developed in the user-friendly software. Results from surfaces structures on silicon wafer, micro-optics on fused silica and dynamic inspection of MEMS structures demonstrate applications of this compact reflection digital holographic microscope for technical inspection in material science.

  14. Sources of capabilities, integration and technology commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahra, Shaker A.; Nielsen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    of internal and external sources on multiple dimensions of successful technology commercialization (TC). The study also explores the moderating role of formal vs. informal integration mechanisms on these relationships. Applying a longitudinal design and data from 119 companies, the results show that internal...... human and technology-based manufacturing sources are positively associated with successful TC. Formal and informal integration mechanisms also significantly moderate the relationships observed between capability sources and TC. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.......In recent years, companies have increased their use of internal and external sources in pursuit of a competitive advantage through the effective and timely commercialization of new technology. Grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, this study examines the effect of a company's use...

  15. Intelsat VII communications capabilities and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Nabi, T.; Koh, E.; Kennedy, D.

    This paper describes the general characteristics of the Intelsat VII communications payload and analyzes the suitability of its design for digital transmission, for efficient incorporation of small earth stations into the Intelsat network, and for a relatively straightforward transition from the current Intelsat VA/VI configuration. An overview is presented of the comunications performance of the Intelsat VII satellite for the more important Intelsat digital and analog services, and earth stations standards. Specifically, the advantages, in terms of performance and capabilities, of the improved transponder linearity characteristics associated with the C-Band SSPA's and the K(u)-Band linearized TWTA's are addressed. The enhanced ability of this spacecraft to provide bandwidth where required from several possible orbital locations is discussed.

  16. Terahertz Plasmonic Structure With Enhanced Sensing Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahiaoui, Riad; Strikwerda, Andrew C.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally verified a highly sensitive plasmonic sensing device in the terahertz frequency range. For a proof of concept of the sensing phenomenon, we have chosen the so-called fishnet structure based on circular hole array insensitive to the polarization...... of the incident wave. We employ the localized resonance associated with the cutoff frequency (electric plasma frequency) of the hole array to investigate its sensing capability. A thin-film overlayer deposited on the surface of the metallic apertures causes an amplitude modulation and a shift in the resonant...... frequency of the terahertz transmission. The frequency shift and the amplitude modulation were investigated as a function of the refractive index and the thickness of the overlayer for determining the sensing potential of the proposed structure. Measurements carried out using terahertz time...

  17. A database management capability for Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Arvola; Danberg, SY; Fox, Stephen; Landers, Terry; Nori, Anil; Smith, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The data requirements of mission critical defense systems have been increasing dramatically. Command and control, intelligence, logistics, and even weapons systems are being required to integrate, process, and share ever increasing volumes of information. To meet this need, systems are now being specified that incorporate data base management subsystems for handling storage and retrieval of information. It is expected that a large number of the next generation of mission critical systems will contain embedded data base management systems. Since the use of Ada has been mandated for most of these systems, it is important to address the issues of providing data base management capabilities that can be closely coupled with Ada. A comprehensive distributed data base management project has been investigated. The key deliverables of this project are three closely related prototype systems implemented in Ada. These three systems are discussed.

  18. The NICER mission: Status and technical capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), in development for deployment to the International Space Station as an external attached payload, will address decades-old questions about the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through high-precision timing of the soft X-ray emissions of rotation- and accretion-powered pulsars. NICER's performance in timing, spectroscopy, and high-throughput sensitivity to 0.2-12 keV X-rays represents a substantial enhancement over existing capabilities, enabling a rich diversity of investigations in both neutron star science as well as broader X-ray astrophysics, the latter through an approved Guest Observer program. This talk briefly summarizes the NICER design and the status of hardware fabrication and testing, currently on pace to deliver the NICER payload for its planned launch in early 2017.

  19. Overview of ASC Capability Computing System Governance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    This document contains a description of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program's Capability Computing System Governance Model. Objectives of the Governance Model are to ensure that the capability system resources are allocated on a priority-driven basis according to the Program requirements; and to utilize ASC Capability Systems for the large capability jobs for which they were designed and procured.

  20. Capability and Happiness: Conceptual difference and reality links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Happiness is not the same as capability, but the matters are related. Capability is obviously required for living a happy life and happiness feeds back on capability in several ways. Capabilities affect happiness not only at the individual level, but also indirectly at the

  1. CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT USING STATISTIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel POLÁK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capability assessment of the measurement device is one of the methods of process quality control. Only in case the measurement device is capable, the capability of the measurement and consequently production process can be assessed. This paper deals with assessment of the capability of the measuring device using indices Cg and Cgk.

  2. A Human Capabilities Framework for Evaluating Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a human capabilities approach for evaluating student learning and the social and pedagogical arrangements that support equality in capabilities for all students. It outlines the focus on valuable beings and doings in the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen, and Martha Nussbaum's capabilities focus on human flourishing.…

  3. Laser Science and Technology Program Update 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, L A; Chen, H L

    2003-03-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LS&T) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are of interest to the NIF Directorate but outside the scope of the NIF funding. The primary objectives of LS&T activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and to invent develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. Special efforts have been devoted to building and maintaining our capabilities in three technology areas: high-power short-pulse solid-state lasers, high-power optical materials, and applications of advanced lasers. LS&T activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project--LS&T led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 3{omega} optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)--LS&T personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LS&T continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy

  4. Laser Science and Technology Program Update 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, L A; Chen, H L

    2003-03-01

    The Laser Science and Technology (LS&T) Program's mission is to develop advanced lasers, optics, materials technologies, and applications to solve problems and create new capabilities of importance to the nation and the Laboratory. A top, near-term priority is to provide technical support in the deployment and upgrade of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our other program activities synergistically develop technologies that are of interest to the NIF Directorate but outside the scope of the NIF funding. The primary objectives of LS&T activities in 2002 have been fourfold--(a) to support deployment of hardware and to enhance laser and optics performance for NIF, (b) to develop high-energy petawatt laser science and technology for the Department of Energy (DOE), (c) to develop advanced solid-state laser systems and optical components for the Department of Defense (DoD), and to invent develop, and deliver improved concepts and hardware for other government agencies and industry. Special efforts have been devoted to building and maintaining our capabilities in three technology areas: high-power short-pulse solid-state lasers, high-power optical materials, and applications of advanced lasers. LS&T activities during 2002 focused on seven major areas: (1) NIF Project--LS&T led major advances in the deployment of NIF Final Optics Assembly (FOA) and the development of 3{omega} optics processing and treatment technologies to enhance NIF's operations and performance capabilities. (2) Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP)--LS&T personnel continued development of ultrashort-pulse lasers and high-power, large-aperture optics for applications in SSP, extreme-field science and national defense. To enhance the high-energy petawatt (HEPW) capability in NIF, LS&T continued development of advanced compressor-grating and front-end laser technologies utilizing optical-parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). (3) High-energy-density physics and inertial fusion energy

  5. Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, R.B. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); MacDonald, R.R. [ed.] [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Vienna, VA (United States); Massaglia, J.L.; Williamson, D.A. [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Vienna, VA (United States); Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. [Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial facilities. The objective of the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project was to assess the capability of each commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage facility, at which SNF is stored, to handle various SNF shipping casks. The purpose of this report is describe the FICA computer software and to provide the FICA user with a guide on how to use the FICA system. The FICA computer software consists of two executable programs: the FICA Reactor Report program and the FICA Summary Report program (written in the Ca-Clipper version 5.2 development system). The complete FICA software system is contained on either a 3.5 in. (double density) or a 5.25 in. (high density) diskette and consists of the two FICA programs and all the database files (generated using dBASE III). The FICA programs are provided as ``stand alone`` systems and neither the Ca-Clipper compiler nor dBASE III is required to run the FICA programs. The steps for installing the FICA software system and executing the FICA programs are described in this report. Instructions are given on how to install the FICA software system onto the hard drive of the PC and how to execute the FICA programs from the FICA subdirectory on the hard drive. Both FICA programs are menu driven with the up-arrow and down-arrow keys used to move the cursor to the desired selection.

  6. Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-27

    In July 2014, DOE NP carried out a review of the US Nuclear Data Program. This led to several recommendations, including that the USNDP should “devise effective and transparent mechanisms to solicit input and feedback from all stakeholders on nuclear data needs and priorities.” The review also recommended that USNDP pursue experimental activities of relevance to nuclear data; the revised 2014 Mission Statement accordingly states that the USNDP uses “targeted experimental studies” to address gaps in nuclear data. In support of these recommendations, DOE NP requested that USNDP personnel organize a Workshop on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applications (NDNCA). This Workshop was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on 27-29 May 2015. The goal of the NDNCA Workshop was to compile nuclear data needs across a wide spectrum of applied nuclear science, and to provide a summary of associated capabilities (accelerators, reactors, spectrometers, etc.) available for the required measurements. The first two days of the workshop consisted of 25 plenary talks by speakers from 16 different institutions, on nuclear energy (NE), national security (NS), isotope production (IP), and industrial applications (IA). There were also shorter “capabilities” talks that described the experimental facilities and instrumentation available for the measurement of nuclear data. This was followed by a third day of topic-specific “breakout” sessions and a final closeout session. The agenda and copies of these talks are available online at http://bang.berkeley.edu/events/NDNCA/agenda. The importance of nuclear data to both basic and applied nuclear science was reflected in the fact that while the impetus for the workshop arose from the 2014 USNDP review, joint sponsorship for the workshop was provided by the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium, a UC-Berkeley based organization funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

  7. RELAP-7 Beta Release: Summary of Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    RELAP-7 is a nuclear systems safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Building upon the decades of software development at the INL, we began the development of RELAP-7 in 2011 to support the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway. As part of this development, the first lines of RELAP-7 code were committed to the software revision control repository on November 7th, 2011. The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical methods, and physical models in order to provide capabilities needed for the RISMC methodology and to support nuclear power safety analysis. RELAP-7 is built using the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). MOOSE provides improved numerical calculations (including higher-order integration in both space and time, yielding converged second-order accuracy). The RELAP-7 code structure is based on multiple physical component models such as pipes, junctions, pumps, etc. Each component can have options for different fluid models such as single- and two-phase flow. This component-based and physics-based software architecture allows RELAP-7 to adopt different physical models for different applications. A relatively new two-phase hydrodynamic model, termed the ''7-Equation model'' for two phasic pressures, velocities, energies, and volumetric fraction, is incorporated into RELAP-7 for liquid-gas (water-steam) flows. This new model allows second-order integration because it is well-posed, which will reduce the numerical error associated with traditional systems analysis codes. In this paper, we provide a RELAP-7 capability list describing analysis features, range of applicability, and reactor components that will be available for the December 15th, 2014 beta release of the software.

  8. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  9. Laser-TIG Welding of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulsky, I.; Somonov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of investigation the technological opportunity of laser-TIG welding of titanium alloys. The experimental stand for implementation of process with the capability to feed a filler wire was made. The research of the nature of transfer the filler wire into the welding pool has been demonstrated. The influence of distance between the electrode and the surface of the welded plates on the stability of the arc was shown. The relationship between welding velocity, the position of focal plane of the laser beam and the stability of penetration of plates was determined.

  10. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  11. Environmentally friendly HF (DF) lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician A M Prokhorov, this paper reviews the physics of self-sustained volume discharge without preionization—self-initiated volume discharge (SIVD)—in the working mixtures of non-chain hydrofluoride HF (deuterofluoride (DF)) lasers. The dynamics of SIVD in discharge gaps with different geometries is thoroughly described. The mechanisms for the restriction of current density in a diffuse channel in electric discharges in SF6 and SF6 based mixtures (which determines whether SIVD is possible) are proposed and analyzed using simple models. The most probable mechanisms are the electron impact dissociation of SF6 and other mixture components, electron-ion recombination and electron attachment to vibrationally excited SF6 molecules. Starting from a comparative analysis of the rate coefficients of these processes, it is shown that electron-ion recombination is capable of compensating for electron detachment from negative ions via electron impact. It is also established that SIVD is not only observed in SF6, but also in other strongly electronegative gases. The factors that determine the uniformity of the active medium in non-chain HF (DF) lasers are analyzed. Some special features of non-chain HF (DF) lasers with different apertures operating are carefully examined. Consideration is given to the problem of increasing the aperture and discharge volume of non-chain HF (DF) lasers. Based on our experimental results, the possibility of increasing the energy of such lasers to ~1 kJ and above is shown.

  12. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  13. Applications of Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Te; SUN Yan-fang; NING Yong-qiang; WANG Li-jun

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the applications of semiconductor lasers is presented. Diode lasers are widely used today,and the most prevalent use of the laser is probably in CD and DVD drives for computers and audio/video media systems. Semiconductor lasers are also used in many other fields ranging from optical fiber communications to display,medicine and pumping sources.

  14. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  15. Diode Pumped Fiber Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION .............. 5 A. FIBER GROWTH .......................... 5 B. FIBER PROCESSING 7...1.32 pm FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION A. FIBER GROWTH The single crystal fibers used in this work were grown at Stanford University

  16. Obstacles to Laser Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2005-04-25

    The growth of laser development & technology has been remarkable. Unfortunately, a number of traps or obstacles to laser safety have also developed with that growth. The goal of this article is to highlight those traps, in the hope that an aware laser user will avoid them. These traps have been the cause or contributing factor of many a preventable laser accident.

  17. Lasers in cosmetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Lasers have become a necessary instrument in the esthetic restorative armamentarium. This article presents smile design guidelines for soft tissue lasers, as well as an overview of hard tissue procedures that may be performed using all-tissue lasers. The goal is to help dentists determine the appropriate laser for a given clinical situations.

  18. New laser materials for laser diode pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, H. P.

    1990-01-01

    The potential advantages of laser diode pumped solid state lasers are many with high overall efficiency being the most important. In order to realize these advantages, the solid state laser material needs to be optimized for diode laser pumping and for the particular application. In the case of the Nd laser, materials with a longer upper level radiative lifetime are desirable. This is because the laser diode is fundamentally a cw source, and to obtain high energy storage, a long integration time is necessary. Fluoride crystals are investigated as host materials for the Nd laser and also for IR laser transitions in other rare earths, such as the 2 micron Ho laser and the 3 micron Er laser. The approach is to investigate both known crystals, such as BaY2F8, as well as new crystals such as NaYF8. Emphasis is on the growth and spectroscopy of BaY2F8. These two efforts are parallel efforts. The growth effort is aimed at establishing conditions for obtaining large, high quality boules for laser samples. This requires numerous experimental growth runs; however, from these runs, samples suitable for spectroscopy become available.

  19. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  20. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...