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Sample records for monkey performed accurately

  1. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident.

  2. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Schroeder, Gabriel R; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals "succeed" in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory.

  3. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment

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    Mari S. Golub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N = 16/group for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N = 8/group suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages. Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

  4. Interactions of motivation and reinforcement during the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by a monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskii, V V

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the performance of an instrumental task by Macaca rhesus monkeys was investigated in an automated experiment. Three monkeys were trained to complete a movement with a lever in response to a light stimulus. It was demonstrated that the performance of the instrumental reflex by the monkeys is comprised of the alternation of blocks of more or less continuous realizations and pauses between them. The relationship of the intensity of the work of the monkeys to the time from the beginning of the experiment was studied, and a comparison was made of the magnitude of the intensity for the three monkeys. The average intensity of the work of the monkeys within the blocks of continuous realizations is a constant and individual value. The influence of the degree of deprivation and of the delivery of out-of-turn reinforcement on the work of the monkeys was also investigated.

  5. [The interrelationships of motivation and reinforcement in the performance of a simple instrumental reflex by the monkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, I M; Shul'govskiĭ, V V

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics of instrumental reflex of rhesus monkey was studied in automatic experiment. Three monkeys performed a movement of the lever in response to the light stimulus. It was shown, that the realization of the instrumental reflex by monkeys represented blocks of continuous or interrupted realizations and pauses between them. The dependence was studied of intensity of performance upon the time from the beginning of the experiment, and a comparison was drawn of intensities for three monkeys. The average intensity in block is constant and individual for each monkey. Also the influence of food deprivation and complementary reinforcement on the monkey's performance was studied.

  6. Niche Genetic Algorithm with Accurate Optimization Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; YAN De-kun

    2005-01-01

    Based on crowding mechanism, a novel niche genetic algorithm was proposed which can record evolutionary direction dynamically during evolution. After evolution, the solutions's precision can be greatly improved by means of the local searching along the recorded direction. Simulation shows that this algorithm can not only keep population diversity but also find accurate solutions. Although using this method has to take more time compared with the standard GA, it is really worth applying to some cases that have to meet a demand for high solution precision.

  7. Comparison of delayed matching-to-sample performance in monkeys and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelonis, John J; Cox, Andrew R; Karr, Michael J; Prunty, Patricia K; Baldwin, Ronald L; Paule, Merle G

    2014-03-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that accuracy on a variety of memory tasks decreases as delay increases, relatively little research has been conducted to quantify this relationship across development in humans or directly compare rates of forgetting between humans and monkeys. This study utilized a delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task to compare the relative contributions of proactive interference and attention on the rate of forgetting in monkeys and children. The performance of 1125 children from four to fourteen years of age and 10 adult rhesus monkeys was compared. For this DMTS task, a shape was displayed on the center one of three press-plates. After a delay, the subjects were required to match the original shape with one of three choice shapes to receive a banana-flavored food pellet for monkeys, or a nickel for children. A modified power function provided an excellent fit for the data for monkeys and children. The forgetting rates in children decreased with age, and the forgetting rates for monkeys were most comparable to those of younger children. The data also suggest that proactive interference did not significantly contribute to the forgetting rates for monkeys or younger children. Further, the monkeys appeared to attend to the task at a level similar to that of younger children as evidenced by the similarities in response latencies. The results from this study indicate that the rate of forgetting in monkeys, as well as the mechanisms underlying this rate, appears to share more similarities with that of younger children than of older children.

  8. Decoding Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Kinematics from Cortical Neural Spike Trains during Monkey Performing Stand and Squat Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuan; Ma, Chaolin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Jiang; He, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    Extensive literatures have shown approaches for decoding upper limb kinematics or muscle activity using multichannel cortical spike recordings toward brain machine interface (BMI) applications. However, similar topics regarding lower limb remain relatively scarce. We previously reported a system for training monkeys to perform visually guided stand and squat tasks. The current study, as a follow-up extension, investigates whether lower limb kinematics and muscle activity characterized by electromyography (EMG) signals during monkey performing stand/squat movements can be accurately decoded from neural spike trains in primary motor cortex (M1). Two monkeys were used in this study. Subdermal intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted to 8 right leg/thigh muscles. With ample data collected from neurons from a large brain area, we performed a spike triggered average (SpTA) analysis and got a series of density contours which revealed the spatial distributions of different muscle-innervating neurons corresponding to each given muscle. Based on the guidance of these results, we identified the locations optimal for chronic electrode implantation and subsequently carried on chronic neural data recordings. A recursive Bayesian estimation framework was proposed for decoding EMG signals together with kinematics from M1 spike trains. Two specific algorithms were implemented: a standard Kalman filter and an unscented Kalman filter. For the latter one, an artificial neural network was incorporated to deal with the nonlinearity in neural tuning. High correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratio between the predicted and the actual data were achieved for both EMG signals and kinematics on both monkeys. Higher decoding accuracy and faster convergence rate could be achieved with the unscented Kalman filter. These results demonstrate that lower limb EMG signals and kinematics during monkey stand/squat can be accurately decoded from a group of M1 neurons with the proposed

  9. Decoding Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Kinematics from Cortical Neural Spike Trains during Monkey Performing Stand and Squat Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuan; Ma, Chaolin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Jiang; He, Jiping

    2017-01-01

    Extensive literatures have shown approaches for decoding upper limb kinematics or muscle activity using multichannel cortical spike recordings toward brain machine interface (BMI) applications. However, similar topics regarding lower limb remain relatively scarce. We previously reported a system for training monkeys to perform visually guided stand and squat tasks. The current study, as a follow-up extension, investigates whether lower limb kinematics and muscle activity characterized by electromyography (EMG) signals during monkey performing stand/squat movements can be accurately decoded from neural spike trains in primary motor cortex (M1). Two monkeys were used in this study. Subdermal intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted to 8 right leg/thigh muscles. With ample data collected from neurons from a large brain area, we performed a spike triggered average (SpTA) analysis and got a series of density contours which revealed the spatial distributions of different muscle-innervating neurons corresponding to each given muscle. Based on the guidance of these results, we identified the locations optimal for chronic electrode implantation and subsequently carried on chronic neural data recordings. A recursive Bayesian estimation framework was proposed for decoding EMG signals together with kinematics from M1 spike trains. Two specific algorithms were implemented: a standard Kalman filter and an unscented Kalman filter. For the latter one, an artificial neural network was incorporated to deal with the nonlinearity in neural tuning. High correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratio between the predicted and the actual data were achieved for both EMG signals and kinematics on both monkeys. Higher decoding accuracy and faster convergence rate could be achieved with the unscented Kalman filter. These results demonstrate that lower limb EMG signals and kinematics during monkey stand/squat can be accurately decoded from a group of M1 neurons with the proposed

  10. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates.

  11. Accurate torque-speed performance prediction for brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipper, Patrick D.

    Desirable characteristics of the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) have resulted in their application for electrohydrostatic (EH) and electromechanical (EM) actuation systems. But to effectively apply the BLDCM requires accurate prediction of performance. The minimum necessary performance characteristics are motor torque versus speed, peak and average supply current and efficiency. BLDCM nonlinear simulation software specifically adapted for torque-speed prediction is presented. The capability of the software to quickly and accurately predict performance has been verified on fractional to integral HP motor sizes, and is presented. Additionally, the capability of torque-speed prediction with commutation angle advance is demonstrated.

  12. Effects of music and white noise on working memory performance in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S; Rämä, P; Artchakov, D; Linnankoski, I

    1997-09-08

    It has been suggested that Mozart's music may have beneficial effects on the performance of cognitive tasks in humans. In the present study the effects of Mozart's piano music, white noise, simple rhythm and silence were studied on the performance of a delayed response (DR) task in monkeys. The acoustic treatments were given for 15 min, either before or during DR testing. The acoustic treatments did not affect DR performance when given before testing. However, Mozart's piano music played during DR testing caused a significant deterioration in the performance of the monkeys, whereas white noise improved it. It is suggested that Mozart's music serves as distractive stimulation during DR performance thus affecting working-memory-related neuronal processing and performance. White background noise, on the other hand, may improve DR performance by protecting against environmental distraction during testing.

  13. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) perform self- and social anointing in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Jay P; Tapanes, Elizabeth; Evans, Sian

    2014-01-01

    Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins.

  14. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general...

  15. Minor contributions of the maxillary sinus to the air-conditioning performance in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Teruo; Nishimura, Takeshi D

    2015-08-01

    The nasal passages mainly adjust the temperature and humidity of inhaled air to reach the alveolar condition required in the lungs. By contrast to most other non-human primates, macaque monkeys are distributed widely among tropical, temperate and subarctic regions, and thus some species need to condition the inhaled air in cool and dry ambient atmospheric areas. The internal nasal anatomy is believed to have undergone adaptive modifications to improve the air-conditioning performance. Furthermore, the maxillary sinus (MS), an accessory hollow communicating with the nasal cavity, is found in macaques, whereas it is absent in most other extant Old World monkeys, including savanna monkeys. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics simulations to simulate the airflow and heat and water exchange over the mucosal surface in the nasal passage. Using the topology models of the nasal cavity with and without the MS, we demonstrated that the MS makes little contribution to the airflow pattern and the air-conditioning performance within the nasal cavity in macaques. Instead, the inhaled air is conditioned well in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity before reaching the MS in both macaques and savanna monkeys. These findings suggest that the evolutionary modifications and coetaneous variations in the nasal anatomy are rather independent of transitions and variations in the climate and atmospheric environment found in the habitats of macaques. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1 achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2 greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation.

  17. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  18. Accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry simultaneous assay of seven steroids in monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Jonathan; Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Ouellet, Johanne; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-06-01

    Following its secretion mainly by the adrenal glands, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) acts primarily in the cells/tissues which express the enzymes catalyzing its intracellular conversion into sex steroids by the mechanisms of intracrinology. Although reliable assays of endogenous serum steroids are now available using mass spectrometry (MS)-based technology, sample preparation from tissue matrices remains a challenge. This is especially the case with high lipid-containing tissues such as the brain. With the combination of a UPLC system with a sensitive tandem MS, it is now possible to measure endogenous unconjugated steroids in monkey brain tissue. A Shimadzu UPLC LC-30AD system coupled to a tandem MS AB Sciex Qtrap 6500 system was used. The lower limits of quantifications are achieved at 250 pg/mL for DHEA, 200 pg/mL for 5-androstenediol (5-diol), 12 pg/mL for androstenedione (4-dione), 50 pg/mL for testosterone (Testo), 10 pg/mL for dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 4 pg/mL for estrone (E1) and 1 pg/mL for estradiol (E2). The linearity and accuracy of quality controls (QCs) and endogenous quality controls (EndoQCs) are according to the guidelines of the regulatory agencies for all seven compounds. We describe a highly sensitive, specific and robust LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous measurement of seven unconjugated steroids in monkey brain tissue. The single and small amount of sample required using a relatively simple preparation method should be useful for steroid assays in various peripheral tissues and thus help analysis of the role of locally-made sex steroids in the regulation of specific physiological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of substrates on the mechanical performance of rhesus monkey papillary muscle.

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    Snow, T R

    1980-04-15

    This study examines the effect of different substrates on mechanical performance of excised papillary muscles from rhesus monkeys which had been divided into a control group and an experimental group fed a high fat diet for 5 months prior to sacrifice. The results show that performance is affected by availabel substrate for both groups. The performance of the experimental group was depressed relative to control with the short chain fatty acid, butyrate (C4), producing a monotonically decreasing force-frequency response. Relative to the other mammals, isolated rhesus papillary muscles exhibited a protracted treppe which was sensitive to beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol.

  20. Accurate Performance Analysis of Opportunistic Decode-and-Forward Relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Tourki, Kamel; Alouni, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path can be considered unusable, and takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures.

  1. Accurate performance analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate an opportunistic relaying scheme where the selected relay assists the source-destination (direct) communication. In our study, we consider a regenerative opportunistic relaying scheme in which the direct path may be considered unusable, and the destination may use a selection combining technique. We first derive the exact statistics of each hop, in terms of probability density function (PDF). Then, the PDFs are used to determine accurate closed form expressions for end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotical performance analysis and the diversity order is deduced. Finally, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Pipa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory requires the coordination of sub-processes like encoding, retention, retrieval and comparison of stored material to subsequent input. Neuronal oscillations have an inherent time structure, can effectively coordinate synaptic integration of large neuron populations and could therefore organize and integrate distributed sub-processes in time and space. We observed field potential oscillations (14-95Hz in ventral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a visual memory task. Stimulus-selective and performance-dependent oscillations occurred simultaneously at 65-95Hz and 14-50Hz, the latter being phase-locked throughout memory maintenance. We propose that prefrontal oscillatory activity may be instrumental for the dynamical integration of local and global neuronal processes underlying short-term memory.

  3. Towards an Accurate Performance Modeling of Parallel SparseFactorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigori, Laura; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2006-05-26

    We present a performance model to analyze a parallel sparseLU factorization algorithm on modern cached-based, high-end parallelarchitectures. Our model characterizes the algorithmic behavior bytakingaccount the underlying processor speed, memory system performance, aswell as the interconnect speed. The model is validated using theSuperLU_DIST linear system solver, the sparse matrices from realapplications, and an IBM POWER3 parallel machine. Our modelingmethodology can be easily adapted to study performance of other types ofsparse factorizations, such as Cholesky or QR.

  4. Improving JWST Coronagraphic Performance with Accurate Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorkom, Kyle; Pueyo, Laurent; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; JWST Coronagraphs Working Group

    2016-06-01

    The coronagraphs on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable high-contrast observations of faint objects at small separations from bright hosts, such as circumstellar disks, exoplanets, and quasar disks. Despite attenuation by the coronagraphic mask, bright speckles in the host’s point spread function (PSF) remain, effectively washing out the signal from the faint companion. Suppression of these bright speckles is typically accomplished by repeating the observation with a star that lacks a faint companion, creating a reference PSF that can be subtracted from the science image to reveal any faint objects. Before this reference PSF can be subtracted, however, the science and reference images must be aligned precisely, typically to 1/20 of a pixel. Here, we present several such algorithms for performing image registration on JWST coronagraphic images. Using both simulated and pre-flight test data (taken in cryovacuum), we assess (1) the accuracy of each algorithm at recovering misaligned scenes and (2) the impact of image registration on achievable contrast. Proper image registration, combined with post-processing techniques such as KLIP or LOCI, will greatly improve the performance of the JWST coronagraphs.

  5. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J

    2015-09-30

    database of images for evaluating object recognition performance. We used multielectrode arrays to characterize hundreds of neurons in the visual ventral stream of nonhuman primates and measured the object recognition performance of >100 human observers. Remarkably, we found that simple learned weighted sums of firing rates of neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex accurately predicted human performance. Although previous work led us to expect that IT would outperform V4, we were surprised by the quantitative precision with which simple IT-based linking hypotheses accounted for human behavior.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM GENAVENSE IN A DIANA MONKEY (CERCOPITHECUS DIANA) BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen M; Wack, Allison N; Bradway, Dan; Simons, Brian W; Bronson, Ellen; Osterhout, Gerard; Parrish, Nicole M; Montali, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    A 25-yr-old Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) with a 1.5-yr history of chronic colitis and diarrhea was found to have disseminated granulomatous disease with intralesional acid fast bacilli. Bacilli were identified as Mycobacterium genavense by polymerase chain reaction, sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer (ITS) gene, and mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycobacterium genavense is a common cause of mycobacteriosis in free-ranging and captive birds. In addition, recognition of opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients is increasing. Disease manifestations of M. genavense are similar to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and include fever, wasting, and diarrhea with disseminated disease. Similar clinical signs and lesions were observed in this monkey. Mycobacterium genavense should be considered as a differential for disseminated mycobacterial disease in nonhuman primates as this agent can mimic MAC and related mycobacteria.

  7. Cognitive mechanisms for transitive inference performance in rhesus monkeys: measuring the influence of associative strength and inferred order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Chee, Nicholas W; Hampton, Robert R

    2012-10-01

    If Ben is taller than Emily and Emily is taller than Dina, one can infer that Ben is taller than Dina. This process of inferring relations between stimuli based on shared relations with other stimuli is called transitive inference (TI). Many species solve TI tasks in which they learn pairs of overlapping stimulus discriminations (A+B-, B+C-, etc.) and are tested with non-adjacent novel test pairings (BD). When relations between stimuli are determined by reinforcement (A is reinforced when paired with B, B when paired with C), performance can be controlled by the associative values of individual stimuli or by logical inference. In Experiment 1 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) chose the higher ranked item on non-adjacent test trials after training on a 7-image TI task. In Experiment 2 we measured the associative values of 7 TI images and found that these values did not correlate with choice in TI tests. In Experiment 3 large experimental manipulations of the associative value of images did influence performance in some TI test pairings, but performance on other pairs was consistent with the implied order. In Experiment 4 monkeys linked two previously learned 7-item lists into one 14-item list after training with a single linking pair. Linking cannot be explained by associative values. Associative value can control choice in TI tests in at least some extreme circumstances. Implied order better explains most TI choices in monkeys, and is a more viable mechanism for TI of social dominance, which has been observed in birds and fish.

  8. Investigations of rhesus monkey video-task performance: evidence for enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) for psychological research. Basically, the LRC-CTS is a battery of software tasks--computerized versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology--and the hardware required to administer them. An XT- or 386-compatible computer is connected to a color monitor, onto which computer-generated stimuli are presented. Sound feedback is delivered through an external speaker/amplifier, and a joystick is used as an input device. The animals reach through the mesh of their home cages to manipulate the joystick, which causes isomorphic movements of a cursor on the screen thereby allowing animals to respond according to the varied demands of the tasks. Correct responses are rewarded with a fruit-flavored chow pellet. Using this technology, we have trained and tested rhesus monkeys, a variety of apes, human adults, and normally developing or mentally retarded human children. Other labs using the LRC-CTS are beginning to report encouraging results with other monkey species as well. From this research, a number of interesting and important psychological findings have resulted. In the present paper, however, evidence will be reviewed which suggests that the LRC-CTS is an effective means of providing environmental enrichment to singly housed rhesus monkeys.

  9. Task-dependent modulation of primary afferent depolarization in cervical spinal cord of monkeys performing an instructed delay task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Perlmutter, Steve I; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2009-07-01

    Task-dependent modulation of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) was studied in the cervical spinal cord of two monkeys performing a wrist flexion and extension task with an instructed delay period. We implanted two nerve cuff electrodes on proximal and distal parts of the superficial radial nerve (SR) and a recording chamber over a hemi-laminectomy in the lower cervical vertebrae. Antidromic volleys (ADVs) in the SR were evoked by intraspinal microstimuli (ISMS, 3-10 Hz, 3-30 microA) applied through a tungsten microelectrode, and the area of each ADV was measured. In total, 434 ADVs were evoked by ISMS in two monkeys, with onset latency consistently shorter in the proximal than distal cuffs. Estimated conduction velocity suggest that most ADVs were caused by action potentials in cutaneous fibers originating from low-threshold tactile receptors. Modulation of the size of ADVs as a function of the task was examined in 281 ADVs induced by ISMS applied at 78 different intraspinal sites. The ADVs were significantly facilitated during active movement in both flexion and extension (Pmodulation of PAD. This facilitation started 400-900 ms before the onset of EMG activity. Such pre-EMG modulation is hard to explain by movement-induced reafference and probably is associated with descending motor commands.

  10. Effects of amphetamine, morphine, and CP 55, 940 on Go/No-Go task performance in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koek, Wouter; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2015-08-01

    In humans, impulsivity measured as false alarms in a Go/No-Go task is reportedly decreased by amphetamine and is not affected by oxycodone and delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. To model these findings in animals, three rhesus monkeys were trained to perform a food-reinforced Go/No-Go task. In this task, amphetamine was found to decrease false alarms (i.e. responding during No-Go trials), but only at doses that also decreased hits (i.e. responding during Go trials). Morphine generally decreased hits but not false alarms. The cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55, 940 decreased both false alarms and hits, but only at doses that also decreased the number of trials completed. Additional studies in animals and humans are necessary to delineate the conditions under which amphetamine and other psychoactive drugs affect impulsivity in Go/No-Go tasks.

  11. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Shaw, Gillian; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil; Vilani, Ricardo G D'O C

    2008-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, capuchin monkeys were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Five of the 15 monkeys were used for the evaluation of normal conjunctival flora. Ages varied from 6 to 20 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test (STT), tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness (CCT) using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach), Model 200P+) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the capuchin monkey eye were as follows: IOP: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; STT: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; CCT: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Streptococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capuchin monkey. The data obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists and laboratory animal medicine specialists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the capuchin monkey. These ophthalmic reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capuchin monkey eye.

  12. NetMHC-3.0: accurate web accessible predictions of human, mouse and monkey MHC class I affinities for peptides of length 8-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus; Lamberth, K; Harndahl, M

    2008-01-01

    been used to predict possible MHC-binding peptides in a series of pathogen viral proteomes including SARS, Influenza and HIV, resulting in an average of 75–80% confirmed MHC binders. Here, the performance is further validated and benchmarked using a large set of newly published affinity data, non...

  13. α-Oscillations in the monkey sensorimotor network influence discrimination performance by rhythmical inhibition of neuronal spiking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegens, Saskia; Nácher, Verónica; Luna, Rogelio; Romo, Ranulfo; Jensen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Extensive work in humans using magneto- and electroencephalography strongly suggests that decreased oscillatory α-activity (8–14 Hz) facilitates processing in a given region, whereas increased α-activity serves to actively suppress irrelevant or interfering processing. However, little work has been done to understand how α-activity is linked to neuronal firing. Here, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials and spikes from somatosensory, premotor, and motor regions while a trained monkey performed a vibrotactile discrimination task. In the local field potentials we observed strong activity in the α-band, which decreased in the sensorimotor regions during the discrimination task. This α-power decrease predicted better discrimination performance. Furthermore, the α-oscillations demonstrated a rhythmic relation with the spiking, such that firing was highest at the trough of the α-cycle. Firing rates increased with a decrease in α-power. These findings suggest that α-oscillations exercise a strong inhibitory influence on both spike timing and firing rate. Thus, the pulsed inhibition by α-oscillations plays an important functional role in the extended sensorimotor system. PMID:22084106

  14. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  15. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  16. Blinded by Beauty: Attractiveness Bias and Accurate Perceptions of Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamas, Sean N; Mavor, Kenneth I; Perrett, David I

    2016-01-01

    Despite the old adage not to 'judge a book by its cover', facial cues often guide first impressions and these first impressions guide our decisions. Literature suggests there are valid facial cues that assist us in assessing someone's health or intelligence, but such cues are overshadowed by an 'attractiveness halo' whereby desirable attributions are preferentially ascribed to attractive people. The impact of the attractiveness halo effect on perceptions of academic performance in the classroom is concerning as this has shown to influence students' future performance. We investigated the limiting effects of the attractiveness halo on perceptions of actual academic performance in faces of 100 university students. Given the ambiguity and various perspectives on the definition of intelligence and the growing consensus on the importance of conscientiousness over intelligence in predicting actual academic performance, we also investigated whether perceived conscientiousness was a more accurate predictor of academic performance than perceived intelligence. Perceived conscientiousness was found to be a better predictor of actual academic performance when compared to perceived intelligence and perceived academic performance, and accuracy was improved when controlling for the influence of attractiveness on judgments. These findings emphasize the misleading effect of attractiveness on the accuracy of first impressions of competence, which can have serious consequences in areas such as education and hiring. The findings also have implications for future research investigating impression accuracy based on facial stimuli.

  17. Blinded by Beauty: Attractiveness Bias and Accurate Perceptions of Academic Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean N Talamas

    Full Text Available Despite the old adage not to 'judge a book by its cover', facial cues often guide first impressions and these first impressions guide our decisions. Literature suggests there are valid facial cues that assist us in assessing someone's health or intelligence, but such cues are overshadowed by an 'attractiveness halo' whereby desirable attributions are preferentially ascribed to attractive people. The impact of the attractiveness halo effect on perceptions of academic performance in the classroom is concerning as this has shown to influence students' future performance. We investigated the limiting effects of the attractiveness halo on perceptions of actual academic performance in faces of 100 university students. Given the ambiguity and various perspectives on the definition of intelligence and the growing consensus on the importance of conscientiousness over intelligence in predicting actual academic performance, we also investigated whether perceived conscientiousness was a more accurate predictor of academic performance than perceived intelligence. Perceived conscientiousness was found to be a better predictor of actual academic performance when compared to perceived intelligence and perceived academic performance, and accuracy was improved when controlling for the influence of attractiveness on judgments. These findings emphasize the misleading effect of attractiveness on the accuracy of first impressions of competence, which can have serious consequences in areas such as education and hiring. The findings also have implications for future research investigating impression accuracy based on facial stimuli.

  18. NetMHC-3.0: accurate web accessible predictions of human, mouse and monkey MHC class I affinities for peptides of length 8-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegaard, Claus; Lamberth, Kasper; Harndahl, Mikkel; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten

    2008-07-01

    NetMHC-3.0 is trained on a large number of quantitative peptide data using both affinity data from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and elution data from SYFPEITHI. The method generates high-accuracy predictions of major histocompatibility complex (MHC): peptide binding. The predictions are based on artificial neural networks trained on data from 55 MHC alleles (43 Human and 12 non-human), and position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) for additional 67 HLA alleles. As only the MHC class I prediction server is available, predictions are possible for peptides of length 8-11 for all 122 alleles. artificial neural network predictions are given as actual IC(50) values whereas PSSM predictions are given as a log-odds likelihood scores. The output is optionally available as download for easy post-processing. The training method underlying the server is the best available, and has been used to predict possible MHC-binding peptides in a series of pathogen viral proteomes including SARS, Influenza and HIV, resulting in an average of 75-80% confirmed MHC binders. Here, the performance is further validated and benchmarked using a large set of newly published affinity data, non-redundant to the training set. The server is free of use and available at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHC.

  19. General intelligence in another primate: individual differences across cognitive task performance in a New World monkey (Saguinus oedipus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konika Banerjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in human cognitive abilities show consistently positive correlations across diverse domains, providing the basis for the trait of "general intelligence" (g. At present, little is known about the evolution of g, in part because most comparative studies focus on rodents or on differences across higher-level taxa. What is needed, therefore, are experiments targeting nonhuman primates, focusing on individual differences within a single species, using a broad battery of tasks. To this end, we administered a large battery of tasks, representing a broad range of cognitive domains, to a population of captive cotton-top tamarin monkeys (Saguinus oedipus. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: Using a Bayesian latent variable model, we show that the pattern of correlations among tasks is consistent with the existence of a general factor accounting for a small but significant proportion of the variance in each task (the lower bounds of 95% Bayesian credibility intervals for correlations between g and task performance all exceed 0.12. CONCLUSION: Individual differences in cognitive abilities within at least one other primate species can be characterized by a general intelligence factor, supporting the hypothesis that important aspects of human cognitive function most likely evolved from ancient neural substrates.

  20. Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Abilities in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ding

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.

  1. High-performance computing and networking as tools for accurate emission computed tomography reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passeri, A. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); Formiconi, A.R. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); De Cristofaro, M.T.E.R. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); Pupi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy); Meldolesi, U. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica - Sezione di Medicina Nucleare, Universita` di Firenze (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    It is well known that the quantitative potential of emission computed tomography (ECT) relies on the ability to compensate for resolution, attenuation and scatter effects. Reconstruction algorithms which are able to take these effects into account are highly demanding in terms of computing resources. The reported work aimed to investigate the use of a parallel high-performance computing platform for ECT reconstruction taking into account an accurate model of the acquisition of single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) data. An iterative algorithm with an accurate model of the variable system response was ported on the MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) parallel architecture of a 64-node Cray T3D massively parallel computer. The system was organized to make it easily accessible even from low-cost PC-based workstations through standard TCP/IP networking. A complete brain study of 30 (64 x 64) slices could be reconstructed from a set of 90 (64 x 64) projections with ten iterations of the conjugate gradients algorithm in 9 s, corresponding to an actual speed-up factor of 135. This work demonstrated the possibility of exploiting remote high-performance computing and networking resources from hospital sites by means of low-cost workstations using standard communication protocols without particular problems for routine use. The achievable speed-up factors allow the assessment of the clinical benefit of advanced reconstruction techniques which require a heavy computational burden for the compensation effects such as variable spatial resolution, scatter and attenuation. The possibility of using the same software on the same hardware platform with data acquired in different laboratories with various kinds of SPET instrumentation is appealing for software quality control and for the evaluation of the clinical impact of the reconstruction methods. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. LogGPO: An accurate communication model for performance prediction of MPI programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WenGuang; ZHAI JiDong; ZHANG Jin; ZHENG WeiMin

    2009-01-01

    Message passing interface (MPI) is the de facto standard in writing parallel scientific applications on distributed memory systems. Performance prediction of MPI programs on current or future parallel sys-terns can help to find system bottleneck or optimize programs. To effectively analyze and predict per-formance of a large and complex MPI program, an efficient and accurate communication model is highly needed. A series of communication models have been proposed, such as the LogP model family, which assume that the sending overhead, message transmission, and receiving overhead of a communication is not overlapped and there is a maximum overlap degree between computation and communication. However, this assumption does not always hold for MPI programs because either sending or receiving overhead introduced by MPI implementations can decrease potential overlap for large messages. In this paper, we present a new communication model, named LogGPO, which captures the potential overlap between computation with communication of MPI programs. We design and implement a trace-driven simulator to verify the LogGPO model by predicting performance of point-to-point communication and two real applications CG and Sweep3D. The average prediction errors of LogGPO model are 2.4% and 2.0% for these two applications respectively, while the average prediction errors of LogGP model are 38.3% and 9.1% respectively.

  3. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  4. Unexpected Advantages Of Less Accurate Performance Measurements : How simple prescription data control the use of drugs in a complex setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); K.J. Grit (Kor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we argue that performance measurement can better be done by general, less accurate measurements than by complex – and possible more accurate - ones. The conclusions of this study are drawn from a case study of the Dutch Foundation for effective use of medication. While most

  5. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  6. Selective aspiration or neurotoxic lesions of orbital frontal areas 11 and 13 spared monkeys' performance on the object discrimination reversal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Andy; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2009-03-04

    Damage to the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) has long been associated with reversal learning deficits in several species. In monkeys, this impairment follows lesions that include several OFC subfields. However, the different connectional patterns of OFC subfields together with neuroimaging data in humans have suggested that specific OFC areas play distinctive roles in processing information necessary to guide behavior (Kringelbach and Rolls, 2004; Barbas, 2007; Price, 2007). More specifically, areas 11 and 13 contribute to a sensory network, whereas medial areas 10, 14, and 25 are heavily connected to a visceromotor network. To examine the contribution of areas 11 and 13 to reversal learning, we tested monkeys with selective damage to these two OFC areas on two versions of the ODR task using either one or five discrimination problems. We compared their performance with that of sham-operated controls and of animals with neurotoxic amygdala lesions, which served as operated controls. Neither damage to areas 11 and 13 nor damage to the amygdala affected performance on the ODR tasks. The results indicate that areas 11 and 13 do not critically contribute to reversal learning and that adjacent damage to OFC subfields (10, 12, 14, and 25) could account for the ODR deficits found in earlier lesion studies. This sparing of reversal learning will be discussed in relation to deficits found in the same animals on tasks that measure behavioral modulation when relative value of affective (positive and negative) stimuli was manipulated.

  7. Do Dual-Route Models Accurately Predict Reading and Spelling Performance in Individuals with Acquired Alexia and Agraphia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Henry, Maya L.; Teague, Sommer L.; Carnahan, Susan D.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2007-01-01

    Coltheart and colleagues (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Castles, Bates, & Coltheart, 2006) have demonstrated that an equation derived from dual-route theory accurately predicts reading performance in young normal readers and in children with reading impairment due to developmental dyslexia or stroke. In this paper we present evidence that the dual-route equation and a related multiple regression model also accurately predict both reading and spelling performance in adult neurological patients with acquired alexia and agraphia. These findings provide empirical support for dual-route theories of written language processing. PMID:17482218

  8. JCZS: An Intermolecular Potential Database for Performing Accurate Detonation and Expansion Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; McGee, B.C.

    1998-11-03

    Exponential-13,6 (EXP-13,6) potential pammeters for 750 gases composed of 48 elements were determined and assembled in a database, referred to as the JCZS database, for use with the Jacobs Cowperthwaite Zwisler equation of state (JCZ3-EOS)~l) The EXP- 13,6 force constants were obtained by using literature values of Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential functions, by using corresponding states (CS) theory, by matching pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and by using molecular volume to determine the approach radii with the well depth estimated from high-pressure isen- tropes. The JCZS database was used to accurately predict detonation velocity, pressure, and temperature for 50 dif- 3 Accurate predictions were also ferent explosives with initial densities ranging from 0.25 glcm3 to 1.97 g/cm . obtained for pure liquid shock Hugoniots, static properties of nitrogen, and gas detonations at high initial pressures.

  9. Blinded by Beauty: Attractiveness Bias and Accurate Perceptions of Academic Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talamas, Sean N; Mavor, Kenneth I; Perrett, David I

    2016-01-01

    ... are preferentially ascribed to attractive people. The impact of the attractiveness halo effect on perceptions of academic performance in the classroom is concerning as this has shown to influence students' future performance...

  10. Monkeys in a prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ju; Uchida, Naoshige

    2015-03-12

    Haroush and Williams trained pairs of monkeys to play in a prisoner's dilemma game, a model of social interactions. Recording from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), they find neurons whose activity reflects the anticipation of the opponent's yet unknown choice, which may be important in guiding animals' performance in the game.

  11. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid and accurate determination of homocysteine in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Rasmussen, K

    1991-01-01

    Determination of homocysteine in plasma or serum for evaluation of cobalamin and folate deficiency is becoming an important diagnostic procedure. Accurate, rapid and low cost methods for measuring homocysteine are therefore required. We have improved an HPLC method and made it suitable for clinical...... application. The more important changes are the addition of an internal standard, mercaptopropionylglycine, and the use of a plasma/serum based calibration material. The method consists of the following steps: reduction of the sample with tri-n-butylphosphine, precipitation of proteins, derivatisation...... with ammonium 7-fluorobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-sulphonate, and HPLC separation followed by fluorescence detection. The linearity of the assays is established and the coefficient of variation is 3.0%. Stability studies show that blood samples must be cooled or centrifuged immediately after venipuncture...

  12. Accurate performance estimators for information retrieval based on span bound of support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Support vector machines have met with significant success in the information retrieval field, especially in handling text classification tasks. Although various performance estimators for SVMs have been proposed,these only focus on accuracy which is based on the leave-one-out cross validation procedure. Information-retrieval-related performance measures are always neglected in a kernel learning methodology. In this paper, we have proposed a set of information-retrieval-oriented performance estimators for SVMs, which are based on the span bound of the leave-one-out procedure. Experiments have proven that our proposed estimators are both effective and stable.

  13. High Performance and Accurate Change Detection System for HyspIRI Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose novel and high performance change detection algorithms to process HyspIRI data, which have been used for monitoring changes in vegetation, climate,...

  14. Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  15. Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers’ datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  16. Self-control assessments of capuchin monkeys with the rotating tray task and the accumulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Rossettie, Mattea S; James, Brielle T; Whitham, Will; Walker, Bradlyn; Futch, Sara E; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of delay of gratification in capuchin monkeys using a rotating tray (RT) task have shown improved self-control performance in these animals in comparison to the accumulation (AC) task. In this study, we investigated whether this improvement resulted from the difference in methods between the rotating tray task and previous tests, or whether it was the result of greater overall experience with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 1 produced similar performance levels by capuchins monkeys in the RT and AC tasks when identical reward and temporal parameters were used. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar result using reward amounts that were more similar to previous AC experiments with these monkeys. In Experiment 3, monkeys performed multiple versions of the AC task with varied reward and temporal parameters. Their self-control behavior was found to be dependent on the overall delay to reward consumption, rather than the overall reward amount ultimately consumed. These findings indicate that these capuchin monkeys' self-control capacities were more likely to have improved across studies because of the greater experience they had with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 4 and Experiment 5 tested new, task-naïve monkeys on both tasks, finding more limited evidence of self-control, and no evidence that one task was more beneficial than the other in promoting self-control. The results of this study suggest that future testing of this kind should focus on temporal parameters and reward magnitude parameters to establish accurate measures of delay of gratification capacity and development in this species and perhaps others.

  17. Orbitofrontal cortex volume in area 11/13 predicts reward devaluation, but not reversal learning performance, in young and aged monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara N; Thome, Alex; Plange, Kojo; Engle, James R; Trouard, Theodore P; Gothard, Katalin M; Barnes, Carol A

    2014-07-23

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala are both necessary for decisions based on expected outcomes. Although behavioral and imaging data suggest that these brain regions are affected by advanced age, the extent to which aging alters appetitive processes coordinated by the OFC and the amygdala is unknown. In the current experiment, young and aged bonnet macaques were trained on OFC- and amygdala-dependent tasks that test the degree to which response selection is guided by reward value and can be adapted when expected outcomes change. To assess whether the structural integrity of these regions varies with levels of performance on reward devaluation and object reversal tasks, volumes of areas 11/13 and 14 of the OFC, central/medial (CM), and basolateral (BL) nuclei of the amygdala were determined from high-resolution anatomical MRIs. With age, there were significant reductions in OFC, but not CM and BL, volume. Moreover, the aged monkeys showed impairments in the ability to associate an object with a higher value reward, and to reverse a previously learned association. Interestingly, greater OFC volume of area 11/13, but not 14, was significantly correlated with an animal's ability to anticipate the reward outcome associated with an object, and smaller BL volume was predictive of an animal's tendency to choose a higher value reward, but volume of neither region correlated with reversal learning. Together, these data indicate that OFC volume has an impact on monkeys' ability to guide choice behavior based on reward value but does not impact ability to reverse a previously learned association.

  18. Short-term retention of relational memory in amnesia revisited: accurate performance depends on hippocampal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lydia T S; Hannula, Deborah E; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location), participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  19. Short-term Retention of Relational Memory in Amnesia Revisited: Accurate Performance Depends on Hippocampal Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia T.S. Yee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.

  20. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  1. Kenya's Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐天麒

    2004-01-01

    It's difficult to get close to patas monkeys(花脸猴). Clever and nervous, they run away at the sight of humans. The long-legged monkeys, clocked ( 记录 [ 速度 ] ) at 34 miles an hour, easily escaped from the zoologist Lynne Isbell when she arrived in Kenya in 1992.

  2. An Accurate Computational Tool for Performance Estimation of FSO Communication Links over Weak to Strong Atmospheric Turbulent Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore D. Katsilieris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial optical wireless communication links have attracted significant research and commercial worldwide interest over the last few years due to the fact that they offer very high and secure data rate transmission with relatively low installation and operational costs, and without need of licensing. However, since the propagation path of the information signal, i.e., the laser beam, is the atmosphere, their effectivity affects the atmospheric conditions strongly in the specific area. Thus, system performance depends significantly on the rain, the fog, the hail, the atmospheric turbulence, etc. Due to the influence of these effects, it is necessary to study, theoretically and numerically, very carefully before the installation of such a communication system. In this work, we present exactly and accurately approximate mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average capacity and the outage probability performance metrics, as functions of the link’s parameters, the transmitted power, the attenuation due to the fog, the ambient noise and the atmospheric turbulence phenomenon. The latter causes the scintillation effect, which results in random and fast fluctuations of the irradiance at the receiver’s end. These fluctuations can be studied accurately with statistical methods. Thus, in this work, we use either the lognormal or the gamma–gamma distribution for weak or moderate to strong turbulence conditions, respectively. Moreover, using the derived mathematical expressions, we design, accomplish and present a computational tool for the estimation of these systems’ performances, while also taking into account the parameter of the link and the atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, in order to increase the accuracy of the presented tool, for the cases where the obtained analytical mathematical expressions are complex, the performance results are verified with the numerical estimation of the appropriate integrals. Finally, using

  3. Roll tilt psychophysics in rhesus monkeys during vestibular and visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard F; Haburcakova, Csilla; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2008-07-01

    How does the brain calculate the spatial orientation of the head relative to gravity? Psychophysical measurements are critical to investigate this question, but such measurements have been limited to humans. In non-human primates, behavioral measures have focused on vestibular-mediated eye movements, which do not reflect percepts of head orientation. We have therefore developed a method to measure tilt perception in monkeys, derived from the subjective visual vertical (SVV) task. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to align a light bar parallel to gravity and performed this task during roll tilts, centrifugation, and roll optokinetic stimulation. The monkeys accurately aligned the light bar with gravity during static roll tilts but also demonstrated small orientation-dependent misperceptions of the tilt angle analogous to those measured in humans. When the gravito-inertial force (GIF) rotated dynamically in the roll plane, SVV responses remained closely aligned with the GIF during roll tilt of the head (coplanar canal rotational cues present), lagged slightly behind the GIF during variable-radius centrifugation (no canal cues present), and shifted gradually during fixed-radius centrifugation (orthogonal yaw canal cues present). SVV responses also deviated away from the earth-vertical during roll optokinetic stimulation. These results demonstrate that rotational cues derived from the semicircular canals and visual system have prominent effects on psychophysical measurements of roll tilt in rhesus monkeys and therefore suggest that a central synthesis of graviceptive and rotational cues contributes to percepts of head orientation relative to gravity in non-human primates.

  4. Implementation of High Performance Microstepping Driver Using FPGA with the Aim of Realizing Accurate Control on a Linear Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Alidoust Aghdam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA-based microstepping driver which drives a linear motion system with a smooth and precise way. Proposed driver built on a Spartan3 FPGA (XC3S400 core development board from Xilinx. Implementation of driver realized by an FPGA and using Verilog hardware description language in the Xilinx ISE environment. The driver’s control behavior can be adapted just by altering Verilog scripts. In addition, a linear motion system developed (with 4 mm movement per motor revolution and coupled it to the stepper motor. The performance of the driver is tested by measuring the distance traveled on linear motion system. The experimental results verified using hardware-in-loop Matlab and Xilinx cosimulation method. This driver accomplishes a firm and accurate control and is responsive.

  5. Accurate mass measurements of $^{26}$Ne, $^{26-30}$Na, $^{29-33}$Mg performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gaulard, C; Bachelet, C; De Simon, M S; Lunney, M D; Thibault, C; Vieira, N

    2006-01-01

    The minuteness of the nuclear binding energy requires that mass measurements be highly precise and accurate. Here we report on new measurements $^{29-33}$Mg and $^{26}$Na performed with the Mistral mass spectrometer at CERN's Isolde facility. Since mass measurements are prone to systematic errors, considerable effort has been devoted to their evaluation and elimination in order to achieve accuracy and not only precision. We have therefore conducted a campaign of measurements for calibration and error evaluation. As a result, we now have a satisfactory description of the Mistral calibration laws and error budget. We have applied our new understanding to previous measurements of $^{26}$Ne, $^{26-30}$Na and $^{29,32}$Mg for which re-evaluated values are reported.

  6. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  7. Effect of Pulsed 5.62 GHz Microwaves on Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) Performing a Repeated Acquisition Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-28

    the behavioral test sessions. Irradiation occurred for 2 minutes or until convulsions began. He found no effect on performance of a discrimination...only a slight, almost imperceptible , decrease during irradiation at power ý-ensities of 17 and 32 mW/cm2 . However, at 38 mW/cm2 this animal respo-ided

  8. Prospective and retrospective ECG-gating for CT coronary angiography perform similarly accurate at low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolzmann, Paul, E-mail: paul.stolzmann@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Goetti, Robert; Baumueller, Stephan [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Plass, Andre; Falk, Volkmar [Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Scheffel, Hans; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Marincek, Borut [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Leschka, Sebastian [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To compare, in patients with suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD) and low heart rates, image quality, diagnostic performance, and radiation dose values of prospectively and retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for the diagnosis of significant coronary stenoses. Materials and methods: Two-hundred consecutive patients with heart rates {<=}70 bpm were retrospectively enrolled; 100 patients undergoing prospectively ECG-gated CTCA (group 1) and 100 patients undergoing retrospectively-gated CTCA (group 2). Coronary artery segments were assessed for image quality and significant luminal diameter narrowing. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), and accuracy of both CTCA groups were determined using conventional catheter angiography (CCA) as reference standard. Radiation dose values were calculated. Results: Both groups were comparable regarding gender, body weight, cardiovascular risk profile, severity of CAD, mean heart rate, heart rate variability, and Agatston score (all p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of non-assessable coronary segments between group 1 (1.6%, 24/1404) and group 2 (1.4%, 19/1385; p = 0.77); non-diagnostic image quality was significantly (p < 0.001) more often attributed to stair step artifacts in group 1. Segment-based sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 98%, 98%, 88%, 100%, and 100% among group 1; 96%, 99%, 90%, 100%, and 98% among group 2, respectively. Parameters of diagnostic performance were similar (all p > 0.05). Mean effective radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gated CTCA (2.2 {+-} 0.4 mSv) was significantly (p < 0.0001) smaller than that of retrospectively ECG-gated CTCA (8.1 {+-} 0.6 mSv). Conclusion: Prospectively ECG-gated CTCA yields similar image quality, performs as accurately as retrospectively ECG-gated CTCA in patients having heart rates {<=}70 bpm

  9. Testing cognitive performance of socially housed monkeys: possibilities and limitations of the study of social influences on age-related cognitive decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toxopeus, Ido Bart

    2004-01-01

    In both humans and monkeys not all individuals show the same rate of age-related cognitive decline. One important factor to influence the rate of decline is extended exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids, which play a central role in the response to stress. Furthermore, studies with humans

  10. Is an alcoholic fixative fluid used for manual liquid-based cytology accurate to perform HPV tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbar C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Garbar1, Corinne Mascaux1, Philippe De Graeve2, Philippe Delvenne31Department of Biopathology, Institute Jean Godinot, Reims Cedex, France; 2Centre de Pathologie des Coteaux, Toulouse, France; 3Department of Pathology, University of Liege, Tour de Pathologie, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Liège, BelgiumAbstract: In Europe, the alternative centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology is widely used in cervical screening. Turbitec® (Labonord SAS, Templemars, France is a centrifuge method of liquid-based cytology using an alcoholic fixative fluid, Easyfix® (Labonord. It is now well accepted that the association of liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus test is indissociable of cervical screening. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that Easyfix alcoholic fluid is reliable to perform Hybrid Capture® 2 (QIAGEN SAS, Courtaboeuf, France. In this study, 75 patients with colposcopy for cervical lesions served as gold standard. A sample was collected, at random, for Easyfix fixative cytological fluid and for Digene Cervical Sampler (QIAGEN. The results of Hybrid Capture 2 (with relative light unit >1 showed no statistical difference, a positive Spearman’s correlation (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001, and a kappa value of 0.87 (excellent agreement between the two fluids. It was concluded that Easyfix is accurate to use in human papillomavirus tests with Hybrid Capture 2.Keywords: human papillomavirus, hybrid capture 2, Turbitec®, cervix cytology, liquid-based cytology

  11. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  12. [Visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality in female macaque monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    1997-04-01

    Visual information about face and body including facial expression and bodily behavioral patterns has been known to play an important role in social and emotional communication in monkeys. Its involvement in sexual activity has also been demonstrated in male monkeys but it is poorly understood in female monkeys. In the present study, visually-guided discrimination and preference of sexuality were investigated in female macaque monkeys performing operant bar-press tasks in an experimental cage which had a transparent panel facing a display. In the sex discrimination task, two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate sex of a monkey shown in a picture which was randomly selected from six photographs (three males and three females) and was presented on the display. The monkey pressed a right or left bar for male or female monkey, respectively, to get water as a reward. Under this discrimination task, the monkeys could discriminate the sexes of monkeys shown in newly presented pictures. When choice bars were reversed, correct responses significantly decreased below chance level. In the sex preference task, three rhesus monkeys and three Japanese monkeys (M. juscata) were used. The monkeys voluntarily pressed the bar to watch the video movie showing either male or female rhesus monkeys. The movies were presented as long as the subject kept pressing the bar. The same movie was continued when the monkey pressed the bar again within 10s after the previous release of the bar, while it was changed to the other when 10s passed after the subject released the bar. The total duration of the responses in daily sessions was measured. In this visual preference task, four out of six monkeys showed sex preference. Three adult Japanese monkeys (6-8 y) pressed the bar to watch the video movie of male monkeys which was taken in breeding season with longer duration than that of female monkeys taken in the same season. The other two adult rhesus monkeys (7 8 y) did not

  13. The Genial Monkeys of Emei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOHONG

    2004-01-01

    MANY of China's beautiful mountainous areas are home to monkeys,the most famous monkey resort being Emei Mountain. Perhaps affected by the mountain's Buddhist atmosphere, Emei's monkeys are gentle and often approach tourists for food and play. Cute and impish, these delightful creatures are the main attraction for many visitors.

  14. Default mode of brain function in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A; Buckner, Randy L; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-09-07

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions-the default-mode network (DMN)-that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment.

  15. THE CLEVER MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付惠娟

    2004-01-01

    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  16. A fully automatic tool to perform accurate flood mapping by merging remote sensing imagery and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco; Pasquariello, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is one of the most frequent and expansive natural hazard. High-resolution flood mapping is an essential step in the monitoring and prevention of inundation hazard, both to gain insight into the processes involved in the generation of flooding events, and from the practical point of view of the precise assessment of inundated areas. Remote sensing data are recognized to be useful in this respect, thanks to the high resolution and regular revisit schedules of state-of-the-art satellites, moreover offering a synoptic overview of the extent of flooding. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data present several favorable characteristics for flood mapping, such as their relative insensitivity to the meteorological conditions during acquisitions, as well as the possibility of acquiring independently of solar illumination, thanks to the active nature of the radar sensors [1]. However, flood scenarios are typical examples of complex situations in which different factors have to be considered to provide accurate and robust interpretation of the situation on the ground: the presence of many land cover types, each one with a particular signature in presence of flood, requires modelling the behavior of different objects in the scene in order to associate them to flood or no flood conditions [2]. Generally, the fusion of multi-temporal, multi-sensor, multi-resolution and/or multi-platform Earth observation image data, together with other ancillary information, seems to have a key role in the pursuit of a consistent interpretation of complex scenes. In the case of flooding, distance from the river, terrain elevation, hydrologic information or some combination thereof can add useful information to remote sensing data. Suitable methods, able to manage and merge different kind of data, are so particularly needed. In this work, a fully automatic tool, based on Bayesian Networks (BNs) [3] and able to perform data fusion, is presented. It supplies flood maps

  17. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys.

  18. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiuqin; Zhang Feng; Sun Yanyan; Yong Wei [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China); Chu Xiaogang [Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Jia 3, Gaobeidian North Road, Beijing 100025 (China)], E-mail: lixq_sypu@yahoo.com; Fang Yanyan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry [Agilent Technologies, Inc., 2850 Centerville Road, Wilmington, Delaware (United States)

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M + H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M - H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0 mg.kg{sup -1} concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0 mg.kg{sup -1}-100 mg.kg{sup -1} are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation <7.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.0005 to 0.05 mg.kg{sup -1}, which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  19. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Yan Yan; Yong, Wei; Chu, Xiao Gang; Fang, Yan Yan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-02-11

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M+H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M-H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0mg.kg(-1) concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0mg.kg(-1)-100mg.kg(-1) are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff.

  20. Predicting rhesus monkey eye movements during natural-image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Mark A; Kuo, Emory; Caddigan, Sara; Berthiaume, Emily A; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-03-01

    There are three prominent factors that can predict human visual-search behavior in natural scenes: the distinctiveness of a location (salience), similarity to the target (relevance), and features of the environment that predict where the object might be (context). We do not currently know how well these factors are able to predict macaque visual search, which matters because it is arguably the most popular model for asking how the brain controls eye movements. Here we trained monkeys to perform the pedestrian search task previously used for human subjects. Salience, relevance, and context models were all predictive of monkey eye fixations and jointly about as precise as for humans. We attempted to disrupt the influence of scene context on search by testing the monkeys with an inverted set of the same images. Surprisingly, the monkeys were able to locate the pedestrian at a rate similar to that for upright images. The best predictions of monkey fixations in searching inverted images were obtained by rotating the results of the model predictions for the original image. The fact that the same models can predict human and monkey search behavior suggests that the monkey can be used as a good model for understanding how the human brain enables natural-scene search.

  1. Quantification of rimonabant (SR 141716A) in monkey plasma using HPLC with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javors, Martin A; Sanchez, Jesus J; McMahon, Lance R

    2010-07-01

    Using an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system and UV detection, a simple and precise analytical procedure was developed to quantify levels of the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant in the plasma of rhesus monkeys. Rimonabant was extracted from plasma samples into 5% isopropanol in hexane. After separation, the isopropanol-hexane fractions were dried to residue, redissolved in mobile phase, and then injected into the HPLC. The HPLC system included an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (62:38, v/v) mobile phase (pH 6.7), flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, C(18) column (4.6 mm i.d. x 150 mm length, 5 microm), and UV detection at 280 nm. Retention times for rimonabant and doxepin (internal standard) were 9.9 and 2.4 min, respectively. The regression of the spiked calibrator curve was linear from 60 to 4000 ng/mL (r(2) = 0.996). The lower limit of quantification was 60 ng/mL, and recovery was 83.6%. Rimonabant was stable in stock solutions and monkey plasma across a range of temperatures and concentrations. To demonstrate utility, plasma rimonabant was measured in six rhesus monkeys at 60 and 240 min after intramuscular administration of 1 mg/kg rimonabant. Rimonabant levels ranged from 175 to 1290 ng/mL. The analytical assay described here provides a simple and accurate procedure for multiple within-subject measurements of the CB(1) antagonist rimonabant.

  2. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  3. The Elephant and the Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ Once an Elephant met a Monkey."Look how big and strong I am!"he said."I can break a tree.Can you break a tree?" "Look how quickly I can run and climb!"said the Monkey."Can you climb a tree?" The elephant was proud because he was so strong,and the Monkey Was proud because she was so quick.

  4. The level of detail required in a deformable phantom to accurately perform quality assurance of deformable image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Daniel L.; Kim, Hojin; Chen, Josephine; Stathakis, Sotirios; Kirby, Neil

    2016-09-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine how detailed deformable image registration (DIR) phantoms need to adequately simulate human anatomy and accurately assess the quality of DIR algorithms. In particular, how many distinct tissues are required in a phantom to simulate complex human anatomy? Pelvis and head-and-neck patient CT images were used for this study as virtual phantoms. Two data sets from each site were analyzed. The virtual phantoms were warped to create two pairs consisting of undeformed and deformed images. Otsu’s method was employed to create additional segmented image pairs of n distinct soft tissue CT number ranges (fat, muscle, etc). A realistic noise image was added to each image. Deformations were applied in MIM Software (MIM) and Velocity deformable multi-pass (DMP) and compared with the known warping. Images with more simulated tissue levels exhibit more contrast, enabling more accurate results. Deformation error (magnitude of the vector difference between known and predicted deformation) was used as a metric to evaluate how many CT number gray levels are needed for a phantom to serve as a realistic patient proxy. Stabilization of the mean deformation error was reached by three soft tissue levels for Velocity DMP and MIM, though MIM exhibited a persisting difference in accuracy between the discrete images and the unprocessed image pair. A minimum detail of three levels allows a realistic patient proxy for use with Velocity and MIM deformation algorithms.

  5. A simple and reliable method to blood type monkeys using serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Wei, Qing; Li, Junhua; Xiang, Ying; Guo, Hui; Ichim, Thomas E; Chen, Shi; Chen, Gang

    2009-10-01

    Monkeys are frequently used in experimental transplantation research because of their physical traits and availability. As ABO incompatibility may result in humoral injury, it is important to identify the ABO blood typing of monkeys before transplantation. However, monkeys lack expression of ABH antigens on red blood cells, which makes accurate determination of the blood type difficult. The gel agglutination assay has been widely used as a routine blood grouping test clinically for more than 10 years. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and the interference factors of using the gel system (including the direct gel system and the reverse gel system) for ABO typing in rhesus monkeys (n = 38) and cynomolgus monkeys (n = 26). Immunohistochemistry assay was used to obtain the accurate blood type data of monkeys. The results revealed that the direct gel system was ineffective in blood typing of monkeys, whereas the reverse gel system assay, which is based on preabsorbed serum, provided reproducible results that were confirmed by histologic analysis. We conclude that the reverse gel system assay with use of preabsorbed serum is a simple and reliable method for ABO typing of monkeys.

  6. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-07-15

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism.

  7. Coupled optical and thermal detailed simulations for the accurate evaluation and performance improvement of molten salts solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Mutuberria, Amaia; Palacin, Luis G.; Sanz, Javier L.; Pereira, Daniel; Bernardos, Ana; Sanchez, Marcelino; Rocha, Alberto R.

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Centre of Spain, CENER, and the Technology & Innovation area of ACS Cobra, as a result of their long term expertise in the CSP field, have developed a high-quality and high level of detail optical and thermal simulation software for the accurate evaluation of Molten Salts Solar Towers. The main purpose of this software is to make a step forward in the state-of-the-art of the Solar Towers simulation programs. Generally, these programs deal with the most critical systems of such plants, i.e. the solar field and the receiver, on an independent basis. Therefore, these programs typically neglect relevant aspects in the operation of the plant as heliostat aiming strategies, solar flux shapes onto the receiver, material physical and operational limitations, transient processes as preheating and secure cloud passing operating modes, and more. The modelling approach implemented in the developed program consists on effectively coupling detailed optical simulations of the heliostat field with also detailed and full-transient thermal simulations of the molten salts tube-based external receiver. The optical model is based on an accurate Monte Carlo ray-tracing method which solves the complete solar field by simulating each of the heliostats at once according to their specific layout in the field. In the thermal side, the tube-based cylindrical external receiver of a Molten Salts Solar Tower is modelled assuming one representative tube per panel, and implementing the specific connection layout of the panels as well as the internal receiver pipes. Each tube is longitudinally discretized and the transient energy and mass balances in the temperature dependent molten salts and steel tube models are solved. For this, a one dimensional radial heat transfer model based is used. The thermal model is completed with a detailed control and operation strategy module, able to represent the appropriate operation of the plant. An integration framework has been

  8. Qualitative and quantitative determination of YiXinShu Tablet using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Li, Zhuolun; Zuo, Lihua; Wang, Zhenhui; Zhou, Lin; Shi, Yingying; Kang, Jian; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2017-08-24

    To clarify and quantify the chemical profile of YiXinShu Tablet rapidly, a feasible and accurate strategy was developed by applying ultra high performance liquid chromatography with Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry. A total of 105 components were identified, including 25 phenanthraquinones, 11 lactones, 19 lignans, 24 acids and 26 other compounds. Among them, 26 major compounds were unambiguously detected by comparing with reference standards. And 19 of these compounds in three batches of YiXinShu Tablet were selected for quantitative determination. (Z)-Ligustilide, salvianic acid A, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid were abundant in these three batches with contents over 1.000 mg/g. The established analysis methods were examined to be accurate and feasible. The results show that the ultra high performance liquid chromatography with Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry method has a powerful qualitative ability and promising quantitative application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhesus monkeys see who they hear: spontaneous cross-modal memory for familiar conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Adachi

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys.

  10. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity.

  11. Performance evaluation of ocean color satellite models for deriving accurate chlorophyll estimates in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montes-Hugo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in the Gulf of the Saint Lawrence (GSL is critical for managing major fisheries off the Canadian East coast. In this study, the accuracy of two atmospheric correction techniques (NASA standard algorithm, SA, and Kuchinke's spectral optimization, KU and three ocean color inversion models (Carder's empirical for SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor, EC, Lee's quasi-analytical, QAA, and Garver- Siegel-Maritorena semi-empirical, GSM for estimating the phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 443 nm (aph(443 and the chlorophyll concentration (chl in the GSL is examined. Each model was validated based on SeaWiFS images and shipboard measurements obtained during May of 2000 and April 2001. In general, aph(443 estimates derived from coupling KU and QAA models presented the smallest differences with respect to in situ determinations as measured by High Pressure liquid Chromatography measurements (median absolute bias per cruise up to 0.005, RMSE up to 0.013. A change on the inversion approach used for estimating aph(443 values produced up to 43.4% increase on prediction error as inferred from the median relative bias per cruise. Likewise, the impact of applying different atmospheric correction schemes was secondary and represented an additive error of up to 24.3%. By using SeaDAS (SeaWiFS Data Analysis System default values for the optical cross section of phytoplankton (i.e., aph(443 = aph(443/chl = 0.056 m2mg−1, the median relative bias of our chl estimates as derived from the most accurate spaceborne aph(443 retrievals and with respect to in situ determinations increased up to 29%.

  12. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-07-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achieve high uniformity in both resolution (8) within a large FOV of 6 cm in diameter, even when the imaging objects are enclosed by a monkey skull. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through a skull ranging from 2 to 4 mm in thickness. This study demonstrates that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull and can potentially be applied to human neonatal brain imaging.

  13. Monkey steering responses reveal rapid visual-motor feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W Egger

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying primate locomotion are largely unknown. While behavioral and theoretical work has provided a number of ideas of how navigation is controlled, progress will require direct physiolgical tests of the underlying mechanisms. In turn, this will require development of appropriate animal models. We trained three monkeys to track a moving visual target in a simple virtual environment, using a joystick to control their direction. The monkeys learned to quickly and accurately turn to the target, and their steering behavior was quite stereotyped and reliable. Monkeys typically responded to abrupt steps of target direction with a biphasic steering movement, exhibiting modest but transient overshoot. Response latencies averaged approximately 300 ms, and monkeys were typically back on target after about 1 s. We also exploited the variability of responses about the mean to explore the time-course of correlation between target direction and steering response. This analysis revealed a broad peak of correlation spanning approximately 400 ms in the recent past, during which steering errors provoke a compensatory response. This suggests a continuous, visual-motor loop controls steering behavior, even during the epoch surrounding transient inputs. Many results from the human literature also suggest that steering is controlled by such a closed loop. The similarity of our results to those in humans suggests the monkey is a very good animal model for human visually guided steering.

  14. A robust and accurate center-frequency estimation (RACE) algorithm for improving motion estimation performance of SinMod on tagged cardiac MR images without known tagging parameters☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Jie; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin; Wang, Qian; Jin, Renchao; Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fei, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    A robust and accurate center-frequency (CF) estimation (RACE) algorithm for improving the performance of the local sine-wave modeling (SinMod) method, which is a good motion estimation method for tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images, is proposed in this study. The RACE algorithm can automatically, effectively and efficiently produce a very appropriate CF estimate for the SinMod method, under the circumstance that the specified tagging parameters are unknown, on account of the following two key techniques: (1) the well-known mean-shift algorithm, which can provide accurate and rapid CF estimation; and (2) an original two-direction-combination strategy, which can further enhance the accuracy and robustness of CF estimation. Some other available CF estimation algorithms are brought out for comparison. Several validation approaches that can work on the real data without ground truths are specially designed. Experimental results on human body in vivo cardiac data demonstrate the significance of accurate CF estimation for SinMod, and validate the effectiveness of RACE in facilitating the motion estimation performance of SinMod. PMID:25087857

  15. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) adaptively adjust information seeking in response to information accumulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Pani, Alex A; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-11-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring and control processes. Monitoring has been inferred when nonhumans use a "decline test" response to selectively escape difficult test trials. Cognitive control has been inferred from selective information-seeking behavior by nonhumans ignorant of needed knowledge. Here we describe a computerized paradigm that extends previous work and assesses dynamic interactions between monitoring and control. Monkeys classified images as containing birds, fish, flowers, or people. To-be-classified images were initially masked, and monkeys were trained to gradually reveal the images by touching a "reveal button." Monkeys could choose to classify images at any time or to reveal more of the images. Thus, they had the opportunity to assess when enough of an image had been revealed to support accurate classification. In Experiment 1, monkeys made more reveal responses before classifying when smaller amounts of the image were revealed by each button touch. In Experiment 2, to-be-classified images were shrunk and covered by 1 critical blocker among other blockers that did not provide information when removed. Monkeys made more reveal responses as the critical blocker was removed later in the trial. In Experiment 3, monkeys were presented with previously classified images with either more or fewer blockers obscuring the image than was the case when they chose to classify that image previously. Monkeys made more reveal responses when information was insufficient than when it was excessive. These results indicate that monkeys dynamically monitor evolving decision processes and adaptively collect information as necessary to maintain accuracy.

  16. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  17. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Remember Future Responses in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Klein, Emily D.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2012-01-01

    Planning is an important aspect of many daily activities for humans. Planning involves forming a strategy in anticipation of a future need. However, evidence that nonhuman animals can plan for future situations is limited, particularly in relation to the many other kinds of cognitive capacities that they appear to share with humans. One critical aspect of planning is the ability to remember future responses, or what is called prospective coding. Two monkey species performed a series of computerized tasks that required encoding a future response at the outset of each trial. Monkeys of both species showed competence in all tests that were given, providing evidence that they anticipated future responses, and that they appropriately engaged in those responses when the time was right for such responses. In addition, some tests demonstrated that monkeys even remembered future responses that were not as presently motivating as were other aspects of the task environment. These results indicated that monkeys can anticipate future responses and retain and implement those responses when appropriate. PMID:22545901

  18. Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late blight resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Nowakowska

    Full Text Available Late blight (LB caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant. In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with the field experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato.

  19. Appraisal of artificial screening techniques of tomato to accurately reflect field performance of the late blight resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Marzena; Nowicki, Marcin; Kłosińska, Urszula; Maciorowski, Robert; Kozik, Elżbieta U

    2014-01-01

    Late blight (LB) caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans continues to thwart global tomato production, while only few resistant cultivars have been introduced locally. In order to gain from the released tomato germplasm with LB resistance, we compared the 5-year field performance of LB resistance in several tomato cultigens, with the results of controlled conditions testing (i.e., detached leaflet/leaf, whole plant). In case of these artificial screening techniques, the effects of plant age and inoculum concentration were additionally considered. In the field trials, LA 1033, L 3707, L 3708 displayed the highest LB resistance, and could be used for cultivar development under Polish conditions. Of the three methods using controlled conditions, the detached leaf and the whole plant tests had the highest correlation with the field experiments. The plant age effect on LB resistance in tomato reported here, irrespective of the cultigen tested or inoculum concentration used, makes it important to standardize the test parameters when screening for resistance. Our results help show why other reports disagree on LB resistance in tomato.

  20. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  1. Observational learning in capuchin monkeys: a video deficit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Young human children have been shown to learn less effectively from video or televised images than from real-life demonstrations. Although nonhuman primates respond to and can learn from video images, there is a lack of direct comparisons of task acquisition from video and live demonstrations. To address this gap in knowledge, we presented capuchin monkeys with video clips of a human demonstrator explicitly hiding food under one of two containers. The clips were presented at normal, faster than normal, or slower than normal speed, and then the monkeys were allowed to choose between the real containers. Even after 55 sessions and hundreds of video demonstration trials the monkeys' performances indicated no mastery of the task, and there was no effect of video speed. When given live demonstrations of the hiding act, the monkeys' performances were vastly improved. Upon subsequent return to video demonstrations, performances declined to pre-live-demonstration levels, but this time with evidence for an advantage of fast video demonstrations. Demonstration action speed may be one aspect of images that influence nonhuman primates' ability to learn from video images, an ability that in monkeys, as in young children, appears limited compared to learning from live models.

  2. ABO typing in experimental cynomolgus monkeys using non-invasive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Song; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    ABH antigens are not expressed on the red blood cells of monkeys, making it difficult to accurately determine their blood type. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility, convenience, and stability of two non-invasive methods for ABO typing (a reverse gel system assay and a buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay) in cynomolgus monkeys (n = 72). The renal tissue immunofluorescent assay was used to obtain an accurate blood type in the monkeys. Using the reverse gel system assay and preabsorbed serum, we achieved accurate detection of ABO blood groups in 65 of the 72 monkeys but obtained confusing results in the remaining 7. The original immunofluorescent staining of the buccal mucosal smears clearly and correctly identified the ABO blood groups in 50 of the 72 monkeys. After repeated smearing and staining, the ABO group type could be correctly identified in samples from the rest of the monkeys, which were either lacking sufficient buccal mucosal cells or contained impurities. Based on our findings, we recommend the reverse gel system assay as the first choice for primate blood type analysis, and the buccal mucosal cell immunofluorescent assay as a Supplementary Method whenever the reverse gel system assay fails to give a clear result. PMID:28112245

  3. MULTEM: A new multislice program to perform accurate and fast electron diffraction and imaging simulations using Graphics Processing Units with CUDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, I., E-mail: Ivan.Lobato@uantwerpen.be; Van Dyck, D.

    2015-09-15

    The main features and the GPU implementation of the MULTEM program are presented and described. This new program performs accurate and fast multislice simulations by including higher order expansion of the multislice solution of the high energy Schrödinger equation, the correct subslicing of the three-dimensional potential and top-bottom surfaces. The program implements different kinds of simulation for CTEM, STEM, ED, PED, CBED, ADF-TEM and ABF-HC with proper treatment of the spatial and temporal incoherences. The multislice approach described here treats the specimen as amorphous material which allows a straightforward implementation of the frozen phonon approximation. The generalized transmission function for each slice is calculated when is needed and then discarded. This allows us to perform large simulations that can include millions of atoms and keep the computer memory requirements to a reasonable level. - Highlights: • The main features and the GPU implementation of the open source MULTEM program are described. • Accurate and fast multislice simulations for TEM simulations. • Three dimensional frozen phonon calculations at no extra computational cost.

  4. MULTEM: A new multislice program to perform accurate and fast electron diffraction and imaging simulations using Graphics Processing Units with CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, I; Van Dyck, D

    2015-09-01

    The main features and the GPU implementation of the MULTEM program are presented and described. This new program performs accurate and fast multislice simulations by including higher order expansion of the multislice solution of the high energy Schrödinger equation, the correct subslicing of the three-dimensional potential and top-bottom surfaces. The program implements different kinds of simulation for CTEM, STEM, ED, PED, CBED, ADF-TEM and ABF-HC with proper treatment of the spatial and temporal incoherences. The multislice approach described here treats the specimen as amorphous material which allows a straightforward implementation of the frozen phonon approximation. The generalized transmission function for each slice is calculated when is needed and then discarded. This allows us to perform large simulations that can include millions of atoms and keep the computer memory requirements to a reasonable level.

  5. Surgeon-performed touch preparation of breast core needle biopsies may provide accurate same-day diagnosis and expedite treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Pranjali V; Korourian, Soheila; Malak, Sharp; Ochoa, Daniela; Lipschitz, Riley; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Suzanne Klimberg, V

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to determine the accuracy of surgeon-performed touch-preparation cytology (TPC) of breast core-needle biopsies (CNB) and the ability to use TPC results to initiate treatment planning at the same patient visit. A single-institution retrospective review of TPC results of ultrasound-guided breast CNB was performed. All TPC slides were prepared by surgeons performing the biopsy and interpreted by the pathologist. TPC results were reported as positive/suspicious, atypical, negative/benign, or deferred; these were compared with final pathology of cores to calculate accuracy. Treatment planning was noted as having taken place if the patient had requisition of advanced imaging, referrals, or surgical planning undertaken during the same visit. Four hundred forty-seven CNB specimens with corresponding TPC were evaluated from 434 patient visits, and 203 samples (45.4 %) were malignant on final pathology. When the deferred, atypical, and benign results were considered negative and positive/suspicious results were considered positive, sensitivity and specificity were 83.7 % (77.9-88.5 %) and 98.4 % (95.9-99.6 %), respectively; positive and negative predictive values were 97.7 % (94.2-99.4 %) and 87.9 % (83.4-91.5 %), respectively. In practice, patients with atypical or deferred results were asked to await final pathology. An accurate same-day diagnosis (TPC positive/suspicious) was hence feasible in 83.7 % (170 of 203) of malignant and 79.5 % (194 of 244) of benign cases (TPC negative). Of patients who had a same-day diagnosis of a new malignancy, 77.3 % had treatment planning initiated at the same visit. Surgeon-performed TPC of breast CNB is an accurate method of same-day diagnosis that allows treatment planning to be initiated at the same visit and may serve to expedite patient care.

  6. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) modulate their use of an uncertainty response depending on risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Church, Barbara A; Smith, J David

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking, and there has been a great deal of interest in how this ability manifests across primates. Based on much of the work to date, a tentative division has been drawn with New World monkeys on 1 side and Old World monkeys and apes on the other. Specifically, Old World monkeys, apes, and humans often show patterns reflecting metacognition, but New World monkeys typically do not, or show less convincing behavioral patterns. However, recent data suggest that this difference may relate to other aspects of some experimental tasks. For example, 1 possibility is that risk tolerance affects how capuchin monkeys, a New World primate species, tend to perform. Specifically, it has recently been argued that on tasks in which there are 2 or 3 options, the "risk" of guessing is tolerable for capuchins because there is a high probability of being correct even if they "know they do not know" or feel something akin to uncertainty. The current study investigated this possibility by manipulating the degree of risk (2-choices vs. 6-choices) and found that capuchin monkeys used the uncertainty response more on 6-choice trials than on 2-choice trials. We also found that rate of reward does not appear to underlie these patterns of performance, and propose that the degree of risk is modulating capuchin monkeys' use of the uncertainty response. Thus, the apparent differences between New and Old World monkeys in metacognition may reflect differences in risk tolerance rather than access to metacognitive states.

  7. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  8. Embedded fiber-optic sensing for accurate internal monitoring of cell state in advanced battery management systems part 1: Cell embedding method and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ajay; Kiesel, Peter; Sommer, Lars Wilko; Schwartz, Julian; Lochbaum, Alexander; Hegyi, Alex; Schuh, Andreas; Arakaki, Kyle; Saha, Bhaskar; Ganguli, Anurag; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, ChaeAh; Hah, Hoe Jin; Kim, SeokKoo; Hwang, Gyu-Ok; Chung, Geun-Chang; Choi, Bokkyu; Alamgir, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    A key challenge hindering the mass adoption of Lithium-ion and other next-gen chemistries in advanced battery applications such as hybrid/electric vehicles (xEVs) has been management of their functional performance for more effective battery utilization and control over their life. Contemporary battery management systems (BMS) reliant on monitoring external parameters such as voltage and current to ensure safe battery operation with the required performance usually result in overdesign and inefficient use of capacity. More informative embedded sensors are desirable for internal cell state monitoring, which could provide accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimates and early failure indicators. Here we present a promising new embedded sensing option developed by our team for cell monitoring, fiber-optic sensors. High-performance large-format pouch cells with embedded fiber-optic sensors were fabricated. The first of this two-part paper focuses on the embedding method details and performance of these cells. The seal integrity, capacity retention, cycle life, compatibility with existing module designs, and mass-volume cost estimates indicate their suitability for xEV and other advanced battery applications. The second part of the paper focuses on the internal strain and temperature signals obtained from these sensors under various conditions and their utility for high-accuracy cell state estimation algorithms.

  9. Accurate mass analysis of ethanesulfonic acid degradates of acetochlor and alachlor using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.; Parry, R.

    2002-01-01

    Degradates of acetochlor and alachlor (ethanesulfonic acids, ESAs) were analyzed in both standards and in a groundwater sample using high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The negative pseudomolecular ion of the secondary amide of acetochlor ESA and alachlor ESA gave average masses of 256.0750??0.0049 amu and 270.0786??0.0064 amu respectively. Acetochlor and alachlor ESA gave similar masses of 314.1098??0.0061 amu and 314.1153??0.0048 amu; however, they could not be distinguished by accurate mass because they have the same empirical formula. On the other hand, they may be distinguished using positive-ion electrospray because of different fragmentation spectra, which did not occur using negative-ion electrospray.

  10. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience.

  11. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major...

  12. A hybrid monkey search algorithm for clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  13. A Hybrid Monkey Search Algorithm for Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis.

  14. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  15. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  16. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  17. Positive reinforcement training in squirrel monkeys using clicker training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Timothy E; Janes, Amy C; Kaufman, Marc J

    2012-08-01

    Nonhuman primates in research environments experience regular stressors that have the potential to alter physiology and brain function, which in turn can confound some types of research studies. Operant conditioning techniques such as positive reinforcement training (PRT), which teaches animals to voluntarily perform desired behaviors, can be applied to improve behavior and reactivity. PRT has been used to train rhesus macaques, marmosets, and several other nonhuman primate species. To our knowledge, the method has yet to be used to train squirrel monkeys to perform complex tasks. Accordingly, we sought to establish whether PRT, utilizing a hand-box clicker (which emits a click sound that acts as the conditioned reinforcer), could be used to train adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis, N = 14). We developed and implemented a training regimen to elicit voluntary participation in routine husbandry, animal transport, and injection procedures. Our secondary goal was to quantify the training time needed to achieve positive results. Squirrel monkeys readily learned the connection between the conditioned reinforcer (the clicker) and the positive reinforcer (food). They rapidly developed proficiency on four tasks of increasing difficulty: target touching, hand sitting, restraint training, and injection training. All subjects mastered target touching behavior within 2 weeks. Ten of 14 subjects (71%) mastered all tasks in 59.2 ± 2.6 days (range: 50-70 days). In trained subjects, it now takes about 1.25 min per monkey to weigh and administer an intramuscular injection, one-third of the time it took before training. From these data, we conclude that clicker box PRT can be successfully learned by a majority of squirrel monkeys within 2 months and that trained subjects can be managed more efficiently. These findings warrant future studies to determine whether PRT may be useful in reducing stress-induced experimental confounds in studies involving squirrel monkeys.

  18. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory.

  19. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  20. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  1. Effect of physical restraint on glucose tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Naoya; Kanazawa, Kanpei; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Horikawa, Tadahiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Physiologic stress has been demonstrated to impair glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using six cynomolgus monkeys. Chair-restrained subjects elicited higher elevations of plasma glucose and cortisol compared with squeezing device-restrained subjects. The responses to a glucose challenge are altered by different restraint procedures.

  2. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  3. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  4. Metabolic changes in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS in a study of cross-modal plasticity in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four healthy neonatal macaque monkeys were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 2 in each group. Optic nerve transection was performed in both monkeys in the experimental group (group B to obtain binocular blindness. Two healthy macaque monkeys served as a control group (group A. After sixteen months post-procedure, (1H-MRS was performed in the visual cortex of all monkeys. We compared the peak areas of NAA, Cr, Cho, Glx and Ins and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and Ins/Cr of each monkey in group B with group A. RESULTS: The peak area of NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B were found to be dramatically decreased, the peak area of NAA slightly decreased and the NAA/Cr ratio clearly decreased in visual cortex of monkey 3 in group B than those in group A. The peak area of Ins and the Ins/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B slightly increased. The peak area of Cho and the Cho/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B dramatically increased compared with group A. The peak area of Glx in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B slightly increased compared with group A. CONCLUSIONS: (1H-MRS could detect biochemical and metabolic changes in the visual cortex and therefore this technique can be used to provide valuable information for investigating the mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity of binocular blindness in a macaque monkey model.

  5. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modelling Social Learning in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Jeremy R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of modelling to social learning in monkey populations has been a neglected topic. Recently, however, a number of statistical, simulation and analytical approaches have been developed to help examine social learning processes, putative traditions, the use of social learning strategies and the diffusion dynamics of socially…

  7. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  8. Cynomolgus monkey induced pluripotent stem cells established by using exogenous genes derived from the same monkey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Ono, Ryoichi; Shimada, Manami; Shibata, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Inada, Hiroyasu; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells established by introduction of the transgenes POU5F1 (also known as Oct3/4), SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC have competence similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells. iPS cells generated from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes taken from the same species would be a particularly important resource, since various biomedical investigations, including studies on the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical technology development, and research resource development, have been performed using cynomolgus monkeys. In addition, the use of xenogeneic genes would cause complicating matters such as immune responses when they are expressed. In this study, therefore, we established iPS cells by infecting cells from the fetal liver and newborn skin with amphotropic retroviral vectors containing cDNAs for the cynomolgus monkey genes of POU5F1, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC. Flat colonies consisting of cells with large nuclei, similar to those in other primate ES cell lines, appeared and were stably maintained. These cell lines had normal chromosome numbers, expressed pluripotency markers and formed teratomas. We thus generated cynomolgus monkey iPS cell lines without the introduction of ecotropic retroviral receptors or other additional transgenes by using the four allogeneic transgenes. This may enable detailed analysis of the mechanisms underlying the reprogramming. In conclusion, we showed that iPS cells could be derived from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on iPS cell lines established from cynomolgus monkey somatic cells by using genes from the same species.

  9. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  10. Poor Memory Performance in Aged Cynomolgus Monkeys with Hippocampal Atrophy, Depletion of Amyloid Beta 1-42 and Accumulation of Tau Proteins in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda S; Pandelaki, Jacub; Mulyadi, Rahmad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to their similarities in behavior and disease pathology to humans, non-human primate models are desirable to complement small animals as models for the study of age-related dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on their performance on delayed response task (DRT) tests of memory...

  11. The comparative psychology of same-different judgments by humans (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J David; Redford, Joshua S; Haas, Sarah M; Coutinho, Mariana V C; Couchman, Justin J

    2008-07-01

    The authors compared the performance of humans and monkeys in a Same-Different task. They evaluated the hypothesis that for humans the Same-Different concept is qualitative, categorical, and rule-based, so that humans distinguish 0-disparity pairs (i.e., same) from pairs with any discernible disparity (i.e., different); whereas for monkeys the Same-Different concept is quantitative, continuous, and similarity-based, so that monkeys distinguish small-disparity pairs (i.e., similar) from pairs with a large disparity (i.e., dissimilar). The results supported the hypothesis. Monkeys, more than humans, showed a gradual transition from same to different categories and an inclusive criterion for responding Same. The results have implications for comparing Same-Different performances across species--different species may not always construe or perform even identical tasks in the same way. In particular, humans may especially apply qualitative, rule-based frameworks to cognitive tasks like Same-Different.

  12. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  13. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Oishi

    Full Text Available In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  14. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Takao; Imai, Hiroo; Go, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Masanori; Hirai, Hirohisa; Takada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged) monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  15. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for accurate analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistance tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Linlin; Shangguan, Dihua; Wei, Yanbo; Han, Juanjuan; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Zhao, Zhenwen

    2015-02-13

    Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are important signaling molecules which are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Here we reported an effective method for accurate analysis of these lipids by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The methanol method was adopted for extraction of lipids due to its simplicity and high efficiency. It was found that two subclasses of sphingolipids, sulfatide (ST) and cerebroside (CB), were heat labile, so a decreased temperature in the ion source of MS might be necessary for these compounds analysis. In addition, it was found that the isobaric interferences were commonly existent, for example, the m/z of 16:0/18:1 PC containing two (13)C isotope being identical to that of 16:0/18:0 PC determined by a unit mass resolution mass spectrometer; therefore, a baseline separation of interferential species was required to maintain selectivity and accuracy of analysis. In this work, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-based method was developed for separation of interferential species. Moreover, in order to deal with the characteristics of different polarity and wide dynamic range of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in biological systems, three detecting conditions were combined together for comprehensive and rational analysis of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The method was utilized to profile glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in drug resistant tumor cells. Our results showed that many lipids were significantly changed in drug resistant tumor cells compared to paired drug sensitive tumor cells. This is a systematic report about the isobaric interferences and heat labile compounds interferences when analyzing glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids by ESI-MS/MS, which aids in ruling out one potential source of systematic error to ensure the accuracy of analysis.

  16. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method for the accurate quantification of colistin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepyala, Divyabharathi; Tsai, I-Lin; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Lin, Shu-Wen; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Recently, colistin has become one of the most important drugs for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to ensure the safety and efficacy of colistin and to improve clinical outcomes. This study developed an accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method for the quantification of colistin in human plasma. The sample preparation included protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and methanol, followed by in-solid phase extraction (In-SPE) derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl). A Poroshell 120 EC-C18 2.1×100mm (2.7μm) column was used in the HPLC method with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile (ACN), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and deionized (DI) water (82%, 2%, 16% (v/v), respectively). Polymyxin B1 was used as the internal standard. The total analysis time was 22min under optimal separation conditions. The HPLC-FLD method was validated over a therapeutic range of 0.3-6.0μgmL(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions for colistin A and colistin B were below 9.9% and 4.5% relative standard deviations, respectively. The accuracy test results were between 100.2 and 118.4%. The extraction recoveries were between 81.6 and 94.1%. The method was linear over the test range, with a 0.9991 coefficient of determination. The limit of detection was 0.1μgmL(-1). The validated HPLC-FLD method was successfully applied to quantify the colistin concentrations in 2 patient samples for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  17. Mononeuropathy multiplex in rhesus monkeys with chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J D; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E D; Philipp, M T

    1997-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a recognized but poorly understood manifestation of Lyme disease. We performed serial electrophysiological studies on 8 rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the JD1 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi and compared the results with those of similar studies on 10 uninfected control monkeys. Four infected and 2 uninfected animals underwent sural nerve biopsy. Five of the infected and 1 of the uninfected animals also had postmortem neuropathological examinations. Altogether, 5 of the infected monkeys demonstrated primarily axonal-loss-variety multifocal neuropathies. Only one nerve lesion exhibited findings compatible with demyelination. Pathologically, peripheral nerve specimens showed multifocal axonal degeneration and regeneration and occasional perivascular inflammatory cellular infiltrates without vessel wall necrosis. Free spirochetal structures were not seen, but several macrophages exhibited positive immunostaining with a highly specific anti-B. burgdorferi, 7.5-kd lipoprotein monoclonal antibody. In the infected animals, serial analysis of serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi showed increasing numbers of IgG specificities and new IgM specificities, suggesting persistent infection. Thus, peripheral neuropathy in the form of a mononeuropathy multiplex develops frequently in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with B. burgdorferi. The pathogenesis of these nerve lesions is not yet known, but our studies suggest an immune-mediated process perhaps driven by persistent infection with B. burgdorferi.

  18. Serial memory strategies in macaque monkeys: behavioral and theoretical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Yakovlev, Volodya; Amit, Daniel; Hochstein, Shaul; Zohary, Ehud

    2002-03-01

    Serial memory is the ability to encode and retrieve a list of items in their correct temporal order. To study nonverbal strategies involved in serial memory, we trained four macaque monkeys on a novel delayed sequence-recall task and analysed the mechanisms underlying their performance in terms of a neural network model. Thirty fractal images, divided into 10 triplets, were presented repeatedly in fixed temporal order. On each trial the monkeys viewed three sequentially presented sample images, followed by a test stimulus consisting of the same triplet of images and a distractor image (chosen randomly from the remaining 27). The task was to touch the three images in their original order, avoiding the distractor. The monkeys' most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal position (in its own triplet) as the correct image. This finding suggests that monkeys naturally categorize images by their ordinal number. Additional, secondary strategies were eventually used to avoid distractor images. These include memory of the sample images (working memory) and associations between triplet members. Further direct evidence for ordinal number categorization was provided by a transfer of learning to untrained images of the same ordinal category, following reassignment of image categories within each triplet. We propose a generic three-tier neuronal framework that can explain the components and complex set of characteristics of the observed behavior. This framework, with its intermediate level representing ordinal categories, can also explain the transfer of learning following category reassignment.

  19. Discrimination of luminance and chromaticity differences by dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G H

    1990-01-01

    Dichromatic and trichromatic representatives from two genera of platyrrhine monkeys that show widespread color vision polymorphism (Saguinus--tamarins, Saimiri--squirrel monkeys) were tested for their abilities to make increment-threshold and flicker discriminations based on luminance and chromaticity differences. The details of these tests were arranged to attempt to emphasize the relative contributions to visual behavior of non-opponent and spectrally-opponent neural mechanisms. The results indicate that dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys differ only trivially on tests where performance is based on the contributions of non-opponent mechanisms, that the contribution of spectrally opponent mechanisms to the "brightness signal" is very similar in trichromatic and dichromatic monkeys, and that in increment-threshold discriminations where there are both chromaticity and luminance cues some test wavelengths yield superior performance for trichromats while others appear to favor the dichromat.

  20. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  1. Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt, Winnie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Putty-nosed monkeys, Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii, occur at various sites in West Africa, particularly in the transition zone between rainforest and savannah. The species is sometimes seen in primary rainforest, although at a curiously low density compared with that of other monkey species. We conducted a 24-month field study in the tropical rainforest of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, and found that putty-nosed monkeys require an ecological niche almost identical to that of the Diana m...

  2. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children.

  3. Genetic analysis of captive proboscis monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mitsuaki; Seino, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Information on the genetic relationships of captive founders is important for captive population management. In this study, we investigated DNA polymorphisms of four microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region sequence of five proboscis monkeys residing in a Japanese zoo as captive founders, to clarify their genetic relationship. We found that two of the five monkeys appeared to be genetically related. Furthermore, the haplotypes of the mitochondrial control region of the five monkeys were well differentiated from the haplotypes previously reported from wild populations from the northern area of Borneo, indicating a greater amount of genetic diversity in proboscis monkeys than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Erin A; Olson, Carl R

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system.

  5. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  6. Reconstruction of movement-related intracortical activity from micro-electrocorticogram array signals in monkey primary motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidenori; Sato, Masa-aki; Suzuki, Takafumi; Nambu, Atsushi; Nishimura, Yukio; Kawato, Mitsuo; Isa, Tadashi

    2012-06-01

    Subdural electrode arrays provide stable, less invasive electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings of neural signals than multichannel needle electrodes. Accurate reconstruction of intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) from ECoG signals would provide a critical step for the development of a less invasive, high-performance brain-machine interface; however, neural signals from individual ECoG channels are generally coarse and have limitations in estimating deep layer LFPs. Here, we developed a high-density, 32-channel, micro-ECoG array and applied a sparse linear regression algorithm to reconstruct the LFPs at various depths of primary motor cortex (M1) in a monkey performing a reach-and-grasp task. At 0.2 mm beneath the cortical surface, the real and estimated LFPs were significantly correlated (correlation coefficient (r); 0.66 ± 0.11), and the r at 3.2 mm was still as high as 0.55 ± 0.04. A time-frequency analysis of the reconstructed LFP showed clear transition between resting and movements by the monkey. These methods would be a powerful tool with wide-ranging applicability in neuroscience studies.

  7. Experimental toxoplasmosis and vaccine tests in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escajadillo, A; Frenkel, J K

    1991-04-01

    We studied Aotus lemurinus, Panamanian night monkeys, for susceptibility to Toxoplasma infection and for their capacity to develop immunity using either sufadiazine prophylaxis or the non-persistent ts-4 vaccine. The animals were highly susceptible to infection with a mouse pathogenic (T265) and a mouse nonpathogenic (T163) Toxoplasma isolate. A calculated single bradyzoite by mouth gave rise to infection which was fatal in nine to 12 days. Chemoprophylaxis with 60-300 of sulfadiazine mg per day for up to 40 days protected the animals; however this was followed by fatal reactivation of infection between 11 and 70 days after treatment was stopped. Vaccination was carried out in two or three doses subcutaneously. Challenge was performed in 26 animals using both Toxoplasma isolates. Five monkeys (19%) survived for over a year, 10 died after a prolonged illness, and 11 died as rapidly as the seven controls. Safety tests showed the vaccine to be nonpathogenic in 111 adults except for slight fever and local inflammation, although one of four juveniles died from disseminated infection. Vaccination of 25 pregnant monkeys was non-pathogenic; however two of 25 fetuses were aborted, one of which was infected and one newborn had microphthalmia, retinitis and a cataract; four of the offspring were not tested. When six lactating monkeys were vaccinated, Toxoplasma was not transmitted to the infants. The high susceptibility to Toxoplasma and the low immunizability was circumstantially attributed to absence of exposure and lack of selection by Toxoplasma of these arboreal monkeys even though about 50% of terrestrial animals from the same area were infected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates.

  9. Mirror neurons differentially encode the peripersonal and extrapersonal space of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Thier, Peter; Casile, Antonino

    2009-04-17

    Actions performed by others may have different relevance for the observer, and thus lead to different behavioral responses, depending on the regions of space in which they are executed. We found that in rhesus monkeys, the premotor cortex neurons activated by both the execution and the observation of motor acts (mirror neurons) are differentially modulated by the location in space of the observed motor acts relative to the monkey, with about half of them preferring either the monkey's peripersonal or extrapersonal space. A portion of these spatially selective mirror neurons encode space according to a metric representation, whereas other neurons encode space in operational terms, changing their properties according to the possibility that the monkey will interact with the object. These results suggest that a set of mirror neurons encodes the observed motor acts not only for action understanding, but also to analyze such acts in terms of features that are relevant to generating appropriate behaviors.

  10. Effect of space flight on cytokine production and other immunologic parameters of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Davis, S.; Taylor, G. R.; Mandel, A. D.; Konstantinova, I. V.; Lesnyak, A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Peres, C.; Tkackzuk, J.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During a recent flight of a Russian satellite (Cosmos #2229), initial experiments examining the effects of space flight on immunologic responses of rhesus monkeys were performed to gain insight into the effect of space flight on resistance to infection. Experiments were performed on tissue samples taken from the monkeys before and immediately after flight. Additional samples were obtained approximately 1 month after flight for a postflight restraint study. Two types of experiments were carried out throughout this study. The first experiment determined the ability of leukocytes to produce interleukin-1 and to express interleukin-2 receptors. The second experiment examined the responsiveness of rhesus bone marrow cells to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Human reagents that cross-reacted with monkey tissue were utilized for the bulk of the studies. Results from both studies indicated that there were changes in immunologic function attributable to space flight. Interleukin-1 production and the expression of interleukin-2 receptors was decreased after space flight. Bone marrow cells from flight monkeys showed a significant decrease in their response to GM-CSF compared with the response of bone marrow cells from nonflight control monkeys. These results suggest that the rhesus monkey may be a useful surrogate for humans in future studies that examine the effect of space flight on immune response, particularly when conditions do not readily permit human study.

  11. Percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization guided by ultrasound technology for islet transplantation in rhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengGao; Shao-DongAi; ShengLiu; Wen-BinZeng; WeiWang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pig islet xenotransplantation has the potential to overcome the shortage of donated human islets for islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes. Testing in non-human primate models is necessary before clinical application in humans. Intraportal islet transplantation in monkeys is usually performed by surgical infusion during laparotomy or laparoscopy. In this paper, we describe a new method of percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization (PTPC) as an alternative to current methods of islet transplantation in rhesus monkeys. METHODS: We performed ultrasound-guided PTPC in five adult rhesus monkeys weighing 7-8 kg, with portal vein catheterization confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. We monitored for complications in the thoracic and abdominal cavity. To evaluate the safety of ultrasound-guided PTPC, we recorded the changes in portal pressure throughout the microbead transplantation procedure. RESULTS:  Ultrasound-guided PTPC and infusion of 16 000 microbeads/kg body weight into the portal vein was successful in all five monkeys. Differences in the hepatobiliary anatomy of rhesus monkeys compared to humans led to a higher initial complication rate. The first monkey died of abdominal hemorrhage 10 hours post-transplantation. The second suffered from a mild pneumothorax but recovered fully after taking only conservative measures. After gaining experience with the first two monkeys, we decreased both the hepatic puncture time and the number of puncture attempts required, with the remaining three monkeys experiencing no complications. Portal pressures initially increased proportional to the number of transplanted microbeads but returned to pre-infusion levels at 30 minutes post-transplantation. The changes in portal pressures occurring during the procedure were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided PTPC is an effective, convenient, and minimally invasive method suitable for use in non-human primate models of

  12. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions.

  13. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  14. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  15. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  16. Spatial information processing in humans and monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a series of experiments are described on human volunteers and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in the context of spatial information processing. In the first single-unit recording experiments in monkeys a spatial summation algorithm was investigated. The responses of single neurons to

  17. The noise propagator in an optical system using EDFAs and its effect on system performance: accurate evaluation based on linear perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhongxi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2012-01-01

    For optical systems amplified by EDFAs, we present a new approach to obtain the noise propagator from the accurate linearized noise equation (LNE) proposed by Holzlohner et al . With the help of fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture (RK4IP) method, we solve both the accurate LNE and nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) for the noise-free signal simultaneously. The noise propagator matrix thus obtained dose not need the jitter separation required by the covariance matrix method (CMM). Based on this new approach, the calculated BERs in a DPSK system agree well with the CMM results. By introducing a deterministic phase shift induced by Gordon-Mollenauer noise effect, our numerical results also agree well with the experimental data of multi-span DPSK systems.

  18. A case of polymicrogyria in macaque monkey: impact on anatomy and function of the motor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouiller Eric M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymicrogyria is a malformation of the cerebral cortex often resulting in epilepsy or mental retardation. It remains unclear whether this pathology affects the structure and function of the corticospinal (CS system. The anatomy and histology of the brain of one macaque monkey exhibiting a spontaneous polymicrogyria (PMG monkey were examined and compared to the brain of normal monkeys. The CS tract was labelled by injecting a neuronal tracer (BDA unilaterally in a region where low intensity electrical microstimulation elicited contralateral hand movements (presumably the primary motor cortex in the PMG monkey. Results The examination of the brain showed a large number of microgyri at macro- and microscopic levels, covering mainly the frontoparietal regions. The layered cortical organization was locally disrupted and the number of SMI-32 stained pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III of the presumed motor cortex was reduced. We compared the distribution of labelled CS axons in the PMG monkey at spinal cervical level C5. The cumulated length of CS axon arbors in the spinal grey matter was not significantly different in the PMG monkey. In the red nucleus, numerous neurons presented large vesicles. We also assessed its motor performances by comparing its capacity to execute a complex reach and grasp behavioral task. The PMG monkey exhibited an increase of reaction time without any modification of other motor parameters, an observation in line with a normal CS tract organisation. Conclusion In spite of substantial cortical malformations in the frontal and parietal lobes, the PMG monkey exhibits surprisingly normal structure and function of the corticospinal system.

  19. PENGARUH PERSEPSI EKOWISATA TERHADAP TINGKAT KEPUASAN WISATAWAN DI MONKEY FOREST UBUD, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Via Reza Efrida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate (1 the ecotourism perception of tourists visiting Monkey Forest Ubud; (2 the visitor satisfaction level on Monkey Forest Ubud attraction; and (3 the influence of ecotourism perception on visitor satisfaction level at Monkey Forest Ubud. The result of this research carried out descriptive statistic by using an importance-performance analysis (IPA and inferential statistic by using a simple linear regression analysis. The technique of determining sample size is incidental sampling technique by distributing questionnaires to 170 tourists visiting Monkey Forest Ubud. The result showed that tourists which visit Monkey Forest Ubud strongly agree on the implementation of ecotourism concept. On the other hand, the calculation results of concordance rate showed 89.59% which means that the overall tourist is satisfied with the Monkey Forest Ubud attraction. Moreover, based on the hypothesis testing by using t-test statistical significance showed that there is a significant influence of independent variable (perception of ecotourism on the dependent variable (tourist satisfaction.

  20. A pilot study on transient ischemic stroke induced with endothelin-1 in the rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, PeiMin; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Lin; He, Jing; Zhao, XuDong; Yang, FuHan; Zhao, Ning; Yang, JianZhen; Ge, LongJiao; Lin, Yu; Yu, HuaLin; Wang, JianHong

    2017-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a vasoconstrictor, has recently been used to induce focal ischemia in rodents and marmoset monkeys. The rhesus monkey, however, has numerous advantages to the rodent and marmoset that make it a superior and irreplaceable animal model for studying stroke in the brain. In the present study, after mapping the preferred hand representation in two healthy male monkeys with intracortical micro-stimulation, ET-1 was microinjected into the contralateral motor cortex (M1) to its preferred hand. The monkeys had been trained in three manual dexterity tasks before the microinjection and were tested for these tasks following the ET-1 injection. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans were performed 1, 7, 14 and 28 days post ischemia. It was found that ET-1 impaired the manual dexterity of the monkeys in the vertical slot and rotating Brinkman board tasks 3–8 days after the injection. Brain imaging found that severe edema was present 7 days after the focal ischemia. This data suggest that ET-1 can induce transient ischemic stroke in rhesus monkey and that ET-1 induced focal ischemia in non-human primates is a potential model to study the mechanism of stroke and brain repair after stroke. PMID:28358140

  1. Spatial Attention and Temporal Expectation Under Timed Uncertainty Predictably Modulate Neuronal Responses in Monkey V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra; Sugihara, Hiroki; Katz, Yarden; Schummers, James; Tenenbaum, Joshua; Sur, Mriganka

    2015-01-01

    The brain uses attention and expectation as flexible devices for optimizing behavioral responses associated with expected but unpredictably timed events. The neural bases of attention and expectation are thought to engage higher cognitive loci; however, their influence at the level of primary visual cortex (V1) remains unknown. Here, we asked whether single-neuron responses in monkey V1 were influenced by an attention task of unpredictable duration. Monkeys covertly attended to a spot that remained unchanged for a fixed period and then abruptly disappeared at variable times, prompting a lever release for reward. We show that monkeys responded progressively faster and performed better as the trial duration increased. Neural responses also followed monkey's task engagement—there was an early, but short duration, response facilitation, followed by a late but sustained increase during the time monkeys expected the attention spot to disappear. This late attentional modulation was significantly and negatively correlated with the reaction time and was well explained by a modified hazard function. Such bimodal, time-dependent changes were, however, absent in a task that did not require explicit attentional engagement. Thus, V1 neurons carry reliable signals of attention and temporal expectation that correlate with predictable influences on monkeys' behavioral responses. PMID:24836689

  2. A draft map of rhesus monkey tissue proteome for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Gyun; McKinney, Kimberly Q; Lee, Yong-Yook; Chung, Hae-Na; Pavlopoulos, Antonis J; Jung, Kook Y; Kim, Woong-Ki; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Han, David K; Hwang, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Though the rhesus monkey is one of the most valuable non-human primate animal models for various human diseases because of its manageable size and genetic and proteomic similarities with humans, proteomic research using rhesus monkeys still remains challenging due to the lack of a complete protein sequence database and effective strategy. To investigate the most effective and high-throughput proteomic strategy, comparative data analysis was performed employing various protein databases and search engines. The UniProt databases of monkey, human, bovine, rat and mouse were used for the comparative analysis and also a universal database with all protein sequences from all available species was tested. At the same time, de novo sequencing was compared to the SEQUEST search algorithm to identify an optimal work flow for monkey proteomics. Employing the most effective strategy, proteomic profiling of monkey organs identified 3,481 proteins at 0.5% FDR from 9 male and 10 female tissues in an automated, high-throughput manner. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001972. Based on the success of this alternative interpretation of MS data, the list of proteins identified from 12 organs of male and female subjects will benefit future rhesus monkey proteome research.

  3. A draft map of rhesus monkey tissue proteome for biomedical research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Gyun Lee

    Full Text Available Though the rhesus monkey is one of the most valuable non-human primate animal models for various human diseases because of its manageable size and genetic and proteomic similarities with humans, proteomic research using rhesus monkeys still remains challenging due to the lack of a complete protein sequence database and effective strategy. To investigate the most effective and high-throughput proteomic strategy, comparative data analysis was performed employing various protein databases and search engines. The UniProt databases of monkey, human, bovine, rat and mouse were used for the comparative analysis and also a universal database with all protein sequences from all available species was tested. At the same time, de novo sequencing was compared to the SEQUEST search algorithm to identify an optimal work flow for monkey proteomics. Employing the most effective strategy, proteomic profiling of monkey organs identified 3,481 proteins at 0.5% FDR from 9 male and 10 female tissues in an automated, high-throughput manner. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001972. Based on the success of this alternative interpretation of MS data, the list of proteins identified from 12 organs of male and female subjects will benefit future rhesus monkey proteome research.

  4. Pluripotent hybrid stem cells from transgenic Huntington's disease monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowtammathron, Chuti; Chan, Anthony W S

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating disease that currently has no cure. Transgenic HD monkeys have developed key neuropathological and cognitive behavioral impairments similar to HD patients. Thus, pluripotent stem cells derived from transgenic HD monkeys could be a useful comparative model for clarifying HD pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic approaches, which could be validated in HD monkeys. In order to create personal pluripotent stem cells from HD monkeys, here we present a tetraploid technique for deriving pluripotent hybrid HD monkey stem cells.

  5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  6. Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans to Green Monkeys in The Gambia as Revealed by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghore, Madikay; Bayliss, Sion C.; Kwambana-Adams, Brenda A.; Foster-Nyarko, Ebenezer; Manneh, Jainaba; Dione, Michel; Badji, Henry; Ebruke, Chinelo; Doughty, Emma L.; Thorpe, Harry A.; Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Cramer, Jennifer D.; Turner, Trudy R.; Weinstock, George; Freimer, Nelson B.; Feil, Edward J.; Antonio, Martin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and animals. We genome sequenced 90 S. aureus isolates from The Gambia: 46 isolates from invasive disease in humans, 13 human carriage isolates, and 31 monkey carriage isolates. We inferred multiple anthroponotic transmissions of S. aureus from humans to green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) in The Gambia over different time scales. We report a novel monkey-associated clade of S. aureus that emerged from a human-to-monkey switch estimated to have occurred 2,700 years ago. Adaptation of this lineage to the monkey host is accompanied by the loss of phage-carrying genes that are known to play an important role in human colonization. We also report recent anthroponotic transmission of the well-characterized human lineages sequence type 6 (ST6) and ST15 to monkeys, probably because of steadily increasing encroachment of humans into the monkeys' habitat. Although we have found no evidence of transmission of S. aureus from monkeys to humans, as the two species come into ever-closer contact, there might be an increased risk of additional interspecies exchanges of potential pathogens. IMPORTANCE The population structures of Staphylococcus aureus in humans and monkeys in sub-Saharan Africa have been previously described using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). However, these data lack the power to accurately infer details regarding the origin and maintenance of new adaptive lineages. Here, we describe the use of whole-genome sequencing to detect transmission of S. aureus between humans and nonhuman primates and to document the genetic changes accompanying host adaptation. We note that human-to-monkey switches tend to be more common than the reverse and that a novel monkey-associated clade is likely to have emerged from such a switch approximately 2,700 years ago. Moreover, analysis of the accessory genome provides important clues as to the genetic changes underpinning host adaptation and, in particular, shows

  7. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  8. Infection by UNA virus (Alphavirus; Togaviridae) and risk factor analysis in black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) from Paraguay and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Luis Adrián; Díaz, María del Pilar; Almirón, Walter Ricardo; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2007-10-01

    A neutralizing antibody (NTAb) survey on UNA and Mayaro viruses in black howler monkeys (Aloutta caraya) from subtropical regions of Argentina and Paraguay was carried out. Risk factors for infection in monkeys were analyzed. No positive sera for Mayaro virus were detected. A prevalence of 73% (61/84) of NTAb against UNAV was detected with titers ranging from 20 to 1280. According to the statistical analysis performed, the monkey's age was a significant risk factor, but not the origin or sex. This is the first report of Alouatta caraya infection by UNAV and the first record of its activity in Paraguay.

  9. An automated food delivery system for behavioral and neurophysiological studies of learning and memory in freely moving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fraser A W; Kim, Byoung-Hoon; Ryou, Jae-Wook; Ma, Yuan-Ye

    2005-05-01

    We describe a custom-built feeder based on stepping motor technology controlled by a laboratory computer. The feeder dispenses a wide range of foods: any fruit, vegetable, or nut. The feeder allows the investigator to reward monkeys with different foods within a single experimental day. The monkey's motivation to perform tasks is high and does not rely upon food regulation. The avoidance of regulation, as well as the palatability and variety of the rewards dispensed by our device, distinguishes it from commercially available products. We also describe the use of the feeder in the context of novel behavioral and neurophysiological studies in freely moving monkeys.

  10. Metabolism and disposition of ABT-894, a novel α4β2 neuronal acetylcholine receptor agonist, in mice and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Fu, Wentao; Wetter, Jill; Xu, Hongyu; Guan, Zhiwen; Stuart, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    1.  Metabolism and disposition of ABT-894 was investigated in hepatocytes, in mice and monkeys receiving [(14)C]ABT-894. 2.  In hepatocytes, turnover rate of ABT-894 was slow in all species with more than 90% of parent remaining. M3 (carbamoyl glucuronide) and M6 (mono-oxidation) were detected across species. 3.  ABT-894 showed species-specific disposition profiles. ABT-894 was primarily eliminated by renal secretion in mice. Whereas, monkey mainly cleared ABT-894 metabolically. 4.  ABT-894 underwent two primary routes of metabolism in monkeys: N-carbamoyl glucuronidation to form M3 and oxidation product M1. M3 was the major metabolite in monkey excreta. M3 was observed in mice urine. Circulating levels of M3 in terms of M3/ABT-894 ratios were essentially absent in mice, but were high in monkeys. 5.  Understanding the species difference in the clearance mechanism is the key to the accurate projection of the human clearance and preclinical safety assessment. Lack of species difference in the metabolism of ABT-894 in hepatocytes certainly creates a challenge in predicting its metabolism and pharmacokinetics in human. Based on available metabolism and pharmacokinetic data of ABT-894 in human, monkey is the preferred species in predicting human clearance since it presents a similar clearance mechanism from that observed in human.

  11. Color vision test for dichromatic and trichromatic macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koida, Kowa; Yokoi, Isao; Okazawa, Gouki; Mikami, Akichika; Widayati, Kanthi Arum; Miyachi, Shigehiro; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2013-11-01

    Dichromacy is a color vision defect in which one of the three cone photoreceptors is absent. Individuals with dichromacy are called dichromats (or sometimes "color-blind"), and their color discrimination performance has contributed significantly to our understanding of color vision. Macaque monkeys, which normally have trichromatic color vision that is nearly identical to humans, have been used extensively in neurophysiological studies of color vision. In the present study we employed two tests, a pseudoisochromatic color discrimination test and a monochromatic light detection test, to compare the color vision of genetically identified dichromatic macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with that of normal trichromatic macaques. In the color discrimination test, dichromats could not discriminate colors along the protanopic confusion line, though trichromats could. In the light detection test, the relative thresholds for longer wavelength light were higher in the dichromats than the trichromats, indicating dichromats to be less sensitive to longer wavelength light. Because the dichromatic macaque is very rare, the present study provides valuable new information on the color vision behavior of dichromatic macaques, which may be a useful animal model of human dichromacy. The behavioral tests used in the present study have been previously used to characterize the color behaviors of trichromatic as well as dichromatic new world monkeys. The present results show that comparative studies of color vision employing similar tests may be feasible to examine the difference in color behaviors between trichromatic and dichromatic individuals, although the genetic mechanisms of trichromacy/dichromacy is quite different between new world monkeys and macaques.

  12. Generation of chimeric rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2012-01-20

    Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the four-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible.

  13. Vitreal syneresis in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B E; Talsma, D M; Beatrice, E S

    1977-11-01

    The eyes of 15 rhesus monkeys were evaluated. Various degrees of vitreal syneresis were observed in 28 of the 30 eyes. The observed vitreal structures varied from fine strands randomly spaced throughout the vitreous to thick, intertwining, fibrous networks with some clumping of the collagenous condensate at the fiber junctions. Qualitatively, the degree of syneresis was slightly more extensive in the eight older mature males than in the seven younger animals. In all animals a clear view of the fundus could be obtained with the ophthalmoscope. The vitreous structures may be one cause of variability in ocular dose-response relationships for exposure to laser radiation. The effect on retinal exposure experiments of the finer vitreal structure is considered minimal.

  14. Treatment and risk factor analysis of hypoglycemia in diabetic rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sirong; Chen, Younan; Wei, Lingling; Jin, Xi; Zeng, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2011-02-01

    In order to anticipate and promptly treat hypoglycemia in diabetic monkeys treated with insulin or other glucose-lowering drugs, the relationships between the incidence and symptoms of hypoglycemia in these animals, and many factors involved in model development and sustainment were analyzed. Different procedures were performed on 22 monkeys for the induction of diabetes. The monkey models were evaluated by blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide levels and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. A glucose treatment program for the diabetic monkeys was administered and laboratory tests were regularly performed. A standard procedure of hypoglycemia treatment was established and the risk factors of hypoglycemia were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Furthermore, the relationships between the four methods of diabetes induction, renal function, glycemic control and hypoglycemia were studied using one-way analysis of variance and t-test. We found that the hypoglycemic conditions of diabetic monkeys were improved rapidly by our treatment. The statistical analysis suggested that the modeling methods, renal function and glycemic control were related to the incidence of hypoglycemia. In detail, the progress of diabetes, effects of glycemic control and, particularly, the severity of the hypoglycemia differed according to the induction strategy used. The models induced by partial pancreatectomy with low-dose streptozotocin were not prone to hypoglycemia and their glycemic controls were stable. However, the models induced by total pancreatectomy were more vulnerable to severe hypoglycemia and their glycemic controls were the most unstable. Moreover, the levels of blood creatinine and triglyceride increased after the development of diabetes, which was related to the occurrence of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, we suggested that total pancreatectomy and renal impairment are two important risk factors for hypoglycemia in diabetic monkeys. More attention should be paid to daily care

  15. Viral vector-based reversible neuronal inactivation and behavioral manipulation in the macaque monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Juliane Nielsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are promising tools for the dissection of neural circuits. In principle, they can manipulate neurons at a level of specificity not otherwise achievable. While many studies have used viral vector-based approaches in the rodent brain, only a few have employed this technique in the non-human primate, despite the importance of this animal model for neuroscience research. Here, we report for the first time that a viral vector-based approach can be used to manipulate a monkey’s behavior in a task. For this purpose, we used the allatostatin receptor/allatostatin (AlstR/AL system, which has previously been shown to allow inactivation of neurons in vivo. The AlstR was expressed in neurons in monkey V1 by injection of an AAV1 vector. Two monkeys were trained in a detection task, in which they had to make a saccade to a faint peripheral target. Injection of AL caused a retinotopic deficit in the detection task in one monkey. Specifically, the monkey showed marked impairment for detection targets placed at the visual field location represented at the virus injection site, but not for targets shown elsewhere. We confirmed that these deficits indeed were due to the interaction of AlstR and AL by injecting saline, or AL at a V1 location without AlstR expression. Post-mortem histology confirmed AlstR expression in this monkey. We failed to replicate the behavioral results in a second monkey, as AL injection did not impair the second monkey’s performance in the detection task. However, post-mortem histology revealed a very low level of AlstR expression in this monkey. Our results demonstrate that viral vector-based approaches can produce effects strong enough to influence a monkey’s performance in a behavioral task, supporting the further development of this approach for studying how neuronal circuits control complex behaviors in non-human primates.

  16. Temperature Field Accurate Modeling and Cooling Performance Evaluation of Direct-Drive Outer-Rotor Air-Cooling In-Wheel Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High power density outer-rotor motors commonly use water or oil cooling. A reasonable thermal design for outer-rotor air-cooling motors can effectively enhance the power density without the fluid circulating device. Research on the heat dissipation mechanism of an outer-rotor air-cooling motor can provide guidelines for the selection of the suitable cooling mode and the design of the cooling structure. This study investigates the temperature field of the motor through computational fluid dynamics (CFD and presents a method to overcome the difficulties in building an accurate temperature field model. The proposed method mainly includes two aspects: a new method for calculating the equivalent thermal conductivity (ETC of the air-gap in the laminar state and an equivalent treatment to the thermal circuit that comprises a hub, shaft, and bearings. Using an outer-rotor air-cooling in-wheel motor as an example, the temperature field of this motor is calculated numerically using the proposed method; the results are experimentally verified. The heat transfer rate (HTR of each cooling path is obtained using the numerical results and analytic formulas. The influences of the structural parameters on temperature increases and the HTR of each cooling path are analyzed. Thereafter, the overload capability of the motor is analyzed in various overload conditions.

  17. 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160252.html 3 Zika Vaccines Effective in Monkeys Human trial set to ... In another key step toward a vaccine against Zika virus, scientists have found that three different experimental ...

  18. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  19. Implicit Memory in Monkeys: Development of a Delay Eyeblink Conditioning System with Parallel Electromyographic and High-Speed Video Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Kishimoto

    Full Text Available Delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent learning paradigm, has been applied to various mammalian species but not yet to monkeys. We therefore developed an accurate measuring system that we believe is the first system suitable for delay eyeblink conditioning in a monkey species (Macaca mulatta. Monkey eyeblinking was simultaneously monitored by orbicularis oculi electromyographic (OO-EMG measurements and a high-speed camera-based tracking system built around a 1-kHz CMOS image sensor. A 1-kHz tone was the conditioned stimulus (CS, while an air puff (0.02 MPa was the unconditioned stimulus. EMG analysis showed that the monkeys exhibited a conditioned response (CR incidence of more than 60% of trials during the 5-day acquisition phase and an extinguished CR during the 2-day extinction phase. The camera system yielded similar results. Hence, we conclude that both methods are effective in evaluating monkey eyeblink conditioning. This system incorporating two different measuring principles enabled us to elucidate the relationship between the actual presence of eyelid closure and OO-EMG activity. An interesting finding permitted by the new system was that the monkeys frequently exhibited obvious CRs even when they produced visible facial signs of drowsiness or microsleep. Indeed, the probability of observing a CR in a given trial was not influenced by whether the monkeys closed their eyelids just before CS onset, suggesting that this memory could be expressed independently of wakefulness. This work presents a novel system for cognitive assessment in monkeys that will be useful for elucidating the neural mechanisms of implicit learning in nonhuman primates.

  20. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  1. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V.

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultras...

  2. Mental transformations of spatial stimuli in humans and in monkeys: rotation vs. translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Rokyta, Richard; Bures, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We studied the ability of monkeys and humans to orient in one spatial frame ("response frame") according to abstract spatial stimuli presented in another spatial frame ("stimulus frame"). The stimuli were designed as simple maps of the "response space". We studied how the transformations of these stimuli affected the performance. The subjects were trained to choose a particular position in the response frame - either on a touch screen (monkeys) or on a keyboard (humans) - according to schematic spatial stimuli presented on the stimulus screen. The monkeys responded by touching one of four circles shown in corners of a rectangle displayed on the touch screen. The correct position was signaled by the stimulus ("map") presented on the stimulus screen. The map was a complementary rectangle, but only with one circle shown ("pointer"). The position of this circle indicated the correct position in the response frame. In the first experiment we only manipulated stimuli presented on the computer screen. The "map" was originally shown in the same position and orientation as the "response pattern" but later the position and the rotation of the map on the screen were changing. Such transformations of the stimuli allow us to study the mental operations that the animals performed and how particular mental transformations mutually differed. In the second experiment we tested whether the monkeys relied more on stimuli presented on the screen or on the surrounding stable environment and objects. We compared the performance of animals in tasks with rotated virtual maps in a stable surrounding environment with the performance in tasks where we rotated the surrounding frame (computer monitor), whereas the stimuli on the screen remained stable. In the third experiment we tested human subjects in analogous tests to compare the ability and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans in this task. We showed that the mental strategies that monkeys used for orientation in one spatial frame

  3. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).

  4. WAIS-IV reliable digit span is no more accurate than age corrected scaled score as an indicator of invalid performance in a veteran sample undergoing evaluation for mTBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert J; Axelrod, Bradley N; Drag, Lauren L; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Pangilinan, Percival H; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2013-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a measure of effort derived from the Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler intelligence scales. Some authors have suggested that the age-corrected scaled score provides a more accurate measure of effort than RDS. This study examined the relative diagnostic accuracy of the traditional RDS, an extended RDS including the new Sequencing task from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and the age-corrected scaled score, relative to performance validity as determined by the Test of Memory Malingering. Data were collected from 138 Veterans seen in a traumatic brain injury clinic. The traditional RDS (≤ 7), revised RDS (≤ 11), and Digit Span age-corrected scaled score ( ≤ 6) had respective sensitivities of 39%, 39%, and 33%, and respective specificities of 82%, 89%, and 91%. Of these indices, revised RDS and the Digit Span age-corrected scaled score provide the most accurate measure of performance validity among the three measures.

  5. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  6. The elusive illusion: Do children (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) see the Solitaire illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Agrillo, Christian; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    One approach to gaining a better understanding of how we perceive the world is to assess the errors that human and nonhuman animals make in perceptual processing. Developmental and comparative perspectives can contribute to identifying the mechanisms that underlie systematic perceptual errors often referred to as perceptual illusions. In the visual domain, some illusions appear to remain constant across the lifespan, whereas others change with age. From a comparative perspective, many of the illusions observed in humans appear to be shared with nonhuman primates. Numerosity illusions are a subset of visual illusions and occur when the spatial arrangement of stimuli within a set influences the perception of quantity. Previous research has found one such illusion that readily occurs in human adults, the Solitaire illusion. This illusion appears to be less robust in two monkey species, rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys. We attempted to clarify the ontogeny of this illusion from a developmental and comparative perspective by testing human children and task-naïve capuchin monkeys in a computerized quantity judgment task. The overall performance of the monkeys suggested that they perceived the numerosity illusion, although there were large differences among individuals. Younger children performed similarly to the monkeys, whereas older children more consistently perceived the illusion. These findings suggest that human-unique perceptual experiences with the world might play an important role in the emergence of the Solitaire illusion in human adults, although other factors also may contribute.

  7. Squirrel monkey cytomegalovirus antibodies in free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Argibay, Hernan; Rinas, Miguel A; Uhart, Marcela

    2012-04-01

    Serum from four black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) was screened for antibodies to seven viruses by dot immunoassay. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were detected in three of four individuals and provide the first evidence of exposure by black howler monkeys to this virus.

  8. The Neural Basis of Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in the Rhesus Monkey Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Uwe J.; Thier, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are performed in order to prevent retinal image blur of a moving object. Rhesus monkeys are able to perform smooth pursuit eye movements quite similar as humans, even if the pursuit target does not consist in a simple moving dot. Therefore, the study of the neuronal responses as well as the consequences of…

  9. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  10. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  11. Effects elicited by toxaphene in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, F; Iverson, F; Andrews, P; Barker, M; Cherry, W; Mueller, R; Pulido, O; Hayward, S; Fernie, S; Arnold, D L

    2001-12-01

    Toxaphene, which was added to glycerol/corn oil, was administered at a level of 1 mg/kg body weight/day in gelatin capsules to four healthy young adult cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys for 52 weeks. Four control monkeys ingested capsules containing only glycerol/corn oil. Each group had two males and two females. On a daily basis, each monkey's feed and water consumption was determined, its health was monitored and the females were swabbed to evaluate menstrual status. On a weekly basis, each monkey's body weight was determined and a detailed clinical evaluation was performed. At 4-week intervals, blood samples were taken for serum biochemistry, haematology and toxaphene analysis. Also, a local anaesthetic was administered to the nuchal fat pad area of each monkey, and adipose samples were obtained for toxaphene analysis. 1 day prior to the biopsies, a 24-h urine and faecal collection was obtained for toxaphene analysis. After 34 weeks of treatment, the immune system of the monkeys was evaluated. After 52 weeks of dosing, all treated and two control animals were necropsied. Liver samples were obtained and microsomal fractions were prepared immediately. A portion of liver and kidney was taken for toxaphene analysis. All of the major internal organs were weighed and bone marrow evaluations were conducted. Organ and tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and processed for light microscopy. There was no effect of treatment on body weight gain, feed consumption, water consumption or haematological parameters. Two major clinical findings were inflammation and/or enlargement of the tarsal gland and impacted diverticulae in the upper and lower eye lids. At necropsy, the relative spleen and thymus weights were greater for the treated monkeys than the controls. Toxaphene administration produced an increase in metabolism of aminopyrene, methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin, three substrates that are altered specifically by cytochrome P450-based hepatic

  12. Expression of pax-6 in rhesus monkey of optical defocus induced myopia and form deprivation myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兴武; 葛坚; 邓文国; 陈晓莲; 黄娟

    2004-01-01

    Background Pax-6 gene plays an important role in the process of eye development. This study was to determine the role of pax-6 in the axial myopia produced by hyperopic optical defocus and form deprivation in infant monkeys. Methods Among seven normal infant rhesus monkeys (aged 1 to 1.5 months), five wore -3.00 D spectacle lenses over their right eyes and zero-powered lenses over their left eyes. Monocular form deprivation was produced by eyelid fusion in two monkeys. Ten weeks later, the monkeys were sacrificed by an overdose of barbiturates and their eyes were removed immediately. A 5 mm×5 mm button of retina and sclera was taken from the posterior poles along with a 4-mm optic nerve. RNA was isolated separately from each of these three types of tissues. After that, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for determining gene expression in the retina, sclera and optic nerve. Semi-quantitative analyses were performed on the PCR products. Results As expected, the optically induced hyperopic defocus and the form deprivation produced myopic growth. For the lens-treatment monkeys, pax-6 gene expression in the retinas of the defocused eyes was significantly higher than in the retinas of the left eyes (t=5.703, P=0.005). However, there were no analogous significant differences between pax-6 expression in the scleras or the optic nerves. For the two form-deprived monkeys, there were no obvious differences in pax-6 gene expression in the retinas or the optic nerves. Conclusion The result that the expression of pax-6 was enhanced by hyperopic defocus in the infant monkey retina suggests that pax-6 may be involved in vision-dependent eye growth and emmetropization.

  13. A new surgical technique of uterine auto-transplantation in cynomolgus monkey: preliminary report about two cases

    OpenAIRE

    KISU, IORI; Mihara, Makoto; BANNO, KOUJI; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Araki, Jun; Iida, Takuya; Hayashi, Yohei; Moriguchi, Hisashi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Objective Uterine transplantation experiments have been performed in various animal species for future clinical applications of uterine transplantation for permanent uterine factor infertility in humans. The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of uterine auto-transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys by developing new surgical techniques. Methods Two female cynomolgus monkeys underwent surgery under general anesthesia. The uterus with vascular grafts and the vaginal wall was removed,...

  14. DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161106.html DNA-Based Vaccine Guards Against Zika in Monkey Study ... THURSDAY, Sept. 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental DNA-based vaccine protected monkeys from infection with the ...

  15. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Hua; Li, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately.

  16. Does population increase equate to conservation success? Forest fragmentation and conservation of the black howler monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S Wyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS in Belize is a community reserve for the endangered black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra. This study assessed the performance of the CBS as an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Category IV protected area through deforestation and forest fragmentation of the CBS and 500 m river buffer, and impacts on black howler monkey habitat over 15 years (1989-2004. Using satellite imagery remote sensing and landscape metrics, this study helps fill the gap in our understanding of forest fragmentation processes and habitat provision, using the black howler monkey as a specific example. Increased fragmentation resulted in decreased forest cover by 33% within both the CBS and river buffer. However, connectivity between habitat patches has remained high, indicating that dispersal and colonising potential between most forest patches has not been jeopardised. We conclude that conservation within the CBS may be more complex than simply equating forest conservation with black howler monkey conservation. One could say the CBS has been successful at black howler monkey conservation, as documented by population increases over the past 20 years. However, if the conservation objective is forest preservation, one could conclude conservation failure and may signal that the CBS should not be managed for a single outcome as assigned by an IUCN Category IV designation.

  17. Design and performance investigation of a highly accurate apodized fiber Bragg grating-based strain sensor in single and quasi-distributed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Taha A; Shehata, Mohamed I; Mohamed, Nazmi A

    2015-06-01

    In this work, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors in single and quasi-distributed systems are investigated, seeking high-accuracy measurement. Since FBG-based strain sensors of small lengths are preferred in medical applications, and that causes the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) to be larger, a new apodization profile is introduced for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, with a remarkable FWHM at small sensor lengths compared to the Gaussian and Nuttall profiles, in addition to a higher mainlobe slope at these lengths. A careful selection of apodization profiles with detailed investigation is performed-using sidelobe analysis and the FWHM, which are primary judgment factors especially in a quasi-distributed configuration. A comparison between the elite selection of apodization profiles (extracted from related literature) and the proposed new profile is carried out covering the reflectivity peak, FWHM, and sidelobe analysis. The optimization process concludes that the proposed new profile with a chosen small length (L) of 10 mm and Δnac of 1.4×10-4 is the optimum choice for single stage and quasi-distributed strain-sensor networks, even better than the Gaussian profile at small sensor lengths. The proposed profile achieves the smallest FWHM of 15 GHz (suitable for UDWDM), and the highest mainlobe slope of 130 dB/nm. For the quasi-distributed scenario, a noteworthy high isolation of 6.953 dB is achieved while applying a high strain value of 1500 μstrain (με) for a five-stage strain-sensing network. Further investigation was undertaken, proving that consistency in choosing the apodization profile in the quasi-distributed network is mandatory. A test was made of the inclusion of a uniform apodized sensor among other apodized sensors with the proposed profile in an FBG strain-sensor network.

  18. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M.; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B.; Fedorov, Andriy; Bouix, Sylvain; Wells, William Mercer; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI anal...

  19. A Paradoxical Property of the Monkey Book

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Minnhagen, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A "monkey book" is a book consisting of a random distribution of letters and blanks, where a group of letters surrounded by two blanks is defined as a word. We compare the statistics of the word distribution for a monkey book with the corresponding distribution for the general class of random books, where the latter are books for which the words are randomly distributed. It is shown that the word distribution statistics for the monkey book is different and quite distinct from a typical sampled book or real book. In particular the monkey book obeys Heaps' power law to an extraordinary good approximation, in contrast to the word distributions for sampled and real books, which deviate from Heaps' law in a characteristics way. The somewhat counter-intuitive conclusion is that a "monkey book" obeys Heaps' power law precisely because its word-frequency distribution is not a smooth power law, contrary to the expectation based on simple mathematical arguments that if one is a power law, so is the other.

  20. Somatosensory thresholds in monkeys exposed to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Weiss, B.; Davis, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    Six monkeys were trained to report detection of a vibratory or electrical stimulus applied to the fingertip. The vibratory stimuli were presented at two frequencies (40 and 150 Hz). Thresholds were determined with a tracking procedure before, during, and after dosing. Each monkey served as its own control. Four monkeys were dosed orally with 10 mg/kg of acrylamide 5 days a week until the appearance of toxic signs. The total administered dose varied between 320 and 450 mg/kg. The other two monkeys served as time-matched controls. All the monkeys were observed 5 days a week. They were also weighed and presented with a visuomotor task twice a week. Weight loss usually preceded the onset of gross behavioral disturbances, such as loss of balance, tremor, or decreased activity. Impaired coordination, as revealed with the pickup test, paralleled weight loss. Electrical sensitivity was not affected. Vibration sensitivity, however, fell during dosing and remained impaired for several months after dosing ended. These data indicate that vibration sensitivity testing can trace the time course of intoxication and recovery in toxic peripheral neuropathies. Furthermore, the differential results obtained with vibratory and electrical stimulation are consonant with a primary effect on end-organ receptors.

  1. [Heart functions in monkeys during a 2-week antiorthostatic hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V. P.; Convertino, V.; Korol'kov, V. I.; Latham, R.; Trambovetskii, E. V.; Fanton, J.; Crisman, R.; Truzhennikov, A. N.; Evert, D.; Nosovskii, A. M.; Conolly, J.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamics of the left heart ventricular muscle contractility and compliance was studied in 4 monkeys in the head down position (antiorthostatic hypokinesia) with the body angle 10 during 2 weeks. Functional tests on a tilt table and under two conditions of centrifuge rotation were performed prior to and after the antiorthostatic hypokinesia. No changes in the left heart ventricular muscle contractility was found. However, the sensitivity level of the baroreflex control decreased. Compliance of the left heart myocardial fibre increased in the first hours and days of the antiorthostatic hypokinesia.

  2. Uncertain responses by humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a psychophysical same-different task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W. E.; Smith, J. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The authors asked whether animals, like humans, use an uncertain response adaptively to escape indeterminate stimulus relations. Humans and monkeys were placed in a same-different task, known to be challenging for animals. Its difficulty was increased further by reducing the size of the stimulus differences, thereby making many same and different trials difficult to tell apart. Monkeys do escape selectively from these threshold trials, even while coping with 7 absolute stimulus levels concurrently. Monkeys even adjust their response strategies on short time scales according to the local task conditions. Signal-detection and optimality analyses confirm the similarity of humans' and animals' performances. Whereas associative interpretations account poorly for these results, an intuitive uncertainty construct does so easily. The authors discuss the cognitive processes that allow uncertainty's adaptive use and recommend further comparative studies of metacognition.

  3. Modified Monkey Optimization Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagasabai Lenin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach Modified Monkey optimization (MMO algorithm for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem has been presented. MMO is a population based stochastic meta-heuristic algorithm and it is inspired by intelligent foraging behaviour of monkeys. This paper improves both local leader and global leader phases.  The proposed (MMO algorithm has been tested in standard IEEE 30 bus test system and simulation results show the worthy performance of the proposed algorithm in reducing the real power loss.

  4. Speaking Fluently And Accurately

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    Even after many years of study,students make frequent mistakes in English. In addition, many students still need a long time to think of what they want to say. For some reason, in spite of all the studying, students are still not quite fluent.When I teach, I use one technique that helps students not only speak more accurately, but also more fluently. That technique is dictations.

  5. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  6. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging.

  7. Stereotaxic coordinates for the Rhesus monkey thalamus and mesencephalon referencing visual afferents and cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, L A

    1975-01-01

    When using a stereotaxic instrument for visual field stimulation we found that electrode placements in the thalamus and mesencephalon of prone rhesus monkeys with the aid of avaiable atlases showed considerable errors. As these animals are valuable for primate visual system reseach an atlas was constructed with methods that have not been used before for rhesus. In addition, the specific connections from the visual cortices, superior colliculus and retina to the thalamus and mesencephalon are also shown. Anesthetized monkeys of specific body dimensions had a matrix of pins inserted into the brain before fixation. A matrix was used so that the penetrations seen in the sectioned brain could be cross related as a control for accurate measurements of the stereotaxic planes throughout the brain. The surface of the whole brain frozen blocks were photographed on the microtome just before a cut section was taken. These calibrated pictures formed the "floor plan" of the atlas as they represent more accurately the brain geometry than individual sections which are distorted by cutting, staining and mounting. Cytoarchitectural (Nissl stain) and axonal connectional (Fink-Heimer stain) information was transferred and adjusted onto the block pictures from their corresponding stained sections. Follow up experiments showed that the present coordinates are accurate for these monkeys of restricted body dimensions. In addition, referencing visual axonal projections onto the same cytoarchitectural map in stereotaxic coordinates provides an atlas for localizing areas of the thalamus, on a basis other than cytoarchitecture, which receive combinations of visual inputs for further anatomical and physiological studies of the rhesus monkey visual system. The atlas further demonstrates that projections do not necessarily follow the cytoarchitectural definition of an area, but rather redefine the thalamus on the basis of specific axonal connections.

  8. Using Automated Learning Devices for Monkeys (ALDM) to study social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claidière, Nicolas; Gullstrand, Julie; Latouche, Aurélien; Fagot, Joël

    2017-02-01

    Social network analysis has become a prominent tool to study animal social life, and there is an increasing need to develop new systems to collect social information automatically, systematically, and reliably. Here we explore the use of a freely accessible Automated Learning Device for Monkeys (ALDM) to collect such social information on a group of 22 captive baboons (Papio papio). We compared the social network obtained from the co-presence of the baboons in ten ALDM testing booths to the social network obtained through standard behavioral observation techniques. The results show that the co-presence network accurately reflects the social organization of the group, and also indicate under which conditions the co-presence network is most informative. In particular, the best correlation between the two networks was obtained with a minimum of 40 days of computer records and for individuals with at least 500 records per day. We also show through random permutation tests that the observed correlations go beyond what would be observed by simple synchronous activity, to reflect a preferential choice of closely located testing booths. The use of automatized cognitive testing therefore presents a new way of obtaining a large and regular amount of social information that is necessary to develop social network analysis. It also opens the possibility of studying dynamic changes in network structure with time and in relation to the cognitive performance of individuals.

  9. Activity budgets in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI

    2009-01-01

    We examined time allocation by Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana in the montane, temperate and highly seasonal forests of the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China, in order to improve our understanding of the ecological and social influences on monkey behavior. We collected data on activity budgets in relation to food availability in a group of monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February 2004), using instantaneous scan samples. The monkeys spent 36.21% of daytime moving (n=21, 269 records), 24.39% foraging, 9.33% inactive, 11.7% performing social behaviors, and 18.38% performing other behaviors. There were seasonal and annual variations in the proportions of time devoted to some activities. These variations were largely attributed to seasonal or annual fluctuations in the distribution and quality of food resources. Adult males spent more time moving, searching, and displaying other behaviors, but less time feeding and performing social behaviors than adult females. Adults performed other behaviors more often and moving less often than juveniles. These differences in activity budgets may reflect fundamental differences in reproductive biology, parental investment, and development among the different age/sex classes.

  10. Quantity Representation in Children and Rhesus Monkeys: Linear Versus Logarithmic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Ready, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The performances of 4- and 5-year-olds and rhesus monkeys were compared using a computerized task for quantity assessment. Participants first learned two quantity anchor values and then responded to intermediate values by classifying them as similar to either the large anchor or the small anchor. Of primary interest was an assessment of where the…

  11. Two-item discrimination and Hamilton search learning in infant pigtailed macaque monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, J.C.; Mandell, D.J.; Gray, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how infant pigtailed macaque monkeys performed on two separate learning assessments, two-object discrimination/reversal and Hamilton search learning. Although the learning tasks have been tested on several species, including non-human primates, there have been no normative

  12. Two-item discrimination and Hamilton search learning in infant pigtailed macaque monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, J.C.; Mandell, D.J.; Gray, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how infant pigtailed macaque monkeys performed on two separate learning assessments, two-object discrimination/reversal and Hamilton search learning. Although the learning tasks have been tested on several species, including non-human primates, there have been no normative re

  13. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  14. [Cycloferon therapy of cytomegalovirus infection in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezentseva, M V; Agrba, V Z; Karal-ogly, D D; Agumava, A A

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a wide-spread disease throw humans and monkeys, which and associated with various diseases. The development of this infection in human organism is much like that in rhesus macaque, which makes CMV-infected monkeys adequate model for studying and elaborating prophylactic and therapeutic measures against this disease in humans. This article presents data on the efficiency of cycloferon action on animals with the M. mulatta CMV infection. Cycloferon stimulated an increase in the IFN-alpha production and promoted the period of remission in CMV-infected animals.

  15. Establishment of an appropriate animal model for lacritin studies: cloning and characterization of lacritin in monkey eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Walkup, R D; Tochigi, A; Shearer, T R; Azuma, M

    2007-11-01

    Lacritin is a mitogen of human salivary gland cells as well as a stimulator of human corneal epithelial cells. It is expected to be an important factor in maintaining the surrounding ocular surface. The monkey would be a relevant animal model in which to study the role of lacritin in ophthalmic physiology and pathology. However, to our knowledge, no cDNA cloning or functional analysis of monkey lacritin has been performed. Thus, the purposes of this study were: (1) to clone the monkey ortholog of lacritin; (2) to characterize lacritin in tears from several species; and (3) to determine the tissues where lacritin is produced and secreted. cDNA for lacritin from rhesus macaque contained 547 bp, with 411 bp in an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 137 amino acids. Monkey lacritin showed 89% amino acid homology with human lacritin; one amino acid was deleted in all three monkey strains. The predicted MW of mature lacritin was 12.2 kDa, and the isoelectric point was 4.99. Lacritin showed anomalous migration at approximately 21.0 kDa on SDS-PAGE, as confirmed by immunoblotting and amino acid sequencing. Similar to native lacritin in monkey tears, a 21 kDa band was also detected in human tears. In contrast, no lacritin was observed at a similar position on SDS-PAGE in rat, rabbit and dog tears. In the monkey, lacritin mRNA was expressed highly in the lacrimal gland, moderately in the conjunctiva and the meibomian gland, and weakly in corneal epithelium. In primates, lacritin was produced in the lacrimal gland and secreted into tear fluid. These results suggest that lacritin might be important for the maintenance of the ocular surface in higher animals, such as monkeys and humans.

  16. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  17. Mutant alpha-synuclein causes age-dependent neuropathology in monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weili; Wang, Guohao; Wang, Chuan-En; Guo, Xiangyu; Yin, Peng; Gao, Jinquan; Tu, Zhuchi; Wang, Zhengbo; Wu, Jing; Hu, Xintian; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that often occurs in those over age 60. Although rodents and small animals have been used widely to model PD and investigate its pathology, their short life span makes it difficult to assess the aging-related pathology that is likely to occur in PD patient brains. Here, we used brain tissues from rhesus monkeys at 2-3, 7-8, and >15 years of age to examine the expression of Parkin, PINK1, and α-synuclein, which are known to cause PD via loss- or gain-of-function mechanisms. We found that α-synuclein is increased in the older monkey brains, whereas Parkin and PINK1 are decreased or remain unchanged. Because of the gain of toxicity of α-synuclein, we performed stereotaxic injection of lentiviral vectors expressing mutant α-synuclein (A53T) into the substantia nigra of monkeys and found that aging also increases the accumulation of A53T in neurites and its associated neuropathology. A53T also causes more extensive reactive astrocytes and axonal degeneration in monkey brain than in mouse brain. Using monkey brain tissues, we found that A53T interacts with neurofascin, an adhesion molecule involved in axon subcellular targeting and neurite outgrowth. Aged monkey brain tissues show an increased interaction of neurofascin with A53T. Overexpression of A53T causes neuritic toxicity in cultured neuronal cells, which can be attenuated by transfected neurofascin. These findings from nonhuman primate brains reveal age-dependent pathological and molecular changes that could contribute to the age-dependent neuropathology in PD.

  18. A replicating adenovirus capsid display recombinant elicits antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in Aotus nancymaae monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen, Kasey A; Deal, Cailin; Adams, Robert J; Nielsen, Carolyn; Ward, Cameron; Espinosa, Diego A; Xie, Jane; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Decades of success with live adenovirus vaccines suggest that replication-competent recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) could serve as effective vectors for immunization against other pathogens. To explore the potential of a live rAd vaccine against malaria, we prepared a viable adenovirus 5 (Ad5) recombinant that displays a B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum on the virion surface. The recombinant induced P. falciparum sporozoite-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Human adenoviruses do not replicate in mice. Therefore, to examine immunogenicity in a system in which, as in humans, the recombinant replicates, we constructed a similar recombinant in an adenovirus mutant that replicates in monkey cells and immunized four Aotus nancymaae monkeys. The recombinant replicated in the monkeys after intratracheal instillation, the first demonstration of replication of human adenoviruses in New World monkeys. Immunization elicited antibodies both to the Plasmodium epitope and the Ad5 vector. Antibodies from all four monkeys recognized CSP on intact parasites, and plasma from one monkey neutralized sporozoites in vitro and conferred partial protection against P. falciparum sporozoite infection after passive transfer to mice. Prior enteric inoculation of two animals with antigenically wild-type adenovirus primed a response to the subsequent intratracheal inoculation, suggesting a route to optimizing performance. A vaccine is not yet available against P. falciparum, which induces the deadliest form of malaria and kills approximately one million children each year. The live capsid display recombinant described here may constitute an early step in a critically needed novel approach to malaria immunization. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Action observation activates neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Luciano; Bimbi, Marco; Rodà, Francesca; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is crucial for exploiting contextual information for the planning and guidance of behavioral responses. Among contextual cues, those provided by others’ behavior are particularly important, in primates, for selecting appropriate reactions and suppressing the inappropriate ones. These latter functions deeply rely on the ability to understand others’ actions. However, it is largely unknown whether prefrontal neurons are activated by action observation. To address this issue, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons of macaque monkeys during the observation of videos depicting biological movements performed by a monkey or a human agent, and object motion. Our results show that a population of VLPF neurons respond to the observation of biological movements, in particular those representing goal directed actions. Many of these neurons also show a preference for the agent performing the action. The neural response is present also when part of the observed movement is obscured, suggesting that these VLPF neurons code a high order representation of the observed action rather than a simple visual description of it. PMID:28290511

  20. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  1. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  2. OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF VERVET MONKEYS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an order is admittedly more difficult to evaluate in the Cercopithecus monkeys ... being offered; if, on the other hand, the relationship is in doubt, competition will result ... The fact that size alone is not a significant factor in dominance was well ...

  3. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.

  4. Mycobacterium marinum Infection from Sea Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn LeBlanc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection acquired from Artemia nyos (sea monkeys is presented. The infection was unresponsive to initial antimicrobial therapies. A biopsy of a lesion revealed granulomatous inflammation with cultures that subsequently grew M marinum. A three-month course of clarithromycin provided complete resolution.

  5. Interspecies activity correlations reveal functional correspondence between monkey and human brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-02-05

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. For cases in which functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assessed similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we revealed regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models.

  6. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas.

  7. Wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis (photorefractive keratectomy) in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantes, F E; Hanna, K D; Waring, G O; Pouliquen, Y; Thompson, K P; Savoldelli, M

    1990-05-01

    Laser myopic keratomileusis (photorefractive keratectomy) was performed on 29 rhesus monkey corneas with an argon fluoride (193-nm) excimer laser and a computer-controlled, moving slit delivery system. The 4-mm-diameter central ablation zone ranged in depth from 11 microns (-2 diopters effect) to 46 microns (-8 diopters effect). Corneas were studied for the 9 months postoperatively by clinical slit-lamp microscopy, and periodically with light and transmission electron microscopy. By 6 weeks, mild to moderate subepithelial haze was apparent in 93% of the corneas, with considerable variability in density. Progressive clearing occurred so that by 6 to 9 months 12 of 13 surviving corneas (92%) were either completely clear (4 corneas) or trace hazy (8 corneas). The epithelium was thickened at 21 days after ablation and returned to normal thickness by 3 months. At 3 weeks, subepithelial fibroblasts were three times the density of normal keratocytes and returned to nearly normal numbers by 9 months. We concluded that the anterior monkey cornea demonstrated a mild, typical wound healing response after excimer laser keratomileusis.

  8. Stiripentol in acute/chronic efficacy tests in monkey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, J S; Levy, R H; Rhodes, P H; Moore, D F

    1985-01-01

    Acute and chronic efficacy tests of stiripentol (4,4-dimethyl-1-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)-phenyl]-1-penten-3-ol) were conducted in alumina-gel rhesus monkeys. In the acute study (n = 6), discrete serial seizures precipitated by 150 mg/kg of 4-deoxypyridoxine hydrochloride were challenged by intravenous administration of stiripentol and the data compared with those obtained with valproate similarly tested in other monkeys (reported here) and with those from four other standard anticonvulsants (phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and diazepam--data published previously). In the acute challenge (Study 1), stiripentol performed comparably to valproate by delaying the onset of seizures but not eliminating them as did the other four drugs. In two separate chronic studies (at different doses, n = 6 each), stiripentol was given every 4 h by gastric catheter for 4 weeks, preceded and followed by 4 weeks of baseline. In these studies, stiripentol significantly reduced EEG interictal spike rates at mean plasma concentrations from 20 to 27 micrograms/ml in Study 2 and 11 to 14 micrograms/ml in Study 3. From these results, and those evinced in other studies, it appears that stiripentol should be evaluated for absence epilepsy and possible synergistic effects in polytherapy.

  9. Meaningful gesture in monkeys? Investigating whether mandrills create social culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidre, Mark E

    2011-02-02

    Human societies exhibit a rich array of gestures with cultural origins. Often these gestures are found exclusively in local populations, where their meaning has been crafted by a community into a shared convention. In nonhuman primates like African monkeys, little evidence exists for such culturally-conventionalized gestures. Here I report a striking gesture unique to a single community of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) among nineteen studied across North America, Africa, and Europe. The gesture was found within a community of 23 mandrills where individuals old and young, female and male covered their eyes with their hands for periods which could exceed 30 min, often while simultaneously raising their elbow prominently into the air. This 'Eye covering' gesture has been performed within the community for a decade, enduring deaths, removals, and births, and it persists into the present. Differential responses to Eye covering versus controls suggested that the gesture might have a locally-respected meaning, potentially functioning over a distance to inhibit interruptions as a 'do not disturb' sign operates. The creation of this gesture by monkeys suggests that the ability to cultivate shared meanings using novel manual acts may be distributed more broadly beyond the human species. Although logistically difficult with primates, the translocation of gesturers between communities remains critical to experimentally establishing the possible cultural origin and transmission of nonhuman gestures.

  10. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnitko, Tatiana A.; Allen, Daicia C.; Gonzales, Steven W.; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal’s performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey’s performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys. PMID:28386222

  11. Passive antibody therapy of Lassa fever in cynomolgus monkeys: importance of neutralizing antibody and Lassa virus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, P B; Peters, C J

    1984-05-01

    Lassa virus-infected cynomolgus monkeys were passively immunized with immune plasma of primate or human origin to gain insight into criteria for plasma selection and administration to human Lassa fever patients. Protective efficacy was correlated with neutralizing antibody concentrations, expressed as a log10 neutralization index (LNI). Convalescent Lassa-immune monkey plasma was titrated for protective efficacy in monkeys by intravenous inoculation with dilutions of plasma on the day of subcutaneous Lassa virus inoculation (day 0) and again on days 3 and 6. Monkeys that received undiluted plasma (LNI = 4.1) (1 ml/kg per treatment) survived a lethal viral dose, whereas those given a 1:3 dilution (LNI = 2.6) of this same plasma (1 ml/kg per treatment) died. Protection was restored when the volume of the 1:3 plasma dilution was increased to 3 ml/kg per treatment. Plasma diluted 1:9 or more (LNI = 1.5 or less) delayed onset and suppressed the magnitude of viremia but failed to confer protection at 3 ml/kg per treatment. Immunological enhancement, defined as increased viremia or accelerated death, did not occur following inadequate treatment. Human convalescent plasma also protected recipient monkeys; reductions in mortality and viremia were accurately predicted by the LNI of the plasma. Plasma of Liberian origin neutralized a Liberian Lassa strain more effectively than a Sierra Leone strain in vitro (LNI = 2.8 and 1.6, respectively) and protected monkeys more effectively against the Liberian strain. Geographic origin is thus a factor in the selection of optimal plasma for treatment of human Lassa fever, since geographically matched plasma is more likely to contain adequate LNI titers against homologous Lassa virus strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Social facilitation of exploratory foraging behavior in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindo, Marietta; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-05-01

    Much of the research on animal social learning focuses on complex cognitive functions such as imitation and emulation. When compelling evidence for such processes is not forthcoming, simpler processes are often assumed but rarely directly tested for. In this study we address the phenomenon of social facilitation, whereby the presence of a feeding conspecific is hypothesized to affect the motivation and behavior of the subject, elevating the likelihood of exploration and discovery in relation to the task at hand. Using a novel foraging task, sufficiently challenging that only just over half the subjects successfully gained food from it, we compared the performance of capuchin monkeys working either alone, or in a "social" condition where an actively feeding conspecific was in an adjacent chamber. Although similar numbers of subjects in these conditions were eventually successful during the 20 trials presented, the latency to successful solution of the task was over three times faster for monkeys in the social condition. The minority of monkeys that failed to learn (9/23) were then exposed to a proficient model. Only those older than 5 years provided evidence of learning from this. Accordingly, we obtained evidence for the social facilitation the study was designed to test for, and limited supplementary evidence for social learning in the older individuals who had not learned individually. These results are discussed in relation to other recent evidence for social learning in monkeys. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Grasping-related functional MRI brain responses in the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Koen; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Research in recent decades has suggested the existence of a dedicated brain network devoted to the organization and execution of grasping, one of the most important and skilled movements of primates. Grasping an object requires the transformation of intrinsic object properties such as size, orientation and shape into an appropriate motor scheme shaping the hand. While electrophysiological recordings in the monkey model have proven invaluable for gaining insights into the neuronal substrate underlying this complex behavior, knowledge concerning the existence and organization of a similar system in the human brain is derived mainly from imaging studies. Here we present for the first time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain activity while macaque monkeys performed reaching and grasping movements in a 3 Tesla MR scanner. Grasping-in-the-dark (compared to reaching) yielded significant activations in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor area F5, in addition to area PFG in the rostral inferior parietal lobule, somatosensory areas (SI, SII, area 5) and the hand field of F1. Whole-brain macaque fMRI motor studies will be instrumental in establishing possible homologies concerning grasping organization in the human and monkey brains, bridging the gap between human imaging and monkey electrophysiology. PMID:21632943

  14. Serial learning with wild card items by monkeys (Cebus apella): implications for knowledge of ordinal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, M R; Colombo, M

    1989-09-01

    We investigated monkeys' knowledge of the ordinal positions of stimuli that formed a 5-item serial list, ABCDE, by means of wild card items (W) that could substitute for items in the original series. In Experiment 1, training with wild cards was given on 3-, 4-, and 5-item series. In the last of these series, the wild card substitutions created five wild card sequences, WBCDE through ABCDW. During the final 10 sessions of training with each of two different wild cards (Items x and Y), the 3 subjects were able to successfully complete almost 60% of the wild card sequences. In Experiment 2, the two wild cards were presented on the same trial in 10 different double wild card sequences (e.g., AXCDY). The 2 monkey subjects correctly completed about 59% of the double wild card sequences during the final two training sessions. The performance levels achieved on single and on double wild card sequences, although well below that observed on the baseline sequence ABCDE (90% or better), support the view that the monkeys possessed some knowledge regarding the ordinal position of each baseline item. Consequently, an associative chain interpretation, which does not provide for knowledge of ordinal position, falls short as a complete account of the monkey's capacity for serial learning.

  15. Beta oscillations in the monkey sensorimotor network reflect somatosensory decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegens, Saskia; Nácher, Verónica; Hernández, Adrián; Luna, Rogelio; Jensen, Ole; Romo, Ranulfo

    2011-01-01

    The neuronal correlate of perceptual decision making has been extensively studied in the monkey somatosensory system by using a vibrotactile discrimination task, showing that stimulus encoding, retention, and comparison are widely distributed across cortical areas. However, from a network perspective, it is not known what role oscillations play in this task. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from diverse cortical areas of the sensorimotor system while one monkey performed the vibrotactile discrimination task. Exclusively during stimulus presentation, a periodic response reflecting the stimulus frequency was observed in the somatosensory regions, suggesting that after initial processing, the frequency content of the stimulus is coded in some other way than entrainment. Interestingly, we found that oscillatory activity in the beta band reflected the dynamics of decision making in the monkey sensorimotor network. During the comparison and decision period, beta activity showed a categorical response that reflected the decision of the monkey and distinguished correct from incorrect responses. Importantly, this differential activity was absent in a control condition that involved the same stimulation and response but no decision making required, suggesting it does not merely reflect the maintenance of a motor plan. We conclude that beta band oscillations reflect the temporal and spatial dynamics of the accumulation and processing of evidence in the sensorimotor network leading to the decision outcome. PMID:21670296

  16. Testing the Glucose Hypothesis among Capuchin Monkeys: Does Glucose Boost Self-Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E.; Emerson, Ishara D.; Rossettie, Mattea S.; Beran, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The ego-depletion hypothesis states that self-control diminishes over time and with exertion. Accordingly, the glucose hypothesis attributes this depletion of self-control resources to decreases in blood glucose levels. Research has led to mixed findings among humans and nonhuman animals, with limited evidence for such a link between glucose and self-control among closely-related nonhuman primate species, but some evidence from more distantly related species (e.g., honeybees and dogs). We tested this hypothesis in capuchin monkeys by manipulating the sugar content of a calorie-matched breakfast meal following a nocturnal fast, and then presenting each monkey with the accumulation self-control task. Monkeys were presented with food items one-by-one until the subject retrieved and ate the accumulating items, which required continual inhibition of food retrieval in the face of an increasingly desirable reward. Results indicated no relationship between self-control performance on the accumulation task and glucose ingestion levels following a fast. These results do not provide support for the glucose hypothesis of self-control among capuchin monkeys within the presented paradigm. Further research assessing self-control and its physiological correlates among closely- and distantly-related species is warranted to shed light on the mechanisms underlying self-control behavior. PMID:27527225

  17. Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131 000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, π-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum

  18. Uniformity of colour vision in Old World monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, G.H.; Deegan, J F

    1999-01-01

    It is often assumed that all Old World monkeys share the same trichromatic colour vision, but the evidence in support of this conclusion is sparse as only a small fraction of all Old World monkey species have been tested. To address this issue, spectral sensitivity functions were measured in animals from eight species of Old World monkey (five cercopithecine species and three colobine species) using a non-invasive electrophysiological technique. Each of the 25 animals examined had spectrally ...

  19. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection...

  20. Anatomic brain asymmetry in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Woods, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe.

  1. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  2. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  3. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  4. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; I Ryu, Stephen; H Meng, Teresa; Murmann, Boris; J Black, Michael; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2014-08-01

    Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic motor neuroscience and for the successful

  5. Monkey King —Prime Candidate for 2008 Olympics Mascot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDAOYING; YOUZHENGJUN; LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    IS the monkey an appropriate 2008 Olympic mascot? No one will know for sure until next year. Now that the Chinese Seal has been officially des-ignated as the 2008 Olympics emblem,the games'' mascot has taken over as hot topic. Animal images like the panda, dragon, lion, tiger, Tibetan ante-lope, and rabbit are also under consid-eration, but monkeyking2008.com, a website promoting the Monkey King as 2008 Olympics mascot, reports that 89 percent of its visitors want the monkey. Results of a survey conducted by China''s largest portal site, Sina.com, also indicate the Monkey King as hot favorite for mascot.

  6. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies.

  7. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  8. Metabolism of bromopride in mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Christine E; Bushee, Jennifer L; Argikar, Upendra A

    2013-01-01

    Bromopride (BRP) has been utilized clinically for treatment of nausea, vomiting and gastro-intestinal motility disorders. The pharmacokinetics of BRP have been characterized in dogs and humans; however, the metabolic profile of BRP has not been well studied. The present study was aimed at better understanding BRP metabolism across species. We investigated biotransformation of BRP in mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and human hepatocytes with the help of LC-MS(n) and accurate mass measurement. Mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys are relevant in drug discovery and development as pre-clinical species to be compared with humans, whereas rabbits were efficacy models for BRP. Overall, twenty metabolites of BRP were identified across hepatocytes from the six species. Monkeys offered the most coverage for humans, in terms of number of metabolites identified. Interestingly, M14, an N-sulfate metabolite of BRP, was identified as a human-specific metabolite. BRP metabolism had only been reported in dog plasma and urine, historically. Our investigation is the first documentation of in vitro metabolism of BRP in the six species reported here. Metabolites M1, M2, M4-M10, M12, M13, and M15-M20 have not been previously reported. In summary, this report documents seventeen metabolites of BRP for the first time, thus providing a deeper insight into the biotransformation of BRP.

  9. Characteristics of Spontaneous Square-Wave Jerks in the Healthy Macaque Monkey during Visual Fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Costela

    Full Text Available Saccadic intrusions (SIs, predominantly horizontal saccades that interrupt accurate fixation, include square-wave jerks (SWJs; the most common type of SI, which consist of an initial saccade away from the fixation target followed, after a short delay, by a return saccade that brings the eye back onto target. SWJs are present in most human subjects, but are prominent by their increased frequency and size in certain parkinsonian disorders and in recessive, hereditary spinocerebellar ataxias. SWJs have been also documented in monkeys with tectal and cerebellar etiologies, but no studies to date have investigated the occurrence of SWJs in healthy nonhuman primates. Here we set out to determine the characteristics of SWJs in healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta during attempted fixation of a small visual target. Our results indicate that SWJs are common in healthy nonhuman primates. We moreover found primate SWJs to share many characteristics with human SWJs, including the relationship between the size of a saccade and its likelihood to be part of a SWJ. One main discrepancy between monkey and human SWJs was that monkey SWJs tended to be more vertical than horizontal, whereas human SWJs have a strong horizontal preference. Yet, our combined data indicate that primate and human SWJs play a similar role in fixation correction, suggesting that they share a comparable coupling mechanism at the oculomotor generation level. These findings constrain the potential brain areas and mechanisms underlying the generation of fixational saccades in human and nonhuman primates.

  10. Effects of prenatal /sup 60/Co irradiation on postnatal neural, learning, and hormonal development of the squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordy, J.M.; Brizzee, K.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Knight, C.

    1982-02-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the effects of 0, 50, and 100 rad of /sup 60/Co administered prenatally on postnatal development of neuromuscular coordination, visual discrimination learning, spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity, plasma cortisol, and somatometric growth rates of diurnal squirrel monkeys from birth to 90 days. In terms of accuracy, completeness, and time required for performance of reflexes and neuromuscular coordination, the performance of 50- and 100-rad offspring was less accurate and poorly coordinated and required more time for completion to that of controls. In visual orientation, discrimination, and reversal learning, the percentage correct responses of the 50- and 100-rad offspring were significantly lower than those of controls. Spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity of 50- and 100-rad offspring was significantly higher in the dark session than that of controls. Plasma cortisol was significantly higher in 100-rad infants than in controls. Comparisons of somatometric growth rates indicated that postnatal head circumference, crown-rump length, and to a lesser extent body weight increased at significantly slower rates in 50- and 100-rad offspring. These findings should provide essential information for formulating and carrying out multivariate behavioral, biochemical, and morphometric assessments of low-dose effects on the brain of primate offspring within demonstrable dose-response curves.

  11. Effects of aerobic exercise training on cognitive function and cortical vascularity in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, I J; Bytheway, J A; Kohler, S J; Lange, H; Lee, K J; Boklewski, J; McCormick, K; Williams, N I; Stanton, G B; Greenough, W T; Cameron, J L

    2010-06-02

    This study examined whether regular exercise training, at a level that would be recommended for middle-aged people interested in improving fitness could lead to improved cognitive performance and increased blood flow to the brain in another primate species. Adult female cynomolgus monkeys were trained to run on treadmills for 1 h a day, 5 days a week, for a 5 month period (n=16; 1.9+/-0.4 miles/day). A sedentary control group sat daily on immobile treadmills (n=8). Half of the runners had an additional sedentary period for 3 months at the end of the exercise period (n=8). In all groups, half of the monkeys were middle-aged (10-12 years old) and half were more mature (15-17 years old). Starting the fifth week of exercise training, monkeys underwent cognitive testing using the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus (WGTA). Regardless of age, the exercising group learned to use the WGTA significantly faster (4.6+/-3.4 days) compared to controls (8.3+/-4.8 days; P=0.05). At the end of 5 months of running monkeys showed increased fitness, and the vascular volume fraction in the motor cortex in mature adult running monkeys was increased significantly compared to controls (P=0.029). However, increased vascular volume did not remain apparent after a 3-month sedentary period. These findings indicate that the level of exercise associated with improved fitness in middle-aged humans is sufficient to increase both the rate of learning and blood flow to the cerebral cortex, at least during the period of regular exercise.

  12. Sound-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) in trained monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Mustain, W; Simpson, I

    2004-05-01

    Acoustic stimulation of the vestibular system has been well documented in humans and has been accepted as a useful tool to diagnose vestibular disorders. The goal of this study was to establish an awake and behaving primate model that might be useful for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying acoustic activation of the vestibular system. We recorded sound-evoked eye movements in monkeys while they performed ocular motor tasks. In the first part of the study, an acoustic click (1 ms, 99 to approximately 125 db peak SPL) was delivered to one of the monkeys' ears while they fixated on visual targets of varying eccentricities and viewing distances. Acoustic clicks were found to evoke well-defined biphasic eye velocity responses. For the movement in the horizontal direction, the first eye velocity peaks were always away from the stimulated ear. For the movement in the vertical direction, however, the directions of the first eye velocity peaks varied from monkey to monkey. This variability was difficult to interpret in the absence of torsional measurement. Thus, our analysis in this report was focused on horizontal eye movements. We found that click-evoked eye movements were disjunctive, with larger first horizontal eye velocity peaks from the eye ipsilateral to the stimulated ear (the amplitude ratio was 1.8 +/- 0.3, n=4). The amplitudes of the first horizontal peaks were also linearly correlated with gaze eccentricity and viewing distance. In the second part of the study, we found that a brief tone-pulse (100 ms, 125 db peak SPL) evoked eye movements that exhibited a well-defined frequency tuning with the most effective stimulating frequencies ranging from 1 K to 1.5 KHz. These data demonstrate that the sound-evoked eye movements in behaving monkeys are well defined and reproducible. This paradigm may be useful for studying the neural mechanisms underlying acoustic activation of the vestibular system.

  13. Oxidoreductases in early gestational monkey placenta during maternal malarial infection : histochemical localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Saxena , P.S.R. Murthy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Early gestational malaria is more deleterious than late gestational infection.Still the pathophysiology of maternofoetal organ—the placenta in malaria remains almost unexploredduring early gestation. Present study dealing with oxidoreductases in early gestational placenta duringmaternal malarial infection of Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii in rhesus monkeys was anticipatedto provide a better insight into the functional impairment of this organ leading to foetal abnormalities.Methods: Three control and four experimental monkeys (Macaca mulatta were quarantined for onemonth prior to experimentation. Experimental monkeys at 2–2½ months of gestation were inoculatedwith P. cynomolgi bastianellii. On attaining first peak of parasitaemia the placentae were collectedfrom anesthetised animals. The snap-frozen, cryostat sections were subjected to histochemicallocalisation for 3 (or 17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (β-HSD [3 (or 17 β-hydroxysteroid:NAD (P+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.51 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases] and NADPH-tetrazoliumreductase [NADPH : (acceptor oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.1 NADPH-TR]. Comparative microscopyof control and malaria infected placental sections was performed and analysed.Results: A localised decrease in both the enzymes was observed in syncytiotrophoblast layer ofmalaria infected monkey placenta. The areas showing morphological damage of syncytiotrophoblastwere also depicting gross reduction in NADPH-TR activity.Interpretation & conclusion: The altered enzymatic activities [3 (or 17 β-HSD and NADPH-TR] inmalaria infected early gestational monkey placenta have been discussed in the light of placentalfunction. It could be concluded by present studies that these alterations would affect the cellularmetabolism especially steroidogenesis and detoxification process which in turn would affect thenormal development of the foetus as well as maintenance of gestation.

  14. Antibodies against human BLyS and APRIL attenuate EAE development in marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Heijmans, Nicole; Oh, Luke; Bauer, Jan; Blezer, Erwin L A; Laman, Jon D; Migone, Thi-Sau; Devalaraja, Matt N; 't Hart, Bert A

    2012-09-01

    B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS, also indicated as BAFF (B-cell activating factor) and CD257), and A Proliferation Inducing Ligand (APRIL, CD256) are two members of the TNF superfamily with a central role in B cell survival. Antibodies against these factors have potential therapeutic relevance in autoimmune inflammatory disorders with a proven pathogenic contribution of B cells, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the current study we performed a multi-parameter efficacy comparison of monoclonal antibodies against human anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). A MS-like disease was induced by immunization with recombinant human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rhMOG) in complete Freund's adjuvant. The results show that the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL antibody cause significant depletion of circulating CD20+ B cells, but a small subset of CD20 + CD40(high) B cells was not depleted. Induction of CD20+ B cell depletion from lymph nodes was only observed in the anti-BLyS treated monkeys. Both antibodies had a significant inhibitory effect on disease development, but all monkeys developed clinically evident EAE. Anti-BLyS treated monkeys were sacrificed with the same clinical signs as saline-treated monkeys, but nevertheless displayed significantly reduced spinal cord demyelination. This effect was not observed in the anti-APRIL treated monkeys. The two antibodies had a different effect on T cell subset activation and the profiles of ex vivo released cytokines. In conclusion, treatment with anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL delays the development of neurological disease in a relevant preclinical model of MS. The two mAbs achieve this effect via different mechanisms.

  15. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: murakami@mprcf.or.jp; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Noda, Akihiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan); Osoda, Kazuhiko [Chemical Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan); Nishimura, Shintaro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui City, Ishikawa 925-0613 (Japan); Analysis and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8585 (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [{sup 11}C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [{sup 11}C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4{+-}6.4 and 19.7{+-}4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients.

  16. Behavioral thermoregulation in a group of zoo-housed colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Jason D; Kuhar, Christopher W; Lukas, Kristen E

    2014-01-01

    Although wild primates are known to modify behavior in response to thermal stress, less is known about behavioral thermoregulation in zoo-housed primates. Zoo exhibits expose individuals to unique thermal environments and may constrain the thermoregulatory strategies available to individual animals. In this study, we observed a group of seven colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) living on a concrete "Monkey Island" style exhibit that featured limited shade and limited arboreal space. Behaviors were recorded using continuous focal animal sampling (n = 63 days, 97.7 hr). Logistic regression revealed 23°C was the temperature at which monkeys began resting more in shade than in sun. When temperatures exceeded 23°C, animals spent more time in open sitting postures with limbs extended from the body; sat less frequently in closed, hunched postures; spent more time in social contact; and performed more self-directed behaviors. Exhibit use also shifted under higher temperatures, with more time spent in areas with shade and lower surface temperatures. Lastly, when provided with access to an indoor holding area, the colobus monkeys spent more than half the time indoors when temperatures exceeded 23°C, yet only 10% of their time indoors when the temperature was below this value. Although postural changes have been reported in wild colobus, the postural and other behavioral changes observed in the current study occurred at temperatures lower than expected based on the published thermoneutral zone of colobus monkeys and highlight the importance of considering the specific thermoregulatory responses of zoo animals.

  17. Mammal assemblages in forest fragments and landscapes occupied by black howler monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Coyohua-Fuentes, Alejandro; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D

    2014-07-01

    Species assemblages in disturbed habitats vary as a function of the interaction between species requirements and the spatial configuration of the habitat. There are many reports accounting for the presence of howler monkeys in fragments where other mammals are absent, suggesting that they are more resilient. In the present study we explored this idea and predicted that if howler monkeys were more resilient to habitat loss and fragmentation than other mammals, mammal assemblages in fragments occupied by howler monkeys should include fewer species with decreasing amount of habitat (smaller fragment size and less habitat in the landscape) and increasing number of forest fragments. We explored these relationships by additionally considering the feeding and life habits of mammal species, as well as the isolation and proximity of each fragment to human settlements and roads. We sampled the presence of mammals in five fragments occupied by black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in the Mexican state of Campeche. Through direct sights performed during 240 h in each fragment, we observed 23 species. At the landscape scale, higher fragmentation was associated with a decrease in herbivores, omnivores and total number of species. At the fragment scale semiarboreal, omnivore, and total number of species increased with increasing fragment size. This study supports the idea that howler monkeys are more resilient to forest loss and fragmentation than other native mammals, and our exploratory analyses suggest that the specific mammal assemblages that are found in fragments are related to both landscape and fragment scale spatial attributes, as well as with species-specific characteristics.

  18. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A

    2015-03-17

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 µm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 µm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  19. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  20. Spatial decisions and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans based on abstract spatial stimuli in rotation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Bures, Jan

    2009-09-08

    We showed previously that macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) could orient in real space using abstract visual stimuli presented on a computer screen. They made correct choices according to both spatial stimuli (designed as an abstract representation of a real space) and nonspatial stimuli (pictures lacking any inner configuration information). However, we suggested that there were differences in processing spatial and nonspatial stimuli. In the present experiment we show that monkeys could also use as a cue abstract spatial stimuli rotated with respect to the real response space. We studied the ability of monkeys to decode abstract spatial information provided in one spatial frame (computer screen) and to perform spatial choices in another spatial frame (touch panel separated from the screen). We analyzed how the monkeys were affected by the type of training, whether they perceived the stimuli as "spatial" or "nonspatial," and which cues they used to decode them. We compared humans to monkeys in a similar test to find out which cognitive strategy they used and whether they perceive spatial stimuli in the same way. We demonstrated that there were two possible strategies to solve the task, simple "fitting" ignoring rotations and "remapping," when the stimulus was represented as an "abstract space" per se.

  1. Auditory list memory and interference processes in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A A

    1999-07-01

    Memory of 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was tested in a serial probe recognition task with lists of 4 natural or environmental sounds, different retention intervals, and different manipulations of interference. At short retention intervals, increasing the separation of list items reduced the primacy effect and produced a recency effect. Similar results were shown by increasing interference across lists through item repetitions or making the first 2 list items high-interference items. These results indicated that decreasing first-item performance reduced proactive interference on memory of the last list items. At long (20 s) retention intervals, making the last list items of high interference reduced the recency effect, reduced retroactive interference, and produced a primacy effect. Taken together, interference plays a role in determining the primacy and recency effects of the serial-position function.

  2. Aged monkeys as a partial model for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, P J; Elsworth, J D; Whittaker, M C; Roth, R H; Redmond, D E

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the natural aging process share a number of biochemical mechanisms, including reduced function of dopaminergic systems. The present study aims to determine the extent that motor and behavioral changes in aged monkeys resemble parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The behavioral and physiological changes in PD are believed to result largely from selective depletion of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, ten aged female monkeys were compared with three groups: 9 untreated young adult female monkeys, 10 young adult male monkeys and 13 older male monkeys that had been exposed to MPTP. Trained observers, blind as to age and drug condition and without knowledge of the hypotheses, scored the monkeys using the Parkinson's factor score (Parkscore), which has been validated by a high correlation with post mortem striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations. The aged animals had higher scores on the Parkscore compared with the young adults, with most of its component behavioral items showing significance (tremor, Eating Problems, Delayed initiation of movement, and Poverty of Movement). L-Dopa and DA-agonists did not clearly reverse the principal measure of parkinsonism. DA concentrations post mortem were 63% lower in 3 aged monkeys in the ventral putamen compared with 4 young adults, with greater reductions in putamen than in caudate (45%). We conclude that aged monkeys, unexposed to MPTP, show a similar profile of parkinsonism to that seen after the neurotoxin exposure to MPTP in young adult monkeys. The pattern of greater DA depletion in putamen than in caudate in aged monkeys is the same as in human Parkinson's disease and contrasts with the greater depletion in caudate seen after MPTP. Aged monkeys of this species reflect many facets of Parkinson's disease, but like older humans do not improve with standard dopamine replacement pharmacotherapies.

  3. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average

  4. Low-status monkeys "play dumb" when learning in mixed social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, C M; Wallen, K

    1999-10-26

    Many primates, including humans, live in complex hierarchical societies where social context and status affect daily life. Nevertheless, primate learning studies typically test single animals in limited laboratory settings where the important effects of social interactions and relationships cannot be studied. To investigate the impact of sociality on associative learning, we compared the individual performances of group-tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across various social contexts. We used a traditional discrimination paradigm that measures an animal's ability to form associations between cues and the obtaining of food in choice situations; but we adapted the task for group testing. After training a 55-member colony to separate on command into two subgroups, composed of either high- or low-status families, we exposed animals to two color discrimination problems, one with all monkeys present (combined condition), the other in their "dominant" and "subordinate" cohorts (split condition). Next, we manipulated learning history by testing animals on the same problems, but with the social contexts reversed. Monkeys from dominant families excelled in all conditions, but subordinates performed well in the split condition only, regardless of learning history. Subordinate animals had learned the associations, but expressed their knowledge only when segregated from higher-ranking animals. Because aggressive behavior was rare, performance deficits probably reflected voluntary inhibition. This experimental evidence of rank-related, social modulation of performance calls for greater consideration of social factors when assessing learning and may also have relevance for the evaluation of human scholastic achievement.

  5. Adaptive response of slow and fast skeletal muscle in the monkey to spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine-Fowler, Sue

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on hindlimb muscles of the monkey: an ankle flexor (tibialis anterior, TA), two ankle extensors (medical gastrocnemius, MG and soleus, SOL), and a knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL). These experiments will be performed as part of the BION mission. The original project proposed to assess the effects of weightlessness in adult Rhesus monkeys which were to be flown on the Space Shuttle as part of SLS-3. Feasibility studies were carried out and a series of experiments were performed at NASA/Ames Research Center to assess the effects of a 21-day restraint period in the ESOP on muscle properties. The results of these studies are summarized.

  6. Conserved fMRI and LFP signals during new associative learning in the human and macaque monkey medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eric L; Mattfeld, Aaron T; Stark, Craig E L; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2012-05-24

    We measured local field potential (LFP) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the medial temporal lobes of monkeys and humans, respectively, as they performed the same conditional motor associative learning task. Parallel analyses were used to examine both data sets. Despite significantly faster learning in humans relative to monkeys, we found equivalent neural signals differentiating new versus highly familiar stimuli, first stimulus presentation, trial outcome, and learning strength in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of both species. Thus, the use of parallel behavioral tasks and analyses in monkeys and humans revealed conserved patterns of neural activity across the medial temporal lobe during an associative learning task.

  7. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims......, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model...... was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. RESULTS: Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based...

  8. Non-clinical safety evaluation of single and repeated intramuscular administrations of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic in rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destexhe, Eric; Grosdidier, Emilie; Baudson, Nathalie; Forster, Roy; Gerard, Catherine; Garçon, Nathalie; Segal, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    The MAGE-A3 recombinant protein combined with AS15 immunostimulant (MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic) is under development by GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of lung cancer and melanoma. We performed non-clinical safety studies evaluating potential local and systemic toxic effects induced by MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic in rabbits (study 1) and cynomolgus monkeys (study 2). Animals were allocated to two groups to receive a single (rabbits) or 25 repeated (every 2 weeks) injections (monkeys) of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic (treatment groups) or saline (control groups). All rabbits were sacrificed 3 days post-injection and monkeys 3 days following last injection (3/5 per gender per group) or after a 3-month treatment-free period (2/5 per gender per group). Local and systemic reactions and MAGE-A3-specific immune responses (monkeys) were assessed. Macroscopic and microscopic (for rabbits, injection site only) post-mortem examinations were performed on all animals. No systemic toxicity or unscheduled mortalities were recorded. Single (rabbits) and repeated (monkeys; up to four times at the same site) injections were well tolerated. Following five to seven repeated injections, limb circumferences increased up to 26% (5 h post-injection), but returned to normal after 1-8 days. Three days after the last injection, enlargements of iliac, popliteal, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, and increased incidence or severity of mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates was observed in injected muscles of treated monkeys. No treatment-related macroscopic findings were recorded after the treatment-free period. MAGE-A3-specific antibody and T-cell responses were raised in all treated monkeys, confirming test item exposure. Single or repeated intramuscular injections of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic were well tolerated in rabbits and monkeys.

  9. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  10. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  11. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  12. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  13. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  14. "Mohandas Fire" Year of the Fire Monkey (Chinese Zodiac)

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Exhibition of cartoons on the theme of the Fire Monkey - Chinese New Year at the Museo de Humor Grafico Diodenes Taborda, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Only British artist involved, with two works. 29 different nations entered and 51 artists involved. All works different approaches to the year of the Fire Monkey.

  15. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  16. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  17. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  18. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  19. Learning the trajectory of a moving visual target and evolution of its tracking in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrelly, Clara; Quinet, Julie; Cavanagh, Patrick; Goffart, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    An object moving in the visual field triggers a saccade that brings its image onto the fovea. It is followed by a combination of slow eye movements and catch-up saccades that try to keep the target image on the fovea as long as possible. The accuracy of this ability to track the "here-and-now" location of a visual target contrasts with the spatiotemporally distributed nature of its encoding in the brain. We show in six experimentally naive monkeys how this performance is acquired and gradually evolves during successive daily sessions. During the early exposure, the tracking is mostly saltatory, made of relatively large saccades separated by low eye velocity episodes, demonstrating that accurate (here and now) pursuit is not spontaneous and that gaze direction lags behind its location most of the time. Over the sessions, while the pursuit velocity is enhanced, the gaze is more frequently directed toward the current target location as a consequence of a 25% reduction in the number of catch-up saccades and a 37% reduction in size (for the first saccade). This smoothing is observed at several scales: during the course of single trials, across the set of trials within a session, and over successive sessions. We explain the neurophysiological processes responsible for this combined evolution of saccades and pursuit in the absence of stringent training constraints. More generally, our study shows that the oculomotor system can be used to discover the neural mechanisms underlying the ability to synchronize a motor effector with a dynamic external event.

  20. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  1. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  2. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  3. ARCTIC MONKEYS:猴子凶猛!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青鸟

    2007-01-01

    @@ 我不是成长于星条旗下的美利坚自由人民,所以英国乐队Arctic Monkeys在我跟前很能吃得开,打从我听到他们的第一个音符起.这或许是我从小看多了充满暴力的电视剧《西游记》,并对猴子产生了偏爱的缘故,而对Arctic Monkeys,来自北极的猴子,更是充满了好奇.

  4. Do wild titi monkeys show empathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Clyvia, A; Kaizer, M. C.; Santos,R.V.; Young, R.J.; C. Cäsar

    2014-01-01

    We observed a putative case of empathy among wild black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons)\\ud from two different groups (D and R). In over 10 years of behavioural observations of five habituated\\ud groups of this species, only low levels of inter-group tolerance have been observed. However, on one day, we\\ud encountered the adult male from group D limping (poor hind limb motor coordination) as he travelled alone\\ud along the ground. Interestingly, we observed that members of group R...

  5. Behavioral consequences of developmental iron deficiency in infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.; Germann, Stacey L.; Capitanio, John P.; Lozoff, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    Human studies have shown that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants are associated with behavioral impairment, but the periods of brain development most susceptible to iron deficiency have not been established. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were deprived of iron by dietary iron restriction during prenatal (n = 14, 10 μg Fe/g diet) or early postnatal (n = 12, 1.5 mg Fe/L formula) brain development and compared to controls (n = 12, 100 μg Fe/g diet, 12 mg Fe/L formula) in behavioral evaluations conducted during the first four months of life in the nonhuman primate nursery. Iron deficiency anemia was detected in the pregnant dams in the third trimester and compromised iron status was seen in the prenatally iron-deprived infants at birth, but no iron deficiency was seen in either the prenatally or postnatally iron-deprived infants during the period of behavioral evaluation. Neither prenatal nor postnatal iron deprivation led to significant delays in growth, or gross or fine motor development. Prenatally deprived infants demonstrated a 20% reduced spontaneous activity level, lower inhibitory response to novel environments, and more changes from one behavior to another in weekly observation sessions. Postnatally deprived infants demonstrated poorer performance of an object concept task, and greater emotionality relative to controls. This study indicates that different syndromes of behavioral effects are associated with prenatal and postnatal iron deprivation in rhesus monkey infants and that these effects can occur in the absence of concurrent iron deficiency as reflected in hematological measures. PMID:16343844

  6. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  7. Molecular composition of drusen and possible involvement of anti-retinal autoimmunity in two different forms of macular degeneration in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Michihiro T; Okamoto, Haru; Ono, Fumiko; Mizota, Atsushi; Terao, Keiji; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    We have previously reported a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree with early onset macular degeneration that develops drusen at 2 yr after birth. In this study, the molecular composition of drusen in monkeys affected with late onset and early onset macular degeneration was both characterized. Involvement of anti-retinalautoimmunity in the deposition of drusen and the pathogenesis of the disease was also evaluated. Funduscopic and histological examinations were performed on 278 adult monkeys (mean age=16.94 yr) for late onset macular degeneration. The molecular composition of drusen was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and/or direct proteome analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Anti-retinal autoantibodies in sera were screened in 20 affected and 10 age-matched control monkeys by Western blot techniques. Immunogenic molecules were identified by 2D electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Relative antibody titer against each antigen was determined by ELISA in sera from 42 affected (late onset) and 41 normal monkeys. Yellowish-white spots in the macular region were observed in 90 (32%) of the late onset monkeys that were examined. Histological examination demonstrated that drusen or degenerative retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were associated with the pigmentary abnormalities. Drusen in both late and early onset monkeys showed immunoreactivities for apolipoprotein E, amyloid P component, complement component C5, the terminal C5b-9 complement complex, vitronectin, and membrane cofactor protein. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 60 proteins as constituents of drusen, including a number of common components in drusen of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD), such as annexins, crystallins, immunoglobulins, and complement components. Half of the affected monkeys had single or multiple autoantibodies against 38, 40, 50, and 60 kDa retinal proteins. The reacting antigens of 38 and 40 kDa were identified as annexin II and mu

  8. Oscillatory activity in the monkey hippocampus during visual exploration and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Michael J; Fries, Pascal; Buffalo, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-06

    Primates explore the visual world through the use of saccadic eye movements. Neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a structure known to be essential for memory, is modulated by this saccadic activity, but the relationship between visual exploration through saccades and memory formation is not well understood. Here, we identify a link between theta-band (3-12 Hz) oscillatory activity in the hippocampus and saccadic activity in monkeys performing a recognition memory task. As monkeys freely explored novel images, saccades produced a theta-band phase reset, and the reliability of this phase reset was predictive of subsequent recognition. In addition, enhanced theta-band power before stimulus onset predicted stronger stimulus encoding. Together, these data suggest that hippocampal theta-band oscillations act in concert with active exploration in the primate and possibly serve to establish the optimal conditions for stimulus encoding.

  9. Serological evidence for hepatitis e virus infection in laboratory monkeys and pigs in animal facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Li, Tian-Cheng; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kaori; Kita, Masakazu; Miyashita, Nobumoto; Arikawa, Jiro; Yagami, Kenichi; Asano, Masahide; Tezuka, Hideo; Suzuki, Noboru; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Furuya, Masato; Mohri, Shirou; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohsawa, Kazutaka; Ibuki, Kentaro; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-07-01

    In laboratory animal facilities, monkeys and pigs are used for animal experiments, but the details of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in these animals are unknown. The risk of infection from laboratory animals to humans has become a concern; therefore, much attention should be paid to the handling of these animals during their care and use, including surgical procedures performed on infected animals. In this connection, serum samples collected from 916 monkeys and 77 pigs kept in 23 animal facilities belonging to the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of National University Corporations (JALAN) and the Japanese Association of Laboratory Animal Facilities of Public and Private Universities (JALAP) in Japan were examined for the purpose of detecting antibodies to HEV and HEV RNA by using ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and seven serum samples of 916 (11.7%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgG, and 7 and 17 serum samples of 916 (0.8% and 5.3%) monkeys were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgA, respectively. Thirty-six samples from 62 (58.1%) farm pigs were positive for anti-HEV IgG, whereas all samples tested from miniature pigs were negative (0/15, 0%). Seven samples from 62 (9.1%) farm pigs and 7 samples from 916 (0.8%) monkeys were positive for IgM antibody, but these HEV-IgM antibody positive serum samples were HEV-RNA negative by RT-PCR. The IgM antibody positive rate (9.1%) of farm pigs was much higher than that of monkeys (0.8%). These results suggest the relative levels of risk of HEV infection from these animals to animal handlers and researchers who work with them in laboratory animal facilities.

  10. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  11. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  12. Neurodynamics of cognitive set shifting in monkey frontal cortex and its causal impact on behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamigaki, Tsukasa; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Tamura, Keita; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2012-11-01

    Flexible behavior depends on the ability to shift an internal cognitive set as soon as external demand changes. According to neuropsychological studies in human and nonhuman primates, selective lesion to the PFC impairs flexible behavioral shifting. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that the prefrontal regions showed transient activation related to set shifting in humans and monkeys. To investigate the underlying neural processing, we recorded single-unit activities while monkeys performed a cognitive-set-shifting task, which required shifting between shape-matching and color-matching behaviors. We identified a group of neurons in the inferior arcuate region that exhibited selective activity when the monkeys were required to shift their cognitive set. These shift-related neurons were localized in the focal area along the posterior bank of the inferior arcuate sulcus. Reversible inactivation of this area ipsilateral to the response hand with a small volume of muscimol (even with 0.5 μl) selectively impaired the performance of behavioral shifting. Moreover, this selective behavioral impairment strongly correlated with the dose of muscimol. These results demonstrated localized neural processing for cognitive set shifting and its causal role for behavioral flexibility in primates.

  13. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  14. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    CERN Document Server

    Astill, William; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross Section Working Group.

  15. Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intentions of others is crucial in developing positive social relationships. Comparative human and non-human animal studies have addressed the phylogenetic origin of this ability. However, few studies have explored the importance of motion information in distinguishing others' intentions and goals in non-human primates. This study addressed whether squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are able to perceive a goal-directed motion pattern-specifically, chasing-represented by two geometric objects. In Experiment 1, we trained squirrel monkeys to discriminate a "Chasing" sequence from a "Random" sequence. We then confirmed that this discrimination transferred to new stimuli ("Chasing" and "Random") in a probe test. To determine whether the monkeys used similarities of trajectory to discriminate chasing from random motion, we also presented a non-chasing "Clone" sequence in which the trajectories of the two figures were identical. Three of six monkeys were able to discriminate "Chasing" from the other sequences. In Experiment 2, we confirmed humans' recognition of chasing with the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the three monkeys for which discrimination did not transfer to the new stimuli in Experiment 1 were trained to discriminate between "Chasing" and "Clone" sequences. At testing, all three monkeys had learned to discriminate chasing, and two transferred their learning to new stimuli. Our results suggest that squirrel monkeys use goal-directed motion patterns, rather than simply similarity of trajectory, to discriminate chasing. Further investigation is necessary to identify the motion characteristics that contribute to this discrimination.

  16. Population coding of forelimb joint kinematics by peripheral afferents in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Umeda

    Full Text Available Various peripheral receptors provide information concerning position and movement to the central nervous system to achieve complex and dexterous movements of forelimbs in primates. The response properties of single afferent receptors to movements at a single joint have been examined in detail, but the population coding of peripheral afferents remains poorly defined. In this study, we obtained multichannel recordings from dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons in cervical segments of monkeys. We applied the sparse linear regression (SLiR algorithm to the recordings, which selects useful input signals to reconstruct movement kinematics. Multichannel recordings of peripheral afferents were performed by inserting multi-electrode arrays into the DRGs of lower cervical segments in two anesthetized monkeys. A total of 112 and 92 units were responsive to the passive joint movements or the skin stimulation with a painting brush in Monkey 1 and Monkey 2, respectively. Using the SLiR algorithm, we reconstructed the temporal changes of joint angle, angular velocity, and acceleration at the elbow, wrist, and finger joints from temporal firing patterns of the DRG neurons. By automatically selecting a subset of recorded units, the SLiR achieved superior generalization performance compared with a regularized linear regression algorithm. The SLiR selected not only putative muscle units that were responsive to only the passive movements, but also a number of putative cutaneous units responsive to the skin stimulation. These results suggested that an ensemble of peripheral primary afferents that contains both putative muscle and cutaneous units encode forelimb joint kinematics of non-human primates.

  17. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  18. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  19. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  20. Simulation modeling of the tissue disposition of formaldehyde to predict nasal DNA-protein cross-links in Fischer 344 rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conolly, R B; Lilly, P D; Kimbell, J S

    2000-10-01

    Formaldehyde inhalation causes formation of DNA-protein cross-links (DPX) in the nasal mucosa of Fischer 344 (F344) rats and rhesus monkeys. DPX are considered to be part of the mechanism by which cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects of formaldehyde in laboratory animals are exerted, and DPX data have been used as a measure of tissue dose in cancer risk assessments for formaldehyde. Accurate prediction of DPX concentrations in humans is therefore desirable. The goal of this work was to increase confidence in the prediction of human DPX by refining earlier models of formaldehyde disposition and DPX kinetics in the nasal mucosa. Anatomically accurate, computational fluid dynamics models of the nasal airways of F344 rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans were used to predict the regional flux of formaldehyde to the respiratory and olfactory mucosa. A previously developed model of the tissue disposition of formaldehyde and of DPX kinetics was implemented in the graphical simulation tool SIMULINK and linked to the regional flux predictions. Statistical optimization was used to identify parameter values, and good simulations of the data were obtained. The parameter estimates for rats and monkeys were used to guide allometric scale-up to the human case. The relative levels of nasal mucosal DPX in rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans for a given inhaled concentration of formaldehyde were predicted by the model to vary with concentration. This modeling approach reduces uncertainty in the prediction of human nasal mucosal DPX resulting from formaldehyde inhalation.

  1. Experimental test of spatial updating models for monkey eye-head gaze shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static, or during (dynamic the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements.

  2. Neuronal Responses in Visual Area V2 (V2) of Macaque Monkeys with Strabismic Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, H.; Zhang, B.; Tao, X.; Harwerth, R. S.; Smith, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision, is thought to result from a cascade of cortical deficits over several processing stages beginning at the primary visual cortex (V1). However, beyond V1, little is known about how cortical development limits the visual performance of amblyopic primates. We quantitatively analyzed the monocular and binocular responses of V1 and V2 neurons in a group of strabismic monkeys exhibiting varying depths of amblyopia. Unlike in V1, the relative effectiveness of the affected eye to drive V2 neurons was drastically reduced in the amblyopic monkeys. The spatial resolution and the orientation bias of V2, but not V1, neurons were subnormal for the affected eyes. Binocular suppression was robust in both cortical areas, and the magnitude of suppression in individual monkeys was correlated with the depth of their amblyopia. These results suggest that the reduced functional connections beyond V1 and the subnormal spatial filter properties of V2 neurons might have substantially limited the sensitivity of the amblyopic eyes and that interocular suppression was likely to have played a key role in the observed alterations of V2 responses and the emergence of amblyopia. PMID:21263036

  3. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sara C; Briese, Thomas; Bell, Todd M; Pratt, William D; Shamblin, Joshua D; Esham, Heather L; Donnelly, Ginger C; Johnson, Joshua C; Hensley, Lisa E; Lipkin, W Ian; Honko, Anna N

    2015-01-01

    Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4) plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  4. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Johnston

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4 plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  5. Efficience of human Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine candidates in Aotus lemurinus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socrates Herrera

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective efficacy of several recombinat and a synthetic Plasmodium falciparum protein was assessed in Aoutus monkeys. The rp41 aldolase, the 190L fragment of the MSA-1 protein and fusion 190L-CS. T3 protein containg the CS. T3 helper "universal epitope were emulsified in Freund's adjuvants and injected 3 times in groups of 4-5 monkeys each one. The synthetic polymer Spf (6630 also emulsified in Freund's adjuvants was injected 6 times. Control groups for both experiments were immunized with saline solution in the same adjuvant following the same schedules. Serology for malaria specific antibodies showed seroconversion in monkeys immunized with the recombinant proteins but not in those immunized with the polymer nor in the controls. Challenge was performed with the 10 (elevado a quinta potência parasites from the P. falciparum FVO isolate. Neither rp41 nor SPf (6630 induced protection, whereas 190L induced significant delay of parasitemia. The fusion of the CS. T3 epitope to 190L significantly increased is protective capacity.

  6. Determination of threshold adverse effect doses of percutaneous VX exposure in African green monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Raymond F; Benton, Bernard J; Oubre, John L; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, E Michael; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Settle, Timothy J; Steinbach, Thomas J

    2011-01-11

    Percutaneous exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent VX was evaluated in African green monkeys (n=9). Doses of VX (7.5-100 μg/kg) were applied to the skin for 60 min and residual agent was quantified (before decontamination) to estimate the absorbed dose. Monkeys were evaluated for the presence or absence of clinical signs of toxicity and blood was sampled periodically (30 min--12 weeks) following exposure to measure the degree of circulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Monkeys were also evaluated for behavioral changes from VX exposure using a serial probe recognition (SPR) task. The lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the production of major clinical signs was determined to be 42.22 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=17.36 μg/kg) and the LOAEL for AChE inhibition was 13.33 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=6.53 μg/kg). Behavioral performance was unaffected at doses that, while producing substantial AChE inhibition, did not produce clinical signs. VX represents a substantial threat as a contact hazard and these results complement previous studies using the percutaneous route of exposure with VX and extend the findings to a non-human primate species.

  7. Development of a monkey model for the study of primate genomic imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, A; Mitalipov, S M; Clepper, L L; Wolf, D P

    2005-06-01

    An understanding of the role of imprinted genes in primate development requires the identification of suitable genetic markers that allow analysis of allele-specific expression and methylation status. Four genes, NDN (Necdin), H19, SNRPN and IGF2, known to be imprinted in mice and humans, were selected for study in rhesus monkeys along with two imprinting centres (ICs) associated with the regulation of H19/IGF2, NDN and SNRPN. GAPD was employed as a non-imprinted control gene. Primers designed to amplify polymorphic regions in these genes and ICs were based on human sequences. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of 93 rhesus macaques of Indian or Chinese-origin. Sequence analysis of amplicons resulted in the identification of 32 unique SNPs. Country-of-origin related differences in SNP distributions were evident. Since disruptions in imprinted gene expression and associated developmental abnormalities may result from in vitro embryo manipulation, we also examined imprinting in NDN, H19, SNRPN and IGF2 in rhesus monkey infants produced by natural mating or by ICSI. Muscle biopsies followed by RT-PCR and sequence analysis were performed in four heterozygous animals produced by natural mating and all four genes were expressed monoallelically supporting the conclusion that these genes are normally imprinted in monkeys. In the case of ICSI, five informative infants were selected based on parental analysis. Allele-specific studies indicated that the expected uniparental expression patterns were retained in animals produced from manipulated embryos. Moreover, methylation analysis revealed that CpG islands within H19/IGF2 and SNURF/SNRPN ICs were differentially methylated. The approach described here will allow examination of imprinting in the embryos and embryonic stem cells of the monkey.

  8. Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on insulin resistance and adiponectin in male monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janice D; Zhang, Li; Shadoan, Melanie K; Kavanagh, Kylie; Chen, Haiying; Tresnasari, Kristianti; Kaplan, Jay R; Adams, Michael R

    2008-07-01

    Isoflavones may influence insulin action by means of their well-known receptor-mediated estrogenic activity. However, isoflavones also bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) that are strongly associated with insulin action. Soy protein with its isoflavones has previously been shown to improve glycemic control in diabetic postmenopausal women and to improve insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized monkeys. The purpose of the current report was to extend our studies of dietary soy protein to male monkeys and determine effects of the soy isoflavones on insulin resistance. Two studies are reported here. Study one involved 91 male monkeys consuming 3 diets differing only by the source of protein (casein-lactalbumin, soy protein with a low isoflavone concentration, or soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were done, and plasma adiponectin and lipoprotein concentrations were determined after 25 months of study. Samples of visceral fat were obtained at 31 months for assessment of adiponectin and PPARgamma expression. The second study involved 8 monkeys in a Latin-square design that compared the effects of diets with casein/lactalbumin, soy protein with a high isoflavone concentration, or soy protein that was alcohol-washed to deplete the isoflavones. After 8 weeks of treatment, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipoproteins were assessed. At 10 weeks, a biopsy of the skeletal muscle was performed for determination of insulin receptor, PPARalpha, and PPARgamma content. The major findings were that consumption of isoflavone-containing soy protein dose-dependently increased insulin responses to the glucose challenge and decreased plasma adiponectin, whereas isoflavone-depleted soy protein decreased body weight and had no effect on plasma adiponectin concentrations. Muscle PPARalpha and gamma expression was also increased with the isoflavone-depleted soy relative to either casein or soy protein containing the

  9. Prefrontal cell activities related to monkeys' success and failure in adapting to rule changes in a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Matsumoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Keiji

    2006-03-08

    The cognitive flexibility to select appropriate rules in a changing environment is essential for survival and is assumed to depend on the integrity of prefrontal cortex (PFC). To explore the contribution of the dorsolateral PFC to flexible rule-based behavior, we recorded the activity of cells in this region of monkeys performing a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) analog. The monkey had to match a sample to one of three test items by either color or shape. Liquid reward and a discrete visual signal (error signal) were given as feedback to correct and incorrect target selections, respectively. The relevant rule and its frequent changes were not cued, and the monkeys could find it only by interpreting the feedback. In one-third of cells, cellular activity was modulated by the relevant rule, both throughout the trial and between trials. The magnitude of the modulation correlated with the number of errors that the monkeys committed after each rule change in the course of reestablishing high performance. Activity of other cells differed between correct and error trials independently from the rule-related modulation. This difference appeared during actual responses and before the monkeys faced the problems. Many PFC cells responded to the error-signal presentation, and, in some of them, the magnitude of response depended on the relevant rule. These results suggest that the dorsolateral PFC contributes to WCST performance by maintaining the relevant rule across trials, assessing behavioral outcomes, and monitoring the processes that could lead to success and failure in individual trials.

  10. Desferrioxamine suppresses Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, S; Rossan, R N; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A

    1987-02-01

    Clinical observation has suggested that iron deficiency may be protective in malaria, and we have found that desferrioxamine (DF), an iron-specific chelating agent, inhibited Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. It was difficult to be confident that DF would be effective in an intact animal, however, because continuous exposure to DF was required in vitro and, in vivo, DF is rapidly excreted. Also, the in vitro effect of DF was overcome by addition of iron to the culture and in vivo there are potentially high local iron concentrations when iron is absorbed from the diet or released from reticuloendothelial cells. We now show that DF given by constant subcutaneous infusion does suppress parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected Aotus monkeys.

  11. Amygdalar vocalization pathways in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, U

    1982-06-10

    In 22 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) vocalization-eliciting electrodes were implanted into the amygdala and along the trajectory of the stria terminalis. Then, lesions were placed in the stria terminalis, its bed nucleus, the ventral amygdalofugal pathway and several di- and mesencephalic structures in order to find out the pathways along which the amygdala exerts its vocalization-controlling influence. It was found that different call types are controlled by different pathways. Purring and chattering calls, which express a self-confident, challenging attitude and an attempt to recruit fellow-combatants in intra-specific mobbing, respectively, are controlled via the stria terminalis; alarm peep and groaning calls, in contrast, which indicate flight motivation and resentment, respectively, are triggered via the ventral amygdalofugal fibre bundle. Both pathways traverse the dorsolateral and dorsomedial hypothalamus, respectively, and unite in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain.

  12. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk.

  13. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  14. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  15. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces.

  16. Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys without Anti-Rejection Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160989.html Stem Cells Transplanted in Monkeys Without Anti-Rejection Drugs Scientists say goal is to create banks of stem cells that could be used for any human patient ...

  17. Monkey King by Zhengjiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2008-01-01

    Monkey King,the grand acrobatic and magical theme show, has successfully given its first dozen shows at Hangzhou Theater since July 27.The show was presented by Zhejiang General Troupe of Quyi and Acrobatics, and

  18. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  19. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  20. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains.

  1. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  2. Pulpal Response to Intraligamentary Injection in the Cynomologus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Peurach, James C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intraligamentary injection causes qualitative histopathologic changes in the dental pulp of a Cynomologus monkey. In as much as the pulp and periapical tissues of the monkey are similar to that of humans, nonresolving damage to the pulp would contraindicate periodontal ligament injection in procedures where the tooth would not be extracted or the pulp extirpated. Periodontal ligament injection in this study did not produce any histopathological ...

  3. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  4. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  5. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Christopher R S; Severini, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  6. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  7. Dyscoria Associated with Herpesvirus Infection in Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring w...

  8. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lu

    Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  9. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans.

  10. Influences of copper and design of intrauterine devices on endometrial bleeding in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S T; Forino, R V; Poon, C H; Moyer, D L

    1976-07-01

    Uterine bleeding in 8 rhesus monkeys was compared in response to plain vs. a specially fitted copper-wrapped IUD. All animals had utero-cutaneous surgical fistulas for accurate IUD insertion and removal. Daily observations for uterine bleeding between menstruations and quantitation of menstrual blood loss (MBL) were made. Following control periods of observation, each monkey was inserted with either a plain or a copper-wrapped IUD and then studied for 4 consecutive menstrual periods. Each IUD was especially fashioned to an estimate of individual uterine cavity size. Some were wrapped with pure copper wire of 30 sp mm surface area. In some animals the devices were later removed from the uterus, the copper wire taken off, and the plain polyethylene oval-Ts reinserted. In some animals originally wearing plain polyethylene devices, the IUDs were removed, wrapped with copper wire, and reinserted into the same monkeys. During the observed 4 consecutive preinsertion periods, MBL averaged 1.54 ml and was the same in the 4 cycles in which a plain polyethylene oval-T device was in place. No intermenstrual bleeding was observed, except slight spotting for the first 1 or 2 days. During the 4 cycles, with the copper-wound device present, mean MBL was 1.28 ml. Having individually fitted each uterine cavity with a best-fitting IUD was considered important. The addition of copper had not increased the bleeding. In humans, especially fitted contraceptive devices may minimize complications of bleeding and pain as compared with standard designs. Bleeding and pain have been the most frequent complications leading to removal of IUDs.

  11. Decoding of the spike timing of primary afferents during voluntary arm movements in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eUmeda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of encoding forelimb kinematics in the activity of peripheral afferents is essential for determining the optimal parameters of afferent stimulation to transmit proprioceptive signals in neuroprosthetics. To investigate whether the spike timing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons could be estimated from the forelimb kinematics of behaving monkeys, we implanted two multi-electrode arrays chronically in the DRGs at the level of the cervical segments in two monkeys. Neuronal activity during voluntary reach-to-grasp movements were recorded simultaneously with the trajectories of hand/arm movements, which were tracked in three-dimensional space using a motion capture system. Sixteen and 13 neurons, including muscle spindles, skin receptors, and tendon organ afferents, were recorded in the two monkeys, respectively. We were able to reconstruct forelimb joint kinematics from the temporal firing pattern of a subset of DRG neurons using sparse linear regression (SLiR analysis, suggesting that DRG neuronal ensembles encoded information about joint kinematics. Furthermore, we estimated the spike timing of the DRG neuronal ensembles from joint kinematics using an integrate-and-fire model (IF incorporating the SLiR algorithm. The temporal change of firing frequency of a subpopulation of neurons was reconstructed precisely from forelimb kinematics using the SLiR. The spike timing of the DRG neurons was calculated using an IF model, in which a spike occurs if the cumulative sum of the firing frequency value exceeded a constant threshold. The estimated firing pattern of the DRG neuronal ensembles encoded forelimb joint angles and velocities as precisely as the originally recorded neuronal activity. These results suggest that the simple model can be used to generate an accurate estimate of the spike timing of DRG neuronal ensembles from forelimb joint kinematics, and is useful for designing a proprioceptive decoder in a brain machine

  12. Decoding of the spike timing of primary afferents during voluntary arm movements in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Hidenori; Sato, Masa-Aki; Kawato, Mitsuo; Isa, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of encoding forelimb kinematics in the activity of peripheral afferents is essential for developing a somatosensory neuroprosthesis. To investigate whether the spike timing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons could be estimated from the forelimb kinematics of behaving monkeys, we implanted two multi-electrode arrays chronically in the DRGs at the level of the cervical segments in two monkeys. Neuronal activity during voluntary reach-to-grasp movements were recorded simultaneously with the trajectories of hand/arm movements, which were tracked in three-dimensional space using a motion capture system. Sixteen and 13 neurons, including muscle spindles, skin receptors, and tendon organ afferents, were recorded in the two monkeys, respectively. We were able to reconstruct forelimb joint kinematics from the temporal firing pattern of a subset of DRG neurons using sparse linear regression (SLiR) analysis, suggesting that DRG neuronal ensembles encoded information about joint kinematics. Furthermore, we estimated the spike timing of the DRG neuronal ensembles from joint kinematics using an integrate-and-fire model (IF) incorporating the SLiR algorithm. The temporal change of firing frequency of a subpopulation of neurons was reconstructed precisely from forelimb kinematics using the SLiR. The estimated firing pattern of the DRG neuronal ensembles encoded forelimb joint angles and velocities as precisely as the originally recorded neuronal activity. These results suggest that a simple model can be used to generate an accurate estimate of the spike timing of DRG neuronal ensembles from forelimb joint kinematics, and is useful for designing a proprioceptive decoder in a brain machine interface.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James A; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Clepper, Lisa; Wolf, Don P

    2006-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may be able to cure or alleviate the symptoms of various degenerative diseases. However, unresolved issues regarding survival, functionality, and tumor formation mean a prudent approach should be adopted towards advancing ESCs into human clinical trials. The rhesus monkey provides an ideal model organism for developing strategies to prevent immune rejection and test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ESC-based medical treatments. Transcriptional profiling of rhesus monkey ESCs provides a foundation for pre-clinical ESC research in this species. In the present study, we used microarray technology, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to characterize and transcriptionally profile rhesus monkey ESCs. We identified 367 stemness gene candidates that were highly (>85%) conserved across five different ESC lines. Rhesus monkey ESC lines maintained a pluripotent undifferentiated state over a wide range of POU5F1 (also known as OCT4) expression levels, and comparisons between rhesus monkey, mouse, and human stemness genes revealed five mammalian stemness genes: CCNB1, GDF3, LEFTB, POU5F1, and NANOG. These five mammalian genes are strongly expressed in rhesus monkey, mouse, and human ESCs, albeit only in the undifferentiated state, and represent the core key mammalian stemness factors.

  14. Insect-foraging in captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovich, Christy K; Rivera, Jeanette; Evans, Sian

    2010-08-01

    Whereas the diets of diurnal primate species vary greatly, almost all nocturnal primate species consume insects. Insect-foraging has been described in nocturnal prosimians but has not been investigated in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.). We studied 35 captive owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) in order to describe their foraging behavior and to determine if there were any age or sex differences in their ability to capture insect prey. Because owl monkeys cooperate in parental care and in food-sharing, we expected social interactions involving insect prey. We found that owl monkeys most often snatched flying insects from the air and immobilized crawling insects against a substrate using their hands. Immatures and adult female owl monkeys attempted to capture prey significantly more often than did adult males; however, there was no difference in the proportion of attempts that resulted in capture. Social interactions involving prey appeared similar to those with provisioned food, but possessors of prey resisted begging attempts more so than did possessors of other food. Owl monkeys attempted to capture prey often (mean = 9.5 +/- 5.8 attempts/h), and we speculate that the protein and lipid content of captured prey is important for meeting the metabolic demands for growth and reproduction.

  15. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  16. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  17. Synthesizing Accurate Floating-Point Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Ioualalen, Arnault; Martel, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Many critical embedded systems perform floating-point computations yet their accuracy is difficult to assert and strongly depends on how formulas are written in programs. In this article, we focus on the synthesis of accurate formulas mathematically equal to the original formulas occurring in source codes. In general, an expression may be rewritten in many ways. To avoid any combinatorial explosion, we use an intermediate representation, called APEG, enabling us to rep...

  18. Efficient Accurate Context-Sensitive Anomaly Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For program behavior-based anomaly detection, the only way to ensure accurate monitoring is to construct an efficient and precise program behavior model. A new program behavior-based anomaly detection model,called combined pushdown automaton (CPDA) model was proposed, which is based on static binary executable analysis. The CPDA model incorporates the optimized call stack walk and code instrumentation technique to gain complete context information. Thereby the proposed method can detect more attacks, while retaining good performance.

  19. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  20. Multiple parietal-frontal pathways mediate grasping in macaque monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    The nodes of a parietal-frontal pathway that mediates grasping in primates are in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Nevertheless, multiple somatosensory and motor representations of the hand, respectively in parietal and frontal cortex, suggest that additional pathways remain unrealized. We explored this possibility in macaque monkeys by injecting retrograde tracers into grasp zones identified in M1, PMv, and area 2 with long train electrical stimulation. The M1 grasp zone was densely connected with other frontal cortex motor regions. The remainder of the connections originated from somatosensory areas 3a and S2/PV, and from the medial bank and fundus of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The PMv grasp zone was also densely connected with frontal cortex motor regions, albeit to a lesser extent than the M1 grasp zone. The remainder of the connections originated from areas S2/PV and aspects of the inferior parietal lobe such as PF, PFG, AIP, and the tip of the IPS. The area 2 grasp zone was densely connected with the hand representations of somatosensory areas 3b, 1, and S2/PV. The remainder of the connections was with areas 3a and 5 and the medial bank and fundus of the IPS. Connections with frontal cortex were relatively weak and concentrated in caudal M1. Thus, the three grasp zones may be nodes of parallel parietal-frontal pathways. Differential points of origin and termination of each pathway suggest varying functional specializations. Direct and indirect connections between those parietal-frontal pathways likely coordinate their respective functions into an accurate grasp. PMID:21832196

  1. Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Young, Jesse W

    2011-11-01

    Physical anthropologists have devoted considerable attention to the structure and function of the primate prehensile tail. Nevertheless, previous morphological studies have concentrated solely on adults, despite behavioral evidence that among many primate taxa, including capuchin monkeys, infants and juveniles use their prehensile tails during a greater number and greater variety of positional behaviors than do adults. In this study, we track caudal vertebral growth in a mixed longitudinal sample of white-fronted and brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella). We hypothesized that young capuchins would have relatively robust caudal vertebrae, affording them greater tail strength for more frequent tail-suspension behaviors. Our results supported this hypothesis. Caudal vertebral bending strength (measured as polar section modulus at midshaft) scaled to body mass with negative allometry, while craniocaudal length scaled to body mass with positive allometry, indicating that infant and juvenile capuchin monkeys are characterized by particularly strong caudal vertebrae for their body size. These findings complement previous results showing that long bone strength similarly scales with negative ontogenetic allometry in capuchin monkeys and add to a growing body of literature documenting the synergy between postcranial growth and the changing locomotor demands of maturing animals. Although expanded morphometric data on tail growth and behavioral data on locomotor development are required, the results of this study suggest that the adult capuchin prehensile-tail phenotype may be attributable, at least in part, to selection on juvenile performance, a possibility that deserves further attention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler breeding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheliya, S N; Kalashnikova, V A; Dzhikidze, E K

    2011-10-01

    We studied etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler nursery. A total of 533 monkeys with diarrhea syndrome and monkeys dead from intestinal infections, as well as clinically healthy monkeys and animals dead from other pathologies were examined by bacteriological and molecular-genetic methods. Pathogenic enterobacteria Shigella and Salmonella and microaerophile Campylobacter were found in 5 and 19%, respectively. A high percentage (49%) of intestinal diseases of unknown etiology was revealed in monkeys. The fact that the number of detected opportunistic enterobacteria did not differ in healthy and diseased monkeys suggests that they are not involved into the etiology of intestinal disease.

  3. Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnow Tandy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.

  4. Increased positive selection pressure within the complementarity determining regions of the T-cell receptor β gene in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Takaji; Fujii, Yoshiki; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Satsuki; Tsuruta, Yuji; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Kurane, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2011-10-01

    Because of the long-term co-evolution of TCR and MHC molecules, numerous nucleotide substitutions have accumulated within the domains of TCRβ genes. We previously found that nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions occurred more frequently in complementarity determining region (CDR)β than in CDRα, even though only a limited number of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and human T-cell receptor β variable (TRBV) sequences were compared. This interesting finding raised the question of whether the increased selective pressure within CDRβ was species-specific. In this study, we identified 21 TRBV region sequences from the common marmoset and performed comparative sequence analyses of the T-cell receptor α variable (TRAV) and TRBV regions from human, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, cotton-top tamarin, Ma's night monkey, and common marmoset. The ratios of the number of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions per site (d(N) ) to the d(S) values (d(N) /d(S) ) were less than 1 within the framework regions (FRs) of TRAV and TRBV region sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is largely dominant within the FRs. In contrast, the d(N) values were statistically significantly greater for CDRβ than for CDRα only in New World monkeys. Also, increased d(N) /d(S) ratios (d(N) /d(S) >1) were observed within CDRβ between humans and New World monkeys and, interestingly, between New World monkeys, which share a relatively recent common ancestor. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood analysis provided firm evidence to support that positive selection occurred within CDRβ along New World monkey lineages. These results suggest that increased positive selection pressure within CDRβ is common in New World monkeys rather than being species-specific. This study provides an intriguing insight into the co-evolution of TCR and MHC molecules within primates. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Loss of D2 receptor binding with age in rhesus monkeys: importance of correction for differences in striatal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E D; Chefer, S I; Lane, M A; Muzic, R F; Wong, D F; Dannals, R F; Matochik, J A; Bonab, A A; Villemagne, V L; Grant, S J; Ingram, D K; Roth, G S; London, E D

    1999-02-01

    The relation between striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and aging was investigated in rhesus monkeys with PET. Monkeys (n = 18, 39 to 360 months of age) were scanned with 11C-raclopride; binding potential in the striatum was estimated graphically. Because our magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed a concomitant relation between size of striatum and age, the dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data were corrected for possible partial volume (PV) artifacts before parameter estimation. The age-related decline in binding potential was 1% per year and was smaller than the apparent effect if the age-related change in size was ignored. This is the first in vivo demonstration of a decline in dopamine receptor binding in nonhuman primates. The rate of decline in binding potential is consistent with in vitro findings in monkeys but smaller than what has been measured previously in humans using PET. Previous PET studies in humans, however, have not corrected for PV error, although a decline in striatal size with age has been demonstrated. The results of this study suggest that PV correction must be applied to PET data to accurately detect small changes in receptor binding that may occur in parallel with structural changes in the brain.

  6. Data-driven analysis of analogous brain networks in monkeys and humans during natural vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Corbetta, Maurizio; Romani, Gian Luca; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-11-15

    Inferences about functional correspondences between functional networks of human and non-human primates largely rely on proximity and anatomical expansion models. However, it has been demonstrated that topologically correspondent areas in two species can have different functional properties, suggesting that anatomy-based approaches should be complemented with alternative methods to perform functional comparisons. We have recently shown that comparative analyses based on temporal correlations of sensory-driven fMRI responses can reveal functional correspondent areas in monkeys and humans without relying on spatial assumptions. Inter-species activity correlation (ISAC) analyses require the definition of seed areas in one species to reveal functional correspondences across the cortex of the same and other species. Here we propose an extension of the ISAC method that does not rely on any seed definition, hence a method void of any spatial assumption. Specifically, we apply independent component analysis (ICA) separately to monkey and human data to define species-specific networks of areas with coherent stimulus-related activity. Then, we use a hierarchical cluster analysis to identify ICA-based ISAC clusters of monkey and human networks with similar timecourses. We implemented this approach on fMRI data collected in monkeys and humans during movie watching, a condition that evokes widespread sensory-driven activity throughout large portions of the cortex. Using ICA-based ISAC, we detected seven monkey-human clusters. The timecourses of several clusters showed significant correspondences either with the motion energy in the movie or with eye-movement parameters. Five of the clusters spanned putative homologous functional networks in either primary or extrastriate visual regions, whereas two clusters included higher-level visual areas at topological locations that are not predicted by cortical surface expansion models. Overall, our ICA-based ISAC analysis complemented

  7. Gonadal and nongonadal mechanisms contribute to the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C R; deRidder, C M; Plant, T M

    1995-07-01

    The present study reexamined the role of the ovary in determining the prepubertal hiatus of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Day- and nighttime blood samples were obtained weekly from neonatally (7-10 days of age) ovariectomized and intact monkeys from birth until 3 yr of age. In the intact monkeys, plasma FSH levels increased during the first month of life, remained elevated until approximately 3 months of age, and then decreased to become undetectable by 7 months of age. Thereafter, plasma FSH remained undetectable until approximately 19 months of age, at which time it again increased to detectable concentrations. In animals ovariectomized as neonates, the developmental pattern in FSH secretion was similar to that in intact animals, but, quantitatively, mean plasma FSH concentrations in the agonadal females were greater than those in the intact control group at all times. Circulating daytime LH concentrations in intact animals were generally below the sensitivity of the assay during the neonatal and prepubertal phases of development, but after 27 months of age, this plasma hormone was measurable on occasion. In neonatally ovariectomized monkeys, daytime LH was elevated during the first month of life, undetectable between 2-20 months of age, and then rose into the adult range by the end of the study. Nocturnal plasma FSH and LH concentrations in agonadal monkeys were generally greater than those during the day at all stages of development. Of particular note was the finding that during the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion, when daytime LH levels were mostly immeasurable, nighttime levels of this gonadotropin were consistently elevated. The hypersecretion of gonadotropin during prepubertal development in agonadal animals also occurred when ovariectomy was performed at 61-62 weeks of age. These findings demonstrate that in the female monkey, the open loop activity of the GnRH pulse generator during juvenile development is only partially

  8. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus.

  9. In vivo individual variations in pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for cytochrome P450 2C9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Kitsugi, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kanami; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hosaka, Shinya; Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are used frequently in preclinical studies for new drug development due to their evolutionary closeness to humans. An antiretroviral drug, efavirenz, is a typical probe substrate for human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B6, but is mainly metabolized by cynomolgus monkey P450 2C9. In this study, plasma concentrations of efavirenz were assessed in six cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for P450 2C9 c.334 A > C (I112L) (three wild-type, one heterozygote and two homozygotes) by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. After intravenous administration at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg, biphasic plasma elimination curves of efavirenz were seen in these cynomolgus monkeys. The mean plasma concentration of the primary metabolite 8-hydroxyefavirenz (1 h after treatment, with hydrolysis by β-glucuronidase) in the wild-type group was significantly higher (4.0-fold) than the combined heterozygous and homozygous group mean. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve value of efavirenz in the homozygous group after oral administration at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg was significantly higher (2.0-fold) than the combined wild-type and heterozygous group. These results collectively indicated that P450 2C9 c.334 A > C (I112L) variation was associated with efavirenz metabolic clearance in vivo. Cynomolgus P450 2C9 polymorphism might account for interindividual variations of efavirenz metabolism in cynomolgus monkeys. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Simian malaria in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: first description of natural infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebinae subfamily) by Plasmodium simium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; de Sousa, Taís Nóbrega; Pissinatti, Alcides; Zalis, Mariano G; Suaréz-Mutis, Martha C; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Brasil, Patrícia; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2015-02-18

    In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting non-human primates, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. These species are morphologically, genetically and immunologically indistinguishable from the human Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax parasites, respectively. Plasmodium simium has been observed naturally infecting monkeys of the genera Alouatta and Brachyteles in a restricted area of the Atlantic Forest in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. However, its reported geographical distribution and the diversity of its vertebrate hosts may be underestimated, since available data were largely based on analyses by microscopic examination of peripheral blood, a method with limited sensitivity, considering the potential sub-patent feature of these infections. The present study describes, for the first time, the natural infection of P. simium in capuchin monkeys from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Blood samples from 30 non-human primates belonging to nine species kept in the Primate Centre of Rio de Janeiro were collected. Fragments of spleen and liver from one dead monkey found in the neighborhoods of the Primate Centre were also analysed. Molecular diagnosis was performed by nested PCR (18SSU rRNA) and the amplified fragment was sequenced. Thirty per cent of the captive animals were infected with P. simium and/or P. brasilianum. The dead monkey tested positive for DNA of P. simium. For the first time, Cebinae primates (two specimens of genus Cebus and two of genus Sapajos) were found naturally infected by P. simium. The infection was confirmed by sequencing a small fragment of 18SSU rRNA. The results highlight the possibility of infection by P. simium in other species of non-human primates whose impact could be significant for the malaria epidemiology among non-human primates and, if it becomes clear that this P. simium is able to infect monkeys and, eventually, man, also for the maintenance of transmission of human malaria in

  11. Seroepidemiological survey of pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Une, Yumi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Takahide; Hayashidani, Hideki

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys, the serum samples of 252 squirrel monkeys from 9 zoological gardens in Japan were tested by ELISA using plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer membrane protein (Yops) as the antigen. The cutoff value was calculated by using the serum samples of the squirrel monkeys from Suriname, where no prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia have been reported. According to the cutoff value, 164 of 252 (65.1%) squirrel monkeys were considered positive against pathogenic Yersinia. These positive monkeys belonged to 8 of the 9 zoological gardens, and the percentage of the seropositive monkeys ranged from 22.2 to 89.4%. Furthermore, in one zoological garden, the positive rate of the squirrel monkeys which were over 1 year old (95.7%) was significantly higher than those which were under 1 year old (23.3%). These results suggested that pathogenic Yersinia is highly prevalent among breeding monkeys in Japan.

  12. Comparative distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cândido, Paulo Laino; Sita, Luciane Valéria; do Nascimento, Expedito Silva; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; de Oliveira Costa, Miriam Stela Maris; Bittencourt, Jackson Cioni; Elias, Carol Fuzeti

    2011-11-24

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely distributed in the brain of many species. In the hypothalamus, CART neurotransmission has been implicated in diverse functions including energy balance, stress response, and temperature and endocrine regulation. Although some studies have been performed in primates, very little is known about the distribution of CART neurons in New World monkeys. New World monkeys are good models for systems neuroscience, as some species have evolved several behavioral and anatomical characteristics shared with humans, including diurnal and social habits, intense maternal care, complex manipulative abilities and well-developed frontal cortices. In the present study, we assessed the distribution of CART mRNA and peptide in the hypothalamus of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We found that the distribution of hypothalamic CART neurons in these monkeys is similar to what has been described for rodents and humans, but some relevant differences were noticed. Only in capuchin monkeys CART neurons were observed in the suprachiasmatic and the intercalatus nuclei, whereas only in marmoset CART neurons were observed in the dorsal anterior nucleus. We also found that the only in marmoset displayed CART neurons in the periventricular preoptic nucleus and in an area seemingly comprising the premammillary nucleus. These hypothalamic sites are both well defined in rodents but poorly defined in humans. Our findings indicate that CART expression in hypothalamic neurons is conserved across species but the identified differences suggest that CART is also involved in the control of species-specific related functions.

  13. Effects of apelin and vascular endothelial growth factor on central retinal vein occlusion in monkey eyes intravitreally injected with bevacizumab: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Lu, Qiang; Tao, Yong; Liang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the intraocular distribution of bevacizumab at four weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection and to investigate the effects of IVB on apelin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) of monkey eyes. Methods Direct laser coagulation was performed on all branch retinal veins in the right eyes of six Rhesus monkeys to establish a CRVO model. The eyes of the first three monkeys were enucleated one week, two weeks, and 24 weeks after the establishment of the CRVO model; this was the CRVO group. Subsequently, IVB was injected into the eyes of the last three monkeys one week, two weeks, and 24 weeks after laser coagulation; this was the IVB group. The left eye of the first monkey was used as normal control. Immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription PCR was used to examine the expression of apelin and VEGF. The penetration of bevacizumab into the retina and iris was investigated by fluorescence immunostaining. Results Immunoreactivity for bevacizumab could be detected in the vessel walls of the iris and choroid on day 28 after injecting IVB: apelin and VEGF staining had been more prominent than normal in the CRVO eye, but these decreased following IVB injection. Expression of apelin mRNA (pretinal neovascularization during the development of CRVO. PMID:21552499

  14. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  15. The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees ), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).

  16. Behavioral effects in monkeys of racemates of two biologically active marijuana constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckel, C L; Boff, E; Dahlen, P; Smart, T

    1968-06-28

    Both dl-Delta(8)- and dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol produced marked alterations of behavior in rhesus and squirrel monkeys. Squirrel monkeys appeared to have visual hallucinations. Continuous avoidance behavior of squirrel monkeys was stimulated by both drugs, but high doses of dl-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol also caused depression after the stimulant phase. Complex behavior involving memory and visual discrimination in rhesus monkeys was markedly disrupted by both drugs.

  17. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  18. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  19. NUTRITIONAL CYTOPENIA (VITAMIN M DEFICIENCY) IN THE MONKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W C; Darby, W J; Shukers, C F; Day, P L

    1938-10-31

    Young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given a diet containing casein, polished rice, whole wheat, salt mixture, sodium chloride, cod liver oil, and ascorbic acid. They developed a syndrome characterized by anemia, leukopenia, and loss of weight. Ulceration of the gums and diarrhea were common, and death occurred between the 26th and 100th day. 4 monkeys were given the deficient diet supplemented with 1 mg. of riboflavin daily, and these developed the characteristic signs and died. in periods of time similar to the survival of monkeys receiving the deficient diet alone. Nicotinic acid, either alone or in combination with riboflavin and thiamin chloride, failed to alter appreciably the course of the deficiency manifestations. Thus, it is evident that this nutritional cytopenia is not the result of a deficiency of vitamin B, riboflavin, or nicotinic acid. The deficient diet supplemented with either 10 gm. of dried brewers' yeast or 2 gm. of liver extract (Cohn fraction G) daily supported good growth, permitted normal body development, and maintained a normal blood picture over long periods. It is obvious that yeast and liver extract contain a substance essential to the nutrition of the monkey which is not identical with any of those factors of the vitamin B complex that have been chemically identified. We have proposed the term vitamin M for this factor which prevents nutritional cytopenia in the monkey.

  20. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  1. Selective hippocampal lesions yield nonspatial memory impairments in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, F Y; Thornton, J A; White, N M; Murray, E A

    1998-01-01

    Monkeys with removals of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures are widely recognized as valid models of human global anterograde amnesia, a syndrome that arises consequent to damage to a finite set of brain structures situated in the medial temporal lobe and/or medial diencephalon. However, a comparison of memory deficits in human and nonhuman primates with MTL damage has presented a long-standing puzzle. Whereas amnesic patients are impaired in learning object discrimination problems, monkeys with MTL damage are typically not. One possible explanation for this difference is that object discrimination tasks for humans and monkeys differ in that the former but not the latter requires the use of contextual information. If this analysis is correct, monkeys with MTL damage might be disadvantaged in learning to discriminate similar objects presented in different contexts. To test this possibility, we evaluated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of one of the MTL structures, the hippocampus, on the rate of learning of discrimination problems embedded within unique contexts. Monkeys with hippocampal lesions were impaired relative to controls in learning object discrimination problems of this type. These findings strongly support the idea that the difference in the effect on object memory of MTL damage in human and nonhuman primates is due to a difference in the opportunity to employ contextual cues rather than to a difference in the organization of memory.

  2. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  3. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  4. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  5. Stimulation of the nucleus accumbens as behavioral reward in awake behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichot, Narcisse P; Heard, Matthew T; Desimone, Robert

    2011-08-15

    It has been known that monkeys will repeatedly press a bar for electrical stimulation in several different brain structures. We explored the possibility of using electrical stimulation in one such structure, the nucleus accumbens, as a substitute for liquid reward in animals performing a complex task, namely visual search. The animals had full access to water in the cage at all times on days when stimulation was used to motivate them. Electrical stimulation was delivered bilaterally at mirror locations in and around the accumbens, and the animals' motivation to work for electrical stimulation was quantified by the number of trials they performed correctly per unit of time. Acute mapping revealed that stimulation over a large area successfully supported behavioral performance during the task. Performance improved with increasing currents until it reached an asymptotic, theoretically maximal level. Moreover, stimulation with chronically implanted electrodes showed that an animal's motivation to work for electrical stimulation was at least equivalent to, and often better than, when it worked for liquid reward while on water control. These results suggest that electrical stimulation in the accumbens is a viable method of reward in complex tasks. Because this method of reward does not necessitate control over water or food intake, it may offer an alternative to the traditional liquid or food rewards in monkeys, depending on the goals and requirements of the particular research project.

  6. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  7. Fanjing Mountain:the Only Home of the Guizhou Golden Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    2000-01-01

    THE Guizhou golden monkey is one of three breeds of golden monkey (the others are in Sichuan and Yunnan) that are found only in China, and is an extremely rare and precious wild animal. Inhabiting a very small area around Guizhou's Fanjing Mountain, there are only about 750 monkeys in existence making it

  8. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  9. A sensitive and accurate method for the determination of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human serum using a high performance liquid chromatography-online solid phase extraction-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Patel, Bhupendra; Palencia, Marilou; Fan, Zhihua Tina

    2017-01-13

    A selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical method for the measurement of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum, utilizing LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry), was developed and validated according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for biological sample analysis. Tests were conducted to determine the optimal analytical column, mobile phase composition and pH, gradient program, and cleaning procedure. The final analytical column selected for analysis was an extra densely bonded silica-packed reverse-phase column (Agilent XDB-C8, 3.0×100mm, 3.5μm). Mobile phase A was an aqueous buffer solution containing 10mM ammonium acetate (pH=4.3). Mobile phase B was a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (1:1, v/v). The gradient program was programmed by initiating a fast elution (%B, from 40 to 65%) between 1.0 and 1.5min, followed by a slow elution (%B: 65-80%) in the period of 1.5-7.5min. The cleanup procedures were augmented by cleaning with (1) various solvents (isopropyl alcohol, methanol, acetonitrile, and reverse osmosis-purified water); (2) extensive washing steps for the autosampler and solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge; and (3) a post-analysis cleaning step for the whole system. Under the above conditions, the resolution and sensitivity were significantly improved. Twelve target PFASs were baseline-separated (2.5-7.0min) within a 10-min of acquisition time. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.01ng/mL or lower for all of the target compounds, making this method 5 times more sensitive than previously published methods. The newly developed method was validated in the linear range of 0.01-50ng/mL, and the accuracy (recovery between 80 and 120%) and precision (RSD<20%) were acceptable at three spiked levels (0.25, 2.5, and 25ng/mL). The method development and validation results demonstrated that this method was precise, accurate, and robust, with high-throughput (∼10min per

  10. Distinct neural patterns enable grasp types decoding in monkey dorsal premotor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Li, Yue; Li, Juncheng; Zhang, Shaomin; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Chiara Carrozza, Maria; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial grasp pathway, is involved in grasp movements. However, the neural ensemble firing property of PMd during grasp movements and the extent to which it can be used for grasp decoding are still unclear. Approach. To address these issues, we used multielectrode arrays to record both spike and local field potential (LFP) signals in PMd in macaque monkeys performing reaching and grasping of one of four differently shaped objects. Main results. Single and population neuronal activity showed distinct patterns during execution of different grip types. Cluster analysis of neural ensemble signals indicated that the grasp related patterns emerged soon (200-300 ms) after the go cue signal, and faded away during the hold period. The timing and duration of the patterns varied depending on the behaviors of individual monkey. Application of support vector machine model to stable activity patterns revealed classification accuracies of 94% and 89% for each of the two monkeys, indicating a robust, decodable grasp pattern encoded in the PMd. Grasp decoding using LFPs, especially the high-frequency bands, also produced high decoding accuracies. Significance. This study is the first to specify the neuronal population encoding of grasp during the time course of grasp. We demonstrate high grasp decoding performance in PMd. These findings, combined with previous evidence for reach related modulation studies, suggest that PMd may play an important role in generation and maintenance of grasp action and may be a suitable locus for brain-machine interface applications.

  11. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  12. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.; Lusink, G.

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  13. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-08-16

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1-6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  14. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.; Santelli, S.

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  15. Dyskinesias evoked in monkeys by weekly administration of haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S

    1978-05-19

    In two cebus (Cebus albifrons) monkeys given weekly oral doses of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram, movement disorders appeared 1 to 8 hours after drug administration following the tenth weekly dose. These disorders included oral movements, peculiar postures, writhing, and stretching. Such reactions faded in intensity after the next two doses. Increasing the dose to 0.5 milligram per kilogram has elicited the disorders reliably after each weekly dose for almost 2 years. Similar reactions also developed in a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) treated weekly with haloperidol and in a third cebus monkey previously maintained for a year on a regimen of 0.25 milligram of haloperidol per kilogram on 5 days per week. These findings suggest an experimental model for determining the etiology of drug-induced movement disorders. They also suggest an unrecognized clinical problem.

  16. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head containing inserted needles. We also image the coronal and axial sections of a 7-month-old monkey head. Brain features that are 3 cm deep in the head are imaged clearly. Our results demonstrate that TAT has potential for use in portable, cost-effective imagers for pediatric brains.

  17. Predation of wild spider monkeys at La Macarena, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Izawa, Kosei

    2008-01-01

    The killing of an adult male spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth ) by a jaguar (Panthera onca) and a predation attempt by a puma (Felis concolor) on an adult female spider monkey have been observed at the CIEM (Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena), La Macarena, Colombia. These incidents occurred directly in front of an observer, even though it is said that predation under direct observation on any type of primate rarely occurs. On the basis of a review of the literature, and the observations reported here, we suggest that jaguars and pumas are likely to be the only significant potential predators on adult spider monkeys, probably because of their large body size.

  18. Neural Monkey: An Open-source Tool for Sequence Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcl Jindřich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we announce the development of Neural Monkey – an open-source neural machine translation (NMT and general sequence-to-sequence learning system built over the TensorFlow machine learning library. The system provides a high-level API tailored for fast prototyping of complex architectures with multiple sequence encoders and decoders. Models’ overall architecture is specified in easy-to-read configuration files. The long-term goal of the Neural Monkey project is to create and maintain a growing collection of implementations of recently proposed components or methods, and therefore it is designed to be easily extensible. Trained models can be deployed either for batch data processing or as a web service. In the presented paper, we describe the design of the system and introduce the reader to running experiments using Neural Monkey.

  19. Oct-4 expression in pluripotent cells of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat M; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Hennebold, Jon D; Wolf, Don P

    2003-12-01

    The POU (Pit-Oct-Unc)-domain transcription factor, Oct-4, has become a useful marker of pluripotency in the mouse. It is found exclusively in mouse preimplantation-stage embryos after embryonic genome activation and is a characteristic of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and its absence in knockout mice precludes inner cell mass (ICM) formation in blastocysts. Expression of Oct-4 has also been associated with pluripotency in primate cells. Here, we undertook a systematic study of Oct-4 expression in rhesus macaque preimplantation embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in ES cells before and after exposure to differentiating conditions in vitro. We also evaluated Oct-4 expression as a means of monitoring the extent of reprogramming following somatic cell nuclear transfer. Oct-4 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry with a monoclonal antibody. Monkey pronuclear-stage zygotes and cleaving embryos up to the 8-cell stage showed no detectable Oct-4. Nuclear staining for Oct-4 first became obvious at the 16-cell stage, and a strong signal was observed in morula and compact morula stages. Both ICM and trophectodermal cell nuclei of monkey early blastocysts were positive for Oct-4. However, the signal was diminished in trophectodermal cells of expanded blastocysts, whereas expression remained high in ICM nuclei. Similar to the mouse, hatched monkey blastocysts showed strong Oct-4 expression in the ICM, with no detectable signal in the trophectoderm. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells derived from the ICM of in vitro-produced blastocysts expressed Oct-4, consistent with their pluripotent nature, whereas ES cell differentiation was associated with signal loss. Therefore, Oct-4 expression in the monkey, as in the mouse, provides a useful marker for pluripotency after activation of the embryonic genome. Finally, the observed lack or abnormal expression of Oct-4 in monkey nuclear transfer embryos suggests

  20. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhao; Fauzia Akbary; Shengli Li; Jing Lu; Feng Ling; Xunming Ji; Guowei Shang; Jian Chen; Xiaokun Geng; Xin Ye; Guoxun Xu; Ju Wang; Jiasheng Zheng; Hongjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiol-ogy in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group:middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood lfow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood lfow was restored. A revers-ible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identiifed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symp-toms of neurological deifcits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental ifndings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the ifeld of brain injury research.

  1. Atlas-guided segmentation of vervet monkey brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model.

  2. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-12-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research.

  3. Characteristics of histologically confirmed endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto-Kakiuchi, A.; Netsu, S.; Matsuo, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ito, T.; Okabayashi, S.; Yasmin, L.; Yuzawa, K.; Kondoh, O.; Kato, A.; Suzuki, M.; Konno, R.; Sankai, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the characteristics of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys? SUMMARY ANSWER Spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys exhibited similar characteristics to the human disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY One previous report described the prevalence and the basic histopathology of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Endometriotic lesions that had been histologically confirmed in 8 female cynomolgus monkeys between 5 and 21 years old were subjected to study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The monkeys died of, or were sacrificed because of, sickness consequent on endometriosis. Specimens were evaluated histopathologically with haematoxylin and eosin staining, iron staining and immunohistochemistry (CD10, CD31, α-SMA and PGP9.5), and by observing them under a microscope. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endometriotic and stromal cells (CD10-positive) with haemorrhage and inflammation were observed. Smooth muscle metaplasia and nerve fibres were also noted in the endometriotic lesions. Endometriotic lesions in lymph nodes were incidentally found. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Since laparoscopic analysis for monitoring the disease state was not set as a parameter of the current study, time course changes (progression) of the disease were not assessed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Further investigation of spontaneous endometriosis in cynomolgus monkeys may contribute to better understanding of the disease pathobiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) No external funds were used for this study. A.N.K., S.M., S.H., T.I., O.K., A.K. and M.S. are full-time employees of Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. R.K. received lecture fees from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., unrelated to the submitted work. S.N., S. O., L.Y., K.Y. and T.S. have nothing to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER N/A. PMID:27591226

  4. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model. PMID:22253661

  5. Stereopsis and disparity vergence in monkeys with subnormal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwerth, R S; Smith, E L; Crawford, M L; von Noorden, G K

    1997-02-01

    The surgical treatment for strabismus in infants generally results in microtropia or subnormal binocular vision. Although the clinical characteristics of these conditions are well established, there are important questions about the mechanisms of binocular vision in these patients that can best be investigated in an appropriate animal model. In the present psychophysical investigations, spatial frequency response functions for disparity-induced fusional vergence and for local stereopsis were studied in macaque monkeys, who demonstrated many of the major visual characteristics of patients whose eyes were surgically aligned during infancy. In six rhesus monkeys, unilateral esotropia was surgically induced at various ages (30-184 days of age). However, over the next 12 months, all of the monkeys recovered normal eye alignment. Behavioral measurements at 4-6 years of age showed that the monkeys' prism-induced fusional vergence responses were indistinguishable from those of control monkeys or humans with normal binocular vision. Investigations of stereo-depth discrimination demonstrated that each of the experimental monkeys also had stereoscopic vision, but their stereoacuities varied from being essentially normal to severely stereo-deficient. The degree of stereo-deficiency was not related to the age at which surgical esotropia was induced, or to the presence or absence of amblyopia, and was not dependent on the spatial frequency of the test stimulus. Altogether, these experiments demonstrate that a temporary, early esotropia can affect the binocular disparity responses of motor and sensory components of binocular vision differently, probably because of different sensitive periods of development for the two components.

  6. Accurate ab initio spin densities

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Legeza, Örs; Reiher, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CA...

  7. Accurate Modeling of Advanced Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min

    Analysis and optimization methods for the design of advanced printed re ectarrays have been investigated, and the study is focused on developing an accurate and efficient simulation tool. For the analysis, a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency can be obtained using the spectral domain...... to the POT. The GDOT can optimize for the size as well as the orientation and position of arbitrarily shaped array elements. Both co- and cross-polar radiation can be optimized for multiple frequencies, dual polarization, and several feed illuminations. Several contoured beam reflectarrays have been designed...... using the GDOT to demonstrate its capabilities. To verify the accuracy of the GDOT, two offset contoured beam reflectarrays that radiate a high-gain beam on a European coverage have been designed and manufactured, and subsequently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility...

  8. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  9. A brain-machine interface enables bimanual arm movements in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifft, Peter J; Shokur, Solaiman; Li, Zheng; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2013-11-06

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are artificial systems that aim to restore sensation and movement to paralyzed patients. So far, BMIs have enabled only one arm to be moved at a time. Control of bimanual arm movements remains a major challenge. We have developed and tested a bimanual BMI that enables rhesus monkeys to control two avatar arms simultaneously. The bimanual BMI was based on the extracellular activity of 374 to 497 neurons recorded from several frontal and parietal cortical areas of both cerebral hemispheres. Cortical activity was transformed into movements of the two arms with a decoding algorithm called a fifth-order unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The UKF was trained either during a manual task performed with two joysticks or by having the monkeys passively observe the movements of avatar arms. Most cortical neurons changed their modulation patterns when both arms were engaged simultaneously. Representing the two arms jointly in a single UKF decoder resulted in improved decoding performance compared with using separate decoders for each arm. As the animals' performance in bimanual BMI control improved over time, we observed widespread plasticity in frontal and parietal cortical areas. Neuronal representation of the avatar and reach targets was enhanced with learning, whereas pairwise correlations between neurons initially increased and then decreased. These results suggest that cortical networks may assimilate the two avatar arms through BMI control. These findings should help in the design of more sophisticated BMIs capable of enabling bimanual motor control in human patients.

  10. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  11. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-03-29

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  12. Infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons) with Herpesvirus saimiri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, H; Pearson, G R; Wallen, W C; Neubauer, R H; Cicmanec, J L; Orr, T W

    1975-03-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) induced persistent, clinically inapparent infections of long-term duration in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons). The infections were characterized by development of antibody to HVS-associated antigens and recovery of low levels of virus-genome-carrying lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Peripheral lymphocyte counts remained in low-normal to normal ranges and no physical signs of lymphoma were evident. Prednisolone treatment caused immunosuppression in one monkey; this was accompanied by a progressive loss of humoral antibody to HVS-associated antigens, but neoplastic disease did not develop.

  13. Electroretinogram measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, J; Jacobs, G H

    1984-12-01

    The corneal electroretinogram (ERG) was used to investigate the spectral sensitivities of cones in 12 dichromatic squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) whose color-vision capacities were established in behavioral tests. Three different varieties of dichromacy were represented among these animals. A flicker-photometric procedure was used in which the ERG response to a rapidly flickering monochromatic test light was compared with the response elicited by a similarly flickering reference light. The spectral-sensitivity functions obtained by the use of this technique are similar to previous estimates of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic squirrel monkeys derived from direct microspectrophotometric measurements.

  14. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  15. Terminal leptospirosis in a woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana González A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A captive woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha displayed severe lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, leukopenia, hypoproteinemia, severe azotemia and positive Leptospira IgM ELISA. The monkey was humanely euthanized and the necropsy revealed a multifocal tubulointerstitial glomerulonephritis; in addition to splenic lymphoid depletion, and interstitial pneumonia, all of which are compatible with leptospirosis. Rodent control and biosecurity measures should be done at all zoological collections in order to prevent transmission to facility personnel and to threatened mammals maintained in captivity.

  16. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  17. Rhesus monkey brain imaging through intact skull with thermoacoustic tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is applied to imaging the Rhesus monkey brain through the intact skull. To reduce the wavefront distortion caused by the skull, only the low-frequency components of the thermoacoustic signals (< 1 MHz) are used to reconstruct the TAT images. The methods of signal processing and image reconstruction are validated by imaging a lamb kidney. The resolution of the system is found to be 4 mm when we image a 1-month-old monkey head co...

  18. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, L R; DiLoreto, C; Leite, M C; Wakamatsu, A; Santos, R T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2000-09-01

    Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).

  19. Accurate spike time prediction from LFP in monkey visual cortex: A non-linear system identification approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostoglou, K.; Hadjipapas, A.; Lowet, E.; Roberts, M.; de Weerd, P.; Mitsis, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The relationship between collective population activity (LFP) and spikes underpins network computation, yet it remains poorly understood. Previous studies utilized pre-defined LFP features to predict spiking from simultaneously recorded LFP, and have reported good prediction of spike bursts bu

  20. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  1. Quantitative analysis of postnatal neurogenesis and neuron number in the macaque monkey dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabès, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G.; Lavenex, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of only two regions of the mammalian brain where substantial neurogenesis occurs postnatally. However, detailed quantitative information about the postnatal structural maturation of the primate dentate gyrus is meager. We performed design-based, stereological studies of neuron number and size, and volume of the dentate gyrus layers in rhesus macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of different postnatal ages. We found that about 40% of the total number of granule cells observed in mature 5–10-year-old macaque monkeys are added to the granule cell layer postnatally; 25% of these neurons are added within the first three postnatal months. Accordingly, cell proliferation and neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus peak within the first three months after birth and remain at an intermediate level between three months and at least one year of age. Although granule cell bodies undergo their largest increase in size during the first year of life, cell size and the volume of the three layers of the dentate gyrus (i.e., the molecular, granule cell and polymorphic layers) continue to increase beyond one year of age. Moreover, the different layers of the dentate gyrus exhibit distinct volumetric changes during postnatal development. Finally, we observe significant levels of cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell death in the context of an overall stable number of granule cells in mature 5–10-year-old monkeys. These data identify an extended developmental period during which neurogenesis might be modulated to significantly impact the structure and function of the dentate gyrus in adulthood. PMID:20074220

  2. [(11)C]MADAM, a new serotonin transporter radioligand characterized in the monkey brain by PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Christer; Lundberg, Johan; Sóvágó, Judit; Gulyás, Balázs; Guilloteau, Denis; Vercouillie, Johnny; Emond, Patrick; Chalon, Sylvie; Tarkiainen, Jari; Hiltunen, Jukka; Farde, Lars

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a new selective serotonin transporter (5-HTT) inhibitor, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-methylphenylthio)benzylamine (MADAM, K(i)=1.65 nM), as a PET radioligand for examination of 5-HTT in the nonhuman primate brain. MADAM was radiolabeled by an N-methylation reaction using [(11)C]methyl triflate and the binding was characterized by PET in four cynomolgus monkeys. Metabolite levels in plasma were measured by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The radiochemical incorporation yield of [(11)C]MADAM was 75-80% and the specific radioactivity at the time of administration was 34-652 GBq/micromol (n=8). The highest uptake of radioactivity was observed in striatum, thalamus, mesencephalon, and the lower brainstem. Lower binding was detected in neocortex and the lowest radioactive uptake was found in the cerebellum. This distribution is in accordance with the known expression of 5-HTT in vitro. The fraction of the total radioactivity in monkey plasma representing unchanged [(11)C]MADAM was 20% at 45 min after injection, as measured by gradient HPLC. Pretreatment measurements, using unlabeled citalopram, GBR 12909, and maprotiline, as well as a displacement measurement, using unlabeled MADAM, confirmed that [(11)C]MADAM binds selectively and reversibly to 5-HTT, and support the use of the cerebellum as reference region. The present characterization of binding in the monkey brain suggests that [(11)C]MADAM is a potential PET radioligand for quantitative studies of 5-HTT binding in the human brain.

  3. Influence of experimental history on nicotine self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rajeev I; Sullivan, Katherine A; Kohut, Stephen J; Bergman, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Methods for establishing robust long-term self-administration of intravenous (i.v.) nicotine, the primary psychoactive agent in tobacco, are not well-established in laboratory animals. Here, we examine the use of a fading procedure to establish robust and consistent i.v. nicotine self-administration under second-order schedule conditions in squirrel monkeys. First, self-administration behavior was developed in two groups of male squirrel monkeys using a second-order fixed-interval 5-min schedule with fixed-ratio 5 units (FI 5-min (FR5: S)). Comparable performances were maintained by i.v. cocaine (0.032 mg/kg/injection (inj); group A, n = 3) and the combination of food delivery (20-30 % condensed milk) and 0.01 mg/kg/inj i.v. nicotine (group B, n = 3). Subsequently, the concentration of condensed milk was gradually reduced to zero in the second group and self-administration behavior was maintained by i.v. nicotine alone. Next, self-administration of a range of doses of i.v. nicotine (0.001-0.032 mg/kg/inj) and, in additional experiments, the minor tobacco alkaloid anatabine (0.01-0.18 mg/kg/inj) was studied in both groups. Results show that nicotine and anatabine had reinforcing effects in both groups. However, optimal doses of nicotine and anatabine maintained significantly higher rates of i.v. self-administration behavior in subjects trained with the fading procedure than in subjects provided with a history of cocaine-maintained responding. These results illustrate conditions under which robust i.v. nicotine self-administration can be established in squirrel monkeys and the influence of prior experimental history in the expression of reinforcing effects of nicotine and anatabine.

  4. 艾滋病实验用猴的兽医管理%Veterinary Care for SIV/SAIDS Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋虹; 丛喆; 魏强

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary care is an important requirement for laboratory animal performance, especially for those animals with infectious pathogens, like monkeys infected with SIVs. They need clinical observations, co-infection control,management of treatment, welfare records and so on. Due to the particularity of housing and management of monkeys, the veterinary care may be varying acoording to the requirements of particular technical procedures in different researchs.%在艾滋病实验用猴动物实验中,兽医管理起着重要性的作用,包括实验用猴的挑选和质量控制,动物健康档案的建立和记录,兽医护理,麻醉药物和药品的管理和正确使用,实验期间的实验用猴疾病的预防和治疗,以及动物福利计划.

  5. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We...... used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey....... However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...

  6. Mechanically insensitive afferents (MIAs) in cutaneous nerves of monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R A; Davis, K D; Cohen, R H; Treede, R D; Campbell, J N

    1991-10-11

    A problem in the study of nociceptors is that intense stimuli are used to locate the receptive field (RF), and thus the receptor may be damaged before the first responses are recorded. In addition, some nociceptors do not respond to the mechanical stimuli often used to search for the RF. To overcome these problems, an electrical search technique was developed to locate the RF of cutaneous nociceptors. In the hairy skin of anesthetized monkey, we used this technique to locate the RF of 63 A delta-fibers and 22 C-fibers that had extremely high thresholds or were unresponsive to mechanical stimuli. We refer to these afferents as mechanically insensitive afferents (MIAs). Ten A delta-fiber MIAs had a short latency response to stepped heat stimuli and could be responsible for first pain sensation. Five A delta-fiber MIAs and one C-fiber MIA did not respond to mechanical or heat stimuli but did respond to injection into the electrical RF of an artificial inflammatory soup containing histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandin E1, and serotonin. These chemoreceptors might be responsible for the pain and itch sensations that result from chemical stimuli. Some MIAs became more responsive to mechanical stimuli after injection into the RF of the inflammatory soup and, thus, may contribute to the hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli associated with cutaneous injury. A large proportion of the A delta-fiber (48%) and C-fiber (30%) afferents in this study were insensitive to mechanical stimuli. The role of these MIAs in sensation needs to be studied further. The electrical search technique enables a systematic study of these afferents to be performed. This technique may also be of use to identify and characterize dorsal horn neurons that have inputs from MIAs.

  7. A More Accurate Fourier Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform methods are used to analyze functions and data sets to provide frequencies, amplitudes, and phases of underlying oscillatory components. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods offer speed advantages over evaluation of explicit integrals (EI) that define Fourier transforms. This paper compares frequency, amplitude, and phase accuracy of the two methods for well resolved peaks over a wide array of data sets including cosine series with and without random noise and a variety of physical data sets, including atmospheric $\\mathrm{CO_2}$ concentrations, tides, temperatures, sound waveforms, and atomic spectra. The FFT uses MIT's FFTW3 library. The EI method uses the rectangle method to compute the areas under the curve via complex math. Results support the hypothesis that EI methods are more accurate than FFT methods. Errors range from 5 to 10 times higher when determining peak frequency by FFT, 1.4 to 60 times higher for peak amplitude, and 6 to 10 times higher for phase under a peak. The ability t...

  8. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a root canal filling material in reimplanted teeth. Microscopic analysis in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Holland, Roberto; de Souza, Valdir; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise

    2007-10-01

    This study analyzed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root canal filling material for the immediate reimplantation of monkey teeth. Four adult capuchin monkeys Cebus apella were used, which had their maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors on both sides extracted and reimplanted after 15 min. During the extra-alveolar period, the teeth were kept in saline solution and after reimplantation retention was performed with a stainless steel wire and composite resin for 14 days. After 7 days, the reimplanted teeth were submitted to endodontic treatment with biomechanics up to file n. 30 and irrigation with a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2)], and then divided into two study groups: group I - root canal filled with a Ca(OH)(2) paste, and group II - root canal filled with MTA. Radiographic follow up was performed at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively, and after 180 days the animals were killed and specimens were processed for histomorphological analysis. The results revealed that most specimens of both groups presented organized periodontal ligament with no inflammation. The resorptions observed were surface resorptions and were repaired by cementum. Both MTA and Ca(OH)(2) were good root canal filling materials for immediately reimplanted teeth, providing good repair and also allowing biological sealing of some lateral canals. There was no significant difference between the study groups (alpha = 29.60%).

  9. Neural Substrates of Dopamine D2 Receptor Modulated Executive Functions in the Monkey Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, M Victoria; Miller, Earl K

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) play a major role in cognition, mood and motor movements. Their blockade by antipsychotic drugs reduces hallucinatory and delusional behaviors in schizophrenia, but often fails to alleviate affective and cognitive dysfunctions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) expresses D2R and is altered in schizophrenia. We investigated how D2R modulate behavior and PFC function in monkeys. Two monkeys learned new and performed highly familiar visuomotor associations, where each cue was associated with a saccade to a right or left target. We recorded neural spikes and local field potentials from multiple electrodes while injecting the D2R antagonist eticlopride in the lateral PFC. Blocking prefrontal D2R impaired associative learning and cognitive flexibility, reduced motivation, but left the performance of familiar associations intact. Eticlopride reduced saccade-direction selectivity of prefrontal neurons, leading to a decrease in neural information about the associations, and an increase in alpha oscillations. These results, together with our recent study using a D1R antagonist, suggest that D1R and D2R in the primate lateral PFC cooperate to modulate several executive functions. Our findings help to gain insight into why antipsychotic drugs, with strong antagonistic actions on D2R, fail to ameliorate cognitive and emotional deficits in schizophrenia.

  10. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  11. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  12. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke Kaae

    2014-01-01

    and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  13. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  14. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  15. Phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, P.H. van der; Beaumelle, B.; Vial, H.; Roelofsen, B.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1987-01-01

    The phospholipid organization in monkey erythrocytes upon Plasmodium knowlesi infection has been studied. Parasitized and nonparasitized erythrocytes from malaria-infected blood were separated and pure erythrocyte membranes from parasitized cells were isolated using Affi-Gel beads. In this way, the

  16. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  17. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T. Sakari

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers. PMID:18760013

  18. [The principles of the therapy of glanders in monkeys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomiakov, Iu N; Manzeniuk, I N; Naumov, D V; Svetoch, E A

    1998-01-01

    The effect of pathogenetic therapy in the normalization of homeostasis disturbances in monkeys has been shown under experimental conditions. Data on the possibility of using hemosorption in the treatment of severe forms of glanders are presented. The conclusion on the necessity of using complex treatment for the effective therapy of glanders in humans has been made.

  19. Multimodal convergence within the intraparietal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guipponi, Olivier; Wardak, Claire; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Pinède, Serge; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2013-02-27

    The parietal cortex is highly multimodal and plays a key role in the processing of objects and actions in space, both in human and nonhuman primates. Despite the accumulated knowledge in both species, we lack the following: (1) a general description of the multisensory convergence in this cortical region to situate sparser lesion and electrophysiological recording studies; and (2) a way to compare and extrapolate monkey data to human results. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the monkey to provide a bridge between human and monkey studies. We focus on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and specifically probe its involvement in the processing of visual, tactile, and auditory moving stimuli around and toward the face. We describe three major findings: (1) the visual and tactile modalities are strongly represented and activate mostly nonoverlapping sectors within the IPS. The visual domain occupies its posterior two-thirds and the tactile modality its anterior one-third. The auditory modality is much less represented, mostly on the medial IPS bank. (2) Processing of the movement component of sensory stimuli is specific to the fundus of the IPS and coincides with the anatomical definition of monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP). (3) A cortical sector within VIP processes movement around and toward the face independently of the sensory modality. This amodal representation of movement may be a key component in the construction of peripersonal space. Overall, our observations highlight strong homologies between macaque and human VIP organization.

  20. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  1. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  2. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  3. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  4. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  5. Monkey malaria in a European traveler returning from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantele, Anu; Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T Sakari

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers.

  6. Polioencephalomalacia secondary to hypernatremia in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, S M Cummings; Masek-Hammerman, K; Crowell, A M; Fenn, M S; Knight, H L; Westmoreland, S V; Miller, A D

    2014-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0-154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.

  7. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  8. Effects of Head-down Tilt on Nerve Conduction in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Li-Zhi; Chen, Zhao-Hui; Dai, Zhong-Quan; Huang, Xu-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few studies have focused on peripheral nerve conduction during exposure to microgravity. The −6° head-down tilt (HDT) comprises an experimental model used to simulate the space flight environment. This study investigated nerve conduction characteristics of rhesus monkeys before and after prolonged exposure to HDT. Methods: Six rhesus monkeys (3–4 years old) were tilted backward 6° from the horizontal. Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) were performed on the median, ulnar, tibial, and fibular motor nerves. Analysis of variance with a randomized block design was conducted to compare the differences in the NCS before and 7, 21, and 42 days after the −6° HDT. Results: The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 21 and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (4.38 ± 2.83 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 4.85, P = 0.013 and 3.30 ± 2.70 vs. 8.40 ± 2.66 mV, F = 5.93, P = 0.004, respectively). The distal amplitude of the CMAP of the median nerve was significantly decreased at 7, 21, and 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (7.28 ± 1.27 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 4.03, P = 0.039; 5.05 ± 2.01 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 6.25, P = 0.04; and 3.95 ± 2.79 vs. 10.25 ± 3.40 mV, F = 7.35, P = 0.01; respectively). The proximal amplitude of the CMAP of the tibial nerve was significantly decreased at 42 days of HDT compared with the amplitude before HDT (6.14 ± 1.94 vs. 11.87 ± 3.19 mV, F = 5.02, P = 0.039). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the compound muscle action potential amplitudes of nerves are decreased under simulated microgravity in rhesus monkeys. Moreover, rhesus monkeys exposed to HDT might be served as an experimental model for the study of NCS under microgravity. PMID:28139516

  9. A novel kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rhesus monkeys induced by Coriaria lactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhen; Yang, Tian-Hua; Tang, Ming-Hai; Zhang, Heng; Li, Hong-Xia; Chen, Lei; Chen, Qin; Zhou, Dong

    2013-12-01

    One of the major challenges in developing novel therapeutics for human epileptic disorders derives from the limitation of knowledge of the processes by which epilepsy is generated (epileptogenesis). Furthermore, the inability to obtain human samples at the early stage of epilepsy hinders studies designed to further understand epileptogenesis. Thus, an effective animal model is critical for studies investigating this process. The purpose of this study was to establish a new primate kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as an animal model of epileptogenesis. Here, repeated injections of Coriaria lactone (CL) at a subthreshold dose elicited partial seizures that culminated in secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The sequence of events and features of the behaviors observed in this model simulated those observed in human TLE. Electroencephalogram monitoring revealed the temporal lobe origins of the epileptiform potentials, which were consistent with the behavioral changes observed. A total of 7 rhesus monkeys (78%) were kindled with a median of 48 (41 to 60) CL injections. Both the seizure-induction and mortality rates were dose-dependent. A CL injection at 1.50mg/kg showed the lowest animal mortality rate (0%) and the highest seizure-induction rate (100%). Extensive kindling by CL injections with a median of 97 injections (overkindling) subsequently resulted in the recurrence of spontaneous seizures in rhesus monkeys with frequency patterns that were similar to those observed in human TLE. In addition, rhesus monkeys subjected to large numbers of kindling stimuli displayed mitochondrial damage and astrocyte activation in a pattern that was similar to the neuropathological changes characteristic of human TLE. Thus, a kindling TLE model in rhesus monkeys representing a primate animal model of epileptogenesis was established for the first time using repeated intramuscular injections of Coriaria lactone. This model was easily and efficiently performed

  10. The PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone modulates inflammation and induces neuroprotection in parkinsonian monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanson Christine R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ has been proposed as a possible neuroprotective strategy to slow down the progression of early Parkinson's disease (PD. Here we report preclinical data on the use of the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone (Actos®; Takeda Pharmaceuticals Ltd. in a paradigm resembling early PD in nonhuman primates. Methods Rhesus monkeys that were trained to perform a battery of behavioral tests received a single intracarotid arterial injection of 20 ml of saline containing 3 mg of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. Twenty-four hours later the monkeys were assessed using a clinical rating scale, matched accordingly to disability, randomly assigned to one of three groups [placebo (n = 5, 2.5 (n = 6 or 5 (n = 5 mg/kg of pioglitazone] and their treatments started. Three months after daily oral dosing, the animals were necropsied. Results We observed significant improvements in clinical rating score (P = 0.02 in the animals treated with 5 mg/kg compared to placebo. Behavioral recovery was associated with preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic markers, observed as higher tyrosine hydroxylase (TH putaminal optical density (P = 0.011, higher stereological cell counts of TH-ir (P = 0.02 and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2-ir nigral neurons (P = 0.006. Stereological cell counts of Nissl stained nigral neurons confirmed neuroprotection (P = 0.017. Pioglitazone-treated monkeys also showed a dose-dependent modulation of CD68-ir inflammatory cells, that was significantly decreased for 5 mg/kg treated animals compared to placebo (P = 0.018. A separate experiment to assess CSF penetration of pioglitazone revealed that 5 mg/kg p.o. induced consistently higher levels than 2.5 mg/kg and 7.5 mg/kg. p.o. Conclusions Our results indicate that oral administration of pioglitazone is neuroprotective when administered early after inducing a

  11. Keep it Accurate and Diverse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Bagheri, Mohammad; Gao, Qigang; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different action recognition tech- niques has recently been studied by several computer vision researchers. However, the potential improvement in classi- fication through classifier fusion by ensemble-based meth- ods has remained unattended. In this work, we evaluate the perfor...

  12. Which method is best for an early accurate diagnosis of acute heart failure? Comparison between lung ultrasound, chest X-ray and NT pro-BNP performance: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, Stefano; Frizzi, Jacopo; Borselli, Matteo; Sarcoli, Elisabetta; Granai, Carolina; Gialli, Veronica; Cevenini, Gabriele; Guazzi, Gianni; Bruni, Fulvio; Gonnelli, Stefano; Pastorelli, Marcello

    2016-07-11

    Acute heart failure is a common condition among adults presenting with dyspnea in the Emergency Department (ED), still the diagnosis is challenging as objective standardized criteria are lacking. First line work-up, other then clinical findings, is nowadays made with lung ultrasound imaging study, chest X-ray study and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level determination; however, it is not clear which is the best diagnostic test to be used and whether there is any real benefit for clinical judgement. We set up this study to compare the performances of these three diagnostic tools; furthermore, we combined them to find the best possible approach to dyspneic patients. This is a prospective observational study based in the ED. We enrolled adults presenting with dyspnea not trauma-related, they underwent lung ultrasound, and chest X-ray studies, and NT pro-BNP level determination. Then we compared the results with the diagnosis of acute heart failure established by an independent panel of experts. 236 patients were enrolled in the study. We find sensitivity and specificity for lung ultrasound of 57.73 and 87.97 %, for chest X-ray 74.49 and 86.26 %, for NT pro-BNP 97.59 and 27.56 %, respectively. Combining together the chest X-ray and lung ultrasound, we find the best overall performance with 84.69 % sensitivity, 77.69 % specificity and 87.07 % negative predictive value. From our results, we could not identify the "best test" to diagnose acute heart failure in an emergency setting, although we could suggest that a stepwise workup combining chest X-ray and lung ultrasound at first, then for those negative, a determination of NT pro-BNP assay would be a reasonable approach to the dyspneic patient.

  13. Application of a beta microprobe for quantification of regional cerebral blood flow with {sup 15}O-water and PET in rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Chie; Okada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Shinsuke; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nishiyama, Shingo; Tsukada, Hideo; Yamashita, Takaji [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Central Research Laboratory

    1998-02-01

    A beta microprobe was successfully applied to monitor arterial input function for quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the monkey brain with {sup 15}O-water and positron emission tomography (PET). The sensitivity of the probe was approximately 0.83 to 1.67 cps/kBq/ml depending on the studies. A preliminary study was performed to find a suitable use and to evaluate the performance of the system and data analysis procedure. The results showed that dispersion correction of measured input function was unnecessary if microprobes were connected directly to the arterial catheter. Then multiple CBF measurements were done in three monkeys under anesthesia. Identical regions of interest were placed with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of each monkey and rCBF values were estimated. Estimated rCBFs were reproducible for several measurements. The mean CBF value for a pentobarbital anesthetized monkey was 46.0 ml/min/100 g (PaCO{sub 2}=46.3 mmHg). This shows that the use of the beta microprobe for quantification of rCBF with PET was validated. The lack of a need for dispersion correction of observed input function is an advantage with the beta microprobe system because the probes are small enough to be placed near the arterial sampling site. (author)

  14. Evaluation of third-party reciprocity by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the question of mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Social evaluation during third-party interactions emerges early in human ontogeny, and it has been shown in adult capuchin monkeys who witness violations of reciprocity in object exchanges: Monkeys were less inclined to accept food from humans who refused to reciprocate with another human. A recent study reporting similar evidence in marmoset monkeys raised the possibility that such evaluations might be based on species' inherent cooperativeness. We tested a species not renowned for cooperativeness-squirrel monkeys-using the procedure used with marmosets and found a similar result. This finding rules out any crucial role for cooperative tendencies in monkeys' responses to unfair exchanges. We then tested squirrel monkeys using procedures more similar to those used in the original study with capuchins. Squirrel monkeys again accepted food less frequently from non-reciprocators, but unlike capuchins, they also strongly preferred reciprocators. We conclude that neither squirrel monkeys nor marmoset monkeys engaged in emotional bookkeeping of the type that probably underlies social evaluation in capuchin monkeys; instead, they employed one or more simple behavioral rules. Further comparative studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying social evaluation processes across species.

  15. Crossmodal Association of Visual and Haptic Material Properties of Objects in the Monkey Ventral Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Naokazu; Yokoi, Isao; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2016-04-04

    Just by looking at an object, we can recognize its non-visual properties, such as hardness. The visual recognition of non-visual object properties is generally accurate [1], and influences actions toward the object [2]. Recent studies suggest that, in the primate brain, this may involve the ventral visual cortex, which represents objects in a way that reflects not only visual but also non-visual object properties, such as haptic roughness, hardness, and weight [3-7]. This new insight raises a fundamental question: how does the visual cortex come to represent non-visual properties--knowledge that cannot be acquired directly through vision? Here we addressed this unresolved question using fMRI in macaque monkeys. Specifically, we explored whether and how simple visuo-haptic experience--just seeing and touching objects made of various materials--can shape representational content in the visual cortex. We measured brain activity evoked by viewing images of objects before and after the monkeys acquired the visuo-haptic experience and decoded the representational space from the activity patterns [8]. We show that simple long-term visuo-haptic experience greatly impacts representation in the posterior inferior temporal cortex, the higher ventral visual cortex. After the experience, but not before, the activity pattern in this region well reflected the haptic material properties of the experienced objects. Our results suggest that neural representation of non-visual object properties in the visual cortex emerges through long-term crossmodal exposure to objects. This highlights the importance of unsupervised learning of crossmodal associations through everyday experience [9-12] for shaping representation in the visual cortex.

  16. Measurement of neuronal activity in a macaque monkey in response to animate images using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Wakita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS has been used extensively for functional neuroimaging over the past decade, in part because it is considered a powerful tool for investigating brain function in human infants and young children, for whom other neuroimaging techniques are not suitable. In particular, several studies have measured hemodynamic responses in the occipital region in infants upon exposure to visual stimuli. In the present study, we used a multi-channel NIRS to measure neuronal activity in a macaque monkey who was trained to watch videos showing various circus animals performing acrobatic activities without fixing the head position of the monkey. Cortical activity from the occipital region was measured first by placing a probe comprising a 3x5 array of emitters and detectors (2 x 4 cm on the area (area 17, and the robustness and stability of the results were confirmed across sessions. Cortical responses were then measured from the dorsofrontal region. The oxygenated hemoglobin signals increased in area 9 and decreased in area 8b in response to viewing the videos. The results suggest that these regions are involved in cognitive processing of visually presented stimuli. The monkey showed positive responsiveness to the stimuli from the affective standpoint, but its attentional response to them was an inhibitory one.

  17. Measurement of neuronal activity in a macaque monkey in response to animate images using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Masumi; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Ishizuka, Takashi; Schnackenberg, Joerg; Fujiawara, Michiyuki; Masataka, Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used extensively for functional neuroimaging over the past decade, in part because it is considered a powerful tool for investigating brain function in human infants and young children, for whom other neuroimaging techniques are not suitable. In particular, several studies have measured hemodynamic responses in the occipital region in infants upon exposure to visual stimuli. In the present study, we used a multi-channel NIRS to measure neuronal activity in a macaque monkey who was trained to watch videos showing various circus animals performing acrobatic activities without fixing the head position of the monkey. Cortical activity from the occipital region was measured first by placing a probe comprising a 3 x 5 array of emitters and detectors (2 x 4 cm) on the area (area 17), and the robustness and stability of the results were confirmed across sessions. Cortical responses were then measured from the dorsofrontal region. The oxygenated hemoglobin signals increased in area 9 and decreased in area 8b in response to viewing the videos. The results suggest that these regions are involved in cognitive processing of visually presented stimuli. The monkey showed positive responsiveness to the stimuli from the affective standpoint, but its attentional response to them was an inhibitory one.

  18. Global gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in rhesus monkey infants with CA16 infection-induced HFMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Hu, Yajie; Hu, Yunguang; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lichun; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yancui; Ning, Ruotong; Liao, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Huiwen; Shi, Haijing; He, Zhanlong; Li, Qihan; Liu, Longding

    2016-03-02

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a dominant pathogen that results in hand, foot, and mouth disease and causes outbreaks worldwide, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous study has demonstrated that the basic CA16 pathogenic process was successfully mimicked in rhesus monkey infant. The present study focused on the global gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus monkey infants with hand, foot, and mouth disease induced by CA16 infection at different time points. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed with Agilent whole-genome microarrays and established bioinformatics tools. Nine hundred and forty-eight significant differentially expressed genes that were associated with 5 gene ontology categories, including cell communication, cell cycle, immune system process, regulation of transcription and metabolic process were identified. Subsequently, the mapping of genes related to the immune system process by PANTHER pathway analysis revealed the predominance of inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathways and the interleukin signaling pathway. Ultimately, co-expressed genes and their networks were analyzed. The results revealed the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to CA16 in rhesus monkey infants and suggested that such an immune response was generated as a result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. This initial microarray study will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of CA16 infection and will facilitate the identification of biomarkers for the evaluation of vaccines against this virus.

  19. Localization of West Nile Virus in monkey brain: double staining antigens immunohistochemically of neurons, neuroglia cells and West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianli; Ren, Junping; Xu, Fangling; Ferguson, Monique R; Li, Guangyu

    2009-11-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause encephalitis or meningitis that affects brain tissue, which can also lead to permanent neurological damage that can be fatal. To our knowledge, no consistent double immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells, and WNV has yet been reported. To establish a method for performing double-label immunohistochemical detection of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV, examining the pathological characteristics of WNV-infected neurons, neuroglia cells, and investigating distribution of WNV in monkey brain, paraffin-embedded monkey brain tissue were retrospectively studied by immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV. Antibodies against neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WNV were used to develop the method of double-label immunohistochemical staining, which allowed independent assessment of neuron status and WNV distribution. A range of immunohistochemical WNV infection in monkey brain was observed in both neurons and neuroglia cells in terms of the thickness of lesion staining, and the WNV staining was slightly higher in neuroglia cells than in neurons. All these findings suggest that WNV invasion in the brain plays a crucial role in neurological damage by inducing central nervous system (CNS) cell dysfunction or cell death directly.

  20. Polymorphism in Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum minasense in the blood of experimentally infected squirrel monkey and marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Ziccardi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections by Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum minasense were performed in primates - Saimiri sciureus and Callithrix penicillata - with the objective of searching for morphological variations of the blood trypomastigotes with respect to hosts and time of infection. We carried out morphological and morphometric analysis of blood trypomastigotes. Illustrations are given. Both the squirrel monkey and marmoset became infected after the injection of blood trypomastigotes of T. minasense , although the parasitaemia were briefer in the squirrel monkey. The parasites detected in the later host were narrower and shorter than those found in the inoculated marmoset. In the marmoset, the blood stream parasites derived from culture metacyclic trypomastigotes were considerably smaller than those derived from the inoculation of infected blood. Stronger evidence of polymorphism was found when, at the same time of infection, the blood trypomastigotes found in squirrel monkey had smaller length, body width and the distance from posterior end of the body to the kinetoplast almost four times smaller than the parasite found in the marmoset. Therefore, conflicting results on morphology and morphometry of T. minasense obtained by previous investigators could be due to polymorphism.

  1. Superovulatory responses in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) depend on the interaction between donor status and superovulation method used

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Ji-Su; YOON, Seung-Bin; JEONG, Kang-Jin; SIM, Bo-Woong; CHOI, Seon-A; LEE, Sang-Il; JIN, Yeung Bae; SONG, Bong-Seok; LEE, Sang-Rae; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The current study was performed to investigate the effect of oocyte donor status, including age and body weight, on metaphase II (MII) oocyte recovery using two superovulation methods in cynomolgus monkeys. The use of Method A [recombinant gonadotrophin (75 IU/kg, 3 ×, 3-day intervals) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)] led to great increases in ovary size and the mean number of MII oocytes retrieved in age- and body-weight-dependent manner; in contrast, both the parameters were similar in Method B [recombinant gonadotrophin (60 IU, twice daily, 6 days), recombinant gonadotropin and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (60 IU, twice daily, 3 days), and hCG]. Importantly, Method A showed maximal MII oocyte recovery rate in > 60-month-old or 4.5–5.0-kg female monkeys, whereas Method B was equally effective regardless of the donor age and body weight. These results indicate that superovulatory responses depend on the interaction between oocyte donor status and the superovulation method used in cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:28070055

  2. Changes of dopamine transporter function in striatum during acute morphine addiction and its abstinence in rhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zhuang-wei; CAO Chu-yu; WANG Zhao-xin; LI Jun-xiong; LIAO Hai-yong; ZHANG Xue-xin

    2006-01-01

    Background Although dopamine transporter (DAT) is essential for addiction, the effect of additive drugs on DAT function is still controversial, especially for opiates. We investigated the functional changes of dopamine transporter in striatum of rhesus monkeys during acute morphine injection and its abstinence.Methods Four rhesus monkeys, 6 to 9 years old, two male and two female, were examined for 12 days. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed with 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 as the radiopharmaceutical dopamine transporter agent during different stages of acute morphine injection and its abstinence. The ratios of SPECT signal between striatum and cerebellum (ST/CB) were calculated.Results The ST/CB ratio declined significantly on the first day of morphine injection and continued declining with more morphine injections. After abstinence, the ratio increased with time, but was still significantly lower on the 5th day of abstinence than the normal level.Conclusions In rhesus monkey, acute morphine injection has both rapid and lasting effects on DAT by downregulating its function. The decline was partially reversible following morphine abstinence. The results suggest that striatum is one effective target of morphine and that the DAT function in striatum is one indicator for morphine addiction.

  3. The protein DIIIC-2, aggregated with a specific oligodeoxynucleotide and adjuvanted in alum, protects mice and monkeys against DENV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; Marcos, Ernesto; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Hitler, Rikoi; Suzarte, Edith; Álvarez, Mayling; Kimiti, Prisilla; Ndung'u, James; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the ability of the chimeric protein DIIIC-2 (domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to the capsid protein of dengue-2 virus), to induce immunity and protection in mice, when it is highly aggregated with a non-defined oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and adjuvanted in alum. In this work, three different defined ODNs were studied as aggregating agents. Our results suggest that the nature of the ODN influences the capacity of protein DIIIC-2 to activate cell-mediated immunity in mice. Consequently, the ODN 39M was selected to perform further experiments in mice and nonhuman primates. Mice receiving the preparation 39M-DIIIC-2 were solidly protected against dengue virus (DENV) challenge. Moreover, monkeys immunized with the same preparation developed neutralizing antibodies, as measured by four different neutralization tests varying the virus strains and the cell lines used. Two of the immunized monkeys were completely protected against challenge, whereas the third animal had a single day of low-titer viremia. This is the first work describing the induction of short-term protection in monkeys by a formulation that is suitable for human use combining a recombinant protein from DENV with alum.

  4. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles-other than somesthetic sensory processing-of the SII.

  5. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  6. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Sullivan, Steven A; Kawai, Satoru; Nakamura, Shota; Kim, Hyunjae R; Goto, Naohisa; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Honma, Hajime; Yagi, Masanori; Tougan, Takahiro; Katakai, Yuko; Kaneko, Osamu; Mita, Toshihiro; Kita, Kiyoshi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Sutton, Patrick L; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Horii, Toshihiro; Yasunaga, Teruo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Carlton, Jane M; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    P. cynomolgi, a malaria-causing parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of P. vivax, the most prevalent malaria-causing species in humans outside of Africa. Because P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biological and genetic characteristics with P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences for three P. cynomolgi strains and performed genomic analysis comparing them with the P. vivax genome, as well as with the genome of a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here, we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by copy-number variants (CNVs) in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation that can be used to map parasite traits and study parasite populations. The sequencing of the P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research and in counteracting the neglect of P. vivax.

  8. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengxi Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated and 84 (downregulated genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates.

  9. Distribution and excretion of arsenic in cynomolgus monkey following repeated administration of diphenylarsinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yayoi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Negishi, Takayuki [Aoyama Gakuin University, Department of Chemistry and Biological Science, Tokyo (Japan); Mizumura, Ayano; Watanabe, Takayuki [Chiba University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Hirano, Seishiro [Chiba University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Research Center for Environmental Risk, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a possible product of degradation of arsenic-containing chemical weapons, was detected in well water in Kamisu City, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, in 2003. Although some individuals in this area have been affected by drinking DPAA-containing water, toxicological findings on DPAA are limited. To elucidate the mechanism of its toxicity, it is necessary to determine the metabolic behavior of DPAA in the body. In this study, pregnant cynomolgus monkeys at the 50th day of pregnancy were used. The monkeys were treated daily with 1.0 mg DPAA/kg body weight using a nasogastric tube, and the distribution and excretion of arsenic were examined after the repeated administration and 198-237 days after the last administration of DPAA. Fecal excretion was higher than urinary excretion (ca. 3:2 ratio), and arsenic accumulated in the hair and erythrocytes. Distribution of DAPP to plasma and hemolyzed erythrocytes was also examined by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP MS). Two peaks were found in the elution profile of arsenic, due to free and probably protein-bound DPAA. The protein-bound arsenic compounds were presumably trivalent diphenylarsenic compounds, since free DPAA was recovered after treatment of heat-denatured samples with hydrogen peroxide. (orig.)

  10. Plasmodium vivax thrombospondin related adhesion protein: immunogenicity and protective efficacy in rodents and Aotus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castellanos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The thrombospondin related adhesion protein (TRAP is a malaria pre-erythrocytic antigen currently pursued as malaria vaccine candidate to Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, a long synthetic peptide (LSP representing a P. vivax TRAP fragment involved in hepatocyte invasion was formulated in both Freund and Montanide ISA 720 adjutants and administered by IM and subcutaneous routes to BALB/c mice and Aotus monkeys. We measured specific humoral immune responses in both animal species and performed a sporozoite challenge in Aotus monkeys to assess the protective efficacy of the vaccine. After immunization both mice and Aotus seroconverted as shown by ELISA, and the specific anti-peptide antibodies cross reacted with the parasite in IFAT assays. Only two out of six immunized animals became infected after P. vivax sporozoite challenge as compared with four out of six animals from the control group. These results suggest that this TRAP fragment has protective potential against P. vivax malaria and deserves further studies as vaccine candidate.

  11. Morphological Features of Trypanosomes from Squirrel Monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Ziccardi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphometric analysis of blood trypomastigotes identified as Trypanosoma minasense, T. saimirii, and T. rangeli harbored by squirrel monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon was performed. Additionally, morphological and biological comparative analyses were conducted of T. saimirii-like and T. rangeli development forms from haemoculture and xenodiagnosis. Illustrations are given of blood trypomastigotes as well as of developing flagellates in triatomine and axenic culture. Mean values of blood trypomastigotes of T. saimirii differ statistically from those of T. rangeli in only two out of ten morphological characters measured, and ranges overlapped. The developing forms of T. saimrii-like parasites were essentially identical in both xenodiagnosis and haemoculture to those of T. rangeli. Trypanosomes confirmed as T. rangeli were transmitted to mice by the bites of the great majority of triatomines that fed on T. saimirii-like infected monkeys. We conclude that, based on morphology and on the development in triatomine bugs and haemoculture, T. saimirii should not be considered a distinct species. We therefore propose T. saimirii to be a junior synonym of T. rangeli

  12. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHF Bortoluci

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the behaviour of “Cebus” shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG, Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG and Slow Twitc (SO. In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  13. Characteristics of fast-spiking neurons in the striatum of behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Hori, Yukiko; Pan, Xiaochuan; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Kae; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Shidara, Munetaka; Kimura, Minoru; Sakagami, Masamichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Inhibitory interneurons are the fundamental constituents of neural circuits that organize network outputs. The striatum as part of the basal ganglia is involved in reward-directed behaviors. However, the role of the inhibitory interneurons in this process remains unclear, especially in behaving monkeys. We recorded the striatal single neuron activity while monkeys performed reward-directed hand or eye movements. Presumed parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons (fast-spiking neurons, FSNs) were identified based on narrow spike shapes in three independent experiments, though they were a small population (4.2%, 42/997). We found that FSNs are characterized by high-frequency and less-bursty discharges, which are distinct from the basic firing properties of the presumed projection neurons (phasically active neurons, PANs). Besides, the encoded information regarding actions and outcomes was similar between FSNs and PANs in terms of proportion of neurons, but the discharge selectivity was higher in PANs than that of FSNs. The coding of actions and outcomes in FSNs and PANs was consistently observed under various behavioral contexts in distinct parts of the striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, and anterior striatum). Our results suggest that FSNs may enhance the discharge selectivity of postsynaptic output neurons (PANs) in encoding crucial variables for a reward-directed behavior.

  14. Plasmid profile in oral Fusobacterium nucleatum from humans and Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcia O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobe and is indigenous of the human oral cavity. This organism is commonly recovered from different monomicrobial and mixed infections in humans and animals. In this study, the plasmid profile, the plasmid stability and the penicillin-resistance association in oral F. nucleatum isolated from periodontal patients, healthy subjects and Cebus apella monkeys were evaluated. Forty-five F. nucleatum strains from patients, 38 from healthy subjects and seven from C. apella were identified and analyzed. Plasmid extraction was performed in all the isolated strains. These elements were found in 26.7% strains from patients and one strain from C. apella. Strains from healthy subjects did not show any plasmid. Most of strains showed two plasmid bands ranging from 4 to 16 Kb, but digestions with endonucleases showed that they belonged to a single plasmid. The plasmid profile was similar and stable in human and monkey strains. Also, plasmids were classified into three groups according to size. Two strains were positive to beta-lactamase production and no plasmid DNA-hybridization with a beta-lactamase gene probe was observed, suggesting a chromosomal resistance.

  15. Accurate computation of Mathieu functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bibby, Malcolm M

    2013-01-01

    This lecture presents a modern approach for the computation of Mathieu functions. These functions find application in boundary value analysis such as electromagnetic scattering from elliptic cylinders and flat strips, as well as the analogous acoustic and optical problems, and many other applications in science and engineering. The authors review the traditional approach used for these functions, show its limitations, and provide an alternative ""tuned"" approach enabling improved accuracy and convergence. The performance of this approach is investigated for a wide range of parameters and mach

  16. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect...

  17. A Self-Instructional Device for Conditioning Accurate Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiten, Roger; Lane, Harlan

    1965-01-01

    A self-instructional device for conditioning accurate prosody in second-language learning is described in this article. The Speech Auto-Instructional Device (SAID) is electro-mechanical and performs three functions: SAID (1) presents to the student tape-recorded pattern sentences that are considered standards in prosodic performance; (2) processes…

  18. Optimal strategies for throwing accurately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkadesan, M; Mahadevan, L

    2017-04-01

    The accuracy of throwing in games and sports is governed by how errors in planning and initial conditions are propagated by the dynamics of the projectile. In the simplest setting, the projectile path is typically described by a deterministic parabolic trajectory which has the potential to amplify noisy launch conditions. By analysing how parabolic trajectories propagate errors, we show how to devise optimal strategies for a throwing task demanding accuracy. Our calculations explain observed speed-accuracy trade-offs, preferred throwing style of overarm versus underarm, and strategies for games such as dart throwing, despite having left out most biological complexities. As our criteria for optimal performance depend on the target location, shape and the level of uncertainty in planning, they also naturally suggest an iterative scheme to learn throwing strategies by trial and error.

  19. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  20. Normative Values of Retinal Oxygen Saturation in Rhesus Monkeys: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available To study the normal values of the retinal oxygen saturation in Rhesus monkeys and to evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements.Eighteen adult Rhesus macaque monkeys were included in this experimental study. An Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap, Reykjavik, Iceland was used to perform oximetry on all subjects. Global arterial (SaO2 and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2, arteriovenous difference in SO2 were measured. In the first examination, each eye was imaged three times. At the following two examinations, each eye was imaged once. All examinations were finished in one month. P values were calculated to evaluate the difference between the measurements during three visits by performing an ANOVA. Intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was determined.At baseline, the average SaO2 and SvO2 were 89.48 ± 2.64% and 54.85 ± 2.18%, respectively. The global A-V difference was 34.63 ± 1.91%. The difference between the three visits was not significant (p>0.05. The highest A-V difference in SO2 and lowest saturations were found in the inferotemporal quadrant. Intra-session and inter-visit repeatability were both high. For all oxygen saturation parameters, the ICC values of the intra-session repeatability ranged between 0.92 and 0.96. As found previously, a relatively high ICC value for inter-visit repeatability also was found for all oxygen saturation measurements, ranging between 0.86 and 0.94, with the lowest values in the infero-nasal quadrant.Our study is the first to describe retinal SO2 in healthy Rhesus monkeys. In normal monkey eyes, the reproducibility and repeatability of retinal oximetry oxygen saturation measurements were high in the retinal arterioles and venules. Our results support that Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry is a suitable and reliable technique in monkey studies.

  1. Inference in a social context: A comparative study of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), and rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ueno, Yoshikazu; Fujita, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    Four species (capuchin monkeys, tree shrews, rats, and hamsters) performed an inference task situated in a social context. In Experiment 1, capuchin monkeys first explored food sites under 1 of 2 conditions: In 1 condition, food was refilled after it was eaten (replenished condition), whereas it was not refilled (depleted condition) in the other condition. Two food sites were presented for each condition. In the test phase, a subject watched a conspecific demonstrator visit 1 of the food sites in either the replenished or depleted condition. A screen placed in front of the sites prevented the subject from seeing the demonstrator actually eat the food. When the demonstrator was removed, the subject explored the cage. Three of 4 monkeys tended to go to the unvisited sites in the depleted condition, but tended to go to the visited site in the replenished condition. This suggests that they inferred that there was no food because the demonstrator had eaten it. In Experiment 2, using the same procedure, 2 nongroup-living species (tree shrews and hamsters) were indifferent to demonstrator behavior and visited sites only randomly, and group-living rats showed a strong tendency to follow demonstrators, irrespective of the type of food site. These tendencies were unchanged when olfactory information was added in Experiment 3 and when motivation to compete increased in Experiment 4. These results suggest that only capuchin monkeys have the ability to solve an inference task when cued by social information.

  2. Growth and immunity conferred by a Plasmodium falciparum temperature sensitive mutant in Panamanian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inselburg, J; Rossan, R N; Escajadillo, A

    1989-05-01

    We have compared the growth of the wild type Plasmodium falciparum strain Honduras 1 and a previously isolated temperature sensitive mutant of it, AP1-16, in Panamanian owl monkeys. We examined serially infected splenectomized and normal animals that were initially infected with cultured parasites that had been grown in a mixture of owl monkey and human erythrocytes. Initial infections in splenectomized monkeys were marked by multiple recrudescences. The mutant grew less well than the wild type in the splenectomized monkeys, as determined by lower peak and total parasitemias. In the splenectomized monkeys tested by rechallenge with the wild type parasite, the mutant stimulated a comparable degree of protection. That protection was manifested in 2 ways. There was a marked reduction in the level of the primary parasitemia in the rechallenged monkeys and an absence of recrudescent parasitemias after the primary parasitemia. The potential value of generating and studying temperature sensitive P. falciparum strains that show attenuated growth is considered.

  3. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication.

  4. Effect of radiation and age on immunoglobulin levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. H.; Saphire, D. G.; Hackleman, S. M.; Braun, A. M.; Pennington, P.; Scheffler, J.; Wigle, J. C.; Cox, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a study on the immunoglobulin levels of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a colony consisting of the survivors of monkeys that received a single whole-body exposure to protons, electrons or X rays between 1964 and 1969. This colony has been maintained to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on astronauts and high-flying pilots. Of the original 358 monkeys that were retained for lifetime studies, 129 (97 irradiated and 32 controls) were available for our study. We found no significant difference between the irradiated and control monkeys in mean levels of IgA, IgG and IgM, irrespective of the radiation treatment. The availability of these aged monkeys provided a unique opportunity to compare their immunoglobulin levels to those of other monkeys of various ages, and thus assess the effect of age on immunoglobulin levels. We found that only the IgA levels increase with age.

  5. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  6. Immunization with Recombinant Helicobacter pylori Urease in Specific-Pathogen-Free Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, Jay V.; Canfield, Don R.; Hansen, Lori M.; Torabian, Sima Z.

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with urease can protect mice from challenge with Helicobacter pylori, though results vary depending on the particular vaccine, challenge strain, and method of evaluation. Unlike mice, rhesus monkeys are naturally colonized with H. pylori and so may provide a better estimate of vaccine efficacy in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of H. pylori urease as a vaccine in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free rhesus monkeys. Monkeys raised from birth and do...

  7. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    it is acceptable to use animals as models of human disease; whether it is acceptable to genetically modify animals; and whether these animals' being monkeys makes a difference. The analysis considers the prospect of transgenic marmoset studies coming to replace transgenic mouse studies and lesion studies......, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether...... in marmosets in some areas of research. The mainstream, broadly utilitarian view of animal research suggests that such a transition will not give rise to greater ethical problems than those presently faced. It can be argued that using marmosets rather than mice will not result in more animal suffering...

  8. Protein deficiency and energy restriction in young cebus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, K W; Hegsted, D M

    1978-03-01

    Infant cebus monkeys (Cebus albifrons) were fed liquid formulas that were limited in protein, energy, or a combination of the two restrictions. Weight gain, food intake, hematological development, and plasma protein and cholesterol levels were monitored over a 20-week period. The animals restricted in protein developed the classical signs of protein deficiency--reductions in plasma albumin, a mild anemia, accumulation of fat in the liver, and, in a few cases, facial edema. These animals maintained a relatively high energy intake, and apparently wasted energy when compared to similarly non-growing energy-restricted animals. Energy-restricted animals did not exhibit these symptoms, even when their daily protein intake was reduced to match that of protein-restricted monkeys. It is concluded that an energy restriction superimposed upon a limited protein intake did not increase protein requirements or precipitate protein deficiency.

  9. Grooming, rank, and agonistic support in tufted capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Di Giuseppe, Francesca; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    Studies investigating the relation between allogrooming and social rank in capuchin monkeys (genus Cebus) have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the relation between grooming, agonistic support, aggression and social rank in a captive group of tufted capuchin monkeys (C. apella). Differently from most previous studies, we based our analyses on a relatively large database and studied a group with known genealogical relationships. Tufted capuchin females did not exchange grooming for rank-related benefits such as agonistic support or reduced aggression. Coherently with this picture, they did not groom up the hierarchy and did not compete for accessing high-ranking grooming partners. It is suggested that a small group size, coupled with a strong kin bias, may make the exchange of grooming for rank-related benefits impossible or unprofitable, thus eliminating the advantages of grooming up the hierarchy. We provide several possible explanations for the heterogeneity of results across capuchin studies that have addressed similar questions.

  10. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  11. Protein composition of rhesus monkey milk: comparison to human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, C; Lönnerdal, B

    1993-04-01

    1. Proteins in human milk and Rhesus monkey milk have been compared by FPLC gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography, SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, nitrogen and protein determination. 2. Mature Rhesus milk is higher in protein concentration (15-20 mg/ml) than human milk (8-9 mg/ml). 3. Non-Protein nitrogen is 6-13% in Rhesus milk but 25-30% in human milk. 4. Secretory IgA, lactoferrin, serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme are present in Rhesus milk, but at a lower concentration than in human milk. 5. The casein subunit pattern is more complex in Rhesus milk compared to human milk. 6. The ratio of whey proteins to casein is similar in both milks (approximately 60/40). 7. A protein with a M(r) of 21,600 is a major component in monkey whey but is not found in human milk.

  12. Hemodynamic effects of barnidipine hydrochloride in conscious squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, M; Inagaki, O; Takenaka, T

    1994-05-01

    1. The effects of barnidipine, a new dihydropyridine Ca2+ antagonist, on cardiovascular and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems were investigated in conscious squirrel monkeys. 2. Barnidipine (0.3-3 mg/kg p.o.) produced a dose-related decrease in systolic blood pressure. The hypotensive action after 3 mg/kg p.o. lasted more than 8 hr. 3. Barnidipine increased heart rate, but did not affect the PQ-interval of the electrocardiograph. 4. Barnidipine (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o.) increased plasma renin activity dose-dependently. However, it had no significant effect on plasma aldosterone concentration. 5. These results indicate that barnidipine produces a sustained hypotension without affecting atrioventricular conduction time and plasma aldosterone concentration in conscious squirrel monkeys.

  13. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

    2016-03-01

    Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

  14. Spontaneous Cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Mia T; Wachtman, Lynn M; Marini, Robert P; Bakthavatchalu, Vasu; Fox, James G

    2016-02-01

    A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract. Gallbladder tissue, bile, and gallstones cultured positive for Escherichia coli and Proteus spp., suggesting a brown-pigment gallstone type secondary to a bacterial nidus. Histopathology revealed severe chronic-active diffuse cholecystitis and severe chronic-active hepatic degeneration and necrosis with severe cholestasis. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous choleilthiasis in a squirrel monkey.

  15. A monkey metabolism pod for space-flight weightlessness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1973-01-01

    The system described will permit quantitative physiological studies in adult monkeys, weighing from 8 to 14 kg, during future space flights. The system comprises a fiberglass pod containing a comfortable restraint couch for the animal. The pod is divided into upper and lower halves. When the monkey occupies the couch, a rubber belly-band forms a gas seal between the upper and lower portions of the animal. The upper-pod ventilating air stream is monitored for the partial pressures of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water to permit continuous metabolic gas-exchange measurements for computation of metabolic energy expediture. The lower pod is lined with ashless filter paper for excreta collection.

  16. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Montoya, Enrique J; Weller, Richard E

    2008-07-01

    "Dyscoria was noted in a female owl monkey and 2 of her offspring. The third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two male monkeys paired with the female died, 1 of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all 3 animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by ELISA. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly H. simplex or H. saimiri 1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing into breeding or research colonies animals that previously were kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is noted in nonhuman primates."

  17. Monkeying with the Goodness-of-Fit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The familiar Σ(OBS - EXP 2/EXP goodness-of-fit measure is commonly used to test whether an observed sequence came from the realization of n independent identically distributed (iid discrete random variables. It can be quite effective for testing for identical distribution, but is not suited for assessing independence, as it pays no attention to the order in which output values are received. This note reviews a way to adjust or tamper, that is, monkey-with the classical test to make it test for independence as well as identical distribution--in short, to test for both the i's in iid, using monkey tests similar to those in the Diehard Battery of Tests of Randomness (Marsaglia 1995.

  18. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    are the Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...... distribution of Rhinopithecus within the region, considering climate, habitat availability and the locations of nature reserves. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China, snub-nosed monkey, rhinopithecus, primates, species distribution modeling......Around 28 % of mammal species are threatened or near threatened with extinction. One of the mammal taxa with many threatened species are the primates. Of which more than 65 % of the world’s 424 know species are threatened or near threatened (IUCN, 2014). One group of threatened primates...

  19. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achi...

  20. Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2008-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

  1. Monkeys get a silver in Abstract Art Olympics

    CERN Document Server

    Simkin, M V

    2011-01-01

    Experiment shows that art students prefer abstract art to monkey art in about two-third of the cases. Since the number is above 50%, some argue that abstract art is different and better than animal art. I compare this result with figure skating competitions, where on average 73% of judges prefer gold medalist to silver medalist. This means that the difference between abstract artists and animal artists is less than the difference between gold and silver medalists.

  2. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space

    OpenAIRE

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance...

  3. Does a pneumotach accurately characterize voice function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Gage; Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A study is presented which addresses how a pneumotach might adversely affect clinical measurements of voice function. A pneumotach is a device, typically a mask, worn over the mouth, in order to measure time-varying glottal volume flow. By measuring the time-varying difference in pressure across a known aerodynamic resistance element in the mask, the glottal volume flow waveform is estimated. Because it adds aerodynamic resistance to the vocal system, there is some concern that using a pneumotach may not accurately portray the behavior of the voice. To test this hypothesis, experiments were performed in a simplified airway model with the principal dimensions of an adult human upper airway. A compliant constriction, fabricated from silicone rubber, modeled the vocal folds. Variations of transglottal pressure, time-averaged volume flow, model vocal fold vibration amplitude, and radiated sound with subglottal pressure were performed, with and without the pneumotach in place, and differences noted. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  4. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  5. Effect of new training technique on affinity of cynomolgus monkeys for animal care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Ai; Tachibana, Yuki; Takaura, Kaoru; Ochi, Takehiro; Koyama, Hironari

    2015-01-01

    To confirm our hypothesis that the sex and age of cynomolgus monkeys influences the effect of training, we employed a new training technique designed to increase the animal's affinity for animal care personnel. During 151 days of training, monkeys aged 2 to 10 years accepted each 3 raisins/3 times/day, and communicated with animal care personnel (5 times/day). Behavior was scored using integers between -1 and 5. Before training, 35 of the 61 monkeys refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (Score -1, 0 and 1). After training, 28 of these 35 monkeys (80%) accepted raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (>Score 2). The mean score of monkeys increased from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.2. The minimum training period required for monkeys to reach Score 2 was longer for females than for males. After 151 days, 6 of the 31 females and 1 of the 30 males still refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel. Beneficial effects of training were obtained in both young and adult monkeys. These results indicate that our new training technique markedly improves the affinity of monkeys for animal care personnel, and that these effects tend to vary by sex but not age. In addition, abnormal behavior and symptoms of monkeys were improved by this training.

  6. A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, M D; Greenspan, L L; Glander, K E; Clarke, M R

    1990-10-01

    Fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata palliata) examined at Centro Ecologico La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. A sampling of nine howling monkeys from Santa Rosa National Park. Costa Rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). Only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) also from Santa Rosa were infected. Controrchis biliophilus, Trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and Isospora sp. oocysts were found. Three monkeys from La Pacifica died and were examined for adult helminths. They were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, C. biliophilus and T. minutus.

  7. Vitamins in the monkey brain: An immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Bodet, D; Duleu, S; Marcos, P; Geffard, M

    2009-09-01

    Using highly specific antisera directed against vitamins, the distribution of pyridoxal-, pyridoxine-, vitamin C- and nicotinamide-immunoreactive structures in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis) brain was studied. Neither immunoreactive structures containing pyridoxine or nicotinamide, nor immunoreactive fibers containing vitamin C were found in the monkey brain. However, this work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of pyridoxal- and vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies in the mammalian central nervous system using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A high density of pyridoxal-immunoreactive cell bodies was found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and in the supraoptic nucleus and a low density of the same was observed in the periventricular hypothalamic region, whereas a moderate density of vitamin C-immunoreactive cell bodies was observed in the somatosensorial cortex (precentral gyrus). Immunoreactive fibers containing pyridoxal were only visualized in the anterior commissure. The restricted distribution of pyridoxal and vitamin C in the monkey brain suggests that both vitamins could be involved in very specific physiological mechanisms.

  8. The cortical motor system of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakola, Sophia; Burman, Kathleen J; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2015-04-01

    Precise descriptions of the anatomical pathways that link different areas of the cerebral cortex are essential to the understanding of the sensorimotor and association processes that underlie human actions, and their impairment in pathological situations. Many years of research in macaque monkeys have critically shaped how we currently think about cortical motor function in humans. However, it is important to obtain additional understanding about the homologies between cortical areas in human and various non-human primates, and in particular how evolutionary changes in connectivity within specific neural circuits impact on the capacity for different behaviors. Current research has converged on the New World marmoset monkey as an important animal model for cortical function and dysfunction, emphasizing advantages unique to this species. However, the motor repertoire of the marmoset differs from that of the macaque in many ways, including the capacity for skilled use of the hands. Here, we review current knowledge about the cortical frontal areas in marmosets, which are key to the generation and control of motor behaviors, with focus on comparative analyses. We note significant parallels with the macaque monkey, as well as a few potentially important differences, which suggest future directions for work involving architectonic and functional analyses.

  9. Atopic dermatitis with possible polysensitization and monkey esophagus reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease resulting from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Recent studies link atopic dermatitis with asthma and with eosinophilic esophagitis. Case Report: Based on this association, we investigated by indirect immunofluorescence the immunoreactivity patterns on monkey esophagus substrate utilizing the serum of a patient with severe atopic dermatitis. We also examined the patient′s skin biopsy by H&E histology and immunohistochemistry. We detected strong deposits of albumin, IgE, IgG, IgD, IgA, Complement/C1q and mast cell tryptase in multiples structures of the skin, as well as a broad pattern of intraepithelial staining on monkey esophagus. Strong staining positivity was also detected within the inflammatory infiltrate around the upper dermal vessels, as well as additional positive staining for the human leukocyte antigen system antigens DR DP and DQ. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that there could be an indication for testing patients with severe atopic dermatitis for autoreactivity to filaggrin (anti-keratin antibodies utilizing monkey esophagus. Larger studies are needed to clarify any immunologic interaction between the reactivity to albumin and food allergens that may sensitize patients via the esophageal mucosa.

  10. Phenytoin and/or stiripentol in pregnancy: infant monkey hyperexcitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, N K; Lockard, J S

    1993-01-01

    A monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model was used to assess infant hyperexcitability after prenatal exposure to phenytoin (PHT, n = 4), stiripentol (STP, n = 5), or PHT + STP (n = 4). Adult female monkeys were equipped with tether systems and stomach catheters so that drug administration could start 1 month before mating and could be continued throughout gestation. During pregnancy, PHT and STP plasma levels were maintained between 4-12 and 4-10 micrograms/ml respectively (for both monotherapy and polytherapy). Infants were separated from mothers at birth and transferred to the University of Washington's (Seattle) Infant Primate Research Laboratory (IPRL) for postnatal care and testing. Data on a hyperexcitability scale were obtained during cognitive testing for visual and cross-modal recognition memory in 13 infant monkeys when they were between 2 weeks and 3 months of age. The data indicated that infants prenatally exposed to PHT, whether alone or in combination with STP, were at increased risk for hyperexcitability (screeching, refusing to attend to stimuli, lack of visual orientation). This was not true of infants prenatally exposed to STP monotherapy (drug group differences, p < 0.05).

  11. Electrons at the monkey saddle: A multicritical Lifshitz point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyk, A.; Goldstein, G.; Chamon, C.

    2017-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional interacting electrons at a monkey saddle with dispersion ∝px3-3 pxpy2 . Such a dispersion naturally arises at the multicritical Lifshitz point when three Van Hove saddles merge in an elliptical umbilic elementary catastrophe, which we show can be realized in biased bilayer graphene. A multicritical Lifshitz point of this kind can be identified by its signature Landau level behavior Em∝(Bm ) 3 /2 and related oscillations in thermodynamic and transport properties, such as de Haas-Van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, whose period triples as the system crosses the singularity. We show, in the case of a single monkey saddle, that the noninteracting electron fixed point is unstable to interactions under the renormalization-group flow, developing either a superconducting instability or non-Fermi-liquid features. Biased bilayer graphene, where there are two non-nested monkey saddles at the K and K' points, exhibits an interplay of competing many-body instabilities, namely, s -wave superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and spin- and charge-density waves.

  12. Larva migrans in squirrel monkeys experimentally infected with Baylisascaris potosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Tsugo, Kosuke; Nakamura, Shohei; Taira, Kensuke; Une, Yumi

    2015-10-01

    Roundworms of the genus Baylisascaris are natural parasites primarily of wild carnivores, and they can occasionally cause infection in humans and animals. Infection results in visceral larva migrans and/or neural larva migrans, which can be severe or fatal in some animals. Recently, Baylisascaris nematodes isolated from kinkajous (Potos flavus) and previously referred to as Baylisascaris procyonis were renamed as Baylisascaris potosis; however, data regarding the pathogenicity of B. potosis towards animals and humans are lacking. In the present study, we experimentally infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with B. potosis to determine the suitability of the monkey as a primate model. We used embryonated eggs of B. potosis at two different doses (10,000 eggs and 100,000 eggs) and examined the animals at 30 days post-infection. Histopathological examination showed the presence of B. potosis larvae and infiltration of inflammatory cells around a central B. potosis larvae in the brain, intestines, and liver. Nevertheless, the monkeys showed no clinical signs associated with infection. Parasitological examination revealed the presence of B. potosis larvae in the intestines, liver, lung, muscles, brain, kidney, and diaphragm. Our findings extend the range of species that are susceptible to B. potosis and provide evidence for the zoonotic potential of larva migrans in high dose infections.

  13. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) map number onto space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Caroline B; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-07-01

    Humans map number onto space. However, the origins of this association, and particularly the degree to which it depends upon cultural experience, are not fully understood. Here we provide the first demonstration of a number-space mapping in a non-human primate. We trained four adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to select the fourth position from the bottom of a five-element vertical array. Monkeys maintained a preference to choose the fourth position through changes in the appearance, location, and spacing of the vertical array. We next asked whether monkeys show a spatially-oriented number mapping by testing their responses to the same five-element stimulus array rotated ninety degrees into a horizontal line. In these horizontal probe trials, monkeys preferentially selected the fourth position from the left, but not the fourth position from the right. Our results indicate that rhesus macaques map number onto space, suggesting that the association between number and space in human cognition is not purely a result of cultural experience and instead has deep evolutionary roots.

  14. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  15. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed F; Hammoud, Dima A; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Yellayi, Srikanth; Solomon, Jeffrey; Bohannon, Jordan K; Janosko, Krisztina B; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt; Blaney, Joseph E; Jahrling, Peter B

    2015-07-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log10 PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases.

  16. Small particle aerosol inoculation of cowpox Brighton Red in rhesus monkeys results in a severe respiratory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Reed F. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Hammoud, Dima A. [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lackemeyer, Matthew G.; Yellayi, Srikanth [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Solomon, Jeffrey [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Bohannon, Jordan K.; Janosko, Krisztina B.; Jett, Catherine; Cooper, Kurt [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Blaney, Joseph E. [Office of the Scientific Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) inoculation of nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been suggested as an alternate model for smallpox (Kramski et al., 2010, PLoS One, 5, e10412). Previously, we have demonstrated that intrabronchial inoculation of CPXV-Brighton Red (CPXV-BR) into cynomolgus monkeys resulted in a disease that shared many similarities to smallpox; however, severe respiratory tract disease was observed (Smith et al., 2011, J. Gen. Virol.). Here we describe the course of disease after small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus monkeys using computed tomography (CT) to monitor respiratory disease progression. Subjects developed a severe respiratory disease that was uniformly lethal at 5.7 log{sub 10} PFU of CPXV-BR. CT indicated changes in lung architecture that correlated with changes in peripheral blood monocytes and peripheral oxygen saturation. While the small particle aerosol inoculation route does not accurately mimic human smallpox, the data suggest that CT can be used as a tool to monitor real-time disease progression for evaluation of animal models for human diseases. - Highlights: • Small particle aerosol exposure of rhesus results in a severe respiratory disease. • CT findings correlated with peripheral oxygen saturation and monocyte increases. • Virus dissemination was limited and mainly confined to the respiratory tract. • CT provides insight into pathogenesis to aid development of animal models of disease.

  17. Sub-chronic inhalation of high concentrations of manganese sulfate induces lower airway pathology in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Brian A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity and pulmonary dysfunction are well-recognized problems associated with prolonged human exposure to high concentrations of airborne manganese. Surprisingly, histological characterization of pulmonary responses induced by manganese remains incomplete. The primary objective of this study was to characterize histologic changes in the monkey respiratory tract following manganese inhalation. Methods Subchronic (6 hr/day, 5 days/week inhalation exposure of young male rhesus monkeys to manganese sulfate was performed. One cohort of monkeys (n = 4–6 animals/exposure concentration was exposed to air or manganese sulfate at 0.06, 0.3, or 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days. Another eight monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for 65 exposure days and held for 45 or 90 days before evaluation. A second cohort (n = 4 monkeys per time point was exposed to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 and evaluated after 15 or 33 exposure days. Evaluations included measurement of lung manganese concentrations and evaluation of respiratory histologic changes. Tissue manganese concentrations were compared for the exposure and control groups by tests for homogeneity of variance, analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison. Histopathological findings were evaluated using a Pearson's Chi-Square test. Results Animals exposed to manganese sulfate at ≥0.3 mg Mn/m3 for 65 days had increased lung manganese concentrations. Exposure to manganese sulfate at 1.5 mg Mn/m3 for ≥15 exposure days resulted in increased lung manganese concentrations, mild subacute bronchiolitis, alveolar duct inflammation, and proliferation of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Bronchiolitis and alveolar duct inflammatory changes were absent 45 days post-exposure, suggesting that these lesions are reversible upon cessation of subchronic high-dose manganese exposure. Conclusion High-dose subchronic manganese sulfate inhalation is

  18. Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Noecker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV. First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral

  19. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals.

  20. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved.