WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring wells ground

  1. Identification and description of potential ground-water quality monitoring wells in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, P.R.; Thagard, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey of existing wells in Florida that meet the following criteria are presented: (1) well location is known , (2) principal aquifer is known, (3) depth of well is known, (4) well casing depth is known, (5) well water had been analyzed between 1970 and 1982, and (6) well data are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) computer files. Information for more than 20,000 wells in Florida were stored in the USGS Master Water Data Index of the National Water Data Exchange and in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System 's Groundwater Site Inventory computerized files in 1982. Wells in these computer files that had been sampled for groundwater quality before November 1982 in Florida number 13,739; 1,846 of these wells met the above criteria and are the potential (or candidate) groundwater quality monitoring wells included in this report. The distribution by principal aquifer of the 1,846 wells identified as potential groundwater quality monitoring wells is as follows: 1,022 tap the Floridan aquifer system, 114 tap the intermediate aquifers, 232 tap the surficial aquifers, 246 tap the Biscayne aquifer, and 232 tap the sand-and-gravel aquifer. These wells are located in 59 of Florida 's 67 counties. This report presents the station descriptions, which include location , site characteristics, period of record, and the type and frequency of chemical water quality data collected for each well. The 1,846 well locations are plotted on 14 USGS 1:250,000 scale, 1 degree by 2 degree, quadrangle maps. This relatively large number of potential (or candidate) monitoring wells, geographically and geohydrologically dispersed, provides a basis for a future groundwater quality monitoring network and computerized data base for Florida. There is a large variety of water quality determinations available from these wells, both areally and temporally. Future sampling of these wells would permit analyses of time and areal trends for selected water quality

  2. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  3. Ground-water availability in part of the Borough of Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania, and the establishment of a drought-monitor well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Continued population growth in the Borough of Carroll Valley (Borough) coupled with the drought of 2001 have increased the demand for ground water in the Borough. This demand has led Borough officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capability of the crystalline-bedrock aquifers to meet future, projected growth and to establish a drought-monitor well within and for the use of the Borough. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data available from selected sections within the Borough and provides geohydrologic information needed to evaluate ground-water availability and recharge sources within part of the Borough. The availability of ground water in the Borough is limited by the physical characteristics of the underlying bedrock, and its upland topographic setting. The crystalline rocks (metabasalt, metarhyolite, greenstone schist) that underlie most of the study area are among the lowest yielding aquifers in the Commonwealth. More than 25 percent of the wells drilled in the metabasalt, the largest bedrock aquifer in the study area, have driller reported yields less than 1.25 gallons per minute. Driller reports indicate also that water-producing zones are shallow and few in number. In general, 50 percent of the water-producing zones reported by drillers are penetrated at depths of 200 feet or less and 90 percent at depths of 370 feet or less. Borehole geophysical data indicate that most of the water-producing zones are at lithologic contacts, but such contacts are penetrated infrequently and commonly do not intersect areas of ground-water recharge. Single-well aquifer tests and slug tests indicate that the bedrock aquifers also do not readily transmit large amounts of water. The median hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the bedrock aquifers are 0.01 foot per dayand 2.75 feet squared per day, respectively. The crystalline and siliciclastic (Weverton and Loudoun Formations) bedrock aquifers are moderately to highly resistant to

  4. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  5. Well Conductor Strain Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...849,429; filed on June 26, 2013 by the inventor, Dr. Anthony Ruffa and entitled “ SUBSEA WELL CONDUCTOR STRAIN MONITORING”. STATEMENT OF

  6. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  7. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  8. Chemometric characterisation of the quality of ground waters from different wells in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Novič, Marjana; Vončina, Ernest; Brodnjak-Vončina, Darinka; Sovič, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    The quality of ground water as a source of drinking water in Slovenia is regularly monitored. One of the monitoring programmes is performed on 5 wells for drinking water supply, 3 industrial wells and 2 ground water monitoring wells. Two hundred and fourteen samples of ground waters were analysed in the time 2003-2004. Samples were gathered from ten different sampling sites and physical chemical measurements were performed. The following 13 physical chemical parameters were regularly controll...

  9. Space-based monitoring of ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht Ersi, Fereydoun; Safari, Abdolreza; Gamse, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Ground deformation monitoring is valuable to understanding of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Space-Based measurement systems such as Global Positioning System are useful tools for continuous monitoring of ground deformation. Ground deformation analysis based on space geodetic techniques have provided a new, more accurate, and reliable source of information for geodetic positioning which is used to detect deformations of the Ground surface. This type of studies using displacement fields derived from repeated measurments of space-based geodetic networks indicates how crucial role the space geodetic methods play in geodynamics. The main scope of this contribution is to monitor of ground deformation by obtained measurements from GPS sites. We present ground deformation analysis in three steps: a global congruency test on daily coordinates of permanent GPS stations to specify in which epochs deformations occur, the localization of the deformed GPS sites and the determination of deformations.

  10. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  11. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  12. Monitoring Animal Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta

    In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values......, it is common to mix pigs from different farmers in one area. Such mixing can cause fights between pigs, which can lead to additional stress or the animals being harmed. The unfamiliar environment also increases the animals’ stress levels. In some industrial slaughterhouses, up to 62,000 pigs per week...... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...

  13. Well Monitoring System For EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States); Glowka, Dave [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States); Normann, Charles [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States); Parker, James [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Caja, Josip [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dustan, Don [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Caja, Mario [Electrochemical Systems Inc, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sariri, Kouros [Frequency Management Int. Inc., Huntington Beach, CA (United States); Beal, Craig [MajiQ Technologies Inc., Somerville, MA (United States)

    2017-02-26

    This grant is a collection of projects designed to move aircraft high temperature electronics technology into the geothermal industry. Randy Normann is the lead. He licensed the HT83SNL00 chip from Sandia National Labs. This chip enables aircraft developed electronics for work within a geothermal well logging tool. However, additional elements are needed to achieve commercially successful logging tools. These elements are offered by a strong list of industrial partners on this grant as: Electrochemical Systems Inc. for HT Rechargeable Batteries, Frequency Management Systems for 300C digital clock, Sandia National Labs for experts in high temperature solder, Honeywell Solid-State Electronics Center for reprogrammable high temperature memory. During the course of this project MagiQ Technologies for high temperature fiber optics.

  14. US EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  16. A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  17. Effect of ground stress on hydraulic fracturing of methane well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Chun-zhi; MAO Xian-biao; MIAO Xie-xing; WANG Peng

    2008-01-01

    Most of the coal reservoirs in China are of low-permeability, so hydraulic fracturing is widely used to improve the permeability in the extraction of gas by ground drilling. The ground stress around the well was analyzed by using theory of elasticity. The pressure when the well fractured is formulated and the effect of ground stress on pressure is discussed. The effect of ground-stress-differences on hydraulic fracturing was analyzed by using the numerical software RFPA2D-Flow in reference to the tectonic stress in Jincheng coal area. The results show that: 1) the position where initial fracture appears is random and fracture branches emerge when the fractures expand if ground stresses in any two directions within a horizontal plane are equal; 2) otherwise, the fractures expand in general along the direction of maximum ground stress and the critical pressure decreases with increasing ground-stress-differences and 3) the preferred well-disposition pattern is diamond shaped. The preferred well spacing is 250 m×300 m. This study can provide a reference for the design of wells.

  18. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  19. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING BIAS OBSERVED IN SHALLOW, CONVENTIONAL WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A previous field demonstration project on nitrate-based bioremediation of a fuel-contaminated aquifer used short-screened clustered well points in addition to shallow (10 foot), conventional monitoring wells to monitor the progress of remediation during surface application of rec...

  20. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  1. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  2. U.S. EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  3. Ground- and excited-state impurity bands in quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A.; Gold, A.; Serre, J.

    1989-02-01

    The density of states and the spectral density of electrons in quantum wells with charged impurities are calculated with use of a multiple-scattering method. The impurity-density-dependent broadening and the gradual merging of the ground (1s) and excited (2p+/-,2s) impurity levels into impurity bands are investigated. At low density the shapes of the 1s, 2p+/-, and 2s spectral densities are found to be in excellent agreement with the analytical results obtained for the ideal two-dimensional Coulomb problem.

  4. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  5. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  6. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  8. Centimeter Cosmo-Skymed Range Measurements for Monitoring Ground Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratarcangeli, F.; Nascetti, A.; Capaldo, P.; Mazzoni, A.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano - Northern Italy), where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS), taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one) stable PS's are available around the

  9. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded th...

  10. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F [Editor

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  15. Ground Water Monitoring Using Laser Fluorescence And Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Pohlig, Kenneth; Rico, Nicola; Johnson, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    In-situ measurement of aromatic ground water contaminants, including the benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX) fraction of gasoline, has been demonstrated using fiber optic systems. A prototype field instrument has shown that this method has advantages over traditional sampling and analysis. Problems encountered and solved include coupling of the laser energy into to fiber, sensor design, and detector configuration to optimize instrument sensitivity. The effects of sensor length, corresponding to well depth, on limits of detection are presented. Effects of potential interferences, including external fluorescence quenchers, are discuss-ed. The resolution of complex mixtures is addressed, with modifications to the detector shown to be effective in separation of groups of contaminants. Instrument design considerations include the need for portability, ruggedness at field sites, and ease of operation. The modular instrument design used is shown to help solve these potential problems, while maintaining analytical sensitivity and reproducibility. Modular optical system design has also shown to be useful when modifications are made. Changes in the detector as well as provisions for multiple laser sources have allowed a flexible system to be configured to meet analytical demands as they arise. Sensor design considerations included high ultraviolet transmission, physical flexibility, resistance to breakage, and resistance to chemical and/or biological fouling. The approach to these problem areas is presented, as well as discussion of the methods used to minimize effects of fiber solarization. Results of testing the field portable prototype are presented for a variety of typical ground water analysis sites, illustrating the usefulness of this new technology in environmental monitoring.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility FSS Well Data Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1994, ten constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults, and the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. No constituent exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  17. Monitoring Well Development Guidelines for Superfund Project Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides well development guidelines and recommended additional sources of information. It was developed by the Supertund Ground Water Forum and draws upon U.S. Army Corps of Engineersand draft RCRA SW-846 field protocols. Comments..

  18. Ground Source Heat Pump in Heating System with Electronics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEAMŢU Ovidiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring system is implemented for a ground coupled heat pump in heating/ system. The borehole heat exchangers – which are 150 m long - are filled with a mixture of water and ethilene glycol calledbrine. Metering and monitoring energy consumption is achieved for: heat pump, circulation pumps, additional electrical heating, hot air ventilation systems, control systems with sensors: analog and smart sensors. Instantaneous values are stored in a local computer.

  19. Perspectives on Wellness Self-Monitoring Tools for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults’ personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians’ tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. Methods We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Results Older adult participants’ found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes towards wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders’ use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Conclusions Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults’ wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. PMID:24041452

  20. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  1. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used in...

  3. Ground-based Space Weather Monitoring with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael; van Haarlem, Michiel; Lawrence, Gareth; Reid, Simon; Bos, Andre; Rawlings, Steve; Salvini, Stef; Mitchell, Cathryn; Soleimani, Manuch; Amado, Sergio; Teresa, Vital

    As one of the first of a new generation of radio instruments, the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) will provide a number of unique and novel capabilities for the astronomical community. These include remote configuration and operation, dynamic real-time processing and system response, and the ability to provide multiple simultaneous streams of data to a community whose scientific interests run the gamut from lighting in the atmospheres of distant planets to the origins of the universe itself. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) system is optimized for a frequency range from 30-240 MHz and consists of multiple antenna fields spread across Europe. In the Netherlands, a total 36 LOFAR stations are nearing completion with an initial 8 international stations currently being deployed in Germany, France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR has the potential to achieve unparalleled sensitivity and spatial resolution in the low frequency radio regime. LOFAR will also be one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. As we discuss in this presentation, the same capabilities that make LOFAR a powerful tool for radio astronomy also provide an excellent platform upon which to build a ground-based monitoring system for space weather events. For example, the ability to monitor Solar activity in near real-time is one of the key scientific capabilities being developed for LOFAR. With only a fraction of its total observing capacity, LOFAR will be able to provide continuous monitoring of the Solar spectrum over the entire 10-240 MHz band down to microsecond timescales. Autonomous routines will scan these incoming spectral data for evidence of Solar flares and be

  4. Ground tilt monitoring at Phlegraean Fields (Italy: a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Del Gaudio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Among geodetic methods used for monitoring ground deformation in volcanic areas, tiltmetry represents the most rapid technique and therefore it is used by almost all the volcanological observatories in the world. The deformation of volcanic building is not only the result of endogenous causes (i.e. dykes injection or magma rising, but also non-tectonic environmental factors. Such troubles cannot be removed completely but they can be reduce. This article outlines the main source of errors affecting the signals recorded by Phlegraean tilt, network, such as the dependence of the tilt response on temperature and to the thermoelastic effect on ground deformation. The analytical procedure used to evaluate about such errors and their reduction is explained. An application to data acquired from the tilt network during two distinct phases of ground uplift and subsidence of the Phlegraean Fields is reported.

  5. Seismic Monitoring System Calibration Using Ground Truth Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Winston; Wagner, Robert

    2002-12-22

    Calibration of a seismic monitoring system remains a major issue due to the lack of ground truth information and uncertainties in the regional geological parameters. Rapid and accurate identification of seismic events is currently not feasible due to the absence of a fundamental framework allowing immediate access to ground truth information for many parts of the world. Precise location and high-confidence identification of regional seismic events are the primary objectives of monitoring research in seismology. In the Department of Energy Knowledge Base (KB), ground truth information addresses these objectives and will play a critical role for event relocation and identification using advanced seismic analysis tools. Maintaining the KB with systematic compilation and analysis of comprehensive sets of geophysical data from various parts of the world is vital. The goal of this project is to identify a comprehensive database for China using digital seismic waveform data that are currently unavailable. These data may be analyzed along with ground truth information that becomes available. To date, arrival times for all regional phases are determined on all events above Mb 4.5 that occurred in China in 2000 and 2001. Travel-time models are constructed to compare with existing models. Seismic attenuation models may be constructed to provide better understanding of regional wave propagation in China with spatial resolution that has not previously been obtained.

  6. Effect of well disinfection on arsenic in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotkowitz, M.; Ellickson, K.; Clary, A.; Bowman, G.; Standridge, J.; Sonzogni, W.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic water wells are routinely subjected to in situ chemical disinfection treatments to control nuisance or pathogenic bacteria. Most treatments are chlorine based and presumably cause strongly oxidizing conditions in the wellbore. Water resource managers in Wisconsin were concerned that such treatments might facilitate release of arsenic from sulfide minerals disseminated within a confined sandstone aquifer. To test this hypothesis, a well was subjected to four disinfection treatments over 9 months time. The first treatment consisted of routine pumping of the well without chemical disinfection; three subsequent treatments included chlorine disinfection and pumping. Pretreatment arsenic concentrations in well water ranged from 7.4 to 18 ??g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations up to 57 ??g/L in the chemical treatment solutions purged from the well are attributed to the disintegration or dissolution of biofilms or scale. Following each of the four treatments, arsenic concentrations decreased to less than 10 ??g/L during a period of pumping. Arsenic concentrations generally returned to pretreatment levels under stagnant, nonpumping conditions imposed following each treatment. Populations of iron-oxidizing, heterotrophic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria decreased following chemical treatments but were never fully eradicated from the well. Strongly oxidizing conditions were induced by the chlorine-based disinfections, but the treatments did not result in sustained increases in well water arsenic. Results suggest that disruption of biofilm and mineral deposits in the well and the water distribution system in tandem with chlorine disinfection can improve water quality in this setting. ?? 2008 The Author(s).

  7. Maryland Ground-Water Observation Well Network, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MDNET is a point coverage that represents the locations and names of a network of observation wells for the State of Maryland. Additional information on water...

  8. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  9. Applications of FBG-based sensors to ground stability monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Bin Huang; Chien-Chih Wang; Jui-Ting Lee; Yen-Te Ho

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many optical fiber sensing techniques have been developed. Among these available sensing methods, optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is probably the most popular one. With its unique capabilities, FBG-based geotechnical sensors can be used as a sensor array for distributive (profile) measurements, deployed under water (submersible), for localized high resolution and/or dif-ferential measurements. The authors have developed a series of FBG-based transducers that include inclination, linear displacement and gauge/differential pore pressure sensors. Techniques that involve the field deployment of FBG inclination, extension and pore-pressure sensor arrays for automated slope stability and ground subsidence monitoring have been developed. The paper provides a background of FBG and the design concepts behind the FBG-based field monitoring sensors. Cases of field monitoring using the FBG sensor arrays are presented, and their practical implications are discussed.

  10. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  11. CY2003 RCRA GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELL SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, C.R.

    2003-12-16

    This report describes the calendar year (CY) 2003 field activities associated with the installation of two new groundwater monitoring wells in the A-AX Waste Management Area (WMA) and four groundwater monitoring wells in WMA C in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. All six wells were installed by Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH) for CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) in support of Draft Hanford Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) M-24-00 milestones and ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976'' (RCRA) groundwater monitoring requirements. Drilling data for the six wells are summarized in Table 1.

  12. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. APPLICATION OF THE ROOF DISTURBANCETO MONITORING AND PREDICTINGTHE GROUND PRESSURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国彬; 钱鸣高

    1992-01-01

    Based on study of the influence of main roof fracture on ground pressure,this paper considered the immediate roof as a semi-infinite long beam on a Winkler elastic foundation. In the model the coal seam is the foundation and the pressure caused by rnian roof deflection is the load.Having solved the model and analyzed relevant factors,the authors indicate that the disturbance caused by the breakage of the mian roof can be observed in both gates of iongwaii face and explain why it can be. The paper points out that the applicability of the method to obtain the disturbance information by measuring the loads on supports is wider than that by measuring the roof convergence rate. The results are useful for monitoring and predicting ground pressure.

  14. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  15. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Optimized, budget-constrained monitoring well placement using DREAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonkofski, Catherine MR; Davidson, Casie L.; Rodriguez, Luke R.; Porter, Ellen A.; Bender, Sadie R.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2017-07-01

    Defining the ideal suite of monitoring technologies to be deployed at a carbon capture and storage (CCS) site presents a challenge to project developers, financers, insurers, regulators and other stakeholders. The monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) toolkit offers a suite of technologies to monitor an extensive range of parameters across a wide span of spatial and temporal resolutions, each with their own degree of sensitivity to changes in the parameter being monitored. Understanding how best to optimize MVA budgets to minimize the time to leak detection could help to address issues around project risks, and in turn help support broad CCS deployment. This paper presents a case study demonstrating an application of the Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management (DREAM) tool using an ensemble of CO2 leakage scenarios taken from a previous study on leakage impacts to groundwater. Impacts were assessed and monitored as a function of pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and trace metal concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb). Using output from the previous study, DREAM was used to optimize monitoring system designs based on variable sampling locations and parameters. The algorithm requires the user to define a finite budget to limit the number of monitoring wells and technologies deployed, and then iterates well placement and sensor type and location until it converges on the configuration with the lowest time to first detection of the leak averaged across all scenarios. To facilitate an understanding of the optimal number of sampling wells, DREAM was used to assess the marginal utility of additional sampling locations. Based on assumptions about monitoring costs and replacement costs of degraded water, the incremental cost of each additional sampling well can be compared against its marginal value in terms of avoided aquifer degradation. Applying this method, DREAM identified the most cost-effective ensemble with 14

  17. Ground-penetrating radar: A tool for monitoring bridge scour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N.L.; Ismael, A.M.; Thitimakorn, T.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were acquired across shallow streams and/or drainage ditches at 10 bridge sites in Missouri by maneuvering the antennae across the surface of the water and riverbank from the bridge deck, manually or by boat. The acquired two-dimensional and three-dimensional data sets accurately image the channel bottom, demonstrating that the GPR tool can be used to estimate and/or monitor water depths in shallow fluvial environments. The study results demonstrate that the GPR tool is a safe and effective tool for measuring and/or monitoring scour in proximity to bridges. The technique can be used to safely monitor scour at assigned time intervals during peak flood stages, thereby enabling owners to take preventative action prior to potential failure. The GPR tool can also be used to investigate depositional and erosional patterns over time, thereby elucidating these processes on a local scale. In certain instances, in-filled scour features can also be imaged and mapped. This information may be critically important to those engaged in bridge design. GPR has advantages over other tools commonly employed for monitoring bridge scour (reflection seismic profiling, echo sounding, and electrical conductivity probing). The tool doesn't need to be coupled to the water, can be moved rapidly across (or above) the surface of a stream, and provides an accurate depth-structure model of the channel bottom and subchannel bottom sediments. The GPR profiles can be extended across emerged sand bars or onto the shore.

  18. Monitoring of psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461......-being Questionnaire was used for this purpose. Primary outcomes were mood, HbA(1c), and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care at 1-year follow-up. The number of referrals to the psychologist was analyzed as a secondary outcome. Intention-to-treat analysis was used. RESULTS: The monitoring group...... reported better mood compared with the standard care group, as indicated by significantly lower negative well-being and significantly higher levels of energy, higher general well-being, better mental health, and a more positive evaluation of the quality of the emotional support received from the diabetes...

  19. Recommendations for new monitoring wells at Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2007-05-03

    On February 15, 2007, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) submitted Recommendations for Remedial Action at Everest, Kansas. Those Recommendations were accepted by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) in a letter to the CCC/USDA dated March 5, 2007. The approved Recommendations document outlines a plan for systematic groundwater sampling and monitoring at Everest to provide data necessary for the critical evaluation of remedial options - including a phytoremediation alternative - for restoration of the groundwater and protection of the surface waters of the intermittent creek at this site. Phase I of the KDHE-approved monitoring plan includes the following activities: (1) Groundwater sampling at existing monitoring wells, with analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and selected biodegradation parameters; (2) Sampling of surface waters along the intermittent creek for VOCs analyses; and (3) Periodic manual measurement and automated recording of groundwater and surface water levels in the vicinity of the intermittent creek. The locations selected for groundwater and surface water sampling and analyses under the approved monitoring program were determined in consultation with the KDHE. As a result of subsequent discussions among representatives of the KDHE, the CCC/USDA, and Argonne regarding the technical program at Everest, the CCC/USDA seeks KDHE approval for the installation of up to four new permanent monitoring wells along the upper reach of the intermittent creek west of the Nigh property, as shown in Figure 1. The proposed new well locations lie progressively downgradient in the anticipated direction of future groundwater and contaminant movement; all of the recommended points lie at least 2,000 ft upgradient, however, of the confirmed area of groundwater discharge to the creek identified near Highway 73. The proposed new wells will supplement the existing network of groundwater and surface

  20. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  1. 30 CFR 75.902 - Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.902 Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits. On or before September 30, 1970, low- and medium-voltage resistance grounded systems shall...

  2. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  3. Revised Iterative Solution of Ground State of Double-Well Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei-Qin

    2005-01-01

    The revised new iterative method for solving the ground state of Schrodinger equation is deduced. Based on Green functions defined by quadratures along a single trajectory this iterative method is applied to solve the ground state of the double-well potential. The result is compared to the one based on the original iterative method. The limitation of the asymptotic expansion is also discussed.

  4. Calculating e-flow using UAV and ground monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Zhang, C. B.; Yang, S. T.; Liu, C. M.; Xiang, H.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Shao, N. F.; Yu, Q.

    2017-09-01

    Intense human activity has led to serious degradation of basin water ecosystems and severe reduction in the river flow available for aquatic biota. As an important water ecosystem index, environmental flows (e-flows) are crucial for maintaining sustainability. However, most e-flow measurement methods involve long cycles, low efficiency, and transdisciplinary expertise. This makes it impossible to rapidly assess river e-flows at basin or larger scales. This study presents a new method to rapidly assessing e-flows coupling UAV and ground monitorings. UAV was firstly used to calculate river-course cross-sections with high-resolution stereoscopic images. A dominance index was then used to identify key fish species. Afterwards a habitat suitability index, along with biodiversity and integrity indices, was used to determine an appropriate flow velocity with full consideration of the fish spawning period. The cross-sections and flow velocity values were then combined into AEHRA, an e-flow assessment method for studying e-flows and supplying-rate. To verify the results from this new method, the widely used Tennant method was employed. The root-mean-square errors of river cross-sections determined by UAV are less than 0.25 m, which constitutes 3-5% water-depth of the river cross-sections. In the study area of Jinan city, the ecological flow velocity (VE) is equal to or greater than 0.11 m/s, and the ecological water depth (HE) is greater than 0.8 m. The river ecosystem is healthy with the minimum e-flow requirements being always met when it is close to large rivers, which is beneficial for the sustainable development of the water ecosystem. In the south river channel of Jinan, the upstream flow mostly meets the minimum e-flow requirements, and the downstream flow always meets the minimum e-flow requirements. The north of Jinan consists predominantly of artificial river channels used for irrigation. Rainfall rarely meets the minimum e-flow and irrigation water requirements

  5. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  7. Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.A.

    1994-12-27

    Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins.

  8. Biomedical wellness monitoring system based upon molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Whitney

    2012-06-01

    We wish to assist caretakers with a sensor monitoring systems for tracking the physiological changes of homealone patients. One goal is seeking biomarkers and modern imaging sensors like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), which has achieved visible imaging at the nano-scale range. Imaging techniques like STORM can be combined with a fluorescent functional marker in a system to capture the early transformation signs from wellness to illness. By exploiting both microscopic knowledge of genetic pre-disposition and the macroscopic influence of epigenetic factors we hope to target these changes remotely. We adopt dual spectral infrared imaging for blind source separation (BSS) to detect angiogenesis changes and use laser speckle imaging for hypertension blood flow monitoring. Our design hypothesis for the monitoring system is guided by the user-friendly, veteran-preferred "4-Non" principles (noninvasive, non-contact, non-tethered, non-stop-to-measure) and by the NIH's "4Ps" initiatives (predictive, personalized, preemptive, and participatory). We augment the potential storage system with the recent know-how of video Compressive Sampling (CSp) from surveillance cameras. In CSp only major changes are saved, which reduces the manpower cost of caretakers and medical analysts. This CSp algorithm is based on smart associative memory (AM) matrix storage: change features and detailed scenes are written by the outer-product and read by the inner product without the usual Harsh index for image searching. From this approach, we attempt to design an effective household monitoring approach to save healthcare costs and maintain the quality of life of seniors.

  9. Energy well. Ground-source heat in one-family houses; Energiakaivo. Maalaemmoen hyoedyntaeminen pientaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, J.; Lapinlampi, T.

    2013-08-15

    This guide deals with the legislation, planning, building, usage and maintenance of ground-source heat systems. The guide gives recommendations and instructions on national level on the permit practices and how to carry out the whole ground-source heat system project. The main focus of the guide is on energy wells for one-family houses. The principle is that an action permit is needed to build a ground-source heat system. On ground water areas a permit according to the water act may also be required. To avoid any problems, the placement of the system needs to be planned precisely. This guide gives a comprehension to the orderer on the issues that need to be considered before ordering, during construction, when the system is running and when giving up the use of the ground-source heat system. (orig.)

  10. Monitoring of water quality of selected wells in Brno district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two wells in the country of Brno-district (Brčálka well and Well Olšová. The aim of work was monitoring of elementary parameters of water at regular monthly intervals to measure: water temperature, pH values, solubility oxygen and spring yield. According to the client's requirements (Lesy města Brno laboratory analyzes of selected parameters were done twice a year and their results were compared with Ministry of Health Decree no. 252/2004 Coll.. These parameters: nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD, calcium and magnesium and its values are presented in graphs, for ammonium ions and nitrite in the table. Graphical interpretation of spring yields dependence on the monthly total rainfall and dependence of water temperature on ambient temperature was utilized. The most important features of wells include a water source, a landmark in the landscape, aesthetic element or resting and relaxing place. Maintaining wells is important in terms of future generations.

  11. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technique in Monitoring the Ground Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of ground deformation is important for the prevention and control of geological disaster including land subsidence, ground fissure, surface collapse, and landslides. In this study, a distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA was used to monitor the ground deformation. The principle behind the BOTDA is first introduced, and then laboratory calibration test and physical model test were carried out. Finally, BOTDA-based monitoring of ground fissure was carried out in a test site. Experimental results show that the distributed optical fiber can measure the soil strain during ground deformation process, and the strain curve responded to the soil compression and tension region clearly. During field test in Wuxi City, China, the ground fissures deformation area was monitored accurately and the trend of deformation can also be achieved to forecast and warn against the ground fissure hazards.

  12. DESIGN OF A PHOSWICH WELL DETECTOR FOR RADIOXENON MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Fallu-Labruyere, A; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Gleyzer, A

    2006-09-19

    The network of monitoring stations established through the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty includes systems to detect radioactive xenon released into the atmosphere from nuclear weapons testing. One such monitoring system is the Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. For high sensitivity, the ARSA system currently uses a complex arrangement of separate beta and gamma detectors to detect beta-gamma coincidences from characteristic radioxenon isotopes in small samples of xenon extracted from large volumes of air. The coincidence measurement is very sensitive, but the large number of detectors and photomultiplier tubes requires careful calibration. A simplified approach is to use a single phoswich detector, consisting of optically coupled plastic and CsI scintillators. In the phoswich detector, most beta particles are absorbed in the plastic scintillator and most gamma rays are absorbed in the CsI, and pulse shape analysis of the detector signal is used to detect coincidences. As only a single detector and electronics readout channel is used, the complexity of the system is greatly reduced. Previous studies with a planar detector have shown that the technique can clearly separate beta only, gamma only and coincidence events, does not degrade the energy resolution, and has an error rate for detecting coincidences of less than 0.1%. In this paper, we will present the design of a phoswich well detector, consisting of a 1'' diameter plastic cell enclosed in a 3'' CsI crystal. Several variations of the well detector geometry have been studied using Monte Carlo modeling and evaluated for detection efficiency, effects on energy resolution, and ease of manufacturing. One prototype detector has been built and we will present here some preliminary experimental results characterizing the detector in terms of energy resolution and its ability to separate beta only, gamma only, and coincidence

  13. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  14. 30 CFR 77.902 - Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.902 Low- and medium-voltage ground check monitor circuits. On and after September 30, 1971, three-phase low- and...

  15. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  16. Ground-based monitoring of solar radiation in Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Integrated measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev, Moldova have been started by Atmospheric Research Group (ARG) at the Institute of Applied Physics from 2003. Direct, diffuse and total components of solar and atmospheric long-wave radiation are measured by using of the radiometric complex at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station. Measurements are fulfilled at the stationary and moving platforms equipped with the set of 9 broadband solar radiation sensors overlapping wavelength range from UV-B to IR. Detailed description of the station can be found at the site http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E). Summary of observation data acquired at the station in the course of short-term period from 2004 to 2009 are presented below. Solar radiation measurements were fulfilled by using CM11(280-3000 nm) and CH1 sensors (Kipp&Zonen). In the course of a year maximum and minimum of monthly sums of total radiation was ~706.4 MJm-2 in June and ~82.1MJm-2 in December, respectively. Monthly sums of direct solar radiation (on horizontal plane) show the maximum and minimum values of the order ~456.9 MJm-2 in July and ~25.5MJm-2 in December, respectively. In an average, within a year should be marked the predominance of direct radiation over the scattered radiation, 51% and 49%, respectively. In the course of a year, the percentage contribution of the direct radiation into the total radiation is ~55-65% from May to September. In the remaining months, the percentage contribution decreases and takes the minimum value of ~ 28% in December. In an average, annual sum of total solar radiation is ~4679.9 MJm-2. For the period from April to September accounts for ~76% of the annual amount of total radiation. Annual sum of sunshine duration accounts for ~2149 hours, which is of ~ 48% from the possible sunshine duration. In an average, within a year maximum and minimum of sunshine duration is ~ 304 hours in

  17. Above-ground antineutrino detection for nuclear reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweany, M.; Brennan, J.; Cabrera-Palmer, B.; Kiff, S.; Reyna, D.; Throckmorton, D.

    2015-01-01

    Antineutrino monitoring of nuclear reactors has been demonstrated many times (Klimov et al., 1994 [1]; Bowden et al., 2009 [2]; Oguri et al., 2014 [3]), however the technique has not as of yet been developed into a useful capability for treaty verification purposes. The most notable drawback is the current requirement that detectors be deployed underground, with at least several meters-water-equivalent of shielding from cosmic radiation. In addition, the deployment of liquid-based detection media presents a challenge in reactor facilities. We are currently developing a detector system that has the potential to operate above ground and circumvent deployment problems associated with a liquid detection media: the system is composed of segments of plastic scintillator surrounded by {sup 6}LiF/ZnS:Ag. ZnS:Ag is a radio-luminescent phosphor used to detect the neutron capture products of {sup 6}Li. Because of its long decay time compared to standard plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination can be used to distinguish positron and neutron interactions resulting from the inverse beta decay (IBD) of antineutrinos within the detector volume, reducing both accidental and correlated backgrounds. Segmentation further reduces backgrounds by identifying the positron's annihilation gammas, a signature that is absent for most correlated and uncorrelated backgrounds. This work explores different configurations in order to maximize the size of the detector segments without reducing the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency. We believe that this technology will ultimately be applicable to potential safeguards scenarios such as those recently described by Huber et al. (2014) [4,5].

  18. Influence of Well Casing Composition on Trace Metals in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    TablE 2. Conductivity of ground wa- bonate species toward carbon dioxide ( Manahan ter solutions and pHmeasurements at the beginning and end of the...pipe. Installation is also an Well Association, Worthington, Ohio, p. 203-213. important variable since any abrasions would read- Manahan , S.E. (1972

  19. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  20. Gamma well-logging in burial ground of Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.; Hofstetter, K.J.; MacMurdo, K.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Gamma well-logging measurements were conducted in an inactive radioactive waste burial ground of the Savannah River site to appraise whether any evidence existed for downward movement of radioactivity toward the water table. Similar measurements on the same wells were conducted in 1980, providing a baseline from which to measure any changes in their radioactive plumes. In particular, the recent measurements sought to detect significant changes in depth location and radiation magnitude of the plumes, as well as the existence of any new plumes. By comparing measurements on a number of these wells, which were distributed on a grid pattern, it was anticipated that the general status of this section of the burial ground could be established.

  1. Wi-GIM system: a new wireless sensor network (WSN) for accurate ground instability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, Lorenzo; Trippi, Federico; Schina, Rosa; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Favalli, Massimiliano; Marturia Alavedra, Jordi; Intrieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Carnevale, Ennio; Bertolini, Giovanni; Pizziolo, Marco; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are among the most serious and common geologic hazards around the world. Their impact on human life is expected to increase in the next future as a consequence of human-induced climate change as well as the population growth in proximity of unstable slopes. Therefore, developing better performing technologies for monitoring landslides and providing local authorities with new instruments able to help them in the decision making process, is becoming more and more important. The recent progresses in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow us to extend the use of wireless technologies in landslide monitoring. In particular, the developments in electronics components have permitted to lower the price of the sensors and, at the same time, to actuate more efficient wireless communications. In this work we present a new wireless sensor network (WSN) system, designed and developed for landslide monitoring in the framework of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033). We show the preliminary performance of the Wi-GIM system after the first period of monitoring on the active Roncovetro Landslide and on a large subsiding area in the neighbourhood of Sallent village. The Roncovetro landslide is located in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy) and moved an inferred volume of about 3 million cubic meters. Sallent village is located at the centre of the Catalan evaporitic basin in Spain. The Wi-GIM WSN monitoring system consists of three levels: 1) Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation and local storage; 2) Master/Server level takes care of acquiring and storing data on a remote server; 3) Nodes level that is based on a mesh of peripheral nodes, each consisting in a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The nodes are located in the landslide ground perimeter and are able to create an ad-hoc WSN. The location of each sensor on the ground is

  2. Development of a Ground Water Data Portal for Interoperable Data Exchange within the U.S. National Ground Water Monitoring Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, N. L.; Brodaric, B.; Lucido, J. M.; Kuo, I.; Boisvert, E.; Cunningham, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    The need for a national groundwater monitoring network within the United States is profound and has been recognized by organizations outside government as a major data gap for managing ground-water resources. Our country's communities, industries, agriculture, energy production and critical ecosystems rely on water being available in adequate quantity and suitable quality. To meet this need the Subcommittee on Ground Water, established by the Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information, created a National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) envisioned as a voluntary, integrated system of data collection, management and reporting that will provide the data needed to address present and future ground-water management questions raised by Congress, Federal, State and Tribal agencies and the public. The NGWMN Data Portal is the means by which policy makers, academics and the public will be able to access ground water data through one seamless web-based application from disparate data sources. Data systems in the United States exist at many organizational and geographic levels and differing vocabulary and data structures have prevented data sharing and reuse. The data portal will facilitate the retrieval of and access to groundwater data on an as-needed basis from multiple, dispersed data repositories allowing the data to continue to be housed and managed by the data provider while being accessible for the purposes of the national monitoring network. This work leverages Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data exchange standards and information models. To advance these standards for supporting the exchange of ground water information, an OGC Interoperability Experiment was organized among international participants from government, academia and the private sector. The experiment focused on ground water data exchange across the U.S. / Canadian border. WaterML2.0, an evolving international standard for water observations, encodes ground water levels and is exchanged

  3. Influence of free carriers on exciton ground states in quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klochikhin, A.A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute, 350000 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kochereshko, V.P., E-mail: vladimir.kochereshko@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Spin Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 198904 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tatarenko, S. [CEA-CNRS Group “Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs”, Institut Néel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2014-10-15

    The influence of free carriers on the ground state of the exciton at zero magnetic field in a quasi-two-dimensional quantum well that contains a gas of free electrons is considered in the framework of the random phase approximation. The effects of the exciton–charge-density interaction and the inelastic scattering processes due to the electron–electron exchange interaction are taken into account. The effect of phase-space filling is considered using an approximate approach. The results of the calculation are compared with the experimental data. - Highlights: • We discussed the effect of free carriers on the exciton ground state in quantum wells. • The processes of exciton–electron scattering become the most important for excitons in doped QWs. • The direct Coulomb scattering can be neglected. • The most important becomes the exchange inelastic exciton–electron scattering.

  4. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Inorganic Contaminants In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12, determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells installed at Y-12 and the related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes.

  6. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12, determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells installed at Y-12 and the related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  8. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Plumes from Combined Ground-Airborne Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jamey; Mitchell, Taylor; Honeycutt, Wes; Materer, Nicholas; Ley, Tyler; Clark, Peter

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid ground-airborne sensing network for real-time plume monitoring of CO2 and CH4 for carbon sequestration is investigated. Conventional soil gas monitoring has difficulty in distinguishing gas flux signals from leakage with those associated with meteorologically driven changes. A low-cost, lightweight sensor system has been developed and implemented onboard a small unmanned aircraft and is combined with a large-scale ground network that measures gas concentration. These are combined with other atmospheric diagnostics, including thermodynamic data and velocity from ultrasonic anemometers and multi-hole probes. To characterize the system behavior and verify its effectiveness, field tests have been conducted with simulated discharges of CO2 and CH4 from compressed gas tanks to mimic leaks and generate gaseous plumes, as well as field tests over the Farnsworth CO2-EOR site in the Anadarko Basin. Since the sensor response time is a function of vehicle airspeed, dynamic calibration models are required to determine accurate location of gas concentration in space and time. Comparisons are made between the two tests and results compared with historical models combining both flight and atmospheric dynamics. Supported by Department of Energy Award DE-FE0012173.

  10. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Effects of a Potash Mine Roof Fall Observed in Nearby Monitoring Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    At approximately 5 AM on March 18, 2012, a significant collapse occurred in a potash mine near the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The US Geological Survey estimated the event to be magnitude 2.9. Two wells in the WIPP regional groundwater monitoring network experienced oscillatory water level fluctuations greater than 5 feet in response to the event. The changes in water level decayed slowly over several weeks following the event. The potash mine is located in the McNutt Potash zone of the Salado Formation, which is 1000-1400 feet below ground surface (BGS) near the location of the roof fall. The monitoring wells are completed in the semi-confined Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation, which is 375 feet BGS. The observed response is compared to published well responses to earthquakes and other seismic events. We explore the potential for using the event to characterize aquifer parameters. This research is funded by WIPP programs administered by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  12. A simple, low-cost method to monitor duration of ground water pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, S; Perrin, J; Wajid, M; Mascre, C; Dewandel, B

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring ground water withdrawals for agriculture is a difficult task, while agricultural development leads frequently to overexploitation of the aquifers. To fix the problem, sustainable management is required based on the knowledge of water uses. This paper introduces a simple and inexpensive direct method to determine the duration of pumping of a well by measuring the temperature of its water outlet pipe. A pumping phase is characterized by a steady temperature value close to ground water temperature. The method involves recording the temperature of the outlet pipe and identifying the different stages of pumping. It is based on the use of the low-cost and small-size Thermochron iButton temperature logger and can be applied to any well, provided that a water outlet pipe is accessible. The temperature time series are analyzed to determine the duration of pumping through manual and automatic posttreatments. The method was tested and applied in South India for irrigation wells using electricity-powered pumps. The duration of pumping obtained by the iButton method is fully consistent with the duration of power supply (1.5% difference).

  13. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow and Particle Pathline Analysis in the Zone of Contribution of a Public-Supply Well in Modesto, Eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Phillips, Steven P.; Dalgish, Barbara A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley is affected by high nitrate and uranium concentrations and frequent detections of pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as a result of ground-water development and intensive agricultural and urban land use. A single public-supply well was selected for intensive study to evaluate the dominant processes affecting the vulnerability of public-supply wells in the Modesto area. A network of 23 monitoring wells was installed, and water and sediment samples were collected within the approximate zone of contribution of the public-supply well, to support a detailed analysis of physical and chemical conditions and processes affecting the water chemistry in the well. A three-dimensional, steady-state local ground-water-flow and transport model was developed to evaluate the age of ground water reaching the well and to evaluate the vulnerability of the well to nonpoint source input of nitrate and uranium. Particle tracking was used to compute pathlines and advective travel times in the ground-water flow model. The simulated ages of particles reaching the public-supply well ranged from 9 to 30,000 years, with a median of 54 years. The age of the ground water contributed to the public-supply well increased with depth below the water table. Measured nitrate concentrations, derived primarily from agricultural fertilizer, were highest (17 milligrams per liter) in shallow ground water and decreased with depth to background concentrations of less than 2 milligrams per liter in the deepest wells. Because the movement of water is predominantly downward as a result of ground-water development, and because geochemical conditions are generally oxic, high nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water are expected to continue moving downward without significant attenuation. Simulated long-term nitrate concentrations indicate that concentrations have peaked and will decrease in the public-supply well during the next 100 years

  14. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Monitoring of Deformation in Ground Before and After Tunnel Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Mehmet; Hilmi Erkoç, Muharrem

    2017-04-01

    As population increase in metropolitan city, we need transportation and transmission tunnel. In this context, the engineers and administors attach impotance to building and planning underground-tunnel. Moreover, we must at regular intervals monitoring to deformation in underground-tunnel for quality and safety. Firstly, a deformation monitoring network is designed as perpendicular to the tunnel main axis. Secondly, the prescribed number of deformation measurements must be made. Finally, the deformation analysis is evaluated and its results is interpreted. This study investigates how deformation in monitoring network during and after tunnel excavate change.For this purpose, a deformation monitoring network of 18 object point and 4 reference point was established. Object points networks was designed steeply to the tunnel main axis as 3 cross section. Each cross section consisted of 3 point left, 2 point right and 1 point at the flowing line. Initial conditional measurement was made before tunnel excavation. Then the deformation measurement was made 5 period (1 period measured after tunnel excavate). All data sets were adjusted according to free adjustment method. The results from the investigation considering the tunnel line, a symmetrical subsidence was observed. The following day of tunnel excavation, we were observed %68 per of the total deformation. At the end of the last period measurements, %99 per of the total deformation was detected. Keywords: Tunnel, Deformation, Subsidence, Excavation

  16. Ground state of excitons in quantum-dot quantum-well nanoparticles:stochastic variational method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Heng; Shi Jun-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of effective mass approximation, the ground state of excitons confined in spherical core-shell quantum-dot quantum-well (QDQW) nanoparticles is solved by using the stochastic variational method, in which the finite band offset and the heavy (light) hole exciton states are considered. The calculated lse-lsh transition energies for the chosen CdS/HgS/CdS QDQW samples are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Moreover,some previous theoretical results are improved.

  17. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for:  inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12,  determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and  identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment.

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for:  inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12,  determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and  identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment.

  19. Entropy-Based Approach to Remove Redundant Monitoring Wells from Regional-Scale Groundwater Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An entropy-based approach is applied to identify redundant wells in the network. In the process of this research, groundwater-monitoring network is considered as a communication system with a capability to transfer information, and monitoring wells are taken as information receivers. The concepts of entropy and mutual information are then applied to measure the information content of individual monitoring well and information relationship between monitoring well pairs. The efficiency of information transfer among monitoring wells is the basis to judge the redundancy in the network. And the capacity of the monitoring wells to provide information on groundwater is the point of evaluation to identify redundant monitoring wells. This approach is demonstrated using the data from a regional-scale groundwater network in Hebei plain, China. The result shows that the entropy-based method is recommendable in optimizing groundwater networks, especially for those within media of higher heterogeneities and anisotropies.

  20. Assessment of ground-based monitoring techniques applied to landslide investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Smith, A.; Chambers, J.; Dixon, N.; Dijkstra, T.; Haslam, E.; Meldrum, P.; Merritt, A.; Gunn, D.; Mackay, J.

    2016-01-01

    A landslide complex in the Whitby Mudstone Formation at Hollin Hill, North Yorkshire, UK is periodically re-activated in response to rainfall-induced pore-water pressure fluctuations. This paper compares long-term measurements (i.e., 2009-2014) obtained from a combination of monitoring techniques that have been employed together for the first time on an active landslide. The results highlight the relative performance of the different techniques, and can provide guidance for researchers and practitioners for selecting and installing appropriate monitoring techniques to assess unstable slopes. Particular attention is given to the spatial and temporal resolutions offered by the different approaches that include: Real Time Kinematic-GPS (RTK-GPS) monitoring of a ground surface marker array, conventional inclinometers, Shape Acceleration Arrays (SAA), tilt meters, active waveguides with Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring, and piezometers. High spatial resolution information has allowed locating areas of stability and instability across a large slope. This has enabled identification of areas where further monitoring efforts should be focused. High temporal resolution information allowed the capture of 'S'-shaped slope displacement-time behaviour (i.e. phases of slope acceleration, deceleration and stability) in response to elevations in pore-water pressures. This study shows that a well-balanced suite of monitoring techniques that provides high temporal and spatial resolutions on both measurement and slope scale is necessary to fully understand failure and movement mechanisms of slopes. In the case of the Hollin Hill landslide it enabled detailed interpretation of the geomorphological processes governing landslide activity. It highlights the benefit of regularly surveying a network of GPS markers to determine areas for installation of movement monitoring techniques that offer higher resolution both temporally and spatially. The small sensitivity of tilt meter measurements

  1. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  2. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Baumgartner, L K; Miller, D N; Repert, D A; Böhlke, J K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 microM) and ammonium (19 to 625 microM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with (15)N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations.

  3. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  4. An Air-Ground Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative system made up of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and an aerial robot, which is applied to real-time frost monitoring in vineyards. The core feature of our system is a dynamic mobile node carried by an aerial robot, which ensures communication between sparse clusters located at fragmented parcels and a base station. This system overcomes some limitations of the wireless networks in areas with such characteristics. The use of a dedicated communication channel enables data routing to/from unlimited distances.

  5. Global optimal design of ground water monitoring network using embedded kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Anirban; Datta, Bithin

    2009-01-01

    We present a methodology for global optimal design of ground water quality monitoring networks using a linear mixed-integer formulation. The proposed methodology incorporates ordinary kriging (OK) within the decision model formulation for spatial estimation of contaminant concentration values. Different monitoring network design models incorporating concentration estimation error, variance estimation error, mass estimation error, error in locating plume centroid, and spatial coverage of the designed network are developed. A big-M technique is used for reformulating the monitoring network design model to a linear decision model while incorporating different objectives and OK equations. Global optimality of the solutions obtained for the monitoring network design can be ensured due to the linear mixed-integer programming formulations proposed. Performances of the proposed models are evaluated for both field and hypothetical illustrative systems. Evaluation results indicate that the proposed methodology performs satisfactorily. These performance evaluation results demonstrate the potential applicability of the proposed methodology for optimal ground water contaminant monitoring network design.

  6. Real time monitoring for nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric space weatherin Europe with ground digisondes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belehaki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's ionosphere largely determines space weather effects on radio wave communications, navigation and surveillance systems. Lately there has been an increasing demand for ionospheric nowcast and accurate forecast services by various groups of users, including European industry. The paper reviews research activities in Europe based on the exploitation of real-time ground digisondes for the provision of nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric space weather information and useful products and services to support operational applications. During the last few years, important progress in databasing, modelling and forecasting ionospheric disturbances based on real-time data from ground digisondes was achieved in the frames of COST Action 271 «Effects of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth-Space Communications». Further developments are expected to be deployed with the new COST Action 724 on «Developing the basis for monitoring, modelling and predicting space weather», as well as through the Space Weather Pilot Project of the European Space Agency and through projects funded by the European Commission programmes.

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  9. Acoustic monitoring on a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding ground shows continual singing into late Spring.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Christopher W.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2004-01-01

    Singing by males is a major feature of the mating system of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Although a few songs have been opportunistically recorded on the whales' high-latitude feeding grounds, singing in these regions was thought to be only sporadic. We report results from the first continuous acoustic monitoring of a humpback whale feeding ground (off Cape Cod, MA, USA) in spring. Using autonomous sea-floor recording systems, we found singing on a daily basis over the ...

  10. Integrated monitoring system for ground deformation hazard assessment in Telese Terme (Benevento province, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, S.; Castiello, G.; Fedi, M.; Florio, G.; Fuschini, V.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2012-04-01

    TeleseTerme plain is characterized by a very articulated stratigraphy (levels of travertine, fluvial-marshy and pyroclastic deposits), that allows the occurrence of underground water circulation with overlapping aquifers. These aquifers are locally in pressure and, because of chemical characteristics and physical properties of the water, they may activate processes of accelerated travertine's corrosion; the consequence is the formation of cavity along the ground water's preferential flow paths, and the activation of subsidence and sinkholes phenomena. In particular test area includes two zones, where in 2002 and 2006 occurred two sinkholes events, classified as "piping sinkholes". The hazard evaluation was carried out trhought an integrated monitoring system, based on "traditional" techniques conduced "in situ", as geological-geomorphological and geophysical (microgravity) surveys, integrated by the most innovative techniques of Remote sensing interferometry(Advanced DInSAR Interferometry Techniques). The last allow to evaluate the ground deformation, characterized by a predominantvertical component (typical deformation of sinkholes and subsidence phenomena), and are well suited to operate a continuous and long monitoring ofvery extended areas. Through an initial analysis of the Permanent Scatterers available in the Telese municipality, we found the envelopes of the areal that contain PS with negative and positive mean velocities; these velocities showed the presence of a possible phenomenon of subsidence detected by ERS and ENVISAT satellites. Through interferometric processing of ENVISAT images, the soil deformations of 2002-2010 year sare evaluated and compared with the data obtainedby survey took "in situ" during the same period. The knowledge of the deformation's evolution of the area made it possible to organize a more focused future monitoring through traditional techniques of relief (with the help of geophysical methodologies). Since the zone affected by

  11. Monitoring of Gangotri glacier using remote sensing and ground observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Negi; N K Thakur; A Ganju; Snehmani

    2012-08-01

    In this study, Gangotri glacier was monitored using Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) LISS-III sensor data in combination with field collected snow-meteorological data for a period of seven years (2001–2008). An overall decreasing trend in the areal extent of seasonal snow cover area (SCA) was observed. An upward shifting trend of wet snow line was observed in the beginning of melt period, i.e., in May and dominant wet snow conditions were observed between May and October. Snow meteorological parameters collected in the Gangotri sub-basin suggest reduction in fresh snowfall amount during winter, increase in rainfall amount during summer, decrease in snowfall days, increase in rainfall days and rising trend of average temperature. The prevailing wet snow condition on glacier has caused scouring of slopes which led the excessive soil/debris deposition on the glacier surface. This was observed as one of the major factor for activating fast melting and affecting the glacier health significantly. Apart from climatic conditions, terrain factors were observed for changing the glacio-morphology. The significant changes on the glacier surface were observed in the regions of abrupt slope change. The above factors affecting the Gangotri glacier health were also validated using high resolution satellite imageries and field visit. A deglaciation of 6% in overall area of Gangotri glacier was observed between the years 1962 and 2006.

  12. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  13. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  14. Data Acquisition for Low-Temperature Geothermal Well Tests and Long-Term Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-03-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  15. Volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural private wells, 1986 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.; Lapham, W.W.; Rowe, B.L.; Zogorski, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected or compiled data on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural private wells during 1986 to 1999. At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples from rural private wells. Individual VOCs were not commonly detected with the seven most frequently detected compounds found in only 1 to 5 percent of samples at or above a concentration of 0.2 microgram per liter (??g/l). An assessment level of 0.2 ??g/l was selected so that comparisons of detection frequencies between VOCs could be made. The seven most frequently detected VOCs were: trichloromethane, methyl tert-butyl ether, tetrachloroethene, dichlorodifluoromethane, methylbenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Solvents and trihalomethanes were the most frequently detected VOC groups in private wells. The distributions of detections of gasoline oxygenates and fumigants seemed to be related to the use patterns of compounds in these groups. Mixtures were a common mode of occurrence of VOCs with one-quarter of all samples with detections including two or more VOCs. The concentrations of most detected VOCs were relatively small and only 1.4 percent of samples had one or more VOC concentrations that exceeded a federally established drinking water standard or health criterion.

  16. Monitoring well inspection and maintenance plan Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). This document is the revised groundwater monitoring well inspection and maintenance plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plan provides a systematic program for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant and (2) identifying maintenance needs that will extend the life of each well and ensure that representative groundwater quality samples and hydrologic data are collected from the wells. Original documentation for the Y-12 Plant GWPP monitoring well inspection and maintenance program was provided in HSW, Inc. 1991a. The original revision of the plan specified that only a Monitoring Well Inspection/Maintenance Summary need be updated and reissued each year. Rapid growth of the monitoring well network and changing regulatory requirements have resulted in constant changes to the status of wells (active or inactive) listed on the Monitoring Well Inspection/Maintenance Summary. As a result, a new mechanism to track the status of monitoring wells has been developed and the plan revised to formalize the new business practices. These changes are detailed in Sections 2.4 and 2.5.

  17. Monitoring well plugging and abandonment plan, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Plugging and abandonment (P&A) of defunct groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1996). This document is the revised groundwater monitoring well P&A plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach employed by Y-12 Plant GWPP to identify wells that require P&A, the technical methods employed to perform P&A activities, and administrative requirements. Original documentation for Y-12 Plant GWPP groundwater monitoring well P&A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P&A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P&A schedule be maintained. Wells are added to this list by issuance of both a P&A request and a P&A addendum to the schedule. The current Updated Subsurface Data Base includes a single mechanism to track the status of monitoring wells. In addition, rapid growth of the groundwater monitoring network and new regulatory requirements have resulted in constant changes to the status of wells. As a result, a streamlined mechanism to identify and track monitoring wells scheduled for P&A has been developed and the plan revised to formalize the new business practices.

  18. Geodetic network design for InSAR: Application to ground deformation monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahapatra, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been used to monitor ground deformation with subcentimetric precision from space. But the applicability of this technique is limited in regions with a low density of naturally-occurring phase-coherent radar targets, e.g.

  19. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  20. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  1. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Ground-based remote sensing scheme for monitoring aerosol–cloud interactions (discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarna, K.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    A method for continuous observation of aerosol–cloud interactions with ground-based remote sensing instruments is presented. The main goal of this method is to enable the monitoring of cloud microphysical changes due to the changing aerosol concentration. We use high resolution measurements from lid

  3. Ground-based remote sensing scheme for monitoring aerosol-cloud interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarna, K.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for continuous observation of aerosol–cloud interactions with ground-based remote sensing instruments is presented. The main goal of this method is to enable the monitoring of the change of the cloud droplet size due to the change in the aerosol concentration. We use high-resolution mea

  4. 3-D Ground Displacement Monitoring of very fast-moving Landslides in Emergency Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Francesco; Manconi, Andrea; Bonano, Manuela; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    On December 3rd, 2013, a large and fast-moving landslide phenomena, which occurred in South-West of Montescaglioso town (southern Italy) after some days of intense raining, caused ground displacements on the order of several meters. The mass wasting involved an important freeway connection disrupting more than 500 meters of the route and some isolated buildings. In this work we present a case study of application of SAR remote sensing techniques for retrieving ground displacement field in a landslide emergency scenario. To this aim, thanks to the availability of ascending and descending COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite acquisitions, we first applied the DInSAR technique (Massonnet et al., 1993) to both datasets, for generating differential interferograms across the investigated event. In particular, two data pairs (one ascending and one descending) involving pre- and post-event epochs and approximately spanning the same time interval were identified. Unfortunately, the DInSAR analysis produced unsatisfactory results, because of the excessive phase noise within the area of interest, mainly related to the fast-moving deformation pattern (several meters) and also to the presence of vegetation. To overcome the above mentioned limitations, the amplitude-based Pixel Offset (PO) technique (Fialko and Simons, 2001) was applied to the previous identified CSK data pairs. In this case, the PO technique allowed us to retrieve the projection of the surface displacements across and along the satellite's track (range and azimuth, respectively) for both the ascending and descending orbits. Then, by properly combining these 2-D maps of the measured surface movements, we also retrieved the 3-D ground deformation pattern, i.e. the North, East and Vertical displacement components. The ground displacements have a main SSE component, with values exceeding 10 meters. Moreover, large subsidence values were identified in those areas experiencing the largest damages, as well as a clear uplift

  5. Cost-effective monitoring of ground motion by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Wang, Rongjiang; Ge, Maorong; Walter, Thomas R.; Ramatschi, Markus; Milkereit, Claus; Bindi, Dino; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    Real-time detection and precise estimation of strong ground motion are crucial for rapid assessment and early warning of geohazards such as earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic activity. This challenging task can be accomplished by combining GPS and accelerometer measurements because of their complementary capabilities to resolve broadband ground motion signals. However, for implementing an operational monitoring network of such joint measurement systems, cost-effective techniques need to be developed and rigorously tested. We propose a new approach for joint processing of single-frequency GPS and MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) accelerometer data in real time. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we describe results from outdoor experiments under controlled conditions. For validation, we analysed dual-frequency GPS data and images recorded by a video camera. The results of the different sensors agree very well, suggesting that real-time broadband information of ground motion can be provided by using single-frequency GPS and MEMS accelerometers. Reference: Tu, R., R. Wang, M. Ge, T. R. Walter, M. Ramatschi, C. Milkereit, D. Bindi, and T. Dahm (2013), Cost-effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic activity by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer, Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 3825-3829, doi:10.1002/grl.50653.

  6. Records of wells, ground-water levels, and ground-water withdrawals in the lower Goose Creek Basin, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1954-01-01

    Investigations by the United States Geological Survey of Ground Water in the Southern border area of the Snake Rive Plain, south of the Snake River, a re concerned at the present time with delineation of the principal ground-water districts, the extent and location of existing ground-water developments, the possibilities for additional development, and the effects of ground-water development on the regimen of streams and reservoirs whose waters are appropriate for beneficial use. The lower part of the Goose Creek Basin is one of the important ground-water districts of the southern plains area and there are substantial but spotty developments of ground water for irrigation in the basin. Several thousand irrigable acres that are now dry could be put under irrigation if a dependable supply of ground water could be developed. The relations of the ground-water reservoirs to the regime of the Snake River and Goose Cree, and to the large body of ground water in the Snake River Plain north of the Snake, are poorly known. A large amount of geologic and hydrologic study remains to be done before those relations can be accurately determined. Investigations will be continued in the future but file work and preparation of a comprehensive report inevitably will be delayed. Therefore the available records are presented herein in order to make them accessible to farmers, well drillers, government agencies, and the general public. Interpretation of the records is not attempted in this report and is deferred pending the accumulation of additional and quantitative information. The data summarized herein include records of the locations and physical characteristics of wells, the depth to water in wells, fluctuations of water levels in observation wells, and estimated rates and volumes of seasonal ans yearly ground-water pumpage for irrigation, municipal, and other uses. This information is complete for work done as of December 31, 1952. The investigations upon which this report is

  7. Landslide Investigation by Repeat Airborne LiDAR and Ground Monitoring in the Western Suburb of Sapporo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, M.; Marutani, T.; Yoshida, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents landslide investigation using the combination of airborne LiDAR and ground monitoring data. The study site is located on the Teine Landslide (width: 2 km, Length: 6.5 km) in the western suburb of Sapporo city in Hokkaido Island, Japan, which collapsed more than 50,000 years ago. Since then streams have been developing and incising the landslide mass consisted of rock debris and volcanic deposits, presently causing a series of small deep-seated landslides along the banks. Because Sapporo is the economic center of Hokkaido and the suburb is expanding at the toe of the Teine slide, it is important to understand the behaviors of these active slopes to protect residents and infrastructures from unexpected disasters possibly triggered by an intense storm or earthquake. The LiDAR data for the area was first obtained by a manned helicopter in August 2010, and another survey by an unmanned helicopter is planned in autumn 2014 to estimate their activities from changes in the ground surfaces during the period from 2010 to 2014. Ground water level and landslide mass movements have also been monitored on site by using the coring holes for sampling since 2013. The combination of the data sets can make up the deficits of these methods, e.g., errors created through data processing for LiDAR survey and spatially limited information for ground monitoring, enabling to provide a solid three dimensional view of the slope movements. The notion obtained can be utilized to predict their future behaviors as well as to discover active but hiding landslides nearby. This study also showed that repeat monitoring of sites is a way of utilizing UAVs, particularly in terms of cost and convenience.

  8. Spatio-temporal monitoring of cotton cultivation using ground-based and airborne multispectral sensors in GIS environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Antonis; Kalivas, Dionissios; Theocharopoulos, Sid

    2017-07-01

    Multispectral sensor capability of capturing reflectance data at several spectral channels, together with the inherent reflectance responses of various soils and especially plant surfaces, has gained major interest in crop production. In present study, two multispectral sensing systems, a ground-based and an aerial-based, were applied for the multispatial and temporal monitoring of two cotton fields in central Greece. The ground-based system was Crop Circle ACS-430, while the aerial consisted of a consumer-level quadcopter (Phantom 2) and a modified Hero3+ Black digital camera. The purpose of the research was to monitor crop growth with the two systems and investigate possible interrelations between the derived well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Five data collection campaigns were conducted during the cultivation period and concerned scanning soil and plants with the ground-based sensor and taking aerial photographs of the fields with the unmanned aerial system. According to the results, both systems successfully monitored cotton growth stages in terms of space and time. The mean values of NDVI changes through time as retrieved by the ground-based system were satisfactorily modelled by a second-order polynomial equation (R (2) 0.96 in Field 1 and 0.99 in Field 2). Further, they were highly correlated (r 0.90 in Field 1 and 0.74 in Field 2) with the according values calculated via the aerial-based system. The unmanned aerial system (UAS) can potentially substitute crop scouting as it concerns a time-effective, non-destructive and reliable way of soil and plant monitoring.

  9. Ground-coupled airwaves at Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, and their potential for eruption monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra M.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Thompson, Glenn

    2016-07-01

    An abnormally high number of explosion quakes were noted during the monitoring effort for the 2007 eruption of Pavlof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula. In this study, we manually cataloged the explosion quakes from their characteristic ground-coupled airwaves. This study investigates how the ground-coupled airwaves might be used in a monitoring or analysis effort by estimating energy release and gas mass release. Over 3 × 104 quakes were recorded. The energy release from the explosions is approximated to be 3 × 1011 J, and the total gas mass (assuming 100 % water) released was 450 t. The tracking of explosion quakes has the potential to estimate relative eruption intensity as a function of time and is thus a useful component of a seismic monitoring program.

  10. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-01

    This document is the third revision of the 'Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan' for groundwater wells associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: (1) inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12; (2) identifying maintenance needs that extend the life of the well and assure well-head protection is in place, and (3) identifying wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring-well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. The inspection and maintenance of groundwater monitoring wells is one of the primary management strategies of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Management Plan, 'proactive stewardship of the extensive monitoring well network at Y-12' (BWXT 2004a). Effective stewardship, and a program of routine inspections of the physical condition of each monitoring well, ensures that representative water-quality monitoring and hydrologic data are able to be obtained from the well network. In accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP) for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (BWXT 2006b), the status designation (active or inactive) for each well determines the scope and extent of well inspections and maintenance activities. This plan, in conjunction with the above document, formalizes the GWPP approach to focus available resources on monitoring wells which provide the most useful data. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes: (1) the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime); (2) the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime); and (3) the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek Regime encompasses a section of the

  11. Geologic, water-chemistry, and hydrologic data from multiple-well monitoring sites and selected water-supply wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, M.W.; Hanson, R.T.; Wentworth, C.M.; Everett, Rhett; Williams, C.F.; Tinsley, J.C.; Noce, T.E.; Carkin, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    To better identify the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, lithologic, geologic, geophysical, geomechanical, hydraulic, and water-chemistry data were collected from eight ground-water multiple-well monitoring sites constructed in Santa Clara County, California, as part of a series of cooperative studies between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The data are being used to update and improve the three-dimensional geohydrologic framework of the basin and to address issues related to water supply, water chemistry, sequence stratigraphy, geology, and geological hazards. This report represents a compilation of data collected from 1999 to 2003, including location and design of the monitoring sites, cone penetrometer borings, geologic logs, lithologic logs, geophysical logs, core analysis, water-chemistry analysis, ground-water-level measurements, and hydraulic and geomechanical properties from wells and core samples. Exploratory cone penetrometer borings taken in the upper 17 to 130 feet at six of the monitoring sites identified the base of Holocene as no deeper than 75 feet in the central confined area and no deeper than 35 feet in the southern unconfined areas of the valley. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicates about four to six different aquifer units separated by relatively fine-grained units occur within the alluvial deposits shallower than 860 feet deep. Analysis of geophysical logs indicates that coarse-grained units varied in thickness between 10 and 25 feet in the southeastern unconfined area of the valley and between 50 and 200 feet in the south-central and southwestern areas of the valley. Deviations from temperature-gradient logs indicate that the majority of horizontal ground-water flow occurs above a depth of 775 feet in the south central and above 510 feet in the southeastern areas of the valley. Bulk physical properties from more than 1,150 feet of

  12. Systems Health Monitoring — From Ground to Air — The Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The aerospace industry and the government are significantly investing in jet engine systems health monitoring. Government organizations such as the Air Force, Navy, Army, National Labs and NASA are investing in the development of state aware sensing for health monitoring of jet engines such as the Joint Strike Fighter, F119 and F100's. This paper will discuss on-going work in systems health monitoring for jet engines. Topics will include a general discussion of the approaches to engine structural health monitoring and the prognosis of engine component life. Real-world implementation challenges on the ground and in the air will be reviewed. The talk will conclude with a prediction of where engine health monitoring will be in twenty years.

  13. Ground Truth Observations of the Interior of a Rockglacier as Validation for Geophysical Monitoring Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, C.; Roer, I.; Hauck, C.

    2007-12-01

    Monitoring the permafrost evolution in mountain regions is currently one of the important tasks in cryospheric studies as little data on past and present changes of the ground thermal regime and its material properties are available. In addition to recently established borehole temperature monitoring networks, techniques to determine and monitor the ground ice content have to be developed. A reliable quantification of ground ice is especially important for modelling the thermal evolution of frozen ground and for assessing the hazard potential due to thawing permafrost induced slope instability. Near surface geophysical methods are increasingly applied to detect and monitor ground ice occurrences in permafrost areas. Commonly, characteristic values of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity are used as indicators for the presence of frozen material. However, validation of the correct interpretation of the geophysical parameters can only be obtained through boreholes, and only regarding vertical temperature profiles. Ground truth of the internal structure and the ice content is usually not available. In this contribution we will present a unique data set from a recently excavated rockglacier near Zermatt/Valais in the Swiss Alps, where an approximately 5 m deep trench was cut across the rockglacier body for the construction of a ski track. Longitudinal electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography profiles were conducted prior to the excavation, yielding data sets for cross validation of commonly applied geophysical interpretation approaches in the context of ground ice detection. A recently developed 4-phase model was applied to calculate ice-, air- and unfrozen water contents from the geophysical data sets, which were compared to the ground truth data from the excavated trench. The obtained data sets will be discussed in the context of currently established geophysical monitoring networks in permafrost areas. In addition to the

  14. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1988. There are 16 individual hazardous waste facilities covered by the 13 ground-water monitoring projects. The Grout Treatment Facility is included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. The 13 projects discussed in this report were designed according to applicable interim-status ground-water monitoring requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). During this quarter, field activities primarily consisted of sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes sediment analyses in addition to ground-water monitoring results. Twelve new wells were installed during the previous quarter: two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, six at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells include drillers' logs and other drilling and site characterization data, and are provided in Volume 2 or on microfiche in the back of Volume 1. 26 refs., 28 figs., 74 tabs.

  15. Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample

  16. GROUND WATER QUALITY FROM PRIVATE WELLS. CASE STUDY: TARNA MARE - SATU MARE COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ROŞU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to assess the ground water quality from nine private wells from Tarna Mare commune located in Satu Mare County. Tarna Mare the northernmost commune of Satu Mare County, it has a population of 3.774 inhabitants and a total surface of 44 km2. The commune is located along the Tarna Valley at the foothills of Oas Mountains. Tarna Mare background is rich in complex ores of non-ferrous metals (copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. In order to evaluate the water quality, several physico-chemical parameters (pH, redox potential, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and salinity were investigated. The samples were collected in October, November, December 2015 and January 2016. The results showed that the waters were acidic having the pH between 4.7 and 7.52, considerably lower than the limit imposed by national legislation (between 6.5 and 9.5. The investigated wells proved to have a relatively high contented of dissolved salts, having the electrical conductivity between 83.6 μS/cm and 908 μS/cm and the salinity between 0 and 0.4 ‰. Regarding the cations concentrations (mg / L those ranged between: 21.55 – 318.19 for Na+, 16.42 – 556.43 for Ca2+, 5.27 – 149.48 for Mg2+ and 5.7 – 481.83 for K+. Li+ and NH4+ were not detected in analyzed samples.

  17. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Carbone, Francesco; Cinnirella, Sergio; Mannarino, Valentino; Landis, Matthew; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Weigelt, Andreas; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Labuschagne, Casper; Martin, Lynwill; Munthe, John; Wängberg, Ingvar; Artaxo, Paulo; Morais, Fernando; Barbosa, Henrique de Melo Jorge; Brito, Joel; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Dommergue, Aurélien; Angot, Helene; Magand, Olivier; Skov, Henrik; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Read, Katie Alana; Mendes Neves, Luis; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Sena, Fabrizio; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Obolkin, Vladimir; Wip, Dennis; Feng, Xin Bin; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xuewu; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Cossa, Daniel; Knoery, Joël; Marusczak, Nicolas; Nerentorp, Michelle; Norstrom, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (gmos.eu" target="_blank">http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010-2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  18. Ground gas monitoring: implications for hydraulic fracturing and CO2 storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Christopher J; Hall, Jean A; Martin, John P; Manning, David A C

    2014-12-02

    Understanding the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the geosphere and atmosphere is essential for the management of anthropogenic emissions. Human activities such as carbon capture and storage and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") affect the natural system and pose risks to future global warming and to human health and safety if not engineered to a high standard. In this paper an innovative approach of expressing ground gas compositions is presented, using data derived from regulatory monitoring of boreholes in the unsaturated zone at infrequent intervals (typically 3 months) with data from a high frequency monitoring instrument deployed over periods of weeks. Similar highly variable trends are observed for time scales ranging from decades to hourly for boreholes located close to sanitary landfill sites. Additionally, high frequency monitoring data confirm the effect of meteorological controls on ground gas emissions; the maximum observed CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a borehole monitored over two weeks were 40.1% v/v and 8.5% v/v respectively, but for 70% of the monitoring period only air was present. There is a clear weakness in current point monitoring strategies that may miss emission events and this needs to be considered along with obtaining baseline data prior to starting any engineering activity.

  19. Coupling ground penetrating radar and fluid flow modeling for oilfield monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Zhou, F.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of smart well technology allows for new geophysical monitoring opportunities. Smart wells, which allow zonal production control, combined with monitoring techniques capable of capturing the arrival of undesired fluids, have the potential to significantly increase the oil reco

  20. Coupling ground penetrating radar and fluid flow modeling for oilfield monitoring applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Zhou, F.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of smart well technology allows for new geophysical monitoring opportunities. Smart wells, which allow zonal production control, combined with monitoring techniques capable of capturing the arrival of undesired fluids, have the potential to significantly increase the oil reco

  1. Measuring and monitoring to understand and reduce the fall-of-ground risk

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 ICSMRI 2013: 35th International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, Central Hall, Westminster, London, UK, 15-17 October 2013 Measuring and monitoring to understand and reduce the fall-of-ground risk Declan Vogt, CSIR Centre...-of-ground still constitute the single largest cause of fatalities. The data show that small falls of between 4 m2 and 10 m2, affecting single people, are the major cause of fatalities. The critical parameters that characterize the risk of rockfalls are: rock...

  2. Assessment of radar interferometry performance for ground subsidence monitoring due to underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, A.H.M.; Chang, H.C.; Ge, L.L.; Rizos, C.; Omura, M. [Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information, Carlton, Vic. (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the results from the recently launched SAR satellites for the purpose of subsidence monitoring over underground coal mine sites in the state of New South Wales, Australia, using differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) technique. The quality of the mine subsidence monitoring results is mainly constrained by noise due to the spatial and temporal decorrelation between the interferometric pair and the phase discontinuities in the interferogram. This paper reports oil the analysis of the impact of these two factors on the performance of DInSAR for monitoring ground deformation. Simulations were carried out prior to real data analyses. SAR data acquired using different operating frequencies, for example, X-, C- and L-band, from the TerraSAR-X, ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, JERS-1 and ALOS satellite missions, were examined. The simulation results showed that the new satellites ALOS, TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed perform much better than the satellites launched before 2006. ALOS and ENVISAT satellite SAR images with similar temporal coverage were searched for the test site. The ALOS PALSAR DInSAR results have been compared to DInSAR results obtained from ENVISAT ASAR data to investigate the performance of both satellites for ground subsidence monitoring. Strong phase discontinuities and decorrelation have been observed in almost all ENVISAT interferograms and hence it is not possible to generate the displacement maps without errors. However these problems are minimal in ALOS PALSAR interferograms due to its spatial resolution and longer wavelength. Hence ALOS PALSAR is preferred for ground subsidence monitoring in areas covered by vegetation and where there is a high rate ground deformation.

  3. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  4. A new methodology for monitoring wood fluxes in rivers using a ground camera: Potential and limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacchio, Véronique; Piégay, Hervé; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Vaudor, Lise

    2017-02-01

    Ground imagery, which produces large amounts of valuable data at high frequencies, is increasingly used by fluvial geomorphologists to survey and understand processes. While such technology provides immense quantities of information, it can be challenging to analyze and requires automatization and associated development of new methodologies. This paper presents a new approach to automate the processing of image analysis to monitor wood delivery from the upstream Rhône River (France). The Génissiat dam is used as an observation window; all pieces of wood coming from the catchment are trapped here, hence a wood raft accumulates over time. In 2011, we installed an Axis 211W camera to acquire oblique images of the reservoir every 10 min with the goal of automatically detecting a wood raft area, in order to transform it to wood weight (t) and flux (t/d). The methodology we developed is based on random forest classification to detect the wood raft surface over time, which provided a good classification rate of 97.2%. Based on 14 mechanical wood extractions that included weight of wood removed each time, conducted during the survey period, we established a relationship between wood weight and wood raft surface area observed just before the extraction (R2 = 0.93). We found that using such techniques to continuously monitor wood flux is difficult because the raft undergoes very significant changes through time in terms of density, with a very high interday and intraday variability. Misclassifications caused by changes in weather conditions can be mitigated as well as errors from variation in pixel resolution (owing to camera position or window size), but a set of effects on raft density and mobility must still be explored (e.g., dam operation effects, wind on the reservoir surface). At this stage, only peak flow contribution to wood delivery can be well calculated, but determining an accurate, continuous series of wood flux is not possible. Several recommendations are

  5. Monitoring rock glacier dynamics and ground temperatures in the semiarid Andes (Chile, 30°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, Alexander; Azócar, Guillermo F.; Bodin, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Rock glaciers and mountain permafrost are widespread in the high semiarid Andes of Chile, where they concentrate greater amounts of ice than glaciers. Rock glaciers are of particular interest because in some cases the permafrost they contain might be in a degrading in response to climatic warming. This could result in increased dynamics and even to destabilization, which has been observed on some rock glaciers in the studied area. Displacement rates and active-layer temperatures of two rock glaciers as well as ground surface temperatures of the periglacial environment in the upper Elqui valley have been monitored since summer 2009/10 with funding from the Chilean Dirección General de Aguas. Differential GPS measurements of 115 points on the surface of two rock glaciers since April 2010 showed horizontal displacements of up to 1.3 m/a on the Llano de las Liebres rock glacier and up to 1.2 m/a on the Tapado rock glacier. General velocity patterns are consistent with the morphological evidence of activity (e.g., front slopes, looseness of debris) and for the Tapado complex, a clearly distinct activity from the debris-covered glacier was observed. Temperature measurements in four boreholes indicate active-layer depths of about 2.5 m at the highest locations on the Tapado rock glacier (~4400 m a.s.l.) and about 8 m near the front of the Llano rock glacier (3786 m a.s.l.). Spatial patterns of mean ground surface temperature (MGST) were analyzed with regards to influences of elevation, potential incoming solar radiation, location on ice-debris landforms (rock and debris-covered glaciers), and snow cover duration using linear mixed-effects models. While accounting for the other variables, sites with long-lasting snow patches had ~0.4°C lower MGST, and ice-debris landforms had ~0.4-0.6°C lower MGST than general debris surfaces, highlighting important local modifications to the general topographic variation of ground thermal conditions.

  6. Improved barometric and loading efficiency estimates using packers in monitoring wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Scott B.; Timms, Wendy A.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Barbour, S. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of barometric efficiency (BE) from open monitoring wells or loading efficiency (LE) from formation pore pressures provides valuable information about the hydraulic properties and confinement of a formation. Drained compressibility ( α) can be calculated from LE (or BE) in confined and semi-confined formations and used to calculate specific storage ( S s). S s and α are important for predicting the effects of groundwater extraction and therefore for sustainable extraction management. However, in low hydraulic conductivity ( K) formations or large diameter monitoring wells, time lags caused by well storage may be so long that BE cannot be properly assessed in open monitoring wells in confined or unconfined settings. This study demonstrates the use of packers to reduce monitoring-well time lags and enable reliable assessments of LE. In one example from a confined, high- K formation, estimates of BE in the open monitoring well were in good agreement with shut-in LE estimates. In a second example, from a low- K confining clay layer, BE could not be adequately assessed in the open monitoring well due to time lag. Sealing the monitoring well with a packer reduced the time lag sufficiently that a reliable assessment of LE could be made from a 24-day monitoring period. The shut-in response confirmed confined conditions at the well screen and provided confidence in the assessment of hydraulic parameters. A short (time-lag-dependent) period of high-frequency shut-in monitoring can therefore enhance understanding of hydrogeological systems and potentially provide hydraulic parameters to improve conceptual/numerical groundwater models.

  7. Improved barometric and loading efficiency estimates using packers in monitoring wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Scott B.; Timms, Wendy A.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Barbour, S. Lee

    2017-02-01

    Measurement of barometric efficiency (BE) from open monitoring wells or loading efficiency (LE) from formation pore pressures provides valuable information about the hydraulic properties and confinement of a formation. Drained compressibility (α) can be calculated from LE (or BE) in confined and semi-confined formations and used to calculate specific storage (S s). S s and α are important for predicting the effects of groundwater extraction and therefore for sustainable extraction management. However, in low hydraulic conductivity (K) formations or large diameter monitoring wells, time lags caused by well storage may be so long that BE cannot be properly assessed in open monitoring wells in confined or unconfined settings. This study demonstrates the use of packers to reduce monitoring-well time lags and enable reliable assessments of LE. In one example from a confined, high-K formation, estimates of BE in the open monitoring well were in good agreement with shut-in LE estimates. In a second example, from a low-K confining clay layer, BE could not be adequately assessed in the open monitoring well due to time lag. Sealing the monitoring well with a packer reduced the time lag sufficiently that a reliable assessment of LE could be made from a 24-day monitoring period. The shut-in response confirmed confined conditions at the well screen and provided confidence in the assessment of hydraulic parameters. A short (time-lag-dependent) period of high-frequency shut-in monitoring can therefore enhance understanding of hydrogeological systems and potentially provide hydraulic parameters to improve conceptual/numerical groundwater models.

  8. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Geophysical Monitoring of Ground Surface Deformation Associated with a Confined Aquifer Storage and Recovery Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Alain; Heggy, Essam; Strickland, Christopher; Normand, Jonathan; Dermond, Jeffrey; Fang, Yilin; Sullivan, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    One important issue in the storage of large volumes of fluids, mainly water and CO2, in the deep subsurface is to determine the resulting field-scale-induced displacements and consequences of overpressures on the mechanical integrity of the storage reservoir and surroundings. A quantifiable estimation of displacement can be made by combining the robust, cost-effective, and repeatable geophysical techniques of micro-gravimetry, differential global positioning system (DGPS), and differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR). These techniques were field tested and evaluated for the first time on an active large-volume aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project in Pendleton, Oregon, USA, where three ASR wells are injecting up to 1.9 million m3 year-1 into basalt aquifers to a depth of about 150 m. Injection and recovery of water at the wells are accompanied by significant gravity anomalies and vertical deformation of the ground surface localized to the immediate surroundings of the injection wells as evidenced by DGPS and gravity measurements collected in 2011. At a larger scale, and between 2011 and 2013, DInSAR monitoring of the Pendleton area shows sub- centimetric deformation in the western part of the city and close to the injection locations associated with ASR cycle. Deformations are found to be temporally out phased with the injection and recovery events due to complex groundwater flow. A numerical simulation of the effect of the water injection gives results in good agreement with the observations and confirms the validity of the approach, which could be deployed in similar geological contexts to look at the mechanical effects of water and gas injections.

  10. A new debris flow monitoring barrier to measure debris flow impact/structure/ground interaction in the Gadria torrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Georg; Hübl, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Debris flow monitoring is a keystone in debris flow research. Based on the lack of investigations of the interaction of rapid mass movement and structural mitigation measures, a new monitoring system has been installed in the well monitored Gadria torrent in South Tyrol. For design of active structural measures, like check dams, the engineering task is to come to an amicable solution of all necessary subjects. Starting with the estimation of parameters of the rapid mass movement itself to the design load and finally to the foundation of the structure. At all stages big uncertainties are given. The basis for accurate design is a comprehensive approach. For this reason, a new monitoring station was built in autumn 2016, to investigate the interaction of a debris flow with the structures and the ground. Two structures unify the new monitoring system. The first, a transversal check dam, flush to channel bed, contain two weighing devices each equipped with a pore pressure sensor. One device is also able to measure the shear force additional in two directions. The second barrier similar to a debris flow breaker but only with one singe wall centered on a foundation plate, is located downstream to the first one. 14 load cells are installed on the upward front of the structure to analyze the spatial force distribution of debris flow impact pressure. Nine earth pressure sensors under the foundation of the structure deliver the earth pressure distribution. The acceleration of the construction can be measured by a 3D accelerometer installed on the top. In case of a movement, two extensometers detect any displacement. Mounted strain gauges give insights of stresses in concrete and reinforcement. Each sensor has a sampling frequency of 2400 Hz. Furthermore it is planned to measure the flow velocity distribution over flow depth too. The new monitoring station should help to acquire data for understanding the debris flow/structure/ground interaction to facilitate the improvement

  11. Monitoring of landfill leachate dispersion using reflectance spectroscopy and ground-penetrating radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splajt, T; Ferrier, G; Frostick, L E

    2003-09-15

    The utility of ground-penetrating radar and reflectance spectroscopy in the monitoring of landfill sites has been investigated. Strong correlations between red edge inflection position and chlorophyll and heavy metal concentrations have been demonstrated from grassland species affected by leachate contamination of the soil adjacent to the landfill test site. This study demonstrated that reflectance spectroscopy can identify vegetation affected by leachate-contaminated soil at a range of spatial resolutions. To identify the vegetation affected by leachate contamination, the spectroradiometer must have contiguous bands at sufficient spectral resolution over the critical wave range that measures chlorophyll absorption and the red edge (between 650 and 750 nm). The utility of ground-penetrating radar data to identify leachate escaping from breakout points in the contaminant wall has also been demonstrated. An integrated approach using these techniques, combined with field and borehole sampling and contaminant migration modeling, offers a possible cost-effective monitoring approach for landfill sites.

  12. Santa Clara Valley water district multi-aquifer monitoring-well site, Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom, San Jose, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Wentworth, C.M.; Williams, C.F.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), has completed the first of several multiple-aquifer monitoring-well sites in the Santa Clara Valley. This site monitors ground-water levels and chemistry in the one of the major historic subsidence regions south of San Jose, California, at the Coyote Creek Outdoor Classroom (CCOC) (fig. 1) and provides additional basic information about the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and subsidence potential of the upper- and lower-aquifer systems that is a major source of public water supply in the Santa Clara Valley. The site also serves as a science education exhibit at the outdoor classroom operated by SCVWD.

  13. Development of chemical monitoring system in geothermal well. Chinetsusei no kagakuteki monitoring system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroto, K.; Kusaba, S.; Yamauchi, M. (The Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1993-03-31

    An expert system was constructed to predict the attenuation trend of geothermal well from various kinds of data on the geothermal well of geothermal plant and the chemical knowledge. The logging data and chemical analysis data of 100 wells or more which were drilled at Hacchobaru and Otake areas were collected in the data base. The knowledge concerning the situation change of geothermal well and the reservoir was obtained from the history of attenuation of geothermal well which stopped the gushing in the past at Hacchobaru and Otake areas. It was summarized in six categories of reason for stop of gushing of geothermal well from the phenomena observed in more than 110 items. For quantifying the input data to the expert system, the data on the time course of gushed steam quantity, pit mouth pressure, and temperature change of reservoir obtained from the change in chemical composition such as silica temperature, Na-K-Ca temperature, Na-K temperature, and Cl temperature were employed. The results of prediction of attenuation and the estimation of attenuation cause of some geothermal wells at Hacchobaru and Otake areas according to this system were objectively reasonable. 5 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  15. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-07-19

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized.

  16. Unattended instruments for ground-based hyperspectral measurements: development and application for plant photosynthesis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, S.; Rossini, M.; Meroni, M.; Barducci, A.; Julitta, T.; Colombo, R.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is the development of ground-based hyperspectral systems capable of collecting continuous and long-term hyperspectral measurements of the Earth-surface. The development of such instruments includes the optical design, the development of the data acquisition (Auto3S) and processing software as well as the definition of the calibration procedures. In particular an in-field calibration methodologie based on the comparison between field spectra and data modeled using Radiative Transfer (RT) approach has been proposed to regularly upgrade instrument calibration coefficients. Two different automatic spectrometric systems have been developed: the HyperSpectral Irradiometer (HSI) [Meroni et al., 2011] and the Multiplexer Radiometer Irradiometer (MRI) [Cogliati, 2011]. Both instruments are able to continuously measure: sun incoming irradiance (ETOT) and irradiance (ES, HSI)/radiance (LS, MRI) upwelling from the investigated surface. Both instruments employ two Ocean Optics HR4000 spectrometers sharing the same optical signal that allow to simultaneously collect "fine" (1 nm Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM) spectra in the 400-1000 nm rangeand "ultra-fine" (0.1 nm FWHM) spectra within the 700-800 nm. The collected optical data allow to estimate biochemical/structural properties of vegetation (e.g. NDVI) as well as its photosynthetic efficiency through the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and the analysis of sun-induced chlorophyll Fluorescence in the O2-A Fraunhofer line (F@760). The automatic instruments were operated in coordination with eddy covariance flux tower measurements of carbon exchange in the framework of several field campaigns: HSI was employed in a subalpine pasture (2009-ongoing) (www.phenoalp.eu) while MRI was employed in 2009 in the Sen3Exp field survey promoted by the European Space Agency as consolidation study to the future mission Sentinel-3. Results show that the proposed instruments succeeded in collecting continuous

  17. Monitoring of the antioxidant BHT and its metabolite BHT-CHO in German river water and ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Elke; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2004-02-05

    The behavior of anthropogenic polar organic compounds in ground water during infiltration of river water to ground water was studied at the Oderbruch area on the eastern border of Germany. Additionally, waste water sewage treatment works (STWs) discharging their treated waste water into the Oder River and rain water precipitation from the Oderbruch area were investigated. The study was carried out from March 2000 to July 2001 to investigate seasonal variations of the target analytes. Samples were collected from four sites along the Oder River, from 24 ground water monitoring wells located close to the Oder, from one rain water collection station, from two roof runoffs, and from four STWs upstream of the Oderbruch. Results of the investigations of the antioxidant 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-toluene (BHT) and its degradation product 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO) are presented. BHT and BHT-CHO were detected in all samples of the Oder River with mean concentrations of 178 and 102 ngl(-1), respectively. BHT and BHT-CHO were also detected in effluent waste water samples from municipal STWs at mean concentrations of 132 and 70 ngl(-1), respectively. Both compounds are discharged into river water directly via treated waste water. In the rain water sample, 308 ngl(-1) of BHT and 155 ngl(-1) of BHT-CHO were measured. Both compounds were detected in roof runoff with mean concentrations of 92 ngl(-1) for BHT and 138 ngl(-1) for BHT-CHO. The median values of BHT and BHT-CHO in ground water samples were 132 and 84 ngl(-1), respectively. The chemical composition of ground water from parts of the aquifer located less than 4.5 m distant from the river are greatly influenced by bank filtration. However, wet deposition followed by seepage of rain water into the aquifer is also a source of BHT and BHT-CHO in ground water.

  18. Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions in Australian landscapes: Comparing ground based mobile surveying data to GOSAT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, S.; Iverach, C.; Kelly, B. F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is threatening the health and stability of the natural world and human society. Such concerns were emphasized at COP21 conference in Paris 2015 which highlighted the global need to improve our knowledge of sources of greenhouse gas and to develop methods to mitigate the effects of their emissions. Ongoing spatial and temporal measurements of greenhouse gases at both point and regional scales is important for clarification of climate change mechanisms and accounting. The Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from orbit. As existing ground monitoring stations are limited and still unevenly distributed, satellite observations provide important frequent, spatially extensive, but low resolution observations. Recent developments in portable laser based greenhouse gas measurement systems have enabled the rapid measurement of greenhouse gases in ppb at the ground surface. This study was conducted to map major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the eastern states of Australia at the landscape scale and to compare the results to GOSAT observations. During April 2016 we conducted a regional CH4 and CO2 mobile survey, using an LGR greenhouse gas analyzer. Measurements were made along a 4000 KM circuit through major cities, country towns, dry sclerophyll forests, coastal wetlands, coal mining regions, coal seam gas developments, dryland farming and irrigated agricultural landscapes. The ground-based survey data were then compared with the data (L2) from GOSAT. Ground-based mobile surveys showed that there are clear statistical differences in the ground level atmospheric concentration of CH4 and CO2 associated with all major changes in land use. These changes extend for kilometers, and cover one or more GOSAT pixels. In the coal mining districts the ground-level atmospheric concentration of CH4 exceeded 2 ppm for over 40 km, yet this was not discernable in the retrieved data (L2

  19. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  20. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

  2. USE OF DRILLING FLUIDS IN MONITORING WELL NETWORK INSTALLATION: LANL AND OPEN DISCUSSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to provide a technical analysis of the impacts of well drilling practices implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of the development of their grou...

  3. Ground-water use, locations of production wells, and areas irrigated using ground water in 1998, middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, ground water was being pumped from about 420 production wells in the middle Humboldt River Basin for a variety of uses. Principal uses were for agriculture, industry, mining, municipal, and power plant purposes. This report presents a compilation of the number and types of production wells, areas irrigated by ground water, and ground-water use in 14 hydrographic areas of the middle Humboldt River Basin in 1998. Annual pumping records for production wells usually are reported to the Nevada Division of Water Resources. However, operators of irrigation wells are not consistently required to report annual pumpage. Daily power-consumption and pump-discharge rates measured at 20 wells during the 1998 irrigation season and total power use at each well were used to estimate the amount of water, in feet of depth, applied to 20 alfalfa fields. These fields include about 10 percent of the total area, 36,700 acres, irrigated with ground water in the middle Humboldt River Basin. In 1998 an average of 2.0 feet of water was applied to 14 fields irrigated using center-pivot sprinkler systems, and an average of 2.6 feet of water was applied to 6 fields irrigated using wheel-line sprinkler systems. A similar approach was used to estimate the amount of water pumped at three wells using pumps powered by diesel engines. The two fields served by these three wells received 3.9 feet of water by flood irrigation during the 1998 irrigation season. The amount of water applied to the fields irrigated by center-pivot and wheel-line irrigation systems during the 1998 irrigation season was less than what would have been applied during a typical irrigation season because late winter and spring precipitation exceeded long-term monthly averages by as much as four times. As a result, the health of crops was affected by over-saturated soils, and most irrigation wells were only used sporadically in the first part of the irrigation season. Power consumption at 19 of the 20 wells in the 1994

  4. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  5. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS – WHAT’S WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

  6. Monitoring surface geothermal features using time series of aerial and ground-based photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, C.; van Manen, S. M.; Graham, D.

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal systems are of high conservation and scientific value and monitoring of these is an important management tool to assess natural variations and changes resulting from development and utilization. This study examines time series of aerial and ground-based photographs of geothermal areas within the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. A time series of aerial photographs from 1946-2007 of the Broadlands Road Scenic Reserve (Taupo, New Zealand) highlights large changes to this small area as the result of the start of geothermal fluid production for the nearby Wairakei power plant in 1958 and other causes. Prior to the opening of the plant the area was not geothermally active, but expansion of steam zones due to pressure drawdown has resulted in significant thermal changes in the subsurface. These subsurface thermal changes are evident in the aerial photographs as the appearance of hydrothermal eruption craters and areas of thermal bare ground, which are too hot for vegetation to grown on. In addition, in the late 1960’s thermotolerant vegetation started to establish itself in the adjacent area. Changes in the surface area covered by each of these, reflect changes in the geothermal system as well as changes in management (e.g. exclusion of livestock), and a time series of these changes has been produced using ArcMap™. Monthly photographs of surface geothermal expressions in the Rotorua area show changes in colour and size of chloride springs with time. Colour and size changes are difficult to quantify due to varying exposure settings, weather conditions, and vantage points. However, these qualitative descriptions can be combined with quantitative time series such as temperature measurements, to provide better insight into surface changes that have occurred at this geothermal field. This study highlights the value of both qualitative and quantitative data that can be obtained from time series of photographs, including photographs that were obtained before the

  7. Monitoring well installation plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The installation and development of groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which monitors groundwater quality and hydrologic conditions at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document is a groundwater monitoring well installation and development plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan formalizes well installation and construction methods, well development methods, and core drilling methods that are currently implemented at the Y-12 Plant under the auspices of the GWPP. Every three years, this plan will undergo a review, during which revisions necessitated by changes in regulatory requirements or GWPP objectives may be made.

  8. Monitoring well installation plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The installation and development of groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which monitors groundwater quality and hydrologic conditions at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document is a groundwater monitoring well installation and development plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan formalizes well installation and construction methods, well development methods, and core drilling methods that are currently implemented at the Y-12 Plant under the auspices of the GWPP. Every three years, this plan will undergo a review, during which revisions necessitated by changes in regulatory requirements or GWPP objectives may be made.

  9. Acoustic monitoring on a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding ground shows continual singing into late Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher W; Clapham, Phillip J

    2004-05-22

    Singing by males is a major feature of the mating system of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Although a few songs have been opportunistically recorded on the whales' high-latitude feeding grounds, singing in these regions was thought to be only sporadic. We report results from the first continuous acoustic monitoring of a humpback whale feeding ground (off Cape Cod, MA, USA) in spring. Using autonomous sea-floor recording systems, we found singing on a daily basis over the entire 25 day monitoring period, from 14 May to 7 June 2000. For much of the period, song was recorded 24 h per day. These results, combined with evidence for aseasonal conceptions in whaling catch data, suggest that the humpback whale breeding season should no longer be considered as confined to lower-latitude regions in winter. Rather, we suggest breeding extends geographically and temporally onto feeding grounds into at least spring and early summer. Singing at these times represents either low-cost opportunistic advertising by (perhaps relatively few) males to court females that failed to conceive during the winter, and/or possibly an intrasexual display.

  10. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1992 to 1994 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and water-quality data to determine the source of ground water causing water-quality changes in water from wells screened in the Memphis aquifer in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. Water-quality changes in aquifers used for water supply are of concern because these changes can indicate a potential for contamination of the aquifers by downward leakage from near-surface sources.

  11. Device for monitoring the position of a drilling ship in relation to the underwater well head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbanov, A.O.; Bagirov, M.D.

    1981-05-07

    A device is suggested for monitoring the position of a drilling ship in relation to the underwater well head containing a winch, two sensitive elements arranged in two mutually perpendicular planes through which a cable is passed, two sensors attached to the sensitive elements. In order to improve the accuracy of monitoring the position of the drilling ship, the sensitive elements are made in the form of two semirings installed with the possibility of rotation.

  12. Restoration and monitoring of a vessel grounding on a shallow reef in the Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Schittone

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of a monitoring event designed to track the recovery of a repaired coral reef injured by the M/V Alec Owen Maitland vessel grounding incident of October 25, 1989. This grounding occurred within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Pursuant to the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, NOAA recovers money for injury to Sanctuary resources, and uses it to restore those resources. A monitoring program tracks patterns of recovery, in order to determine the success of restoration measures. To evaluate success, reference habitats adjacent to the restoration site are concurrently monitored to compare the condition of restored areas with natural areas. Restoration of this site was completed in September 1995 by means of cement and limestone rock, and the monitoring results from summer 2007 are presented. Monitoring consisted of omparison of the biological conditions in the restored area with the reference area. Monitored corals are divided into the Orders: Gorgonians, Milleporans, and Scleractinians. Densities at the restored and reference areas are compared, and are shown to be greater in the restored. Size-class frequency distributions for the most abundant Scleractinians are examined, and reveal that the restoration is converging on the reference area. Also, for the Scleractinians, number and percentage of colonies by species, as well as several common biodiversity indices are provided; measures for the restored area approximate the reference area. A quantitative comparison of colony substrate settlement preference in the restored area is provided for all Orders, and for Scleractinians is further broken down for the two most frequent Genera. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 3: 151-161. Epub 2010 October 01.Este artículo sintetiza los resultados del seguimiento diseñado para medir la recuperación de un arrecife restaurado que fue impactado por el encallamiento del M/V Alec Owen Maitland el 25 de octubre de 1989. Este

  13. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  14. Transformation of ground vibration signal for debris-flow monitoring and detection in alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems.

  15. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Monitoring ground subsidence in urban environments: M-30 tunnels under Madrid City (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Martínez Marín

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big cities improvement usually requires the construction of large underground infrastructures, in order to ensure proper communication and optimize urban use. Monitoring ground subsidences is therefore one of the main challenges in changing urban environments. The "Madrid Río" project (2003-2008 is an effort to reclaim the riverfront land and improve the busy M-30 beltway that involved the construction of 7.93 km of tunnels underneath the southern center of Madrid City. This paper presents a remote-sensing approach to monitor ground subsidences induced by tunneling excavation.  The Persistent Scatterers Interferometry technique (PSI was used to estimate subsidence and displacement time series from Synthetic Aperture Radar images, acquired between August 2003 and April 2008 from ENVISAT.  Remote sensed results were compared to traditional extensometric measures, fitting adequately for selected sectors. Spatial analysis of displacements allowed evaluating impacts of tunneling on surrounding buildings and facilities, highlighting critical areas. The availability of a spatial distribution of displacements in a time series allowed analyzing longitudinal, cross-sectional and temporal dynamics. The main limitations during this work were the heterogeneous spatial distribution of Persistent Scatterers, the absence of measurement points in work areas, the threshold for velocity detection and low temporal resolution of ENVISAT images. Nevertheless, these limitations of DInSAR for monitoring infrastructures are overcome by actual satellites, being a complementary technique with an exceptional added value and temporal analysis capability.

  18. Ground States of Ultracold Spin-1 Atoms in a Deep Double-Well Optical Superlattice in a Weak Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Gong-Ping; QIN Shuai-Feng; WANG Shou-Yang; JIAN Wen-Tian

    2013-01-01

    The ground states of the ultracold spin-1 atoms trapped in a deep one-dimensional double-well optical superlattice in a weak magnetic field are obtained.It is shown that the ground-state diagrams of the reduced doublewell model are remarkably different for the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic condensates.The transition between the singlet state and nematic state is observed for the antiferromagnetic interaction atoms,which can be realized by modulating the tunneling parameter or the quadratic Zeeman energy.An experiment to distinguish the different spin states is suggested.

  19. Well installation, single-well testing, and particle-size analysis for selected sites in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, north-central Colorado, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2011-01-01

    This report describes results from a groundwater data-collection program completed in 2003-2004 by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the South Platte Decision Support System and in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. Two monitoring wells were installed adjacent to existing water-table monitoring wells. These wells were installed as well pairs with existing wells to characterize the hydraulic properties of the alluvial aquifer and shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin. Single-well tests were performed in the 2 newly installed wells and 12 selected existing monitoring wells. Sediment particle size was analyzed for samples collected from the screened interval depths of each of the 14 wells. Hydraulic-conductivity and transmissivity values were calculated after the completion of single-well tests on each of the selected wells. Recovering water-level data from the single-well tests were analyzed using the Bouwer and Rice method because test data most closely resembled those obtained from traditional slug tests. Results from the single-well test analyses for the alluvial aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.8 x 10-5 feet per second and geometric mean hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.4 x 10-5 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values in the alluvial aquifer were 8.6 x 10-4 feet squared per second and 4.9 x 10-4 feet squared per second, respectively. Single-well test results for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 5.4 x 10-6 feet per second and geometric mean value of 4.9 x 10-6 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer were 4.0 x 10-5 feet squared per second and 5.9 x 10-5 feet squared per second, respectively. Hydraulic-conductivity values for the alluvial aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated

  20. Exploring the relationship between monitored ground-based and satellite aerosol measurements over the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project studied the relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the Terra satellite, and ground-based monitored particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations measured...

  1. Behaviour recognition of ground vehicle using airborne monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyondong; Kim, Seungkeun; Shin, Hyo-Sang; Tsourdos, Antonios; White, Brian A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a behaviour recognition methodology for ground vehicles moving within road traffic using unmanned aerial vehicles in order to identify suspicious or abnormal behaviour. With the target information acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles and estimated by filtering techniques, ground vehicle behaviour is first classified into representative driving modes, and then a string pattern matching theory is applied to detect suspicious behaviours in the driving mode history. Furthermore, a fuzzy decision-making process is developed to systematically exploit all available information obtained from a complex environment and confirm the characteristic of behaviour, while considering spatiotemporal environment factors as well as several aspects of behaviours. To verify the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach, numerical simulations on moving ground vehicles are performed using realistic car trajectory data from an off-the-shelf traffic simulation software.

  2. Locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems using embedded optimization and simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi-Azghadi, Seyyed Nasser; Kerachian, Reza

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for optimally locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems in order to identify an unknown pollution source using monitoring data. The methodology is comprised of two different single and multi-objective optimization models, a Monte Carlo analysis, MODFLOW, MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models and a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM). The single-objective optimization model, which uses the results of the Monte Carlo analysis and maximizes the reliability of contamination detection, provides the initial location of monitoring wells. The objective functions of the multi-objective optimization model are minimizing the monitoring cost, i.e. the number of monitoring wells, maximizing the reliability of contamination detection and maximizing the probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. The PSVMs are calibrated and verified using the results of the single-objective optimization model and the Monte Carlo analysis. Then, the PSVMs are linked with the multi-objective optimization model, which maximizes both the reliability of contamination detection and probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. To evaluate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methodology, it is applied to Tehran Refinery in Iran.

  3. The utility of gravity and water-level monitoring at alluvial aquifer wells in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells in southern Arizona indicate that water-level change might not be a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer systems. One reason is that water levels in wells that are screened across single or multiple aquifers might not represent the hydraulic head and storage change in a local unconfined aquifer. Gravity estimates of aquifer-storage change can be approximated as a one-dimensional feature except near some withdrawal wells and recharge sources. The aquifer storage coefficient is estimated by the linear regression slope of storage change (estimated using gravity methods) and water-level change. Nonaquifer storage change that does not percolate to the aquifer can be significant, greater than 3 ??Gal, when water is held in the root zone during brief periods following extreme rates of precipitation. Monitor-ing of storage change using gravity methods at wells also can improve understanding of local hydrogeologic conditions. In the study area, confined aquifer conditions are likely at three wells where large water-level variations were accompanied by little gravity change. Unconfined conditions were indicated at 15 wells where significant water-level and gravity change were positively linearly correlated. Good positive linear correlations resulted in extremely large specific-yield values, greater than 0.35, at seven wells where it is likely that significant ephemeral streamflow infiltration resulted in unsaturated storage change. Poor or negative linear correlations indicate the occurrence of confined, multiple, or perched aquifers. Monitoring of a multiple compressible aquifer system at one well resulted in negative correlation of rising water levels and subsidence-corrected gravity change, which suggests that water-level trends at the well are not a good indicatior of overall storage change. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  4. A strategy for delineating the area of ground-water contribution to wells completed in fractured bedrock aquifers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D.W.; Barton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Delineating a contributing area to a well completed in a fractured bedrock aquifer in Pennsylvania is difficult because the hydrogeologic characteristics of fractured rocks are extremely complex. Because of this complexity, a single method or technique to delineate a contributing area will not be applicable for all wells completed in fractured-bedrock aquifers. Therefore, a strategy for refining the understanding of boundary conditions and major heterogeneities that control ground-water flow and sources of water to a supply well is suggested. The strategy is based on developing and refining a conceptual model for the sources of water to the well. Specifically, the strategy begins with an initial conceptual model of the ground-water-flow system, then requires the collection of hydrogeologic information to refine the conceptual model in a stepwise manner from one or more of sic categories: (1) hydrogeologic mapping, (2) water-level and streamflow measurements, (3) geochemistry, (4) geophysics and borehole flowmetering, (5) aquifer testing, and (6) tracer testing. During the refinement process, the applicability of treating the fratured-rock aquifer as a hydrologic continuum is evaluated, and the contributing area is delineated. Choice of the method used to delineate the contributing area is less important than insuring that the method is consistent with the refined conceptual model. By use of such a strategy, the improved understanding of the ground-water-flow system will lead to a technically defensible delineation of the contributing area.

  5. Calculation of Energies of the Ground and Low Excited States of a Confined Helium Atom in a Spherical Parabolic Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of the confined helium atom in a spherical parabolic well. We find that the energies of a spherical parabolic well are in good agreement with those of an impenetrable spherical box for the larger confined potential radius. However, the energy values of a spherical parabolic well are much lower than those of an impenetrable spherical box for small values of re. We also find that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values.

  6. Design and Development of a Web-Based Self-Monitoring System to Support Wellness Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Reza; Kuo, Alex

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed, designed and deployed a web-based, self-monitoring system to support wellness coaching. A wellness coach can plan for clients' exercise and diet through the system and is able to monitor the changes in body dimensions and body composition that the client reports. The system can also visualize the client's data in form of graphs for both the client and the coach. Both parties can also communicate through the messaging feature embedded in the application. A reminder system is also incorporated into the system and sends reminder messages to the clients when their reporting is due. The web-based self-monitoring application uses Oracle 11g XE as the backend database and Application Express 4.2 as user interface development tool. The system allowed users to access, update and modify data through web browser anytime, anywhere, and on any device.

  7. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CAU. The sampling plan is designed to ensure that monitoring activities occur in compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (DOE, 2012). The sampling plan should be referenced for Quality Assurance (QA) elements and procedures governing sampling activities. The NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan specifies the groundwater monitoring that will occur in CAU 98 until the long-term monitoring program is approved in the Closure Report. The plan specifies the wells that must be monitored and categorizes them by their sampling objective with the associated analytical requirements and frequency. Possible sample collection methods and required standard operating procedures are also presented. The intent of this handbook is to augment the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan by providing well-specific details for the sampling professional implementing the Sampling Plan in CAU 98, Frenchman Flat. This handbook includes each CAU 98 well designated for sampling in the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan. The following information is provided in the individual well sections: 1. The purpose of sampling. 2. A physical description of the well. 3. The chemical characteristics of the formation water. 4. Recommended protocols for purging and sampling. The well-specific information has been gathered from numerous historical and current sources cited in each section, but two particularly valuable resources merit special mention. These are the USGS NNSS website (http://nevada.usgs.gov/doe_nv/ntsarea5.cfm) and the UGTA Field Operations website (https://ugta.nv.doe.gov/sites/Field%20Operations/default.aspx). 2 Land surface elevation and measuring point for water level measurements in Frenchman Flat were a focus during CAU investigations (see Appendix B, Attachment 1 in Navarro-Intera, 2014). Both websites listed above provide information on the accepted datum for each well. A summary is found on the home page for the well on the USGS website. Additional information is available through a link in the

  8. Deformation Monitoring of Waste-Rock-Backfilled Mining Gob for Ground Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Zhang, Yubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Zhanhai; Ma, Shuqi

    2017-01-01

    Backfill mining is an effective option to mitigate ground subsidence, especially for mining under surface infrastructure, such as buildings, dams, rivers and railways. To evaluate its performance, continual long-term field monitoring of the deformation of backfilled gob is important to satisfy strict public scrutiny. Based on industrial Ethernet, a real-time monitoring system was established to monitor the deformation of waste-rock-backfilled gob at −700 m depth in the Tangshan coal mine, Hebei Province, China. The designed deformation sensors, based on a resistance transducer mechanism, were placed vertically between the roof and floor. Stress sensors were installed above square steel plates that were anchored to the floor strata. Meanwhile, data cables were protected by steel tubes in case of damage. The developed system continually harvested field data for three months. The results show that industrial Ethernet technology can be reliably used for long-term data transmission in complicated underground mining conditions. The monitoring reveals that the roof subsidence of the backfilled gob area can be categorized into four phases. The bearing load of the backfill developed gradually and simultaneously with the deformation of the roof strata, and started to be almost invariable when the mining face passed 97 m. PMID:28475168

  9. Long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring for ground based augmentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwook; Lee, Jiyun

    2012-08-01

    Extreme ionospheric anomalies can pose a potential integrity threat to ground-based augmentation of the Global Positioning System (GPS), and thus the development of ionospheric anomaly threat models for each region of operation is essential for system design and operation. This paper presents a methodology for automated long-term ionospheric anomaly monitoring, which will be used to build an ionospheric anomaly threat model, evaluate its validity over the life cycle of the system, continuously monitor ionospheric anomalies, and update the threat model if necessary. This procedure automatically processes GPS data collected from external networks and estimates ionospheric gradients at regular intervals. If ionospheric gradients large enough to be potentially hazardous to users are identified, manual data examination is triggered. This paper also develops a simplified truth processing method to create precise ionospheric delay estimates in near real-time, which is the key to automating the ionospheric monitoring procedure. The performance of the method is examined using data from the 20 November 2003 and 9 November 2004 ionospheric storms. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of simplified truth processing within long-term ionosphere monitoring. From the case studies, the automated procedure successfully identified extreme ionospheric anomalies, including the two worst ionospheric gradients observed and validated previously based on manual analysis. The automation of data processing enables us to analyze ionospheric data continuously going forward and to more accurately categorize ionospheric behavior under both nominal and anomalous conditions.

  10. Deformation Monitoring of Waste-Rock-Backfilled Mining Gob for Ground Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongbin; Zhang, Yubao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Zhanhai; Ma, Shuqi

    2017-05-05

    Backfill mining is an effective option to mitigate ground subsidence, especially for mining under surface infrastructure, such as buildings, dams, rivers and railways. To evaluate its performance, continual long-term field monitoring of the deformation of backfilled gob is important to satisfy strict public scrutiny. Based on industrial Ethernet, a real-time monitoring system was established to monitor the deformation of waste-rock-backfilled gob at -700 m depth in the Tangshan coal mine, Hebei Province, China. The designed deformation sensors, based on a resistance transducer mechanism, were placed vertically between the roof and floor. Stress sensors were installed above square steel plates that were anchored to the floor strata. Meanwhile, data cables were protected by steel tubes in case of damage. The developed system continually harvested field data for three months. The results show that industrial Ethernet technology can be reliably used for long-term data transmission in complicated underground mining conditions. The monitoring reveals that the roof subsidence of the backfilled gob area can be categorized into four phases. The bearing load of the backfill developed gradually and simultaneously with the deformation of the roof strata, and started to be almost invariable when the mining face passed 97 m.

  11. Gamma well-logging in the Old Burial Ground of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W. G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hofstetter, K. J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); MacMurdo, K. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Johnson, R. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Matthews, W. B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Diamond, W. D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, F. S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hall, G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Maus, R. J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Walker, V. W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sigg, R. A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sanders, M. A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Results are given sequentially by well in the appendix; total is 44 wells. Overall, the 1994 results do not suggest that any significant changes in activity or location have occurred since the 1980 measurements. Depths and magnitudes of plume activities for 1980 and 1994 are compared.

  12. Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for Inorganic Analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    screen, as does low-flow sampling (Robin and Gillham 1987; Powell and Puls 1993). Most research to date ( Michalski 1989; Gillham et al. 1985; Robin and...Fernando. 1991. A review of arsenic(III) in groundwater. Critical Reviews in Environmental Control 21:1–39. Michalski , M. 1989. Application of

  13. Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for VOCs and Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    23 Table 4. Results from the holding- time study with...the opposite order. First Holding- Time Study for VOCs The purpose of this study was to determine whether analyte concentra- tions of samples... Study for VOCs The procedure for this study was the same as for the previous holding- time study except that that the Snap Samplers were equilibrated

  14. Records of wells and springs, water levels, and chemical quality of ground water in the East Portland area, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Hogenson, G.M.; Hampton, E.R.

    1964-01-01

    Data are presented on more than 300 wells, including many new ones whose records will not be a part of a forthcoming interpretative report on the occurrence of ground water in this area. A brief description of the geomorphic features is given, and the characteristics of the rock units are summarized in a table. Principal aquifers are beds of loose sand and gravel in the early Pliocene Troutdale Formation, late Pleistocene fluviolacustrine deposits, and Recent alluvium. Locally, Columbia River Basalt (Miocene) and the Boring Lava (late Pliocene to Pleistocene) yield substantial amounts of wate.. In addition to well records there are 124 driller's logs and a table of chemical analyses of the ground water.

  15. 3D Monitoring under the Keciova Mosque (Casbah-Algier, Algeria) with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kagan Kadioglu, Yusuf; Deniz, Kiymet; Akin Akyol, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Keciova (Ketchaoua) Mosque, in Casbah-Algiers, the capital of Algeria, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Keciova Mosque was originally built in 1612 by the Ottoman Empire. A RAMAC CU II GPR system and a 250 MHz shielded antenna have been employed inside of the Mosque including the Cathedral and inside of the burial chambers under the Cathedral Site on parallel profiles spaced approximately 0.30 m apart to measure data. After applying standard two-dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, transparent 3D imaging techniques have been used to photograph the foundational infrastructures, buried remains and safety problems of the Mosque. The results showed that we obtained 3D GPR visualization until 12.0 m in depth. Firstly we imaged the base floor including corridors. Then we monitored buried remains under the first ground level between 5.0-7.0 m in depths. Finally we indicated 3D GPR photographs a spectacular protected buried old mosque structures under the second ground level between 9.0-12.0 m in depths. This project has been supported by Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA). This study is a contribution to the EU funded COST action TU1208, "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground penetrating Radar".

  16. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    adding value and information to the whole monitoring survey. The test sites are currently observed by an original integrated methodology specifically developed within the aim of the project. The integrated monitoring design includes reference targets for the different monitoring systems placed together on the same point or rigid foundation, to facilitate the comparison of the data and, in the operational use, to be able to switch consistently from one to the other system. The principal goal of the project is to define a shared procedure to select scalable technologies, best practices and institutional action plans more adequate to deal with different sort of hazard related to ground displacement, in densely populated mountain areas containing recreational and critical infrastructures. Keywords: integrated monitoring, multi-temporal interferometry, artificial reflectors; mass movement, SloMove.eu

  17. Characterization and Monitoring of Natural Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents in Ground Water: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, N. H.; Gilmore, T.; Looney, B. B.; Vangelas, K. M.; Adams, K. M.; Sink, C. H.

    2006-05-01

    Like many US industries and businesses, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for remediation and restoration of soils and ground water contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is an attractive remediation approach and is probably the universal end-stage technology for removing such contamination. Since 2003 we have carried out a multifaceted program at the Savannah River Site designed to advance the state of the art for MNA of chlorinated ethenes in soils and groundwater. Three lines of effort were originally planned: 1) Improving the fundamental science for MNA, 2) Promoting better characterization and monitoring (CM) techniques, and 3) Advancing the regulatory aspects of MNA management. A fourth line, developing enhanced attenuation methods based on sustainable natural processes, was added in order to deal with sites where the initial natural attenuation capacity cannot offset contaminant loading rates. These four lines have been pursued in an integrated and mutually supportive fashion. Many DOE site-cleanup program managers view CM as major expenses, especially for natural attenuation where measuring attenuation is complex and the most critical attenuation mechanisms cannot be determined directly. We have reviewed new and developing approaches to CM for potential application in support of natural attenuation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water at DOE sites (Gilmore, Tyler, et al., 2006 WSRC-TR- 2005-00199). Although our project is focused on chlorinated ethenes, many of the concepts and strategies are also applicable to a wider range of contaminants including radionuclides and metals. The greatest savings in CM are likely to come from new management approaches. New approaches can be based, for example, on conceptual models of attenuation capacity, the ability of a formation to reduce risks caused by contaminants. Using the mass balance concept as a guide, the integrated mass flux of contaminant is compared to

  18. First successful multistage hydraulic fracture monitoring for a horizontal well in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Rios, Austreberto; Riano, Juan M. [PEMEX, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Sanchez, Adrian; Bustos, Tomas [Schlumberger, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In their constant effort to increase the production from Chicontepec, PEMEX drilled a multilateral well with three horizontal lateral sections; the intention was to increase the production in comparison with vertical wells. In the second arm of this well four intervals were identified to be fractured, this was a new approach since it was the first occasion that multiple fractures were planned in a horizontal well. An important part of the project was the evaluation of the effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing. This evaluation was performed by micro seismic monitoring during the treatment. This technology allows the detection of events generated during the fluid injection in the reservoir, with receivers located in a nearby monitoring well. The interpretation of this data allows the identification in 3 D space of the fracture locations. This information is valuable for optimization of subsequent treatments and for planning the field development. The data is recorded in real time and can be used to make decisions during the fracturing operation. In this paper we describe the results of the hydraulic fracturing monitoring performed in four intervals in a horizontal well showing the geometry and direction of each one of the fractures. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Susan [Navarro Reserch and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayvault, Jalena [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-05-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and—the focus of this report—evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014–2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  20. MetaSensing's FastGBSAR: ground based radar for deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödelsperger, Sabine; Meta, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    The continuous monitoring of ground deformation and structural movement has become an important task in engineering. MetaSensing introduces a novel sensor system, the Fast Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (FastGBSAR), based on innovative technologies that have already been successfully applied to airborne SAR applications. The FastGBSAR allows the remote sensing of deformations of a slope or infrastructure from up to a distance of 4 km. The FastGBSAR can be setup in two different configurations: in Real Aperture Radar (RAR) mode it is capable of accurately measuring displacements along a linear range profile, ideal for monitoring vibrations of structures like bridges and towers (displacement accuracy up to 0.01 mm). Modal parameters can be determined within half an hour. Alternatively, in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) configuration it produces two-dimensional displacement images with an acquisition time of less than 5 seconds, ideal for monitoring areal structures like dams, landslides and open pit mines (displacement accuracy up to 0.1 mm). The MetaSensing FastGBSAR is the first ground based SAR instrument on the market able to produce two-dimensional deformation maps with this high acquisition rate. By that, deformation time series with a high temporal and spatial resolution can be generated, giving detailed information useful to determine the deformation mechanisms involved and eventually to predict an incoming failure. The system is fully portable and can be quickly installed on bedrock or a basement. The data acquisition and processing can be fully automated leading to a low effort in instrument operation and maintenance. Due to the short acquisition time of FastGBSAR, the coherence between two acquisitions is very high and the phase unwrapping is simplified enormously. This yields a high density of resolution cells with good quality and high reliability of the acquired deformations. The deformation maps can directly be used as input into an Early

  1. Ground-water flow and contributing areas to public-supply wells in Kingsford and Iron Mountain, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Carol L.; Westjohn, David B.

    2000-01-01

    The cities of Kingsford and Iron Mountain are in the southwestern part of Dickinson County in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Residents and businesses in these cites rely primarily on ground water from aquifers in glacial deposits. Glacial deposits generally consist of an upper terrace sand-and-gravel unit and a lower outwash sand-and-gravel unit, separated by lacustrine silt and clay and eolian silt layers. These units are not regionally continuous, and are absent in some areas. Glacial deposits overlie Precambrian bedrock units that are generally impermeable. Precambrian bedrock consists of metasedimentary (Michigamme Slate, Vulcan Iron Formation, and Randville Dolomite) and metavolcanic (Badwater Greenstone and Quinnesec Formation) rocks. Where glacial deposits are too thin to compose an aquifer usable for public or residential water supply, Precambrian bedrock is relied upon for water supply. Typically a few hundred feet of bedrock must be open to a wellbore to provide adequate water for domestic users. Ground-water flow in the glacial deposits is primarily toward the Menominee River and follows the direction of the regional topographic slope and the bedrock surface. To protect the quality of ground water, Kingsford and Iron Mountain are developing Wellhead Protection Plans to delineate areas that contribute water to public-supply wells. Because of the complexity of hydrogeology in this area and historical land-use practices, a steady-state ground-water-flow model was prepared to represent the ground-water-flow system and to delineate contributing areas to public-supply wells. Results of steady-state simulations indicate close agreement between simulated and observed water levels and between water flowing into and out of the model area. The 10-year contributing areas for Kingsford's public-supply wells encompass about 0.11 square miles and consist of elongated areas to the east of the well fields. The 10-year contributing areas for Iron Mountain's public

  2. On higher ground: how well can dynamic body acceleration determine speed in variable terrain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen R Bidder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Animal travel speed is an ecologically significant parameter, with implications for the study of energetics and animal behaviour. It is also necessary for the calculation of animal paths by dead-reckoning. Dead-reckoning uses heading and speed to calculate an animal's path through its environment on a fine scale. It is often used in aquatic environments, where transmission telemetry is difficult. However, its adoption for tracking terrestrial animals is limited by our ability to measure speed accurately on a fine scale. Recently, tri-axial accelerometers have shown promise for estimating speed, but their accuracy appears affected by changes in substrate and surface gradients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate four metrics of acceleration; Overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA, vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VDBA, acceleration peak frequency and acceleration peak amplitude, as proxies for speed over hard, soft and inclined surfaces, using humans as a model species. RESULTS: A general linear model (GLM showed a significant difference in the relationships between the metrics and speed depending on substrate or surface gradient. When the data from all surface types were considered together, VeDBA had the highest coefficient of determination. CONCLUSIONS: All of the metrics showed some variation in their relationship with speed according to the surface type. This indicates that changes in the substrate or surface gradient during locomotion by animals would produce errors in speed estimates, and also in dead-reckoned tracks if they were calculated from speeds based entirely on a priori calibrations. However, we describe a method by which the relationship between acceleration metrics and speed can be corrected ad hoc, until tracks accord with periodic ground truthed positions, obtained via a secondary means (e.g. VHF or GPS telemetry. In this way, dead-reckoning provides a means to obtain fine scale movement data

  3. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  4. Monitoring of Conservation Tillage and Tillage Intensity by Ground and Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Rostami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local information about tillage intensity and ground residue coverage is useful for policies in agricultural extension, tillage implement design and upgrading management methods. The current methods for assessing crop residue coverage and tillage intensity such as residue weighing methods, line-transect and photo comparison methods are tedious and time-consuming. The present study was devoted to investigate accurate methods for monitoring residue management and tillage practices. The satellite imagery technique was used as a rapid and spatially explicit method for delineating crop residue coverage and as an estimator of conservation tillage adoption and intensity. The potential of multispectral high-spatial resolution WorldView-2 local data was evaluated using the total of eleven satellite spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis (LSUA. The total of ninety locations was selected for this study and for each location the residue coverage was measured by the image processing method and recorded as ground control. The output of indices and LSUA method were individually correlated to the control and the relevant R2 was calculated. Results indicated that crop residue cover was related to IPVI, RVI1, RVI2 and GNDVI spectral indices and satisfactory correlations were established (0.74 - 0.81. The crop residue coverage estimated from the LSUA approach was found to be correlated with the ground residue data (0.75. Two effective indices named as Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI with maximum R2 were considered for classification of tillage intensity. Results indicated that the classification accuracy with IPVI and RVI indices in different conditions varied from 78-100 percent and therefore in good agreement with ground measurement, observations and field records.

  5. Monitoring glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wells and drains using the sorbicell passive sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; de Jonge, Hubert; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the world’s most extensively used weed control agents. Glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are suspected to be hazardous to human health and the aquatic environment. In Denmark, the extensive use has resulted in an increasing number of occurrences...... in groundwater wells and tile drains, stressing the need for extensive monitoring of this compound in the environment. Traditionally, monitoring programs are based on grab sampling which is time consuming and expensive due to the need for frequent sampling events. Using a passive sampling device, the Sorbi...

  6. Records of wells and chemical analyses of ground water in Hand and Hyde counties, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, K.M.; Koch, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Well and chemical groundwater data contained in three tables were collected during a 4-year study started in 1972 to determine the geology and water resources of Hand and Hyde Counties, South Dakota. Physical, hydrologic, and geologic data for 2,729 wells and test holes have been entered into computer storage in the Groundwater Site Inventory File of the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System WATSTORE. Water quality data from 300 chemical analyses has been stored in the Water Quality File of WATSTORE and is computer printed int he chemical analyses table by aquifer. (USGS)

  7. Ground Surface Deformation around Tehran due to Groundwater Recharge: InSAR Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Peyret, M.; Fritz, J. F.; Cherry, J.

    2003-04-01

    Tehran is located on an active tectonic and seismic zone. The surface deformation monitoring provides a powerful tool for getting a better understanding of faults kinematics and mechanisms. Used in conjunction with GPS networks, InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) provides dense and precise deformation measurements which are essential for mapping complex heterogeneous deformation fields. Moreover, urban and arid areas preserve interferometric phase coherence. The archived acquisitions of ERS that span 9 months between September 1998 and June 1999 reveal wide areas of surface uplift (by as much as 9 cm). This vertical deformation (gradual in time) has probably no tectonic meaning but is rather the ground response to ground water recharge. These zones are all located dowstream of large alluvial fans like the one of Karaj. The variation of effective stress caused by intersticial water draining could explain such surface deformation. It can also be noticed that some faults act as boundary for these deformation zones and fluid motion. The understanding of this deformation is relevant for groundwater monitoring and urban developement management. It is also necessary for discriminating it from tectonic deformation that also occurs on this zone. Due to the lack of attitude control of satellite ERS-2 since February 2001, the last images acquired could not be combined with the former acquisitions. Nevertheless, we expect to be able to enrich our set of images in order to map tectonic deformation on a longer period and to monitor in a more continuous way the deformation due to groundwater evolution. This would allow to quantify the permanent and reversible part of this signal.

  8. Kirschenmann Road multi-well monitoring site, Cuyama Valley, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, R.R.; Hanson, R.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works, is evaluating the geohydrology and water availability of the Cuyama Valley, California (fig. 1). As part of this evaluation, the USGS installed the Cuyama Valley Kirschenmann Road multiple-well monitoring site (CVKR) in the South-Main subregion of the Cuyama Valley (fig. 1). The CVKR well site is designed to allow for the collection of depth-specific water-level and water-quality data. Data collected at this site provides information about the geology, hydrology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the local aquifer system, thus, enhancing the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Cuyama Valley. This report presents the construction information and initial geohydrologic data collected from the CVKR monitoring site, along with a brief comparison to selected supply and irrigation wells from the major subregions of the Cuyama Valley (fig. 1).

  9. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobmeyer, D.H.; Luckey, R.R.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 16 wells representing 24 intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water-level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for one interval to 100 percent for one interval. Fifteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed. Transducer output is presented in graphic form and, where appropriate, water-level altitude is presented in graphical and tabular form.

  10. Robert L. Gross, Well-Grounded in High-Flying Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    Could a North Dakota farm boy with a smallish frame, bookish appearance, understated speaking voice and aw-shucks humility possibly be a good fit to lead a powerhouse, cosmopolitan private school for American students living abroad, whose governing board consists mainly of high-flying corporate executives and well-heeled attorneys? The answer…

  11. Ground state and excitations of a Bose gas: From a harmonic trap to a double well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japha, Y. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Band, Y. B. [Departments of Chemistry and Electro-Optics, and Ilse Katz Center for Nano-Science, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2011-09-15

    We determine the low-energy properties of a trapped Bose gas split in two by a potential barrier over the whole range of barrier heights and asymmetry between the wells. For either weak or strong coupling between the wells, our two-mode theory yields a two-site Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian with the tunneling, interaction, and bias parameters calculated simply using an explicit form of two mode functions. When the potential barrier is relatively low, most of the particles occupy the condensate mode and our theory reduces to a two-mode version of the Bogoliubov theory, which gives a satisfactory estimate of the spatial shape and energy of the lowest collective excitation. When the barrier is high, our theory generalizes the standard two-site Bose-Hubbard model into the case of asymmetric modes, and correctly predicts a full separation of the modes in the limit of strong separation of the wells. We provide explicit analytic forms for the number squeezing and coherence as a function of particle number and temperature. We compare our theory to other two-mode theories for bosons in a double well and discuss their validity in different parameter regimes.

  12. Groundwater Flow Field Distortion by Monitoring Wells and Passive Flux Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreydt, G; Bronders, J; Van Keer, I; Diels, L; Vanderauwera, P

    2015-01-01

    Due to differences in hydraulic conductivity and effects of well construction geometry, groundwater lateral flow through a monitoring well typically differs from groundwater flow in the surrounding aquifer. These differences must be well understood in order to apply passive measuring techniques, such as passive flux meters (PFMs) used for the measurement of groundwater and contaminant mass fluxes. To understand these differences, lab flow tank experiments were performed to evaluate the influences of the well screen, the surrounding filter pack and the presence of a PFM on the natural groundwater flux through a monitoring well. The results were compared with analytical calculations of flow field distortion based on the potential theory of Drost et al. (1968). Measured well flow field distortion factors were found to be lower than calculated flow field distortion factors, while measured PFM flow field distortion factors were comparable to the calculated ones. However, this latter is not the case for all conditions. The slotted geometry of the well screen seems to make a correct analytical calculation challenging for conditions where flow field deviation occurs, because the potential theory assumes a uniform flow field. Finally, plots of the functional relationships of the distortion of the flow field with the hydraulic conductivities of the filter screen, surrounding filter pack and corresponding radii make it possible to design well construction to optimally function during PFM applications.

  13. Iron-rich Oklahoma clays as a natural source of chromium in monitoring wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Dane; Apblett, Allen; Materer, Nicholas F

    2011-12-01

    Water samples, drawn from groundwater monitoring wells located southeast of Oklahoma City, OK, were found to contain elevated concentrations of total chromium with an apparent source localized to the area surrounding each well. Since these monitoring wells are located in areas with no historic chromium usage, industrial sources of chromium were ruled out. Water testing was performed on twelve monitoring wells in the area that historically had elevated total chromium concentrations ranging from 10-4900 micrograms per litre. Filtered water samples were found to be free of chromium contamination, indicating that the source of the chromium is the suspended solids. Analysis of these solids by acid digestion and a sequential extraction technique revealed that the chromium was primarily associated with iron-containing solids. X-ray diffraction identified goethite, an iron oxide hydroxide, as the dominant iron-containing phase in the suspended solids. The mineralogy in this region is dominated by interbedded red-bed sandstone and mudstone whose mineral content includes mixed-layer illite-smectite, hematite, goethite, gypsum and dolomite. Elemental analysis of soil samples collected as a function of depth in the locale of the monitoring wells indicated that the iron rich clays contain a natural source of chromium. The elevated levels of total chromium are most likely due to the dissolution of silica and alumina from the chromium containing iron clays in the basic well water, resulting in the release of fine suspended solids that naturally have high chromium concentrations. These results should be applicable to other areas containing iron-rich clays.

  14. Arctic ecosystem functional zones: identification and quantification using an above and below ground monitoring strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Susan S.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Dou, Shan; Kneafsey, Tim J.; Peterson, John E.; Tas, Neslihan; Torn, Margaret S.; Phuong Tran, Anh; Ulrich, Craig; Wainwright, Haruko; Wu, Yuxin; Wullschleger, Stan

    2015-04-01

    Although accurate prediction of ecosystem feedbacks to climate requires characterization of the properties that influence terrestrial carbon cycling, performing such characterization is challenging due to the disparity of scales involved. This is particularly true in vulnerable Arctic ecosystems, where microbial activities leading to the production of greenhouse gasses are a function of small-scale hydrological, geochemical, and thermal conditions influenced by geomorphology and seasonal dynamics. As part of the DOE Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE-Arctic), we are advancing two approaches to improve the characterization of complex Arctic ecosystems, with an initial application to an ice-wedge polygon dominated tundra site near Barrow, AK, USA. The first advance focuses on developing a new strategy to jointly monitor above- and below- ground properties critical for carbon cycling in the tundra. The strategy includes co-characterization of properties within the three critical ecosystem compartments: land surface (vegetation, water inundation, snow thickness, and geomorphology); active layer (peat thickness, soil moisture, soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, soil temperature, and geochemistry); and permafrost (mineral soil and ice content, nature, and distribution). Using a nested sampling strategy, a wide range of measurements have been collected at the study site over the past three years, including: above-ground imagery (LiDAR, visible, near infrared, NDVI) from various platforms, surface geophysical datasets (electrical, electromagnetic, ground penetrating radar, seismic), and point measurements (such as CO2 and methane fluxes, soil properties, microbial community composition). A subset of the coincident datasets is autonomously collected daily. Laboratory experiments and new inversion approaches are used to improve interpretation of the field geophysical datasets in terms of ecosystem properties. The new strategy has significantly advanced our ability

  15. Performance Assessment Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Site Low Level Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SONNICHSEN, J.C.

    2000-11-15

    As directed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Fluor Hanford, Inc. will implement the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, as the requirements relate to the continued operation of the low-level waste disposal facilities on the Hanford Site. DOE Order 435.1 requires a disposal authorization statement authorizing operation (or continued operation) of a low-level waste disposal facility. The objective of this Order is to ensure that all DOE radioactive waste is managed in a manner that protects the environment and personnel and public health and safety. The manual (DOE Order 435.1 Manual) implementing the Order states that a disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement shall result in shutdown of an operational disposal facility. In fulfillment of the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, a disposal authorization statement was issued on October 25, 1999, authorizing the Hanford Site to transfer, receive, possess, and dispose of low-level radioactive waste at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds. The disposal authorization statement constitutes approval of the performance assessment and composite analysis, authorizes operation of the facility, and includes conditions that the disposal facility must meet. One of the conditions is that monitoring plans for the 200 East Area and 200 West Area Low-Level Burial Grounds be written and approved by the DOE-RL. The monitoring plan is to be updated and implemented within 1 year following issuance of the disposal authorization statement to

  16. A Preliminary Evaluation of the DOE-2.1E Ground Vertical Well Model Using Maxey School Measured Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.; McLain, H.A.

    1999-06-19

    A new ground source heat pump routine has been incorporated in the DOE-2 building simulation program, but field validation of this routine is limited. Measured data are available for the operation of a ground source heat pump system for Maxey School, located in Lincoln, NE. Temperatures of the propylene glycol solution flowing in and out of the heat pump system vertical well field as predicted by the DOE-2 routine were compared with the measured data. The results showed a need for improvement in the routine, and a number of improvements were made. These changes helped, but some of the input parameters still had to be adjusted to obtain a reasonably good fit to the measured data. Future areas of investigation were suggested and a course of action was recommended.

  17. Hydrochemical monitoring of water production in wells at the Orenburg formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevastyanov, O.M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses advantages of a method monitoring water production in gas condensate wells by evaluation of calcium ion concentrate in the water samples. Service water and condensate water contains 30-40 times less of calcium ions than connate water of the principal deposit at the Orenburg site, and 400 times less than connate water of the Kungurian deposit. Use of methanol as an inhibitor (of hydrate formation) results in removal of well water in the form of a water-methanol mixture. Much time is required to determine composition of this mixture. Thus, the article suggests use of a simplified monitoring technique on composition of connate water in the well. On the basis of a large number of tests on the water-methanol mixtures, the author has designed a chart that allows monitoring formation water in the exploratory well on the basis of the potassium ion concentration in the water-methanol mixture. Production of formation water is fixed with an accuracy to 10%. Potassium content of less than 100 mg/1 signifies absence of formation water; excess of this figure indicates appearance of formation water. Use of this technique is now applied at the Orenburg gas condensate site to measure level of water production. The author believes the technique could be applied at other large deposits of natural gas.

  18. Low parameter model to monitor bottom hole pressure in vertical multiphase flow in oil production wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the flow patterns through petroleum production wells proved for upstream experts to provide robust production schemes based on the knowledge about flow behavior. To provide accurate flow pattern distribution through production wells, accurate prediction/representation of bottom hole pressure (BHP for determining pressure drop from bottom to surface play important and vital role. Nevertheless enormous efforts have been made to develop mechanistic approach, most of the mechanistic and conventional models or correlations unable to estimate or represent the BHP with high accuracy and low uncertainty. To defeat the mentioned hurdle and monitor BHP in vertical multiphase flow through petroleum production wells, inventive intelligent based solution like as least square support vector machine (LSSVM method was utilized. The evolved first-break approach is examined by applying precise real field data illustrated in open previous surveys. Thanks to the statistical criteria gained from the outcomes obtained from LSSVM approach, the proposed least support vector machine (LSSVM model has high integrity and performance. Moreover, very low relative deviation between the model estimations and the relevant actual BHP data is figured out to be less than 6%. The output gained from LSSVM model are closed the BHP while other mechanistic models fails to predict BHP through petroleum production wells. Provided solutions of this study explicated that implies of LSSVM in monitoring bottom-hole pressure can indicate more accurate monitoring of the referred target which can lead to robust design with high level of reliability for oil and gas production operation facilities.

  19. Continuous monitoring of a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps by above-ground neutron sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattan, Paul; Baroni, Gabriele; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schöber, Johannes; Fey, Christine; Francke, Till; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In alpine catchments the knowledge of the spatially and temporally heterogeneous dynamics of snow accumulation and depletion is crucial for modelling and managing water resources. While snow covered area can be retrieved operationally from remote sensing data, continuous measurements of other snow state variables like snow depth (SD) or snow water equivalent (SWE) remain challenging. Existing methods of retrieving both variables in alpine terrain face severe issues like a lack of spatial representativeness, labour-intensity or discontinuity in time. Recently, promising new measurement techniques combining a larger support with low maintenance cost like above-ground gamma-ray scintillators, GPS interferometric reflectometry or above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS) have been suggested. While CRNS has proven its potential for monitoring soil moisture in a wide range of environments and applications, the empirical knowledge of using CRNS for snowpack monitoring is still very limited and restricted to shallow snowpacks with rather uniform evolution. The characteristics of an above-ground cosmic-ray neutron sensor (CRNS) were therefore evaluated for monitoring a mountain snowpack in the Austrian Alps (Kaunertal, Tyrol) during three winter seasons. The measurement campaign included a number of measurements during the period from 03/2014 to 06/2016: (i) neutron count measurements by CRNS, (ii) continuous point-scale SD and SWE measurements from an automatic weather station and (iii) 17 Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) with simultaneous SD and SWE surveys. The highest accumulation in terms of SWE was found in 04/2014 with 600 mm. Neutron counts were compared to all available snow data. While previous studies suggested a signal saturation at around 100 mm of SWE, no complete signal saturation was found. A strong non-linear relation was found for both SD and SWE with best fits for spatially distributed TLS based snow data. Initially slightly different shapes were

  20. MS-BWME: a wireless real-time monitoring system for brine well mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-10-23

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  1. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqing Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system’s real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  2. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib.

  3. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Lyles, Brad [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Hershey, Ron [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Healey, John [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CAU. The sampling plan is designed to ensure that monitoring activities occur in compliance with the UGTA Quality Assurance Plan (DOE, 2012). The sampling plan should be referenced for Quality Assurance (QA) elements and procedures governing sampling activities. The NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan specifies the groundwater monitoring that will occur in CAU 98 until the long-term monitoring program is approved in the Closure Report. The plan specifies the wells that must be monitored and categorizes them by their sampling objective with the associated analytical requirements and frequency. Possible sample collection methods and required standard operating procedures are also presented. The intent of this handbook is to augment the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan by providing well-specific details for the sampling professional implementing the Sampling Plan in CAU 98, Frenchman Flat. This handbook includes each CAU 98 well designated for sampling in the NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan. The following information is provided in the individual well sections: 1. The purpose of sampling. 2. A physical description of the well. 3. The chemical characteristics of the formation water. 4. Recommended protocols for purging and sampling. The well-specific information has been gathered from numerous historical and current sources cited in each section, but two particularly valuable resources merit special mention. These are the USGS NNSS website (http://nevada.usgs.gov/doe_nv/ntsarea5.cfm) and the UGTA Field Operations website (https://ugta.nv.doe.gov/sites/Field%20Operations/default.aspx). 2 Land surface elevation and measuring point for water level measurements in Frenchman Flat were a focus during CAU investigations (see Appendix B, Attachment 1 in Navarro-Intera, 2014). Both websites listed above provide information on the accepted datum for each well. A summary is found on the home page for the well on the USGS website. Additional information is available through a link in the

  4. Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

  5. Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Chemical Analyses from LM Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Susan [Navarro Reserch and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayvault, Jalena [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-05-01

    This report documents the efforts and analyses conducted for the Applied Studies and Technology (AS&T) Ancillary Work Plan (AWP) project titled Evaluation of Pre- and Post- Redevelopment Groundwater Sample Laboratory Analyses from Selected LM Groundwater Monitoring Wells. This effort entailed compiling an inventory of nearly 500 previous well redevelopment events at 16 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) sites, searching the literature for impacts of well redevelopment on groundwater sample quality, and—the focus of this report—evaluating the impacts of well redevelopment on field measurements and sample analytical results. Study Catalyst Monitoring well redevelopment, the surging or high-volume pumping of a well to loosen and remove accumulated sediment and biological build-up from a well, is considered an element of monitoring well maintenance that is implemented periodically during the lifetime of the well to mitigate its gradual deterioration. Well redevelopment has been conducted fairly routinely at a few LM sites in the western United States (e.g., the Grand Junction office site and the Gunnison processing site in Colorado), but at most other sites in this region it is not a routine practice. Also, until recently (2014–2015), there had been no specific criteria for implementing well redevelopment, and documentation of redevelopment events has been inconsistent. A catalyst for this evaluation was the self-identification of these inconsistencies by the Legacy Management Support contractor. As a result, in early 2015 Environmental Monitoring Operations (EMO) staff began collecting and documenting additional field measurements during well redevelopment events. In late 2015, AS&T staff undertook an independent internal evaluation of EMO's well redevelopment records and corresponding pre- and post-well-redevelopment groundwater analytical results. Study Findings Although literature discussions parallel the prevailing industry

  6. Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Flynn, J.L.; Paschke, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer is an important water source for irrigated agriculture and domestic supplies in northeastern Colorado. To address the needs of Colorado's Groundwater Protection Program, the U.S. Geological Survey designed and installed a groundwater monitoring-well network in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Agriculture in 2008 to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer underlying areas of irrigated agriculture in eastern Colorado. A 30-well network was designed to provide for statistical representation of water-quality conditions by using a computerized technique to generate randomly distributed potential groundwater sampling sites based on aquifer extent, extent of irrigated agricultural land, depth to water from land surface, and saturated thickness. Twenty of the 30 sites were selected for well installation, and wells were drilled and installed during the period June-September 2008. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Documentation of the well-network design, site selection, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development records is presented in this report.

  7. Reservoir Characterization during Underbalanced Drilling of Horizontal Wells Based on Real-Time Data Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a methodology for characterizing reservoir pore pressure and permeability during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells was presented. The methodology utilizes a transient multiphase wellbore flow model that is extended with a transient well influx analytical model during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells. The effects of the density behavior of drilling fluid and wellbore heat transfer are considered in our wellbore flow model. Based on Kneissl’s methodology, an improved method with a different testing procedure was used to estimate the reservoir pore pressure by introducing fluctuations in the bottom hole pressure. To acquire timely basic data for reservoir characterization, a dedicated fully automated control real-time data monitoring system was established. The methodology is applied to a realistic case, and the results indicate that the estimated reservoir pore pressure and permeability fit well to the truth values from well test after drilling. The results also show that the real-time data monitoring system is operational and can provide accurate and complete data set in real time for reservoir characterization. The methodology can handle reservoir characterization during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells.

  8. Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean

    2013-09-01

    Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.

  9. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations in the archeological site of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Paglia, Luca; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; De Nigris, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The "Major Project Pompeii" (MPP) is a great collective commitment of different institututions and people to set about solving the serious problem of conservation of the largest archeological sites in the world. The ancient city of Pompeii with its 66 hectares, 44 of which are excaveted, is divided into 9 regiones (district), subdivided in 118 insulae (blocks) and almost 1500 domus (houses), and is Unesco site since 1996. The Italian Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and Finmeccanica Group have sealed an agreement whereby the Finmeccanica Group will donate innovative technologies and services for monitoring and protecting the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the Italian Institute for Environment Protection and Research (ISPRA) - Geological Survey of Italy, was also involved to support the ground based analysis and interpretation of the measurements provided by the industrial team, in order to promote an interdisciplinary approach. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on their interpretation. The satellite monitoring service is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-Geos proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry method characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artifacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses showed that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. By means of the COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR interferometry processing, a historical analysis of the ground and structure deformations occurred over the entire archaeological site of Pompeii in the

  10. Long-range ground deformation monitoring by InSAR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rokugawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar analysis is an effective technique to map 3-dimensional surface deformation with high spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of InSAR analysis when applied to ground monitoring of an environmental disaster. We performed a time series InSAR analysis using ENVISAT/ASAR and ALOS/PALSAR data and commercial software to investigate subsidence around the Kanto District of Japan. We also investigated techniques for efficient early detection of landslides in Kyushu using time series analysis that incorporated synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. ENVISAT/ASAR data acquired from 2003–2010 and ALOS/PALSAR data acquired from 2006–2011 were used to detect poorly expressed geomorphological deformation by conducting time series analyses of periodically acquired SAR data. In addition, to remove noise caused by geographical feature stripes or phase retardation, we applied median filtering, histogram extraction processing, and clarification of the displacement with a Laplacian filter. The main functions of the InSAR time series analysis are the calculation of phase differences between two images and the inversion with smoothness constraint for the estimation of deformation along the line of sight. The results enabled us to establish criteria for the selection of suitable InSAR data pairs, and provided the final error estimation of the derived surface deformation. The results of the analysis in the Kanto District suggested that localized areas of uplift and subsidence have occurred at irregular intervals in this area. Furthermore, the method offers the possibility of early warning of environmental disasters such as landslide and abrupt subsidence. Our results confirm the effectiveness of InSAR analysis for the monitoring of ground deformation over wide areas via the detection of localized subsidence and landslides.

  11. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasish Dutta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  12. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sibasish; Sarma, Dhrubajyoti; Nath, Pabitra

    2015-05-01

    We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  13. Coupling of ground biosensor networks for water monitoring with satellite observations in assessing Leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, A. N.; Rickerby, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    mapping is reliant on the identification of location where such networks could be of use. Systematic monitoring from satellite images are utilized for increasing the potential areas of application, for assessing the geographical representativeness on the measurements of the sensors and proposing the methodology on assessing the environmental conditions that are associated with outbreaks of leptospirosis. Unfortunately, several combined deployments of earth observations with ground sensors are required before for the understanding of the connections between hydrology and the human health. Ultimately this will lead to the establishment of early warning system that might investigate the effectiveness of key control measures, including vaccine (when they will become available) and affront the water decontamination, and animal control issues.

  14. Monitoring of well integrity by magnetic imaging defectoscopy (MID) at the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Möller, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    One of the key requirements for safe CO2 storage operation is to ensure wellbore integrity. The CO2 triggered acid in-well environment may lead to pitting and/or surface corrosion and eventually to fatigue of well casings and cementation by this giving raise to wellbore leakage. Corrosion effects are conventionally monitored by measurement of inner casing surface, internal diameter and wall thickness. Caliper logging provides inner surface and internal diameter data while ultrasonic tools measure both the internal diameter and casing thickness as well as the bonding between casing and cement. However, both tools can only monitor and characterize the most inner casing and ultrasonic tools in addition can only be applied in fluid filled wells. At the Ketzin CO2 storage test site, Germany, about 67 kt of CO2 were injected between June 2008 and August 2013 and an interdisciplinary monitoring concept was developed with focus on the storage complex, the overburden, the surface and the wellbores. Four deep wells penetrate the reservoir and their integrity has been monitored by a combination of video inspection, pulsed neutron gamma logging PNG and magnetic imaging defectoscopy MID. MID is an advanced logging method for non-destructive testing and has the great advantages that it can be operated in gas filled boreholes and that it provides information also for outer casings. The MID tool generates electromagnetic pulsed transient eddy currents and records the response of the surrounding media. The distribution and strength of the eddy-currents is then converted into averaged, depth-resolved thicknesses of the individual casings. Run in time-lapse mode, MID provides a measure to detect changes in casing thickness and therefore hints to corrosion. At Ketzin, the four deep wells haven been monitored by repeat MID logging on a roughly annual basis in cooperation with VNG Gasspeicher GmbH (VGS) and GAZPROMENERGODIAGNOSTIKA, applying their in-house MID tool. The MID based depth

  15. Results of ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry monitoring, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, G.R.; Monroe, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1994, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,000 acre-feet, which is an 8-percent increase from the previous year. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 5,400 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 1,600 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1994 were recorded in 10 of 16 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.3 feet as opposed to a decline of 3.3 feet for the previous year. The median change in water levels in the unconfined area was a rise of 0.1 foot in 1994 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1993. Measured low-flow discharge along Moenkopi Wash decreased from 3.0 cubic feet per second in 1993 to 2.9 cubic feet per second in 1994. Eleven low-flow measurements were made along Laguna Creek between Tsegi, Arizona, and Chinle Wash to determine the amount of discharge that would occur as seepage from the N aquifer under optimal base-flow conditions. Discharge was 5.6 cubic feet per second near Tsegi and 1.5 cubic feet per second above the confluence with Chinle Wash. Maximum discharge was 5.9 cubic feet per second about 4 miles upstream from Dennehotso. Discharge was measured at three springs. The changes in discharge at Burro and Whisky Springs were small and within the uncertainty of

  16. Landslide monitoring using multitemporal terrestrial laser scanning for ground displacement analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Barbarella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of the temporal evolution of landslides and of related hydrogeological hazards, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS seems to be a very suitable technique for morphological description and displacement analysis. In this note we present some procedures designed to solve specific issues related to monitoring. A particular attention has been devoted to data georeferencing, both during survey campaigns and while performing statistical data analysis. The proper interpolation algorithm for digital elevation model generation has been chosen taking into account the features of the landslide morphology and of the acquired datasets. For a detailed analysis of the different dynamics of the hillslope, we identified some areas with homogeneous behaviour applying in a geographic information system (GIS environment a sort of rough segmentation to the grid obtained by differentiating two surfaces. This approach has allowed a clear identification of ground deformations, obtaining detailed quantitative information on surficial displacements. These procedures have been applied to a case study on a large landslide of about 10 hectares, located in Italy, which recently has severely damaged the national railway line. Landslide displacements have been monitored with TLS surveying for three years, from February 2010 to June 2012. Here we report the comparison results between the first and the last survey.

  17. Simulations of Ground-Water Flow, Transport, Age, and Particle Tracking near York, Nebraska, for a Study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants (TANC) to Public-Supply Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Landon, Matthew K.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Hornberger, George Z.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of public-supply wells has resulted in public-health threats and negative economic effects for communities that must treat contaminated water or find alternative water supplies. To investigate factors controlling vulnerability of public-supply wells to anthropogenic and natural contaminants using consistent and systematic data collected in a variety of principal aquifer settings in the United States, a study of Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The area simulated by the ground-water flow model described in this report was selected for a study of processes influencing contaminant distribution and transport along the direction of ground-water flow towards a public-supply well in southeastern York, Nebraska. Ground-water flow is simulated for a 60-year period from September 1, 1944, to August 31, 2004. Steady-state conditions are simulated prior to September 1, 1944, and represent conditions prior to use of ground water for irrigation. Irrigation, municipal, and industrial wells were simulated using the Multi-Node Well package of the modular three-dimensional ground-water flow model code, MODFLOW-2000, which allows simulation of flow and solutes through wells that are simulated in multiple nodes or layers. Ground-water flow, age, and transport of selected tracers were simulated using the Ground-Water Transport process of MODFLOW-2000. Simulated ground-water age was compared to interpreted ground-water age in six monitoring wells in the unconfined aquifer. The tracer chlorofluorocarbon-11 was simulated directly using Ground-Water Transport for comparison with concentrations measured in six monitoring wells and one public supply well screened in the upper confined aquifer. Three alternative model simulations indicate that simulation results are highly sensitive to the distribution of multilayer well bores where leakage

  18. A technique for estimating ground-water levels at sites in Rhode Island from observation-well data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolow, Roy S.; Frimpter, Michael H.; Turtora, Michael; Bell, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of future high, median, and low ground- water levels are needed for engineering and architectural design decisions and for appropriate selection of land uses. For example, the failure of individual underground sewage-disposal systems due to high ground-water levels can be prevented if accurate water-level estimates are available. Estimates of extreme or average conditions are needed because short duration preconstruction obser- vations are unlikely to be adequately represen- tative. Water-level records for 40 U.S. Geological Survey observation wells in Rhode Island were used to describe and interpret water-level fluctuations. The maximum annual range of water levels average about 6 feet in sand and gravel and 11 feet in till. These data were used to develop equations for estimating future high, median, and low water levels on the basis of any one measurement at a site and records of water levels at observation wells used as indexes. The estimating technique relies on several assumptions about temporal and spatial variations: (1) Water levels will vary in the future as they have in the past, (2) Water levels fluctuate seasonally (3) Ground-water fluctuations are dependent on site geology, and (4) Water levels throughout Rhode Island are subject to similar precipitation and climate. Comparison of 6,697 estimates of high, median, and low water levels (depth to water level exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time, respectively) with the actual measured levels exceeded 95, 50, and 5 percent of the time at 14 sites unaffected by pumping and unknown reasons, yielded mean squared errors ranging from 0.34 to 1.53 square feet, 0.30 to 1.22 square feet, and 0.32 to 2.55 square feet, respectively. (USGS)

  19. A plunger lift and monitoring system for gas wells based on deployment-retrievement integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Tong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step, removing liquid in the wellbore plays an important role during the production of gas wells. Plunger lift is a widely-used intermittent deliquification process for gas wells. However, the manual control way and wire logging are still utilized as a downhole monitoring way for plunger lift, which is not efficient in terms of interrupting the production. This paper presents an improved solution that logging instruments canister are deployed and retrieved by means of a new assembly. With the reciprocating plunger, logging instruments canister can be carried and deployed to the bottom of a gas well to carry out logging and sampling tasks on the production demand of a field. After the deployment and logging tasks are performed, logging instruments canister is carried back to the surface by the plunger and then data is transferred to the wellhead device near field wireless communication technology. This newly developed plunger lift system comprises plunger body, deployment sub-assembly, retrieve sub-assembly and logging instruments canister. The surface device comprises RF antenna, reader and writer. Based upon the method of deployment-retrieve integration, the new deliquification process is introduced and on-line monitoring of production dynamics can be performed including P/T measurement, downhole fluid sampling, pressure build-up, etc. without interrupting production. The general solution and engineering design parameters have been confirmed by research teams, while system prototype manufacture and workbench tests are being performed. The cost-effective way combining deliquification with dynamic monitoring is developed and contributes to increasing production and the stable productivity of gas wells. It is very significant for low-pressure and low-production gas fields to achieve automation production and management.

  20. Cost-effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides, or volcanic activity by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, R.; Wang, R.; Ge, M.; Walter, T. R.; Ramatschi, M.; Milkereit, C.; Bindi, D.; Dahm, T.

    2013-08-01

    detection and precise estimation of strong ground motion are crucial for rapid assessment and early warning of geohazards such as earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic activity. This challenging task can be accomplished by combining GPS and accelerometer measurements because of their complementary capabilities to resolve broadband ground motion signals. However, for implementing an operational monitoring network of such joint measurement systems, cost-effective techniques need to be developed and rigorously tested. We propose a new approach for joint processing of single-frequency GPS and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer data in real time. To demonstrate the performance of our method, we describe results from outdoor experiments under controlled conditions. For validation, we analyzed dual-frequency GPS data and images recorded by a video camera. The results of the different sensors agree very well, suggesting that real-time broadband information of ground motion can be provided by using single-frequency GPS and MEMS accelerometers.

  1. Analysis of the ground level enhancements on 14 July 2000 and on 13 December 2006 using neutron monitor data

    CERN Document Server

    Mishev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of neutron monitor data we estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction and pitch-angle distribution of solar energetic particles during two major ground level enhancements (GLE 59 on 14 July 2000 and GLE 70 on 13 December 2006). For the analysis we use a newly computed neutron monitor yield function. The method consists of several consecutive steps: definition of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations considered for the data analysis by computations of cosmic ray particles propagation in a model magnetosphere with the MAGNETOCOSMICS code; computation of the neutron monitor model responses and derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics on the basis of inverse problem solution. The pitch-angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of ground level enhancements. A comparison with previously reported results is performed and reasonable agreement is achieved. A discussion of the obtained res...

  2. Addendum 2: Logs of monitor wells drilled May 1988 through December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, J. [Ray Raskin Associates Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States); Qualheim, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McPherrin, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Barber, K. [Allied Signal Technical Services, Livermore, CA (United States); Hedegaard, R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, San Francisco, CA (United States); McConihe, W.; Miller, T. [Brown and Caldwell, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The logs in this addendum were plotted in a new format by the same software package (LOGGER by Rockware, Denver, CO) that was used in the original publication. The scale remains the same, 1 inch = 15 foot. The header is totally automated with a subheading indexing the well-construction symbols. Geophysical curves are labeled in their respective channels, and percentage core recovery is plotted in a histogram. Lithologic symbols are plotted to scale in a channel similar to previous logs. The lithologic description also has been automated to assure consistency in terminology. Descriptions are more extensive and are referenced by leader lines to the lithologic symbol. Additional figures included for this Addendum are: a plot of all the monitoring well locations at the LLNL Main site and a plot detailing the gasoline spill area well locations in the vicinity of Building 403.

  3. A complex geo-scientific strategy for landslide hazard mitigation ─ from airborne mapping to ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaritz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After a large landslide event in Sibratsgfäll/Austria several exploration methods were evaluated on their applicability to investigate and monitor landslide areas. The resulting optimised strategy consists of the combined application of airborne electromagnetics, ground geoelectrical measurements and geoelectrical monitoring combined with hydrological and geological mapping and geotechnical modelling. Interdisciplinary communication and discussion was the primary key to assess this complicated hazard situation.

  4. Ground Subsidence over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region during Three Periods of 1992 to 2014 Monitored by Interferometric SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region suffers the most serious ground subsidence in China, which has caused huge economic losses every year. Therefore, ground subsidence was listed as an important mission in the project of geographic conditions monitoring over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei launched by the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation in 2013. In this paper, we propose a methodology of ground subsidence monitoring over wide area, which is entitled "multiple master-image coherent target small-baseline interferometric SAR (MCTSB-InSAR". MCTSB-InSAR is an improved time series InSAR technique with some unique features. SAR datasets used for ground subsidence monitoring over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region include ERS-1/2 SAR images acquired between 1992 to 2000, ENVISAT ASAR images acquired between 2003 to 2010 and RADARSAT-2 images acquired between 2012 to 2014. This research represents a first ever effort on mapping ground subsidence over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and over such as a long time span in China. In comparison with more than 120 leveling measurements collected in Beijing and Tianjin, the derived subsidence velocity has the accuracy of 8.7mm/year (1992—2000, 4.7mm/year (2003—2010, and 5.4mm/year (2012—2014 respectively. The spatial-temporal characteristics of the development of ground subsidence in Beijing and Tianjin are analyzed. In general, ground subsidence in Beijing kept continuously expanding in the period of 1992 to 2014. While, ground subsidence in Tianjin had already been serious in 1990s, had dramatically expanded during 2000s, and started to alleviate in recent years. The monitoring result is of high significance for prevention and mitigation of ground subsidence disaster, for making development plan, for efficient and effective utilization of water resource, and for adjustment of economic framework of this region. The result also indicates the effectiveness and reliability of the MCTSB

  5. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the

  6. Structural control and health monitoring of building structures with unknown ground excitations: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Xu, You-Lin; Zhan, Sheng; Huang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    When health monitoring system and vibration control system both are required for a building structure, it will be beneficial and cost-effective to integrate these two systems together for creating a smart building structure. Recently, on the basis of extended Kalman filter (EKF), a time-domain integrated approach was proposed for the identification of structural parameters of the controlled buildings with unknown ground excitations. The identified physical parameters and structural state vectors were then utilized to determine the control force for vibration suppression. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such a smart building structure with the function of simultaneous damage detection and vibration suppression was explored experimentally. A five-story shear building structure equipped with three magneto-rheological (MR) dampers was built. Four additional columns were added to the building model, and several damage scenarios were then simulated by symmetrically cutting off these columns in certain stories. Two sets of earthquakes, i.e. Kobe earthquake and Northridge earthquake, were considered as seismic input and assumed to be unknown during the tests. The structural parameters and the unknown ground excitations were identified during the tests by using the proposed identification method with the measured control forces. Based on the identified structural parameters and system states, a switching control law was employed to adjust the current applied to the MR dampers for the purpose of vibration attenuation. The experimental results show that the presented approach is capable of satisfactorily identifying structural damages and unknown excitations on one hand and significantly mitigating the structural vibration on the other hand.

  7. Using distributed temperature sensing to monitor field scale dynamics of ground surface temperature and related substrate heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bense, V.F.; Read, T.; Verhoef, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present one of the first studies of the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) along fibre-optic cables to purposely monitor spatial and temporal variations in ground surface temperature (GST) and soil temperature, and provide an estimate of the heat flux at the base of the canopy layer

  8. Fusion of Landsat TM and ground spectrometry data in monitoring of non-operating mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo N.

    2009-09-01

    Surface mining activities in Europe are estimated to cover an area of 5-10 000 km2. In this paper we suggest that the availability of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) for Earth observation allows the collection of environmental and minerelated data for use in the planning and undertaking of mine restoration work on cost-effective basis. The advantage is that these data are acquired digitally and can be easily processed and utilized in various information formats. Important step in the data processing is the verification of airborne data. For this purpose ground spectrometry measurements of samples taken from test sites have been performed. In the last decade several mining areas and corresponding dumps are subject to reclamation process in Bulgaria. We focused our research on one of the most important in the copper production for 20 year period for our country - Asarel-Medet deposit. This mining complex consists of an open mine, the dumps and a processing plant. After ceasing the exploitation of Medet deposit in 1994 a rehabilitation program for soil cover and hydrographic network was established and launched. A continuous task is the monitoring of these activities from the beginning for at least 15 years period, which is to end this year. To process the data, which characterize the progress of the land cover restoration, several techniques, both standard, such as basic and advanced statistics, image enhancement and data fusion, and novel methods for supervised classification were used. The results obtained show that used data and the implemented approach are useful in environmental monitoring and are economically attractive for the company responsible for the ecological state of the region.

  9. Estimating youth locomotion ground reaction forces using an accelerometer-based activity monitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Neugebauer

    Full Text Available To address a variety of questions pertaining to the interactions between physical activity, musculoskeletal loading and musculoskeletal health/injury/adaptation, simple methods are needed to quantify, outside a laboratory setting, the forces acting on the human body during daily activities. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistically based model to estimate peak vertical ground reaction force (pVGRF during youth gait. 20 girls (10.9 ± 0.9 years and 15 boys (12.5 ± 0.6 years wore a Biotrainer AM over their right hip. Six walking and six running trials were completed after a standard warm-up. Average AM intensity (g and pVGRF (N during stance were determined. Repeated measures mixed effects regression models to estimate pVGRF from Biotrainer activity monitor acceleration in youth (girls 10-12, boys 12-14 years while walking and running were developed. Log transformed pVGRF had a statistically significant relationship with activity monitor acceleration, centered mass, sex (girl, type of locomotion (run, and locomotion type-acceleration interaction controlling for subject as a random effect. A generalized regression model without subject specific random effects was also developed. The average absolute differences between the actual and predicted pVGRF were 5.2% (1.6% standard deviation and 9% (4.2% standard deviation using the mixed and generalized models, respectively. The results of this study support the use of estimating pVGRF from hip acceleration using a mixed model regression equation.

  10. Comprehensive monitoring of drinking well water quality in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice P; Park, Chan Goo; Uhm, Jung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this research, the quality of drinking well waters from 14 districts around Seoul metropolitan city, Korea was assessed by measuring a number of parameters with established guideline (e.g., arsenic, fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, copper, and lead) and without such criteria (e.g., hardness, chloride ion, sulfate ion, ammonia nitrogen, aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc). Physical parameters such as evaporation residue (or total dissolved solids) and turbidity were also measured. The importance of each parameter in well waters was examined in terms of the magnitude and exceedance frequency of guideline values established by international (and national) health agencies. The results of this study indicate that among the eight parameters with well-established guidelines (e.g., WHO), arsenic and lead (guideline value of 0.01 mg L(-1) for both) recorded the highest exceedance frequency of 18 and 16 well samples ranging in 0.06-136 and 2-9 mg L(-1), respectively. As such, a number of water quality parameters measured from many well waters in this urban area were in critical levels which require immediate attention for treatment and continuous monitoring.

  11. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  12. Ground-State Properties of Charged Bosons Confined in a One-Dimensional Harmonic Double-Well Trap: Diffusion Monte Carlo Calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jing; TANG Yi

    2007-01-01

    The diffusion Monte Carlo method is applied to study the ground-state properties of charged bosons in one dimension confined in a harmonic double-well trap. The particles interact repulsively through a Coulombic 1/r potential. Numerical results show that the well separation has significant influence on the ground-state properties of the system. When the interaction of the system is weak, ground-state energy decreases with the increasing well separation and has a minimal value. If the well separation increases continually, the ground-state energy increases and approaches to a constant gradually. This effect will be abatable in the strong interacting system. In addition,by calculating the density of the systems for different interaction strengths with various well separations, we find that the density increases abnormally when the well separation is large at the centre of the system.

  13. 40 CFR 264.98 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contamination; (2) Immediately sample the ground water in all monitoring wells and determine whether... constituent detected in the ground water at each monitoring well at the compliance point; (ii) Any proposed... ground-water background. (b) The owner or operator must install a ground-water monitoring......

  14. Two decades of temperature-time monitoring experiment: air - ground surface - shallow subsurface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Vladimir; Dedecek, Petr; Safanda, Jan; Kresl, Milan

    2014-05-01

    Long-term observations (1994-2013) of air and shallow ground temperatures at borehole Prague-Sporilov (50º02'28.5"E, 14º28'40.2"N, 274 m a.s.l.) have been thoroughly analyzed to understand the relationship between these quantities and to describe the mechanism of heat transport at the land-atmosphere boundary layer. Data provided a surprisingly small mean ground-air temperature offset of only 0.31 K with no clear annual course and with the offset value changing irregularly even on a daily scale. Such value is substantially lower than similar values (1-2 K and more) found elsewhere, but may well characterize a mild temperate zone, when all so far available information referred rather to southern locations. Borehole data were correlated with similar observations in a polygon-site under four types of surface conditions (grass, soil, sand and asphalt) completed with registration of meteorological variables (wind direction & velocity, air & soil humidity, direct & reflected solar radiation, precipitation and snow cover). The "thermal orbits" technique proved to be an effective tool for the fast qualitative diagnostics of the thermal regime in the subsurface (conductive versus non-conductive).

  15. Haze event monitoring and investigation in Penang Island, Malaysia using a ground-based backscatter Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, W. S.; Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Matjafri, M. Z.

    2014-06-01

    During 24th July 2013 to 1st August 2013, a haze event struck Penang Island, causing the visibility to decrease and increase in Air Pollution Index (API). A ground-based backscatter Lidar, operate at 355 nm which was setup at the roof top of the School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It was used to monitor and investigate the haze event. For this work, we studied the daytime variation of the aerosol intensity, distribution, planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) values during these days. We found that the aerosol are very intense during the first two days of the haze event and slowly decline as time passed. Finally the haze event died off on 1st August 2013. As for daily aerosol distribution, aerosols are generally more intense during the afternoon. Its intensity is slightly lower in the morning and evening. Similar trends were observed for AOD values as they increase from morning to afternoon and slowly decrease in the evening. Most aerosols are found contained below the PBL which generally found at around 1000 - 2000 m in height.

  16. Development of a ground level enhancement alarm system based upon neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, which triggers an alarm if a ground level enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate at a very low level. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. The highest-level alarm, which we term an "alert," is generated when a 4% increase is recorded at three stations in 3 min averaged data. At this level, the false alarm rate obtained by backtesting over the past 4.4 years is zero. Ten GLEs occurred in this period, and our system produced GLE alarms for nine events. Alarm times for these nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert precedes the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ˜10-30 min. Real-time GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development.

  17. Design of a Nanosatellite Ground Monitoring and Control Software – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Alexander Díaz González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing countries that have carried out the development of CubeSat missions for academic purposes do not offer aerospace engineering programs at their universities. This causes difficulties for traditional engineers upon the formal use of different standards and frameworks for aerospace development, such as the European Cooperation for Space Standardization and Space Mission Analysis and Design . One way in which traditional software engineers can easily understand the structure of an aerospace framework, in order to apply it on the development of CubeSat mission software parts, is comparing its most important elements in relation to the elements suggested by a more familiar method. In this paper, we present a hybrid framework between the ECSS-E-ST-40C standard and the Rational Unified Process, which can be used by traditional software engineers as a guide model for the development of software elements in academic nanosatellite missions. The model integrates the processes and documentation suggested by the ECSS-E-ST-40C with the disciplines, workflows and artifacts suggested in Rational Unified Process. This simplifies the structure of ECSS-E-ST-40C and allows traditional software engineers to easily understand its work elements. The paper describes as study case the implementation of the hybrid model in the analysis and design of ground monitoring and control software for the Libertad-2 satellite mission, which is currently being developed by the Universidad Sergio Arboleda in Colombia.

  18. Ground-based remote sensing scheme for monitoring aerosol–cloud interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sarna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for continuous observation of aerosol–cloud interactions with ground-based remote sensing instruments is presented. The main goal of this method is to enable the monitoring of cloud microphysical changes due to the changing aerosol concentration. We use high resolution measurements from lidar, radar and radiometer which allow to collect and compare data continuously. This method is based on a standardised data format from Cloudnet and can be implemented at any observatory where the Cloudnet data set is available. Two example study cases were chosen from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program deployment at Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal in 2009 to present the method. We show the Pearson Product–Moment Correlation Coefficient, r, and the Coefficient of Determination, r2 for data divided into bins of LWP, each of 10 g m−2. We explain why the commonly used way of quantity aerosol cloud interactions by use of an ACI index (ACIr,τ = dln re,τ/dlnα is not the best way of quantifying aerosol–cloud interactions.

  19. Satisfaction of well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients with three-monthly and six-monthly monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermeling, Paulien R.; Janssen, Jolien; Gorter, Kees J.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient's satisfaction with monitoring frequency is of interest when implementing six-monthly monitoring for well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients. Here we want to determine the satisfaction of well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients with either three-monthly or six-monthly diabetes

  20. An Early Warning System from debris flows based on ground vibration monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Coviello, Velio

    2015-04-01

    Among the different countermeasures that can be adopted for the mitigation of landslide hazard, Early Warning Systems (EWSs) are receiving an increasing attention. EWSs are the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals and communities threatened by a hazard to appropriately act, in sufficient time, to reduce the possibility of harm or loss (UNEP, 2012). An EWS from debris flows can be classified into two main categories: advance and event EWSs. Advance EWSs predict the occurrence of a debris flow by monitoring hydro-meteorological conditions that may lead to its initiation. Despite their widespread adoption, these latter systems are prone to false alarms because they are heavily affected by bias between regional rainfall threshold and local conditions. Event EWSs, on the contrary, detect the occurrence of a debris flow when the process is already in progress. They usually rely on the use of algorithms for processing in real time the monitoring data. Their effectiveness depends on the reliability of those algorithms, which require long development and testing phases. A specific testing field for event EWSs has been equipped in the Gadria instrumented basin, located in the Eastern Italian Alps. A specifically designed monitoring unit capable to record data from different type of sensors and to implement aboard warning algorithms has been installed along a straight reach of the torrent. A flashing light, installed on the bank of the torrent, has been wired to this unit. The flashing light is framed by a fixed video camera that also shoots the passage of debris flows in the torrent. This provides a visual verification of the efficacy of the algorithm under test, particularly useful to show to practitioners and administrators a clear demonstration of the warning outcome. In this work, we present the performance of a warning algorithm that has been experimented in the Gadria testing field in 2013

  1. Geohydrology of Monitoring Wells Drilled in Oasis Valley near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Armando R.; Ryder, Philip L.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1999-01-01

    Twelve monitoring wells were installed in 1997 at seven sites in and near Oasis Valley, Nevada. The wells, ranging in depth from 65 to 642 feet, were installed to measure water levels and to collect water-quality samples. Well-construction data and geologic and geophysical logs are presented in this report. Seven geologic units were identified and described from samples collected during the drilling: (1) Ammonia Tanks Tuff; (2) Tuff of Cutoff Road; (3) tuffs, not formally named but informally referred to in this report as the 'tuff of Oasis Valley'; (4) lavas informally named the 'rhyolitic lavas of Colson Pond'; (5) Tertiary colluvial and alluvial gravelly deposits; (6) Tertiary and Quaternary colluvium; and (7) Quaternary alluvium. Water levels in the wells were measured in October 1997 and February 1998 and ranged from about 18 to 350 feet below land surface. Transmissive zones in one of the boreholes penetrating volcanic rock were identified using flowmeter data. Zones with the highest transmissivity are at depths of about 205 feet in the 'rhyolitic lavas of Colson Pond' and 340 feet within the 'tuff of Oasis Valley.'

  2. Installation of Groundwater Monitoring Wells TAV-MW15 and TAV-MW16.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, Clinton C. L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report documents the installation of two groundwater monitoring wells at the Technical Area V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM is managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA- 0003525. Well installation activities were conducted in accordance with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB)-approved work plan Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern (Work Plan) (SNL/NM March 2016). The Work Plan was approved by NMED HWB prior to the start of field work (NMED May 2016). Project activities were performed from November 2016 through January 2017 by SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Operations personnel, and the SNL/NM drilling contractor Cascade Drilling LP. Drilling activities began with borehole drilling and sampling on November 30, 2016. Well construction and development fieldwork was completed on January 31, 2017. Land surveys to establish the location coordinates and elevations of the two wells were completed on March 23, 2017, and transmitted to SNL/NM personnel on April 17, 2017.

  3. Groundwater monitoring in the Savannah River Plant Low Level Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1983-12-31

    This document describes chemical mechanisms that may affect trace-level radionuclide migration through acidic sandy clay soils in a humid environment, and summarizes the extensive chemical and radiochemical analyses of the groundwater directly below the SRP Low-Level Waste (LLW) Burial Ground (643-G). Anomalies were identified in the chemistry of individual wells which appear to be related to small amounts of fission product activity that have reached the water table. The chemical properties which were statistically related to trace level transport of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were iron, potassium, sodium and calcium. Concentrations on the order of 100 ppM appear sufficient to affect nuclide migration. Several complexation mechanisms for plutonium migration were investigated.

  4. Remote online monitoring of radon wells used for therapy in bathtubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Philipsborn, Henning

    2017-04-01

    Sibyllenbad, in the community of Neualbenreuth, 140 km NNE of Regensburg, is well known for two radon wells and one containing carbon dioxide. The water is used pure or mixed for therapy in 200 L bathtubs for a number of indications. Since its beginning, 26 years ago, the author is active in measuring radon and radon decay products and their factor of equilibrium in air and in water for radiation protection of the personnel and for radon water quality assurance for the patients. For the special local operating conditions - high time resolution of measurements is asked - novel measuring methods and instruments were developed. These proved to be useful for several other applications, not foreseen at the beginning. Recently, a probe was installed for online monitoring of water entering the main water storage tank of 42 m3, at the Kurhaus, two km from the radon wells. The probe consists of a 51 mm x 76 mm NaI (Tl) scintillator with photomultiplier, immersed in continuously flowing water in an 8 L pot. The MCA registers the pulses between 200 and 650 keV of the Rn decay products Pb-214 and Bi-214. Specially developed software calculates the gross [cps] from the total counts for variable counting times. The background, determined separately, is subtracted and the net is multiplied with a calibration factor [Bq/L per net cps], determined separately. The activity concentration [Bq/L] of the radon decay products in water is plotted vs. real time (plot P). With Teamviewer, remote online monitoring is possible from the Radiometric Seminar. At the Rn wells, the flow rate [L/s] of the discontinuously working pumps and the lowering of the water level in [m] is measured online. The two quantities are directly correlated, and with a time lag to the demand of radon water from the Kurhaus. Several series of discrete measurements of water, both at the well and at the storage tank, fresh and after 1, 2 and 3 h after storage in full, closed bottles, reveal factors of equilibrium k

  5. Rheticus Displacement: an Automatic Geo-Information Service Platform for Ground Instabilities Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, M. T.; Samarelli, S.; Agrimano, L.; Lorusso, A. P.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Morea, A.; Tijani, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rheticus® is an innovative cloud-based data and services hub able to deliver Earth Observation added-value products through automatic complex processes and a minimum interaction with human operators. This target is achieved by means of programmable components working as different software layers in a modern enterprise system which relies on SOA (service-oriented-architecture) model. Due to its architecture, where every functionality is well defined and encapsulated in a standalone component, Rheticus is potentially highly scalable and distributable allowing different configurations depending on the user needs. Rheticus offers a portfolio of services, ranging from the detection and monitoring of geohazards and infrastructural instabilities, to marine water quality monitoring, wildfires detection or land cover monitoring. In this work, we outline the overall cloud-based platform and focus on the "Rheticus Displacement" service, aimed at providing accurate information to monitor movements occurring across landslide features or structural instabilities that could affect buildings or infrastructures. Using Sentinel-1 (S1) open data images and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry techniques (i.e., SPINUA), the service is complementary to traditional survey methods, providing a long-term solution to slope instability monitoring. Rheticus automatically browses and accesses (on a weekly basis) the products of the rolling archive of ESA S1 Scientific Data Hub; S1 data are then handled by a mature running processing chain, which is responsible of producing displacement maps immediately usable to measure with sub-centimetric precision movements of coherent points. Examples are provided, concerning the automatic displacement map generation process, as well as the integration of point and distributed scatterers, the integration of multi-sensors displacement maps (e.g., Sentinel-1 IW and COSMO-SkyMed HIMAGE), the combination of displacement rate maps acquired along both ascending

  6. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological quality of ground water from boreholes and shallow wells in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the

  7. Integrated Sensor Networks for Monitoring the Health and Well-Being of Vulnerable Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatley, D. J. T.; Kalawsky, R. S.; Neild, I.; Bowman, P. A.

    The inescapable fact that people are living longer today than ever before means that the number of elderly people needing care or medical treatment has never been higher. In response to this there is a growing trend to place the elderly and infirm in residential homes or in sheltered accommodation, where they live in a protective environment while retaining some independence. Current healthcare systems in residential, sheltered, and community settings generally operate on a reactive basis rather than a pre-emptive basis [1]. This means that the people being cared for (the 'clients') are often already clinically ill and in need of medical attention, sometimes urgently, by the time the healthcare system engages, whereupon the treatment and recovery regime can be protracted and costly [2]. Unfortunately, a significant majority of our ageing population do not have the benefit of this level of healthcare [3], despite the evidence that our ageing population are regarded to be at an increased risk of falls [4], malnutrition [5], and failure to take prescribed medication [6]. It is this self-neglect that is of great concern. A far better scheme for all parties is one that continuously monitors clients who, although in fine health at that time, are considered to be at risk and likely to need attention at a time in the future, particularly if they are elderly and live alone. By continually monitoring certain behavioural characteristics of an individual, it is feasible to ascertain their well-being or detect when things deviate from the norm.

  8. Implementation of ground water level monitoring system based on GPRS%基于GPRS的地下水位监测系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧铮; 毛潭; 段震

    2012-01-01

    针对水位监测中的供电可靠性差和上线率低的问题,设计了一种地下水位监测系统.监测终端采用双电源供电,上位机采用Java实现网络通信,通过GPRS无线网络实现了监测终端和监控中心之间的数据实时采集和传输,并在实际中得到很好的应用.%In order to solve the problems of poor power supply reliability and low utilization rate of terminals in the process of monitoring ground water level. a ground water level monitoring system was designed in this paper. In the terminal of the monitoring system,a double power supply device was adopted. Network communication of the upper computer was realized by a program written in Java. Real-time data collection and data transmission between the terminals and the surveillance & control center was accomplished by use of GPRS wireless network, which is applied well in practical water level monitoring.

  9. Environmental Baseline Survey for Installation of Five New Hydrogeologic Groundwater Monitoring Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Phase I Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) provides the findings of a survey and assessment for termination of an existing easement granted to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the installation of 5 new hydrogeologic groundwater monitoring wells located on KAFB, New Mexico. The purpose of this EBS is to: Document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property. Identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property. Develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks. Ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property. Determine possible effects of contamination on property valuation, and serve as the basis for notice of environmental condition for applicable federal or local real property disclosure requirements.

  10. Monitoring glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wells and drains using the sorbicell passive sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; de Jonge, Hubert; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    Glyphosate is one of the world’s most extensively used weed control agents. Glyphosate, and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are suspected to be hazardous to human health and the aquatic environment. In Denmark, the extensive use has resulted in an increasing number of occurrences......Cell, will decrease the workload and number of samples freeing up funds for larger monitoring programs. When installed in a well the SorbiCell will continuously sample the water giving either a flux-weighed or time-weighted average measurement of the glyphosate/AMPA concentration throughout the sampling period....... It may therefore be possible to measure lower concentrations as the glyphosate/AMPA sorbed in the SorbiCell is an accumulated measurement. Also, glyphosate/AMPA associated with sudden flush events will be detected by the SorbiCells, while such events may pass between two consecutive grab samples...

  11. Impact of wellness coaching and monitoring services provided in a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Kristen L; May, Justin R; Lindsey, Cameron C

    2013-01-01

    To assess the clinical and patient-centered outcomes of health coaching provided in the workplace by community pharmacists. Prospective interventional cohort study. 11 independent community pharmacy chain locations in northwest and central Missouri, from January 2010 to January 2011. 81 benefit-eligible patients and 23 community pharmacy coaches employed by the self-insured pharmacy chain. Patients were stratified into monitoring groups according to baseline screening values for cholesterol, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. Patients selected their pharmacist coach. Follow-up appointments occurred monthly to quarterly. Appointments consisted of education, goal setting, and monitoring through evaluation of treatment goals and physical assessment. Change from baseline in mean total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), FBG, weight, BMI, waist circumference, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and patient satisfaction. Patients' total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, DBP, and FBG were reduced significantly. Mean changes in triglycerides, SBP, weight, BMI, and waist circumference were not statistically significant. The 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 2.0 showed improvements in both the Physical and Mental Component Summaries but did not reach statistical significance. More than 90% of patients were satisfied with the service and the care they received. Wellness coaching by a pharmacist provided in a community pharmacy can result in significant improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, with a trend toward improved HRQoL. In addition, patients were satisfied with the wellness program from the start of the project.

  12. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the

  13. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  14. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the progress of 13 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 32 refs., 30 figs., 103 tabs.

  15. Selected aquifer-test and specific-capacity data for wells in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point dataset contains estimates of aquifer transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity at selected well locations in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water...

  16. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  17. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-05-11

    This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation.

  19. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  20. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area (Appendix A) and near the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix B). Volume 1 discusses the 10 projects. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Contract AC06-76RL01830.

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan For Groundwater Monitoring Wells At The U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plan describes the technical approach that is implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well. Under this approach, wells granted "active" status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling, whereas wells granted "inactive" status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP. Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans. This plan applies to groundwater wells associated with Y-12 and related waste management areas and facilities located within three hydrogeologic regimes.

  2. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations applied to archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Trillo, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological sites and cultural heritage are considered as critical assets for the society, representing not only the history of region or a culture, but also contributing to create a common identity of people living in a certain region. In this view, it is becoming more and more urgent to preserve them from climate changes effect and in general from their degradation. These structures are usually just as precious as fragile: remote sensing technology can be useful to monitor these treasures. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on the methodology adopted and implemented in order to use the results operatively for conservation policies in a Italian archaeological site. The analysis is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-GEOS proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry technology characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artefacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses [Costantini et al. 2015] settled that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. Considering the limitations of all the interferometric techniques, in particular the fact that the measurement are along the line of sight (LOS) and the geometric distortions, in order to obtain the maximum information from interferometric analysis, both ascending and descending geometry have been used. The ascending analysis allows selecting measurements points over the top and, approximately, South-West part of the structures, while the descending one over the top and the South-East part of the structures. The interferometric techniques needs

  3. Analysis of the ground level enhancement on 17 May 2012 using data from the global neutron monitor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishev, A. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2014-02-01

    We have analyzed the data of the world neutron monitor network for the first ground level enhancement of solar cycle 24, the ground level enhancement (GLE) on 17 May 2012. A newly computed neutron monitor yield function and an inverse method are applied to estimate the energy spectrum, anisotropy axis direction, and pitch angle distribution of the high-energy solar particles in interplanetary space. The method includes the determination of the asymptotic viewing cones of neutron monitor stations through computations of trajectories of cosmic rays in a model magnetosphere. The cosmic ray particle trajectories are determined with the GEANT-based MAGNETOCOSMICS code using Tsyganenko 1989 and International Geomagnetic Reference Field models. Subsequent calculation of the neutron monitor responses with the model function is carried out, that represents an initial guess of the inverse problem. Derivation of the solar energetic particle characteristics is fulfilled by fitting the data of the global neutron monitor network using the Levenberg-Marquardt method over the nine-dimensional parameter space. The pitch angle distribution and rigidity spectrum of high-energy protons are obtained as function of time in the course of the GLE. The angular distribution appears quite complicated. It comprises a focused beam along the interplanetary magnetic field line from the Sun and a loss-cone feature around the opposite direction, possibly indicative of the particle transport in interplanetary magnetic field structures associated with previous coronal mass ejections.

  4. Well maintenance evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.

    1978-10-01

    The ground-water monitoring program is an integral part of the total environmental surveillance program for the Hanford Site. Extensive ground-water data have been collected and studied over the past several decades. All of this data is, of course, dependent upon the quality of the ground-water sampling structures. A program to upgrade the quality of ground-water sampling was initiated in early 1974. That program also included changes to avoid cross-contamination of ground-water samples by installing permanently mounted individual pumps in many of the sampling wells. These two programs have resulted in increased reliability of both the ground-water samples and the analytical data. This basic quality assurance effort has provided a high level of confidence in ground-water surveillance. The current program is providing data with reliabilities not previously attainable.

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  6. Aquifer geochemistry and effects of pumping on ground-water quality at the Green Belt Parkway Well Field, Holbrook, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Colabufo, Steven; Coates, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Geochemistry, microbiology, and water quality of the Magothy aquifer at a new supply well in Holbrook were studied to help identify factors that contribute to iron-related biofouling of public-supply wells. The organic carbon content of borehole sediments from the screen zone, and the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), varied by depth. TEAP assays of core sediments indicated that iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and undetermined (possibly oxic) reactions and microbial activity are correlated with organic carbon (lignite) content. The quality of water from this well, therefore, reflects the wide range of aquifer microenvironments at this site. High concentrations of dissolved iron (3.6 to 6.4 micromoles per liter) in water samples from this well indicate that some water is derived from Fe(III)-reducing sediments within the aquifer, but traces of dissolved oxygen indicate inflow of shallow, oxygenated water from shallow units that overlie the local confining units. Water-quality monitoring before and during a 2-day pumping test indicates that continuous pumping from the Magothy aquifer at this site can induce downward flow of shallow, oxygenated water despite the locally confined conditions. Average concentrations of dissolved oxygen are high (5.2 milligrams per liter, or mg/L) in the overlying upper glacial aquifer and at the top of the Magothy aquifer (4.3 mg/L), and low (<0.1 mg/L) in the deeper, anaerobic part of the Magothy; average concentrations of phosphate are high (0.4 mg/L) in the upper glacial aquifer and lower (0.008 mg/L) at the top of the Magothy aquifer and in the deeper part of the Magothy (0.013 mg/L). Concentrations of both constituents increased during the 2 days of pumping. The d34S of sulfate in shallow ground water from observation wells (3.8 to 6.4 per mil) was much heavier than that in the supplywell water (-0.1 per mil) and was used to help identify sources of water entering the supply well. The d34S of sulfate in a

  7. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING DATA FROM THE AREA 5 PILOT WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-09-01

    .5 meters in each borehole, and a nearly zero potential gradient throughout the remaining portion of the vadose zone. These hydrologic condition data and hydrologic property data indicate that little net downward liquid flow is occurring (if any) through the thick vadose zone. Conversely, gas flow by diffusion, and possibly by advection, may be an important transport mechanism. Environmental tracer measurements made on water extracted from geologic samples suggest that water vapor in the upper portion of the vadose zone is moving upward in response to evaporative demand of the present arid climate. Preliminary water quality data indicate that the key hazardous and radioactive constituents do not exceed appropriate standards. Monitoring instruments and equipment were installed in each pilot well for making in-situ measurements of key hydrologic and pneumatic parameters and to monitor change in these parameters over time.

  8. A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Crowder, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not

  9. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Optimization Plan for Groundwater Monitoring Wells at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-04-01

    This document is the monitoring optimization plan for groundwater monitoring wells associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plan describes the technical approach that is implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) to focus available resources on the monitoring wells at Y-12 that provide the most useful hydrologic and groundwater quality monitoring data. The technical approach is based on the GWPP status designation for each well. Under this approach, wells granted “active” status are used by the GWPP for hydrologic monitoring and/or groundwater quality sampling, whereas wells granted “inactive” status are not used for either purpose. The status designation also defines the frequency at which the GWPP will inspect applicable wells, the scope of these well inspections, and extent of any maintenance actions initiated by the GWPP. Details regarding the ancillary activities associated with implementation of this plan (e.g., well inspection) are deferred to the referenced GWPP plans.

  10. Impact of grounding and filtering on power insulation monitoring in insulated terrestrial power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Pieter Karel Anton; Bijman, Rob; Timens, R.B.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Insulated terrestrial power networks are used for reliable systems such as large production plants, hospital operating rooms and naval ships. The system is isolated from ground and a first fault, such as a short circuit between a phase and ground, will not result in disconnection of the power via

  11. Comparison and Intercalibration of Vegetation Indices from Different Sensors for Monitoring Above-Ground Plant Nitrogen Uptake in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various sensors have been used to obtain the canopy spectral reflectance for monitoring above-ground plant nitrogen (N uptake in winter wheat. Comparison and intercalibration of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices derived from different sensors are important for multi-sensor data fusion and utilization. In this study, the spectral reflectance and its derived vegetation indices from three ground-based sensors (ASD Field Spec Pro spectrometer, CropScan MSR 16 and GreenSeeker RT 100 in six winter wheat field experiments were compared. Then, the best sensor (ASD and its normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI (807, 736 for estimating above-ground plant N uptake were determined (R2 of 0.885 and RMSE of 1.440 g·N·m−2 for model calibration. In order to better utilize the spectral reflectance from the three sensors, intercalibration models for vegetation indices based on different sensors were developed. The results indicated that the vegetation indices from different sensors could be intercalibrated, which should promote application of data fusion and make monitoring of above-ground plant N uptake more precise and accurate.

  12. Monitoring-well installation, slug testing, and groundwater quality for selected sites in South Park, Park County, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larry R. Rick

    2015-01-01

    During May–June, 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, drilled and installed four groundwater monitoring wells in areas identified as needing new wells to provide adequate spatial coverage for monitoring water quality in the South Park basin. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Slug tests were performed to estimate hydraulic-conductivity values for aquifer materials in the screened interval of each well, and groundwater samples were collected from each well for analysis of major inorganic constituents, trace metals, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, ethane, methane, and radon. Documentation of lithologic logs, well construction, well development, slug testing, and groundwater sampling are presented in this report.

  13. A NEW DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MEASURING VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN MONITORING WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Warren Hyde, W; Brian02 Looney, B; Kirk Cantrell, K; Tyler Gilmore, T

    2006-11-06

    Accurate, timely measurement of chlorinated solvents and other volatile contaminants in groundwater is crucial to support responsible environmental management. Traditionally, two distinctly different paradigms have been explored to meet this need--fixed laboratory analysis and ''real-time'' sensors. While these alternatives remain important, field based and field screening tools represent a potentially useful intermediate approach that balances some of the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional ''endmember'' paradigms. The value of accurate, in-field measurements during characterization was recognized in recent sampling/decision methods, such as the TRIAD approach (ITRC, 2003). Strategies that support gathering accurate data on the timescales representative of the rate of change of the system (e.g., months to years, not seconds to minutes) is key for long-term monitoring for chlorinated solvent plumes in which attenuation based remedies are being considered. A team of researchers developed a down-well sampling device that, when used in combination with field gas analysis tools, provides data in the field. The test results indicate this tool, as configured, will provide accurate measurements (as compared with laboratory methods) at concentrations in the hundreds of ppb or higher range, but require confirmatory traditional sampling with laboratory analysis at concentrations approaching 20 ppb and less. The logistics and costs of the sampling device were somewhat complex. The results of the study, while equivocal, generally suggest that future development of this type of in-field technique may be warranted.

  14. Unattended wireless proximity sensor networks for counterterrorism, force protection, littoral environments, PHM, and tamper monitoring ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcier, Bob

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a digital-ultrasonic ground network, which forms an unique "unattended mote sensor system" for monitoring the environment, personnel, facilities, vehicles, power generation systems or aircraft in Counter-Terrorism, Force Protection, Prognostic Health Monitoring (PHM) and other ground applications. Unattended wireless smart sensor/tags continuously monitor the environment and provide alerts upon changes or disruptions to the environment. These wireless smart sensor/tags are networked utilizing ultrasonic wireless motes, hybrid RF/Ultrasonic Network Nodes and Base Stations. The network is monitored continuously with a 24/7 remote and secure monitoring system. This system utilizes physical objects such as a vehicle"s structure or a building to provide the media for two way secure communication of key metrics and sensor data and eliminates the "blind spots" that are common in RF solutions because of structural elements of buildings, etc. The digital-ultrasonic sensors have networking capability and a 32-bit identifier, which provide a platform for a robust data acquisition (DAQ) for a large amount of sensors. In addition, the network applies a unique "signature" of the environment by comparing sensor-to-sensor data to pick up on minute changes, which would signal an invasion of unknown elements or signal a potential tampering in equipment or facilities. The system accommodates satellite and other secure network uplinks in either RF or UWB protocols. The wireless sensors can be dispersed by ground or air maneuvers. In addition, the sensors can be incorporated into the structure or surfaces of vehicles, buildings, or clothing of field personnel.

  15. Forest Watch: Using Student Data to Monitor Forest Response to Ground-Level Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Rock, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Forest Watch, a k-12 science outreach program begun at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) in 1991, has engaged pre-college students in providing UNH researchers with data on the annual response of white pine (Pinus strobus; a bio-indicator species for ozone exposure) to ground-level ozone across the New England region. Each year, student-collected growth and foliar symptomology data for 5 pine trees adjacent to their schools, along with first-year foliar samples, are submitted to UNH. Key foliar symptoms and student data are compared with summer monthly (JJA) maximum ozone concentrations collected by state and federal ozone monitoring stations across the region. To date, tree health indicators are inversely correlated (r2=0.83;p=0.10) with ozone concentrations: low ozone levels correlate with symptoms of good health (spectral indices diagnostic of high foliar chlorophyll levels and moisture content, normal incremental growth, low number of foliar symptoms), while summers characterized by high ozone concentrations correlate with symptoms of reduced health (low chlorophyll indices and moisture content, reduced incremental growth, increased number of foliar symptoms). In drought years (1999, 2001, 2002, 2003) few foliar symptoms of ozone damage are seen even though ozone levels were high, likely due to drought-induced stomatal closure. Based on student data since 1998, either low ozone summers, or drought summers have resulted in improved health in the sampled trees (n=30). Based on the success of Forest Watch in New England, we are exploring the extension of the program to Colorado as Front Range Forest Watch, operated from Colorado State University (CSU). The primary objective is to develop a student-scientist-local agency project that addresses real ecological issues in northern Colorado, including ozone pollution, and to provide pre-college students and teachers authentic science experiences. CSU runs a GK-12 program with Poudre School District in northern

  16. How Cities Breathe: Ground-Referenced, Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Precursor Measurements To Space-Based Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Tratt, David; Quattrochi, Dale; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John

    2013-01-01

    the complex and often aerosol laden, humid, urban microclimates, atmospheric transport and profile monitoring, spatial resolution, temporal cycles (diurnal and seasonal which involve interactions with the surrounding environment diurnal and seasonal cycles) and representative measurement approaches given traffic realities. Promising approaches incorporate contemporaneous airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements, nocturnal surface surveys, with ground station measurement

  17. Monitoring particulate matters in urban areas in Malaysia using remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Kamarul Zaman, Nurul Amalin Fatihah; Lim, H. Q.; Reba, Mohd Nadzri Md.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) near the ground routinely is critical for Malaysia for emergency management because Malaysia receives considerable amount of pollutants from both local and trans-boundary sources. Nevertheless, aerosol data covering major cities over a large spatial extent and on a continuous manner are limited. Thus, in the present study we aimed to estimate PM10 at 5 km spatial scale using AOD derived from MERIS sensor at 3 metropolitan cities in Malaysia. MERIS level 2 AOD data covering 5 years (2007-2011) were used to develop an empirical model to estimate PM10 at 11 locations covering Klang valley, Penang and Johor Bahru metropolitan cities. This study is different from previous studies conducted in Malaysia because in the current study we estimated PM10 by considering meteorological parameters that affect aerosol properties, including atmospheric stability, surface temperature and relative humidity derived from MODIS data and our product will be at ~5 km spatial scale. Results of this study show that the direct correlation between monthly averaged AOD and PM10 yielded a low and insignificant relationship (R2= 0.04 and RMSE = 7.06μg m-3). However, when AOD, relative humidity, land surface temperature and k index (atmospheric stability) were combined in a multiple linear regression analysis the correlation coefficient increased to 0.34 and the RMSE decreased to 8.91μg m-3. Among the variables k- index showed highest correlation with PM 10 (R2=0.35) compared to other variables. We further improved the relationship among PM10 and the independent variables using Artificial Neural Network. Results show that the correlation coefficient of the calibration dataset increased to 0.65 with low RMSE of 6.72μg m-3. The results may change when we consider more data points covering 10 years (2002- 2011) and enable the construction of a local model to estimate PM10 in urban areas in Malaysia.

  18. Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Wells Using Indicator Kriging and Risk Mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahoora Sheikhy Narany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of monitoring wells is to assess the conditions of groundwater quality in the aquifer system. An inappropriate distribution of sampling wells could produce insufficient or redundant data concerning groundwater quality. An optimal selection of representative monitoring well locations can be obtained by considering the natural and anthropogenic potential of pollution sources; the hydrogeological setting; and assessment of any existing data regarding monitoring networks. The main objective of this paper was to develop a new approach to identifying areas with a high risk of nitrate pollution for the Amol-Babol Plain, Iran. The indicator kriging method was applied to identify regions with a high probability of nitrate contamination using data obtained from 147 monitoring wells. The US-EPA DRASTIC method was then used in a GIS environment to assess groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination, and combined with data concerning the distribution of sources to produce a risk map. In the study area, around 3% of the total area has a strong probability of exceeding the nitrate threshold and a high–moderate risk of pollution, but is not covered adequately by sampling wells. However, the number of monitoring wells could be reduced in most parts of the study area to minimize redundant data and the cost of monitoring.

  19. Stress-induced traveltime variations at SAFOD revealed by continuous cross-well active source monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Niu, F.; Daley, T. M.; Taira, T.

    2016-12-01

    The time-varying stress/strain field at seismogenic depths is arguable the single most important property controlling the sequencing and nucleation of seismic events. The measurement of stress, however, is notoriously difficult, particularly at seismogenic depths. Seismic imaging, in principle, has the capability to provide this critical depth component. Numerous laboratory studies over the last few decades have shown that the elastic properties of crustal rocks clearly exhibit stress dependence. Such dependence is attributed to the opening/closing of fluid-filled cracks in response to changes in the stress normal to the crack surface. Temporal changes in stress are thus, in principle, measurable through seismic imaging of changes in elastic properties, such as seismic velocity field. We have been conducting continuous cross-well active source experiments utilizing the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) pilot and main holes to develop a seismic stress meter to monitor the subsurface stress field by exploring the velocity-stress sensitivity. In a two-month period in 2005-2006, we found a 0.3% change in the average S-wave velocity, which shows a good correlation with barometric pressure, corresponding to a stress sensitivity of 2.4x10-7Pa-1. We also observed two large excursions in the delay time measurement, corresponding to 0.55% and 0.15% decreases of seismic velocity, that are coincident with two earthquakes that are among those predicted to produce the largest coseismic stress changes. The two excursions started approximately 10 and 2 hours before the events, respectively, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture stress induced changes in crack properties, as observed in early laboratory studies. We repeated the experiment in early 2010 with a slightly different experiment configuration, and collected 40-days data. The new data confirmed the negative correlation between traveltime and barometric pressure. The estimated stress sensitivity is

  20. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  1. Strain and ground-motion monitoring at magmatic areas: ultra-long and ultra-dense networks using fibre optic sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Reinsch, Thomas; Henninges, Jan; Blanck, Hanna; Ryberg, Trond

    2016-04-01

    The fibre optic distributed acoustic sensing technology (DAS) is a "new" sensing system for exploring earth crustal elastic properties and monitoring both strain and seismic waves with unprecedented acquisition characteristics. The DAS technology principle lies in sending successive and coherent pulses of light in an optical fibre and measuring the back-scattered light issued from elastic scattering at random defaults within the fibre. The read-out unit includes an interferometer, which measures light interference patterns continuously. The changes are related to the distance between such defaults and therefore the strain within the fibre can be detected. Along an optical fibre, DAS can be used to acquire acoustic signals with a high spatial (every meter over kilometres) and high temporal resolution (thousand of Hz). Fibre optic technologies were, up to now, mainly applied in perimeter surveillance applications and pipeline monitoring and in boreholes. Previous experiments in boreholes have shown that the DAS technology is well suited for probing subsurface elastic properties, showing new ways for cheaper VSP investigations of the Earth crust. Here, we demonstrate that a cable deployed at ground surface can also help in exploring subsurface properties at crustal scale and monitor earthquake activity in a volcanic environment. Within the framework of the EC funded project IMAGE, we observed a >15 km-long fibre optic cable at the surface connected to a DAS read-out unit. Acoustic data was acquired continuously for 9 days. Hammer shots were performed along the surface cable in order to locate individual acoustic traces and calibrate the spatial distribution of the acoustic information. During the monitoring period both signals from on- and offshore explosive sources and natural seismic events could be recorded. We compare the fibre optic data to conventional seismic records from a dense seismic network deployed on Reykjanes. We show that we can probe and monitor earth

  2. Rescue System with Health Condition Monitoring Together with Location and Attitude Monitoring as Well as the Other Data Acquired with Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rescue system with health condition monitoring together with location and attitude monitoring as well as the other data acquired with mobile devices is proposed. Backup system for location estimation is also proposed. On behalf of GPS receivers and WiFi beacon receivers, ZigBee is used as a backup system. Attitude can be monitored with acceleration-meters equipped in the commercially available smart phones and i-phones. Also, the number of steps and calorie consumptions can be monitored with the commercially available smart phones and i-phones. By using these body attached sensors, health condition of the persons who need a help for rescue when the emergency situations can be monitored and used for rescue planning and triage. Overall system configuration is proposed together with the detailed system descriptions with some of the experimental data.

  3. Temporal monitoring of the soil freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover land by using off-ground GPR

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2013-07-01

    We performed off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements over a bare agricultural field to monitor the freeze-thaw cycles over snow-cover. The GPR system consisted of a vector network analyzer combined with an off-ground monostatic horn antenna, thereby setting up an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. Measurements were performed during nine days and the surface of the bare soil was exposed to snow fall, evaporation and precipitation as the GPR antenna was mounted 110 cm above the ground. Soil surface dielectric permittivity was retrieved using an inversion of time-domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. The GPR forward model used combines a full-waveform solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for three-dimensional wave propagation in planar layered media together with global reflection and transmission functions to account for the antenna and its interactions with the medium. Temperature and permittivity sensors were installed at six depths to monitor the soil dynamics in the top 8 cm depth. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and permittivity data and in particular freeze and thaw events were clearly visible. A good agreement of the trend was observed between the temperature, permittivity and GPR time-lapse data with respect to five freeze-thaw cycles. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. The proposed method appears to be promising for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the frozen layer at the field scale. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for 24 different algae strains. Twelve different C. reinhardtii strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space, among them, some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls. We analysed the hourly changes and the daily light/dark trend in the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry as well as some physiological parameters that characterize the post-flight effect on algae viability and photosynthetic performance. The ground control experiments were performed following the same protocol for the sample preparation and the temperature recorded during the pre-flight, flight and post-flight phases. The space flight results in comparison to the ground simulations are discussed.

  5. Use of combined Shewhart-CUSUM control charts for ground water monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, R.D.

    1999-10-01

    Statistical properties of combined Shewhart-CUSUM control charts are examined in terms of the site-wide false positive rate, false negative rate, and average run length (i.e., the average number of sampling events that it takes to detect a significant exceedance). The effects of multiple comparisons (i.e., multiple monitoring wells and constituents), verification resampling, background sample size, and background updating are incorporated into the analysis. The effects of (1) verification resampling plans including no resampling, pass one resample, pass one of two resamples, and pass two of two resamples; (2) background sample sizes (n = 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24); and (3) multiple comparisons (k = 1 to 500 future comparisons) were examined. In addition, various alternative control limit factors (h = SCL = 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0) were considered, where the control limit is {bar x} + hs. Results of simulations revealed that it is possible to balance site-wide false positive and false negative rates at low levels using combined Shewhart-CUSUM control charts. The results revealed that it is important to select the appropriate multiplier, verification resampling plan, number of background samples, and number of intervening samples prior to updating background.

  6. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.24 Detection monitoring program. (a) Detection monitoring is required at facilities identified in § 257.5(a) at all ground-water monitoring wells... unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director shall consider...

  7. 40 CFR 258.54 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.54 Detection monitoring program. (a) Detection monitoring is required at MSWLF units at all ground-water monitoring wells... from the MSWLF unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director...

  8. Monitoring the removal of phosphate from ground water discharging through a pond-bottom permeable reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCobb, T.D.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Massey, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Installation of a permeable reactive barrier to intercept a phosphate (PO4) plume where it discharges to a pond provided an opportunity to develop and test methods for monitoring the barrier's performance in the shallow pond-bottom sediments. The barrier is composed of zero-valent-iron mixed with the native sediments to a 0.6-m depth over a 1100-m2 area. Permanent suction, diffusion, and seepage samplers were installed to monitor PO 4 and other chemical species along vertical transects through the barrier and horizontal transects below and near the top of the barrier. Analysis of pore water sampled at about 3-cm vertical intervals by using multilevel diffusion and suction samplers indicated steep decreases in PO4 concentrations in ground water flowing upward through the barrier. Samples from vertically aligned pairs of horizontal multiport suction samplers also indicated substantial decreases in PO4 concentrations and lateral shifts in the plume's discharge area as a result of varying pond stage. Measurements from Lee-style seepage meters indicated substantially decreased PO4 concentrations in discharging ground water in the treated area; temporal trends in water flux were related to pond stage. The advantages and limitations of each sampling device are described. Preliminary analysis of the first 2 years of data indicates that the barrier reduced PO4 flux by as much as 95%. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  9. A method for designing configurations of nested monitoring wells near landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Paul F.

    A method was devised for designing configurations of monitoring wells, consisting of vertically nested intakes in boreholes. The network-design method involves analyzing a subset of potential contaminant plumes emerging from the downgradient margin of a landfill. Plume widths are evaluated along selected equipotential lines and compared to the lengths of those lines. The method was applied to a 32-ha solid-waste landfill in Tarrant County, Texas, USA. Sixtynine potential source nodes were considered. A 15-borehole network devised by the method registered 93 detections in total, detecting all 69 model-generated plumes by at least one borehole. Based on an enumeration procedure, a minimum of 10 boreholes was needed to detect all of the model-generated plumes. However, the less conservative 10-borehole network had little capability for backup detection. An existing monitoring network of seven downgradient wells detected only 38 model-generated plumes. Results of this study illustrate a practical need for structured approaches to designing detection-based groundwater-monitoring configurations. Résumé Une méthode a été développée pour fournir les caractéristiques de puits de surveillance, avec des points de prélèvements superposés en forage. La méthode de réalisation du réseau s'appuie sur l'analyse d'un ensemble de panaches de pollution potentiels provenant du bord en aval d'une décharge. Les largeurs de panache sont estimées le long d'isopièzes sélectionnées et sont comparées à leur longueur. Cette méthode a été appliquée à une décharge de déchets solides couvrant 32ha, dans le canton de Tarrant (Texas, Etats-Unis). 69 noeuds de source potentielle de pollution ont été pris en compte. Un réseau de 15 forages, défini par la méthode, a enregistré au total 93 alarmes, détectant les 69 panaches simulés dans au moins un forage. Une procédure de dénombrement précise qu'un minimum de 10 forages est nécessaire pour détecter tous les

  10. The Design and Implementation of the Remote Centralized-Monitoring System of Well-Control Equipment Based on RFID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, in domestic for the management of well control equipment continue to the traditional way of nameplates identifies and paper-based registration, there are many issues like the separation of data information of device, easy lose, difficult query, confused management and many other problems, which will make the problem device into the well field, and then resulting in well control runaway drilling accident. To solve the above problems, this paper put forward to the integrated remote centralized-monitoring management mode of the well-control equipment. Taking the advantages of IOT technology, adopting the RFID technology, and combining with the remote transmission, this paper designs the remote centralized-monitoring system of well-control equipment based on RFID, which realizes the intelligent management of well-control equipment and meets the actual demand of the well-control equipment safe use and timely scheduling, and it has the ability of field application.

  11. Monitoring Australian rangeland sites using landscape function indicators and ground- and remote-based techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, J.A.; Bastin, G.N.; Eager, R.W.; Karfs, R.; Ketner, P.; Pearce, G.

    2000-01-01

    If the goal for managing rangelands is to achieve a balance between production and conservation, then monitoring is essential to detect change and apply corrective action. In some rangeland areas of northern Australia, monitoring has detected a tilt in the production-conservation balance towards exc

  12. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoun, T; Harris, D; Lay, T; Myers, S C; Pasyanos, M E; Richards, P; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R; Zucca, J J

    2008-02-11

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes a path by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas.

  13. Results of calendar year 1994 monitor well inspection and maintenance program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMaster, B.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Jones, S.B.; Sitzler, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document is a compendium of results of the calendar year 1994 Monitor Well Inspection and Maintenance Program at the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report documents the work relating to well inspections and maintenance requests. Inspections are implemented in order to better assess the condition and maintenance needs of wells that are actively being monitored. Currently this approach calls for inspecting all wells on a routine (annual or triennial) basis which are: (1) in an active sampling program; (2) included in a hydrologic study; or (3) not in service, but not scheduled for plugging and abandonment. Routine inspections help to ensure that representative groundwater samples and hydrologic data are being collected, and contribute to the life expectancy of each well. This report formally presents well inspection and maintenance activities that were conducted at the Y-12 Plant during 1994. All inspections were conducted between April and December.

  14. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality at monitoring wells installed for the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan System and nearby water-supply wells, Cook County, Illinois, 1995–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.

    2016-04-04

    Groundwater-quality data collected from 1995 through 2013 from 106 monitoring wells open to the base of the Silurian aquifer surrounding the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) System in Cook County, Illinois, were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, to assess the efficacy of the monitoring network and the effects of water movement from the tunnel system to the surrounding aquifer. Groundwater from the Silurian aquifer typically drains to the tunnel system so that analyte concentrations in most of the samples from most of the monitoring wells primarily reflect the concentration of the analyte in the nearby Silurian aquifer. Water quality in the Silurian aquifer is spatially variable because of a variety of natural and non-TARP anthropogenic processes. Therefore, the trends in analyte values at a given well from 1995 through 2013 are primarily a reflection of the spatial variation in the value of the analyte in groundwater within that part of the Silurian aquifer draining to the tunnels. Intermittent drainage of combined sewer flow from the tunnel system to the Silurian aquifer when flow in the tunnel systemis greater than 80 million gallons per day may affect water quality in some nearby monitoring wells. Intermittent drainage of combined sewer flow from the tunnel system to the Silurian aquifer appears to affect the values of electrical conductivity, hardness, sulfate, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, ammonia, and fecal coliform in samples from many wells but typically during less than 5 percent of the sampling events. Drainage of combined sewer flow into the aquifer is most prevalent in the downstream parts of the tunnel systems because of the hydraulic pressures elevated above background values and long residence time of combined sewer flow in those areas. Elevated values of the analytes emplaced during intermittent migration of combined sewer flow into the Silurian aquifer

  15. TWRS privatization: Phase I monitoring well engineering study and decommissioning plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-09-11

    This engineering study evaluates all well owners and users, the status or intended use of each well, regulatory programs, and any future well needs or special purpose use for wells within the TWRS Privatization Phase I demonstration area. Based on the evaluation, the study recommends retaining 11 of the 21 total wells within the demonstration area and decommissioning four wells prior to construction activities per the Well Decommissioning Plan (WHC-SD-EN-AP-161, Rev. 0, Appendix I). Six wells were previously decommissioned.

  16. Reference wells for the regional ground-water potential map by Bedinger and Harrill (2004), Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set is a compilation of reference points representing wells deeper than 300 meters in Nevada that were used for the regional...

  17. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  18. Combustion/Emission Species Monitoring Ground and Flight Aeronautical Research Using a Gas Microsensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this program is to develop a miniaturized and in-situ operated gas microsensor array for the real time monitoring of chemical composition of turbine...

  19. Simulation of cylindrical flow to a well using the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    1993-01-01

    Cylindrical (axisymmetric) flow to a well is an important specialized topic of ground-water hydraulics and has been applied by many investigators to determine aquifer properties and determine heads and flows in the vicinity of the well. A recent modification to the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Three-Dimensional Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model provides the opportunity to simulate axisymmetric flow to a well. The theory involves the conceptualization of a system of concentric shells that are capable of reproducing the large variations in gradient in the vicinity of the well by decreasing their area in the direction of the well. The computer program presented serves as a preprocessor to the U.S. Geological Survey model by creating the input data file needed to implement the axisymmetric conceptualization. Data input requirements to this preprocessor are described, and a comparison with a known analytical solution indicates that the model functions appropriately.

  20. How well can we monitor cloud properties over polar regions in winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Frey, R.; Heidinger, A.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation balance and detecting changes in the amount and distribution of global cloud cover requires accurate global cloud climatologies with well-characterized uncertainties. To meet this challenge, significant effort has been given to generating climate quality long-term cloud data sets using over 30 years of polar-orbiting satellite measurements [Rossow and Schiffer, 1999; Jacobowitz et al, 2003; Wylie and Menzel, 1999] with plans to continue the cloud record using the next generation of polar orbiting sensors [e.g. Ackerman, et al., 1998]. A "Climate Quality" climatology requires that both the uncertainties and the physical sensitivities are quantified and are smaller than the expected climate signature. Clouds play a critical role in the Arctic climate system, through interacting with other important climate processes, including snow/ice albedo feedback. Clouds modulate the surface radiative fluxes (Wang and Key, 2003) that influence the growth and melting of sea ice. Increasing cloud cover, which keeps the shortwave irradiances at the top-of-atmosphere unchanged, possibly compensates the reduced sea ice extent (Kato et al., 2006). However, assessing changes in polar conditions during winter has been a challenge. Holz et al (2008) presented a global two-month comparison between the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud properties. Both CALIOP and MODIS are part of the NASA A-Train constellation of satellites and provide continuous near-coincident measurements that result in over 28 million cloud detection comparisons in a month. Globally (includes polar regions), it was found that the MODIS 1-km cloud mask and the CALIOP 1-km averaged layer product agreement is 88% for cloudy conditions in both August 2006 and February 2007. For clear-sky conditions the agreement is 84 (85) % for August (February). The best agreement is

  1. Determination of recharge fraction of injection water in combined abstraction-injection wells using continuous radon monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Kim, Yong-Chul; Cho, Soo Young; Kim, Seong Yun; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Ha, Kyucheol; Ko, Kyung-Seok

    2016-12-01

    The recharge fractions of injection water in combined abstraction-injection wells (AIW) were determined using continuous radon monitoring and radon mass balance model. The recharge system consists of three combined abstraction-injection wells, an observation well, a collection tank, an injection tank, and tubing for heating and transferring used groundwater. Groundwater was abstracted from an AIW and sprayed on the water-curtain heating facility and then the used groundwater was injected into the same AIW well by the recharge system. Radon concentrations of fresh groundwater in the AIWs and of used groundwater in the injection tank were measured continuously using a continuous radon monitoring system. Radon concentrations of fresh groundwater in the AIWs and used groundwater in the injection tank were in the ranges of 10,830-13,530 Bq/m(3) and 1500-5600 Bq/m(3), respectively. A simple radon mass balance model was developed to estimate the recharge fraction of used groundwater in the AIWs. The recharge fraction in the 3 AIWs was in the range of 0.595-0.798. The time series recharge fraction could be obtained using the continuous radon monitoring system with a simple radon mass balance model. The results revealed that the radon mass balance model using continuous radon monitoring was effective for determining the time series recharge fractions in AIWs as well as for characterizing the recharge system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geometric Aspects of Ground Augmentation of Satellite Networks for the Needs of Deformation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protaziuk, Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    Satellite measurements become competitive in many tasks of engineering surveys, however, in many requiring applications possibilities to apply such solutions are still limited. The possibility to widely apply satellite technologies for displacements measurements is related with new challenges; the most important of them relate to increasing requirements concerning the accuracy, reliability and continuity of results of position determination. One of the solutions is a ground augmentation of satellite network, which intention is to improve precision of positioning, ensure comparable accuracy of coordinates and reduce precision fluctuations over time. The need for augmentation of GNSS is particularly significant in situations: where the visibility of satellites is poor because of terrain obstacles, when the determined position is not precise enough or a satellites constellation does not allow for reliable positioning. Ground based source/sources of satellite signal placed at a ground, called pseudosatellites, or pseudolites were intensively investigated during the last two decades and finally were developed into groundbased, time-synchronized transceivers, that can transmit and receive a proprietary positioning signal. The paper presents geometric aspects of the ground based augmentation of the satellite networks using various quality measures of positioning geometry, which depends on access to the constellation of satellites and the conditions of the observation environment. The issue of minimizing these measures is the key problem that allows to obtain the position with high accuracy. For this purpose, the use of an error ellipsoid is proposed and compared with an error ellipse. The paper also describes the results of preliminary accuracy analysis obtained at test area and a comparison of various measures of the quality of positioning geometry.

  3. CoRoT and asteroseismology. Preparatory work and simultaneous ground-based monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Poretti, Ennio; Uytterhoeven, Katrien; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Distefano, Elisa; Romano, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The successful launch of the CoRoT (COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits) satellite opens a new era in asteroseismology. The space photometry is complemented by high-resolution spectroscopy and multicolour photometry from ground, to disclose the pulsational content of the asteroseismic targets in the most complete way. Some preliminary results obtained with both types of data are presented. The paper is based on observations collected at S. Pedro Martir, Serra La Nave, La Silla, and Telescopio Nazionale Galileo Observatories.

  4. Monitoring ground subsidence due to underground mining using integrated space geodetic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linlin Ge; Michael Hsing-Chung Chang; Chris Rizos [University of NSW, NSW (Australia)

    2004-04-01

    Differential radar interferometry (DInSAR) can deliver {approximately} 1cm height change resolution. The combination of regular radar beam scanning and movement of the satellites carrying the radar sensor enables imaging of the mining region in seconds, from which subtle ground movements can be detected. Quantitative validation comparing the DInSAR-derived subsidence profile against ground truth shows a best RMS error of 1.4cm. A methodology has been developed to use GPS (the Global Positioning System) observations to measure atmospheric disturbances so that the DInSAR results can be corrected. A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to post-process InSAR results throughout this project. GIS can be used to present the final results in various formats, for example, profiles for validating with ground truth, subsidence contour maps, and three-dimensional views. Professional looking thematic maps can be generated based on these analyses, lining up with the practice within the mining industry to deliver drawings/maps in a GIS format. Multi-temporal DInSAR results can be analysed using GIS, and the final results compiled into an animation, showing the subsidence region moving as time passes. A virtual reality image has been generated in the GIS, combining DEM, aerial photography, and DInSAR subsidence results. The UNSW InSAR-GPS-GIS Integration Software has been developed to support the seamless flow of data among the three technologies, DInSAR, GPS, and GIS. Several radar satellite missions, some especially designed for InSAR, are scheduled for launch in the near future. Therefore radar data of global coverage with weekly or even daily revisit will be made available at multiple radar bands. With atmospheric disturbances properly accounted for, DInSAR will be a cost-effective, reliable, and operational tool that complements traditional ground survey methods.

  5. The Efficient Method for Simultaneous Monitoring of the Culturable as Well as Nonculturable Airborne Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation-based microbiological methods are a gold standard for monitoring of airborne micro-organisms to determine the occupational exposure levels or transmission paths of a particular infectious agent. Some highly contagious microorganisms are not easily culturable but it is becoming evident that cultivation and molecular methods are complementary and in these cases highly relevant. We report a simple and efficient method for sampling and analyzing airborne bacteria with an impactor-type...

  6. Monitoring study of experimental well water use at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a background on irrigation wells on Stillwater NWR. In 1978 a study was conducted to determine the suitability of the well water for growth and...

  7. The efficient method for simultaneous monitoring of the culturable as well as nonculturable airborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubad, Barbara; Lapanje, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation-based microbiological methods are a gold standard for monitoring of airborne micro-organisms to determine the occupational exposure levels or transmission paths of a particular infectious agent. Some highly contagious microorganisms are not easily culturable but it is becoming evident that cultivation and molecular methods are complementary and in these cases highly relevant. We report a simple and efficient method for sampling and analyzing airborne bacteria with an impactor-type high-flow-rate portable air sampler, currently used for monitoring culturable bacteria or fungi. A method is reported for extraction of nucleic acids from impacted cells without prior cultivation and using agarose as a sampling matrix. The DNA extraction efficiency was determined in spiked samples and, samples taken from a wastewater treatment plant and an alpine area. The abundance, diversity and quantity of total bacteria were analysed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and by construction and analysis of clone libraries. The method does not interfere with downstream PCR analysis and can cover the gap between traditional culture and molecular techniques of bioaerosol monitoring.

  8. High-throughput sequencing and morphology perform equally well for benthic monitoring of marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pillet, Loïc; Wilding, Thomas A; Black, Kenneth D; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-09-10

    Environmental diversity surveys are crucial for the bioassessment of anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems. Traditional benthic monitoring relying on morphotaxonomic inventories of macrofaunal communities is expensive, time-consuming and expertise-demanding. High-throughput sequencing of environmental DNA barcodes (metabarcoding) offers an alternative to describe biological communities. However, whether the metabarcoding approach meets the quality standards of benthic monitoring remains to be tested. Here, we compared morphological and eDNA/RNA-based inventories of metazoans from samples collected at 10 stations around a fish farm in Scotland, including near-cage and distant zones. For each of 5 replicate samples per station, we sequenced the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene using the Illumina technology. After filtering, we obtained 841,766 metazoan sequences clustered in 163 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). We assigned the OTUs by combining local BLAST searches with phylogenetic analyses. We calculated two commonly used indices: the Infaunal Trophic Index and the AZTI Marine Biotic Index. We found that the molecular data faithfully reflect the morphology-based indices and provides an equivalent assessment of the impact associated with fish farms activities. We advocate that future benthic monitoring should integrate metabarcoding as a rapid and accurate tool for the evaluation of the quality of marine benthic ecosystems.

  9. Monitoring and analysis of ground temperature and deformation within Qinghai-Tibet Highway subgrade in permafrost region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaHu Tian; YuPeng Shen; WenBing Yu; JianHong Fang

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the stability of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway embankment at Chumaerhe in the permafrost region of northwest China, the ground temperature and deformation at different depths were monitored under the left and right shoulders of the embankment where thermosyphons were set up only on the left shoulder. Based on the monitored data, characteristics of ground temperature and deformation of the left and right shoulders are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the start time of freezing or thawing of the seasonal active layer was about one to two months later than that of the embankment body itself. The stability of each shoulder was mainly controlled by the settlement of different soil layers, whereas frost heave of soil had scarcely any effect on the stability of the embankment. For the left shoulder, the settlement was mainly influenced by the seasonal active layer and then by the embankment body itself, due to freeze-thaw cycles which may change the soil properties; however, the permafrost layer remained fairly stable. For the right shoulder, creep of the warm permafrost layer was the main influence factor on its stability, followed by settlement of embankment body itself, and finally settlement of the seasonal active layer. Compared with the deformation of the left shoulder, the permafrost layer under the right shoulder was less stable, which indicates that the thermosyphons had a significantly positive effect on the stability of warm permafrost.

  10. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  11. Continuous monitoring and discrete water-quality data from groundwater wells in the Edwards aquifer, Texas, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Slattery, Richard N.

    2017-01-01

    In cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, continuous and discrete water-quality data were collected from groundwater wells completed in the Edwards aquifer, Texas, 2014-2015. Discrete measurements of nitrate were made by using a nitrate sensor. Precipitation data from two sites in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Historical Climatology Network are included in the dataset. The continuous monitoring data were collected using water quality sensors and include hourly measurements of nitrate, specific conductance, and water level in two wells. Discrete measurements of nitrate, specific conductance, and vertical flow rate were collected from one well site at different depths throughout the well bore.

  12. Sentinel-1 and ground-based sensors for a continuous monitoring of the Corvara landslide kinematic (South Tirol, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Kofler, Christian; Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Sentinel-1 mission allows us to have Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions over large areas every 6 days with spatial resolution of 20 m. This new open-source generation of satellites has enhanced the capabilities for continuously studying earth surface changes. Over the past two decades, several studies have demonstrated the potential of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) for detecting and quantifying land surface deformation. DInSAR limitations and challenges are linked to the SAR properties and the field conditions (especially in Alpine environments) leading to spatial and temporal decorrelation of the SAR signal. High temporal decorrelation can be caused by changes in vegetation (particularly in non-urban areas), atmospheric conditions or high ground surface velocity. In this study, kinematics of the complex and vegetated Corvara landslide, situated in Val Badia (South Tirol, Italy), are monitored by a network of 3 permanent and 13 monthly Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations. The slope displacement rates are found to be highly unsteady and reach several meters a year. This analysis focuses on evaluating the limitations of Sentinel-1 imagery processed with Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique in comparison to ground-based measurements for assessing the landslide kinematic linked to meteorological conditions. Selecting some particular acquisitions, coherence thresholds and unwrapping processes gives various results in terms of reliability and accuracy supporting the understanding of the landslide velocity field. The evolution of the coherence and phase signals are studied according to the changing field conditions and the monitored ground-based displacements. DInSAR deformation maps and residual topographic heights are finally compared with difference of high resolution Digital Elevation Models at local scale. This research is conducted within the project LEMONADE (http://lemonade.mountainresearch.at) funded

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT GROUND ZERO AND LOWER MANHATTAN FOLLOWING THE COLLAPSE OF THE WTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL), in conjunction with our Regional offices, established a network of air monitoring sites to characterize ambient air concentrations of gases and particles in lower Manhattan following the collapse of the World Trade Cent...

  14. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  15. Evaluation of U.S. Geological Survey Monitoring-well network and potential effects of changes in water use, Newlands Project, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Watkins, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic wells tapping shallow ground water are an important source of potable water for rural residents of Lahontan Valley. For this reason, the public has expressed concern over the acquisition of water rights directed by Public Law 101-618. The acquisition has resulted in removal of land from irrigation, which could cause shallow domestic wells to go dry and adversely affect shallow ground-water quality. Periodic water-level measurements and water-quality sampling at a monitoring-well network developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provided data to evaluate the potential effects of changes in water use. The USGS, in cooperation with Churchill County, analyzed these data and the monitoring-well network to determine if the network provides an adequate means to measure the response of the shallow aquifer to changes in water use, and to determine if measurable changes have taken place. To evaluate the USGS monitoring-well network, wells were characterized by their distance from active canals or ditches, and from currently (2003) or formerly irrigated land. An analysis of historical data showed that about 9,800 acres of land have been removed from irrigation, generally from the late 1990's to 2003. Twenty-five wells in the network are within about 1 mile of fields removed from irrigation. Of the 25 wells, 13 are within 300 feet of canals or ditches where seepage maintains stable water levels. The 13 wells likely are not useful for detecting changes caused by reductions in irrigation. The remaining 12 wells range from about 400 to 3,800 feet from the nearest canal and are useful for detecting continued changes from current reductions in irrigation. The evaluation showed that of the 75 wells in the network, only 8 wells are likely to be useful for detecting the effects of future (after 2003) reductions in irrigation. Water levels at most of the monitoring wells near irrigated land have declined from 1998 to 2003 because of drought conditions and below normal

  16. Groundwater-quality and quality-control data for two monitoring wells near Pavillion, Wyoming, April and May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter R.; McMahon, Peter B.; Mueller, David K.; Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency installed two deep monitoring wells (MW01 and MW02) near Pavillion, Wyoming, to study groundwater quality. During April and May 2012, the U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, collected groundwater-quality data and quality-control data from monitoring well MW01 and, following well redevelopment, quality-control data for monitoring well MW02. Two groundwater-quality samples were collected from well MW01—one sample was collected after purging about 1.5 borehole volumes, and a second sample was collected after purging 3 borehole volumes. Both samples were collected and processed using methods designed to minimize atmospheric contamination or changes to water chemistry. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for field water-quality properties (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, oxidation potential); inorganic constituents including naturally occurring radioactive compounds (radon, radium-226 and radium-228); organic constituents; dissolved gasses; stable isotopes of methane, water, and dissolved inorganic carbon; and environmental tracers (carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and the ratio of helium-3 to helium-4). Quality-control sample results associated with well MW01 were evaluated to determine the extent to which environmental sample analytical results were affected by bias and to evaluate the variability inherent to sample collection and laboratory analyses. Field documentation, environmental data, and quality-control data for activities that occurred at the two monitoring wells during April and May 2012 are presented.

  17. Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod to examine the utility of passive diffusion sampling for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in ground water. The diffusion samplers were constructed of 1-inch-diameter rigid, porous polyethylene tubing. The results of laboratory tests in which diffusion samplers were submerged in containers filled with ground water containing perchlorate, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) indicate that concentrations inside the diffusion samplers equilibrated with concentrations in the containers within the 19-day-long test period. Field tests of the diffusion samplers were conducted in 15 wells constructed of 2- or 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe with 10-foot-long slotted screens. Concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in the diffusion samplers placed in the wells for 42 to 52 days were compared to concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling from 53 days before to 109 days after retrieval of the diffusion samples. The results of the field tests indicate generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration levels.

  18. Design and Implementation of Control and Monitoring Systems Based on HMI-PLC for Potable Water Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quezada-Quezada José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This project reports on the design and implementation in a workbench of a control and monitoring system of the discharge of water of a well. Graphic User's Interfaces (GUI are designed for interaction with the operator. The Human Machine Interface (HMI was implement in proprietor software and it contemplates the rules for control and monitoring of the conditions of the system for the operator, the HMI is also interconnected a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC where the rules of protection of the process are implemented in Ladder Diagram (LD.

  19. Ground Penetrating Radar in Dam Monitoring: The Test Case of Acerenza (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loperte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, dam safety management is gaining great importance since it affects in a crucial way the monitoring and improvement of risky reservoirs, but this topic is very challenging since the dam safety requires long-term and time-continuous monitoring. In this framework, the exploitation of conventional geotechnical investigation methods often requires invasive actions in the inner of the structure to be investigated (destructiveness and only provides punctual information for small volumes. On the contrary, the application of noninvasive sensing techniques makes it possible to investigate higher volumes without affecting the structure. In this paper we describe the application of GPR for the monitoring and diagnostics of one of the largest dams in the Basilicata region (Southern Italy. The investigation aims at detecting and localizing underground sandstone banks that are potential ways of flow of water below the dam. The manageability and the noninvasiveness of GPR have resulted in particularly suitable for this kind of application because the versatility of this geophysical method allows to investigate large areas with a good spatial resolution giving the possibility to detect the presence of inhomogeneities in the subsoil below the dam.

  20. A well-monitored, X-ray selected, tidal disruption event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komossa S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a candidate tidal disruption event detected in the XMM-Newton slew survey from the nucleus of SDSS J120136.02+300305.5 (z = 0.146; hereafter SDSS J1201+30. The source, monitored by Swift and XMM-Newton, was highly variable on timescales of a week, reaching a peak X-ray luminosity of 3 × 1044 ergs/s. The light curve is reminiscent of the variations seen in SWIFT J1644+57, although in this case the absence of radio flux rules out a jet mechanism for the emission. The X-ray spectrum is steep, (spectral index = 3–5 and softens with diminishing flux. It is inconsistent with a single or multi-temperature black-body model but may be fit with Bremsstrahlung or comptonised thermal emission.

  1. Well network for long-term monitoring of agricultural chemicals in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are in support of report DS 456 (Arnold and others, 2009). Data set contains point locations of 20 wells located in areas overlying the High Plains...

  2. Evaluation of available data sources to prioritize parishes for arsenic monitoring and outreach related to private well drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, Adrienne; Lackovic, Michelle; Streva, Kate; Paul, Vanessa; Trachtman, William Clay

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this assessment was to identify and evaluate data sets for use in the surveillance of arsenic hazards and private well drinking water use in Louisiana. Features, strengths, and limitations of the data sets are described, and prioritization criteria are applied to identify areas in need of further monitoring or outreach. Recent efforts have been made by the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network to evaluate the quality of private well water data for the purpose of supporting state and national surveillance activities. Like most states, Louisiana does not collect or mandate reporting of private well water quality data. Therefore, responding to public concerns about private well water quality requires an identification and evaluation of existing data. Data evaluated include measures of arsenic in groundwater and soil, private well water use, and biomonitoring results. The Environmental Protection Agency's Safe Drinking Water Information System and the US Geological Survey's Water Use data set were the most informative, nationally available data sets for conducting private well water arsenic surveillance. Three priority parishes were identified on the basis of a selection criteria, although all parishes require more private well sampling data. While the data reviewed enabled preliminary identification of parishes in need of monitoring and outreach, data limitations (particularly, a lack of statewide well water quality data) prevent a comprehensive evaluation of well water arsenic hazards and private well water use. A large number of unregistered wells further impede risk determination. Reliance on existing data sources is necessary, but development of metadata documentation is essential to prevent data misinterpretation. Increased outreach and policies to promote or mandate private well testing and reporting are needed to enable a comprehensive private well water tracking system.

  3. Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Surface Ground-Penetrating Radar Monitoring of Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Léger, Emmanuel; Coquet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study we used Hydrus-1D to simulate water infiltration from a ring infiltrometer. We generated water content profiles at each time step of infiltration, based on a particular value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity while knowing the other van Genuchten parameters. Water content profiles were converted to dielectric permittivity profiles using the Complex Refractive Index Method relation. We then used the GprMax suite of programs to generate radargrams and to follow the wetting front using arrival time of electromagnetic waves recorded by a Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR). Theoretically, the depth of the inflection point of the water content profile simulated at any infiltration time step is related to the peak of the reflected amplitude recorded in the corresponding trace in the radargram. We used this relationship to invert the saturated hydraulic conductivity for constant and falling head infiltrations. We present our method on synthetic examples and on two experiments carried out on sand. We f...

  4. Highly precise distributed Brillouin scattering sensor for structural health monitoring of optical ground wire cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Ravet, Fabien; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2004-07-01

    A distributed Brillouin scattering sensor with high special precision has been developed for the measurement of small damages/cracks of 1.5 cm. The out-layer damaged regions in an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable have been identified successfully by measuring the strain distributions every 5 cm using this technology. The stress increased to 127 kN which corresponds to more than 7500 micro-strain in the fibers. The locations of structural indentations comprising repaired and undamaged regions are found and distinguished using their corresponding strain data. The elongation of repaired region increases with time on 127 kN. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, stress, and behavior relative to undamaged sections.

  5. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Hong Kong via Spaceborne Radar: Experiments and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiao Qin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI technique is gradually becoming known for its capability of providing up to millimeter accuracy of measurement on ground displacement. Nevertheless, there is still quite a good amount of doubt regarding its correctness or accuracy. In this paper, we carried out an experiment corroborating the capability of the PSI technique with the help of a traditional survey method in the urban area of Hong Kong, China. Seventy three TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX images spanning over four years are used for the data process. There are three aims of this study. The first is to generate a displacement map of urban Hong Kong and to check for spots with possible ground movements. This information will be provided to the local surveyors so that they can check these specific locations. The second is to validate if the accuracy of the PSI technique can indeed reach the millimeter level in this real application scenario. For validating the accuracy of PSI, four corner reflectors (CR were installed at a construction site on reclaimed land in Hong Kong. They were manually moved up or down by a few to tens of millimeters, and the value derived from the PSI analysis was compared to the true value. The experiment, carried out in unideal conditions, nevertheless proved undoubtedly that millimeter accuracy can be achieved by the PSI technique. The last is to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PSI technique. Overall, the PSI technique can be extremely useful if used in collaboration with other techniques, so that the advantages can be highlighted and the drawbacks avoided.

  6. Space weather monitoring by ground-based means carried out in Polar Geophysical Center at Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzhura, Alexander

    A real-time information on geophysical processes in polar regions is very important for goals of Space Weather monitoring by the ground-based means. The modern communication systems and computer technology makes it possible to collect and process the data from remote sites without significant delays. A new acquisition equipment based on microprocessor modules and reliable in hush climatic conditions was deployed at the Roshydromet networks of geophysical observations in Arctic and is deployed at observatories in Antarctic. A contemporary system for on-line collecting and transmitting the geophysical data from the Arctic and Antarctic stations to AARI has been realized and the Polar Geophysical Center (PGC) arranged at AARI ensures the near-real time processing and analyzing the geophysical information from 11 stations in Arctic and 5 stations in Antarctic. The space weather monitoring by the ground based means is one of the main tasks standing before the Polar Geophysical Center. As studies by Troshichev and Janzhura, [2012] showed, the PC index characterizing the polar cap magnetic activity appeared to be an adequate indicator of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere and the energy that is accumulating in the magnetosphere. A great advantage of the PC index application over other methods based on satellite data is a permanent on-line availability of information about magnetic activity in both northern and southern polar caps. A special procedure agreed between Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Space Institute of the Danish Technical University (DTUSpace) ensures calculation of the unified PC index in quasi-real time by magnetic data from the Thule and Vostok stations (see public site: http://pc-index.org). The method for estimation of AL and Dst indices (as indicators of state of the disturbed magnetosphere) based on data on foregoing PC indices has been elaborated and testified in the Polar Geophysical Center. It is

  7. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimore, J.A.; Lee, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 18 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11. WAG 11 (White Wing Scrap Yard) is located on the west end of East Fork Ridge between White Wing Road and the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The scrap yard is approximately 25 acres in size. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled and developed between January 1990 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. Detailed procedures for well construction were specified by the Engineering Division to ensure that the wells would provide water samples representative of the aquifer. To ensure conformance with the specifications, Energy Systems Construction Engineering and ERCE provided continuous oversight of field activities. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 11. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents.

  8. SqueeSAR™ and GPS ground deformation monitoring of Santorini Volcano (1992-2012): Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagios, E.; Sakkas, V.; Novali, F.; Bellotti, F.; Ferretti, A.; Vlachou, K.; Dietrich, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Santorini Volcanic Complex (SVC) has been in a dormant state for the last 60 years until January 2011 when upward influx of magma reawakened the volcano with intense radial ground deformation and inter-caldera seismicity that lasted until January 2012 but declined afterwards. This paper aims to study the ground deformation and the inferred tectonic implications of the SVC for the period 1992-2012 mainly based on the SqueeSAR™ technique and DGPS campaign results of our local network which incorporates available data on Internet from several continuous GPS stations established on the island. The spatial deformation of the SVC during the quiet period 1992-2010 was deduced by joint analysis of ERS1 and 2 and ENVISAT. It was found that the intra caldera Palaea Kammeni shield volcano was being uplifted (2-3 mm/yr) with increasing rate, whilst the adjacent Nea Kammeni shield volcano was being subsided (up to 6 mm/yr) with increasing rate. The rest of the SVC showed a velocity field varying from - 1 to + 2 mm/yr, indicating a rather linear deformation during that period. The results from the GPS network are in full agreement with the SqueeSAR results. Based on the results of SqueeSAR analysis of 12 ENVISAT images, and DGPS/CGPS data to end 2012, the deformation for the unrest period 2011-2012 was non-linear being characterized by strong radial deformation in the northern part of the caldera (50-120 mm/yr), and accelerating values (> 130 mm/yr2). Combined GPS/SqueeSAR Mogi modeling indicated a source located north of Nea Kammeni at a shallow depth. However, a progressively decreasing rate in deformation was noted at most GPS/CGPS station components after January 2012, indicating magma settlement consistent with the constantly decreasing rate of the inter-caldera seismicity. The faulting features seem to have a key role in the evolution of the deformation, which continues up the end 2012, but at a very low level.

  9. Suitability of ground-based SfM-MVS for monitoring glacial and periglacial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; de Blasi, Fabrizio; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Photo-based surface reconstruction is rapidly emerging as an alternative survey technique to lidar (light detection and ranging) in many fields of geoscience fostered by the recent development of computer vision algorithms such as structure from motion (SfM) and dense image matching such as multi-view stereo (MVS). The objectives of this work are to test the suitability of the ground-based SfM-MVS approach for calculating the geodetic mass balance of a 2.1 km2 glacier and for detecting the surface displacement of a neighbouring active rock glacier located in the eastern Italian Alps. The photos were acquired in 2013 and 2014 using a digital consumer-grade camera during single-day field surveys. Airborne laser scanning (ALS, otherwise known as airborne lidar) data were used as benchmarks to estimate the accuracy of the photogrammetric digital elevation models (DEMs) and the reliability of the method. The SfM-MVS approach enabled the reconstruction of high-quality DEMs, which provided estimates of glacial and periglacial processes similar to those achievable using ALS. In stable bedrock areas outside the glacier, the mean and the standard deviation of the elevation difference between the SfM-MVS DEM and the ALS DEM was -0.42 ± 1.72 and 0.03 ± 0.74 m in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The overall pattern of elevation loss and gain on the glacier were similar with both methods, ranging between -5.53 and + 3.48 m. In the rock glacier area, the elevation difference between the SfM-MVS DEM and the ALS DEM was 0.02 ± 0.17 m. The SfM-MVS was able to reproduce the patterns and the magnitudes of displacement of the rock glacier observed by the ALS, ranging between 0.00 and 0.48 m per year. The use of natural targets as ground control points, the occurrence of shadowed and low-contrast areas, and in particular the suboptimal camera network geometry imposed by the morphology of the study area were the main factors affecting the accuracy of photogrammetric DEMs negatively

  10. Stress Changes and Deformation Monitoring of Longwall Coal Pillars Located in Weak Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kuang, Tiejun; Liu, Jinrong

    2016-08-01

    Coal pillar stability is strongly influenced by the site-specific geological and geotechnical conditions. Many geological structures such as faults, joints, or rock intrusions can be detrimental to mining operations. In order to evaluate the performance of coal pillars under weak roof degraded by igneous rock intrusion, stress and deformation monitoring was conducted in the affected tailgate areas of Nos. 8208 and 8210 longwalls in Tashan coal mine, Shanxi Province, China. The measurements in the 8208 longwall tailgate showed that the mining-induced stresses in 38-m-wide coal chain pillars under the overburden depth of 300-500 m started to increase at about 100 m ahead of the 8208 longwall working face and reached its peak level at approximately 50 m ahead of the longwall face. The peak stress of 9.16 MPa occurred at the depth of 8-9 m into the pillar from the tailgate side wall. In comparison, disturbance of the headgate block pillar area was negligible, indicating the difference of abutment pressure distribution between the tailgate and headgate sites where the adjacent unmined longwall block carried most of the overburden load. However, when the longwall face passed the headgate monitoring site by 360-379 m, the pillar stress increased to a peak value of 21.4 MPa at the pillar depth of 13 m from the gob side mainly due to stress redistribution in the chain pillar. In contrast to the headgate, at the tailgate side, the adjacent goaf was the dominant triggering factor for high stress concentrations in the chain pillar. Convergence measurements in the tailgate during longwall mining further indicated the evolution characteristics of coal pillar deformation, clearly showing that the gateroad deformation is mainly induced by the longwall extraction it serves. When predicting the future pillar loads from the monitored data, two stress peaks appeared across the 38-m-wide tailgate coal pillar, which are separated by the lower stress area within the pillar center. This

  11. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPORAL GROUNDWATER MONITORING VARIABILITY IN MW66 AND NEARBY WELLS, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2012-08-28

    Evaluation of disposal records, soil data, and spatial/temporal groundwater data from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 7 indicate that the peak contaminant concentrations measured in monitoring well (MW) 66 result from the influence of the regional PGDP NW Plume, and does not support the presence of significant vertical transport from local contaminant sources in SWMU 7. This updated evaluation supports the 2006 conceptualization which suggested the high and low concentrations in MW66 represent different flow conditions (i.e., local versus regional influences). Incorporation of the additional lines of evidence from data collected since 2006 provide the basis to link high contaminant concentrations in MW66 (peaks) to the regional 'Northwest Plume' and to the upgradient source, specifically, the C400 Building Area. The conceptual model was further refined to demonstrate that groundwater and the various contaminant plumes respond to complex site conditions in predictable ways. This type of conceptualization bounds the expected system behavior and supports development of environmental cleanup strategies, providing a basis to support decisions even if it is not feasible to completely characterize all of the 'complexities' present in the system. We recommend that the site carefully consider the potential impacts to groundwater and contaminant plume migration as they plan and implement onsite production operations, remediation efforts, and reconfiguration activities. For example, this conceptual model suggests that rerouting drainage water, constructing ponds or basin, reconfiguring cooling water systems, capping sites, decommissioning buildings, fixing (or not fixing) water leaks, and other similar actions will potentially have a 'direct' impact on the groundwater contaminant plumes. Our conclusion that the peak concentrations in MW66 are linked to the regional PGDP NW Plume does not imply that

  12. Ground calibration of the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alha, L. [Observatory, P.O. Box 14, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: alha@mappi.helsinki.fi; Huovelin, J. [Observatory, P.O. Box 14, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Nygard, K. [Division of X-ray Physics, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Andersson, H. [Oxford Instruments Analytical, P.O. Box 85, FIN-02631 Espoo (Finland); Esko, E. [Observatory, P.O. Box 14, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Howe, C.J.; Kellett, B.J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Narendranath, S. [Space Astronomy and Instrumentation Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India); Maddison, B.J. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Crawford, I.A. [School of Earth Sciences, Birkbeck College, London (United Kingdom); Grande, M. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Shreekumar, P. [Space Astronomy and Instrumentation Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560017 (India)

    2009-08-21

    The Chandrayaan-1 XSM ground calibrations are introduced. The aim of these calibrations was to characterize the performance of XSM, which enables a reliable spectral analysis with the solar X-ray data. The calibrations followed an improved procedure based on our experience from the SMART-1 XSM. The most important tasks in the calibrations were determination of the energy resolution as a function of the photon energy and mapping of the detector sensitivity over the FoV (Field of View) of the sensor. The FoV map was needed to determine the obscuration factor corresponding to various pointings with respect to the Sun. We made also a sensitivity comparison test between the Chandrayaan-1 XSM FM (Flight Model) and SMART-1 XSM FS (Flight Spare). The aim of this test was to link the new XSM performance to a performance of an already known and tested former instrument. We also performed a simple test to determine the pile up performance, and one specific test tailored for the operation of the new version of XSM. Also the first experiences on the in-flight operation are briefly described.

  13. Atmospheric Water Monitoring by Using Ground-Based GPS during Heavy Rains Produced by TPV and SWV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The time series of precipitable water (PW in 30 min intervals has been determined through experimentation and operational application of a ground-based global positioning system (GPS network in Chengdu Plain, which is used for precise and reliable meteorological research. This study is the first to apply PW to the southwest vortex (SWV and heavy rain events by using the data from an intensive SWV experiment conducted in summer 2010. The PW derived from the local ground-based GPS network was used in the monitoring and analysis of heavy rain caused by the SWV and the Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV. Results indicate that an increase in GPS precipitable water (GPS-PW occurs prior to the development of the TPV and SWV; rainfall occurs mainly during high levels of GPS-PW. The evolution features of GPS-PW in rainfall process caused by different weather systems over the Tibetan Plateau (TP also differ. These results indicate the reference values for operational applications of GPS-PW data in short-term forecasting and nowcasting of high-impact weather in addition to further investigation of heavy rain caused by the TPV, SWV, and other severe weather systems over the TP.

  14. Seafloor monitoring west of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Fiorentino, Dario; Papenmeier, Svenja; Holler, Peter; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Marine habitats of shelf seas are in constant dynamic change and therefore need regular assessment particularly in areas of special interest. In this study, the single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn served to assess seafloor hardness and roughness, and combine these parameters into one variable expressed as RGB (red green blue) color code followed by k-means fuzzy cluster analysis (FCA). The data were collected at a monitoring site west of the island of Helgoland (German Bight, SE North Sea) in the course of four surveys between September 2011 and November 2014. The study area has complex characteristics varying from outcropping bedrock to sandy and muddy sectors with mostly gradual transitions. RoxAnn data enabled to discriminate all seafloor types that were suggested by ground-truth information (seafloor samples, video). The area appears to be quite stable overall; sediment import (including fluid mud) was detected only from the NW. Although hard substrates (boulders, bedrock) are clearly identified, the signal can be modified by inclination and biocover. Manually, six RoxAnn zones were identified; for the FCA, only three classes are suggested. The latter classification based on `hard' boundaries would suffice for stakeholder issues, but the former classification based on `soft' boundaries is preferred to meet state-of-the-art scientific objectives.

  15. Seafloor monitoring west of Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Fiorentino, Dario; Papenmeier, Svenja; Holler, Peter; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Marine habitats of shelf seas are in constant dynamic change and therefore need regular assessment particularly in areas of special interest. In this study, the single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn served to assess seafloor hardness and roughness, and combine these parameters into one variable expressed as RGB (red green blue) color code followed by k-means fuzzy cluster analysis (FCA). The data were collected at a monitoring site west of the island of Helgoland (German Bight, SE North Sea) in the course of four surveys between September 2011 and November 2014. The study area has complex characteristics varying from outcropping bedrock to sandy and muddy sectors with mostly gradual transitions. RoxAnn data enabled to discriminate all seafloor types that were suggested by ground-truth information (seafloor samples, video). The area appears to be quite stable overall; sediment import (including fluid mud) was detected only from the NW. Although hard substrates (boulders, bedrock) are clearly identified, the signal can be modified by inclination and biocover. Manually, six RoxAnn zones were identified; for the FCA, only three classes are suggested. The latter classification based on `hard' boundaries would suffice for stakeholder issues, but the former classification based on `soft' boundaries is preferred to meet state-of-the-art scientific objectives.

  16. Development of a 22 GHz ground-based spectrometer for middle atmospheric water vapour monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Paolo Bertagnolio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The water Vapour Emission SPectrometer for Antarctica at 22 GHz (VESPA-22 has been designed for long-term middle atmospheric climate change monitoring and satellite data validation. It observes the water vapour spectral line at 22.235 GHz using the balanced beam-switching technique. The receiver antenna has been characterized, showing an HPBW of 3.5° and a sidelobe level 40 dB below the main lobe. The receiver front-end has a total gain of 105 dB and a LNA noise temperature of 125 K. A FFT spectrometer (bandwidth 1 GHz, resolution 63 kHz will be used as back-end, allowing the retrieval of H2O concentration profiles in the 20 to 80 km altitude range. The control I/O interface is based on reconfigurable hardware (USB-CPLD.

  17. Health monitoring of an ancient tree using ground penetrating radar - investigation of the tree root system and soil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Amir M.; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Giulia Brancadoro, Maria; Pirrone, Daniele; Benedetto, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    . In addition, the use of simulation can be a supporting tool for the development of a clear understanding of the decay processes in trees. In this study, a demonstration of the GPR potential in the health monitoring of an ancient tree has been given. The main objectives of the research were to provide an effective mapping of the tree roots as well as reliable simulation scenarios representing a variety of possible internal defects in terms of shape and formation. To these purposes, the soil around a 100-years old fir tree, with a trunk circumference of 3.40 m and an average radius of 0.55 m, was investigated. Nine radial scans, 0.30 m spaced each to one another, were carried out all around the tree circumference starting from 0.50 m the outer surface of the bark. A ground-coupled multi-frequency GPR system equipped with 600 MHz and 1600 MHz central frequency antennas was used for testing purposes. In order to reach the maximum penetration depth of the root system, only the 600 MHz frequency was considered for data processing purposes. After the application of a dedicated signal processing scheme, it was possible to produce a tomographic map of amplitudes covering a swept circle with an outer radius of 3.45 m and an inner radius of 1.05 m up to a maximum depth of 1.56 m. By using a set of specially developed algorithms it was possible to extract signal amplitude information reliably related to the position of the tree roots under the soil. In addition to the above objective, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of the electromagnetic field propagation through the cross section of a trunk were carried out. To this purpose, the numerical simulator package gprMax 2D was used. The freeware tool E2GPR aided the design of the gprMax models and their distributed execution on multicore machines. The dimensions and the dielectric properties of the simulated trunk were consistent with the investigated fir tree (actual data collected). Furthermore, a variety of

  18. Comparison of Hydraulic Conductivity Determinations in Co-located Conventional and Direct-Push Monitoring Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    was redeveloped in an attempt to obtain use- able slug-test data. Development was done by manually surging and purg- ing the well in a manner that...was consistent with industry practices as giv- en by ASTM D5521 and by Kraemer et al. (2006). An inertial-lift pump was used to surge and purge the...sediments were deposited during the presence of a glacial lake (Lake Hitchcock) that formed when melt water from a retreating glacier was dammed by a mo

  19. Paleontology and geochronology of the Long Beach core sites and monitoring wells, Long Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin; Hillhouse, John; Powell, Charles; Mahan, Shannon; Wan, Elmira; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Focus on Quaternary Stratigraphy in Los Angeles (FOQUS-LA) project was a cooperative coring program between Federal, State, and local agencies. It was designed to provide a better understanding of earthquake potentials and to develop a stratigraphic model of the western Los Angeles Basin in California. The biostratigraphic, geochronologic, and paleoecologic analyses of eight wells drilled during the FOQUS-LA project are presented. These analyses are based on microfossils (benthic and planktic foraminifers), macrofossils, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, optically stimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, radiocarbon dating, and tephrochronology. A geochronologic framework (incorporating paleomagnetism, luminescence, and tephrochronology) was used to calibrate the sequence stratigraphic units in the FOQUS-LA wells and also was used to calibrate the ages of the microfossil stage and zonal boundaries. The results of this study show that (1) the offshore California margin zones can be used in a nearshore setting, and (2) the California margin zonal scheme refines the chronostratigraphic resolution of the benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphic framework for the Pacific Coast. Benthic foraminiferal stages are modified by the recognition of an early Hallian substage, which is a faunal change recognized throughout the Los Angeles Basin. Although no detailed macrofossil zonations exist for the Quaternary of southern California, several species, whose distribution is regulated by the climatic conditions, are useful as secondary marker species in the shallower water deposits of the Los Angeles Basin.

  20. Recovery Act: High-Temperature Circuit Boards for use in Geothermal Well Monitoring Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, Matthew [Composite Tehcnology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO (United States); Fabian, Paul [Composite Tehcnology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is leading the development of alternative energy sources that will ensure the long-term energy independence of our nation. One of the key renewable resources currently being advanced is geothermal energy. To tap into the large potential offered by generating power from the heat of the earth, and for geothermal energy to be more widely used, it will be necessary to drill deeper wells to reach the hot, dry rock located up to 10 km beneath the earth’s surface. In this instance, water will be introduced into the well to create a geothermal reservoir. A geothermal well produced in this manner is referred to as an enhanced geothermal system (EGS). EGS reservoirs are typically at depths of 3 to 10 km, and the temperatures at these depths have become a limiting factor in the application of existing downhole technologies. These high temperatures are especially problematic for electronic systems such as downhole data-logging tools, which are used to map and characterize the fractures and high-permeability regions in underground formations. Information provided by these tools is assessed so that underground formations capable of providing geothermal energy can be identified, and the subsequent drilling operations can be accurately directed to those locations. The mapping of geothermal resources involves the design and fabrication of sensor packages, including the electronic control modules, to quantify downhole conditions (300°C temperature, high pressure, seismic activity, etc.). Because of the extreme depths at which these measurements are performed, it is most desirable to perform the sensor signal processing downhole and then transmit the information to the surface. This approach necessitates the use of high-temperature electronics that can operate in the downhole environment. Downhole signal processing in EGS wells will require the development and demonstration of circuit boards that can withstand the elevated temperatures found at these

  1. A temporal and spatial analysis of ground-water levels for effective monitoring in Huron County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, David J.; Sweat, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Quarterly water-level measurements were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of a monitoring network of 26 wells in Huron County, Michigan. Trends were identified as constant levels and autoregressive components were computed at all wells on the basis of data collected from 1993 to 1997, using structural time series analysis. Fixed seasonal components were identified at 22 wells and outliers were identified at 23 wells. The 95- percent confidence intervals were forecast for water-levels during the first and second quarters of 1998. Intervals in the first quarter were consistent with 92.3 percent of the measured values. In the second quarter, measured values were within the forecast intervals only 65.4 percent of the time. Unusually low precipitation during the second quarter is thought to have contributed to the reduced reliability of the second-quarter forecasts. Spatial interrelations among wells were investigated on the basis of the autoregressive components, which were filtered to create a set of innovation sequences that were temporally uncorrelated. The empirical covariance among the innovation sequences indicated both positive and negative spatial interrelations. The negative covariance components are considered to be physically implausible and to have resulted from random sampling error. Graphical modeling, a form of multivariate analysis, was used to model the covariance structure. Results indicate that only 29 of the 325 possible partial correlations among the water-level innovations were statistically significant. The model covariance matrix, corresponding to the model partial correlation structure, contained only positive elements. This model covariance was sequentially partitioned to compute a set of partial covariance matrices that were used to rank the effectiveness of the 26 monitoring wells from greatest to least. Results, for example, indicate that about 50 percent of the uncertainty of the water-level innovations currently monitored by the 26

  2. SqueeSARTM & GPS Ground Deformation Monitoring (1992-2012) of Santorini Volcano (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagios, E.; Sakkas, V.; Novali, F.; Vlachou, K.; Bellotti, F.; Giannico, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Santorini Volcanic Complex (SVC) - consisting of the islands of Thera, Therassia, Aspronisi and the two Kammenis (Palea & Nea Kammeni) - is one of the largest Quaternary volcanic centers in the Aegean located in the central part of the Hellenic Volcanic Arc. The complex has been in a quiet state the last 60 years, until January 2011 when the volcano reawakened, starting producing earthquakes in the caldera region of magnitudes up to 3, and showing an intense radial ground deformation. The seismicity in the caldera lasted until Jan. 2012 while afterwards, a decline in the seismicity rate started taking place. In the following, a two decade (1992-2012) ground deformation of the SVC is presented based on (i) the SqueeSAR technique (an advanced Permanent Scatterer (PS) Interferometric technique) and (ii) GPS campaign measurement results of our local network, including the continuous GPS (CGPS) stations established on the island. The spatial deformation of Santorini Volcano during the "quiet" period 1992-2010 was deduced by joint analysis of ERS1&2 and ENVISAT radar images of ascending and descending orbital geometry. This period, considering also the acceleration field of the PS, Palea Kammeni was getting uplifted (2-3 mm/yr), characterized by an increasing rate of uplift, whilst the adjacent Nea Kammeni was subsided (up to -3 mm/yr) with increasing rates. These two islets exhibit a different type of vertical motion. The rest of the area showed a LOS velocity field varying from -1 to +2 mm/yr and sub-millimeter acceleration field values, indicating a linear deformation during that period. Combining ascending and descending radar data, the vertical and horizontal (E-W) components of the velocity field were determined, where several deformation patterns were identified: The two main faulting zones, the Columbo and the Kammeni zones at the northern and central part, the Alpine basement at the SE part of Thera, and a pattern associated with the graben basin at its SE

  3. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  4. An observation-based approach to identify local natural dust events from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dust is a major component of atmospheric aerosols in many parts of the world. Although there exist many routine aerosol monitoring networks, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose a new approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the Western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24 recorded dust events, respectively, while the years of 2000, 2004 and 2005 are the calmest periods, all with single digit dust records. Among these deserts, the Chihuahua Desert (59 cases and the

  5. Investigation of inhomogeneity and anisotropy in near ground layers of atmospheric air turbulence using image motion monitoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Razi, Ebrahim; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2017-01-01

    In this work the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of real atmospheric turbulence have been investigated using image motion monitoring and differential image motion monitoring methods. For this purpose the light beam of a point source is propagated through the atmospheric turbulence layers in horizontal path and then impinged to a telescope aperture. The telescope and point source were 350 m apart. In front of the telescope's aperture a mask consisting of four subapertures was installed. Image of the point source was formed on a sensitive CCD camera located at the focal plane of the telescope. By displacing CCD camera along the axis of telescope, four distinct images were recorded. Angle of arrival (AA) of each spot was calculated by image processing. Air turbulence causes AA to fluctuate. By comparing AA fluctuation variances of different spots in two directions isotropy and homogeneity of turbulence were studied. Results have shown that atmospheric turbulence in near ground layers is treated as an anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium. In addition, the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of turbulence decreases with the distance from earth surface.

  6. Monitoring of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the south of Portugal by ground-based and satellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoli, Daniele; Silva, Ana Maria; Costa, Maria João; Domingues, Ana Filipa; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2009-07-20

    The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 - 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of the CGE, in Evora, since April 2004. A brief description of the instrument is given, highlighting the technological innovations with respect to the previous version of similar equipment. The need for such measurements automatically taken on a routine basis in south-western European regions, specifically in Portugal, has encouraged the development and installation of the equipment and constitutes a major driving force for the present work. The main features and some improvements introduced in the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) algorithms are discussed. The results obtained applying DOAS methodology to the SPATRAM spectrometer measurements of diffused spectral sky radiation are presented in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)). NO(2) confirms the typical seasonal cycle reaching the maximum of (6.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunset values (PM), during the summer season, and the minimum of (1.55 +/- 0.07) x 10(+15) molecules cm(-2) for the sunrise values (AM) in winter. O(3) presents the maximum total column of (433 +/- 5) Dobson Unit (DU) in the spring season and the minimum of (284 +/- 3) DU during the fall period. The huge daily variations of the O(3) total column during the spring season are analyzed and discussed. The ground-based results obtained for NO(2) and O(3) column contents are compared with data from satellite-borne equipment (GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and it is shown that the two data

  7. Design of the Mexico City UV monitoring network: UV-B measurements at ground level in the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, L. R.; Evans, W. F. J.

    2000-02-01

    Although there is concern for future stratospheric ozone depletion, several large urban populations are already being exposed to very high UV levels due to geographical factors. In Mexico City, ultraviolet radiation (UV) plays an important role in the generation of high levels of tropospheric ozone and other photochemical pollutants. The measurement of ultraviolet-B radiation in Mexico began in the spring 1993, as a pilot project for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) monitoring and as support for the first Hispanic public information program on the UV index through the Televisa (Mexican television network, which covers the Spanish speaking world). In 1996, based on our preliminary measurements, the Mexico City government commissioned the authors to design the Valley of Mexico UV-monitoring Network. The design of the network is presented. The preliminary measurements show that biologically active (UV-B) solar radiation can reach levels above 5 minimum erythemal dose (MED/hour) or 12 UV index units during spring and summer months. Annual UV measurements have shown seasonal variations of 40% between winter and summer months. Strong attenuation of UV-B radiation at ground level in the urban troposphere has been detected under polluted conditions. Measurements of the morphology of UV-B radiation have been taken at downtown and suburban monitoring stations, over diurnal, monthly and yearly periods. The network measurements show that the downtown UV-B levels are 20% lower than suburban levels on a seasonal basis, but differences can be greater than 40% on polluted days. The relationship between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone column and tropospheric ozone concentrations in Mexico City is also discussed.

  8. Flow zone characterisation in a fractured aquifer using spring and open-well T and EC monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbotui, Prodeo; West, Landis; Bottrell, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Cretaceous Chalk is a very important aquifer in England, and its relatively high transmissivity derives essentially from a well-developed network of solutionally-enhanced fractures and conduits. Like other fractured aquifers, characterisation and delineation of flow pathways and hence catchment boundaries is important. Determination of flow pathways for source catchment delineation (e.g. identification of safeguarding zones around wells) is critical for the effective management and protection of the groundwater resource. It also determines the areal extent of contamination from known sources, and enables the targeted sampling of flow zones e.g. for monitored natural attenuation (MNA). A rather simplistic conceptualisation of the unconfined chalk aquifer of East Yorkshire is currently used as a basis for numerical simulations: linearly reducing hydraulic conductivity (K) with depth below the maximum groundwater elevation, reducing to a minimum value below the zone of groundwater table fluctuation. This study represents an attempt to improve this conceptualisation via improved characterisation of permeable zones within the aquifer. The methods used are: pumping test drawdown analyses for transmissivity, ambient open-well dilution testing; rainfall, groundwater head, and spring / open-well specific electrical conductance (SEC) and temperature monitoring. Pumping test analyses yield overall well transmissivity; the open-well dilution/monitoring approach identifies inflow, outflow, crossflow zones and direction and rate of flow in wells; seasonal changes in flows in wells and springs reflect the annual recharge and recession cycle and the impact of seasonal hydraulic head variation on the activation/deactivation of permeable pathways. Variations in spring and well-water electrical conductivity / temperature provide insight into groundwater residence times and the degree of isolation of groundwater from atmospheric and soil zone sources of CO2. The results of the

  9. 2D and 3D Ground Penetrating Radar monitoring of a reinforced concrete asphalt plate affected by mechanical deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavusi, M.; Dumoulin, J.; Loperte, A.; Rizzo, E.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    The main facility of Hydrogeosite Laboratory of the Italian National Research Council (Marsico Nuovo, CNR) is a 3m x 7m x 10m reinforced concrete pool filled by siliceous sand designed for hydrologic experiments. One of its peculiarities is the possibility to vary the water table depth by using a proper hydraulic system [1]. In the framework of the FP7 ISTIMES project (Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing), a 3m x 3m layered structure has been purposely built and placed in the pool of the Hydrogeosite Laboratory with the aim to carry out a long term monitoring, by using jointly several electromagnetic sensing technologies, during two different phases simulating the rising of the water table and a mechanical solicitation. Several layers composed the structure from the top to the bottom, such as: 5 cm of asphalt; 5-10 cm of reinforced concrete; 20-25 cm of conglomerate, 55 cm of sand. Moreover, in the sand layer, three (metallic and plastic) pipes of different size were buried to simulate utilities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys were performed by using a the GSSI SIR 3000 system equipped with 400 MHz and 1500 MHz central frequency antennas. Surveys carried out by means of 400 MHz antenna allowed to detect and localize the three pipes (one in plastic and two in metal) and to investigate the effects of the sand water content on their radar signature. Surveys carried out by using 1500 MHz antenna were focused to characterize the shallower layers of the structure. The Hydrogeosite experiment consisted in following stages: • Arising of a water table by infiltration from the bottom; • Water gravity infiltration condescendingly; • Infiltration by peristaltic pump in the very shallow layers of the structure; • Water table drawdown; • Mechanical structure deformation; • Asphalt plate restoration after mechanical solicitation. After each stage a series of GPR surveys was performed. Moreover

  10. Radon Monitoring in Soil Gas and Ground Water for Earthquake Prediction Studies in North West Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of soil gas radon at Sarol and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water at Banikhet is carried out in Chamba valley of North West Himalayas, India ¡§a well known seismic zone¡¨ to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities of the region. Radon monitoring in soil gas was carried out by using Barasol probe manufactured by Algade France and the radon content in water was recorded using RAD7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company, USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature and pressure on soil gas radon emission has been studied. Correlation coefficient has been calculated between radon in soil gas, soil temperature and soil pressure. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events in the magnitude range 2.2 to 5.0 recorded by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology Dehradun in NW Himalayan. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined.

  11. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  12. Low-Level Volatile Organic Compounds in Active Public Supply Wells as Ground-Water Tracers in the Los Angeles Physiographic Basin, California, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Land, Michael; Gronberg, JoAnn

    2001-01-01

    Data were collected to evaluate the use of low-level volatile organic compounds (VOC) to assess the vulnerability of public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Samples of untreated ground water from 178 active public supply wells in the Los Angeles physiographic basin show that VOCs were detected in 61 percent of the ground-water samples; most of these detections were low, with only 29 percent above 1 mg/L (microgram per liter). Thirty-nine of the 86 VOCs analyzed were detected in at least one sample, and 11 VOCs were detected in 7 percent or more of the samples. The six most frequently detected VOCs were trichloromethane (chloroform) (46 percent); trichloroethene (TCE) (28 percent); tetrachloro-ethene (PCE) (19 percent); methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (14 percent); 1,1-dichloroethane (11 percent); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (11 percent). These VOCs were also the most frequently detected VOCs in ground water representative of a wide range of hydrologically conditions in urban areas nationwide. Only two VOCs (TCE and PCE) exceeded state and federal primary maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for drinking water in a total of seven samples. Because samples were collected prior to water treatment, sample concentrations do not represent the concentrations entering the drinking-water system.Ground water containing VOCs may be considered to be a tracer of postindustrial-aged water-water that was recharged after the onset of intense urban development. The overall distribution of VOC detections is related to the hydrological and the engineered recharge facilities in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin and the Coastal Santa Ana Basin that comprise the Los Angeles physiographic basin. Most of the ground-water recharge occurs at engineered recharge facilities in the generally coarse-grained northeastern parts of the study area (forebay areas). Ground-water recharge from the land surface is minimal in the southwestern part of the basins, distal from the recharge

  13. The Prospect of using Three-Dimensional Earth Models To Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring and Ground Motion Hazard Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca, J J; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J; Richards, P; Pasyanos, M E; Myers, S C; Lay, T; Harris, D; Antoun, T

    2008-11-19

    The last ten years have brought rapid growth in the development and use of three-dimensional (3D) seismic models of Earth structure at crustal, regional and global scales. In order to explore the potential for 3D seismic models to contribute to important societal applications, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a 'Workshop on Multi-Resolution 3D Earth Models to Predict Key Observables in Seismic Monitoring and Related Fields' on June 6 and 7, 2007 in Berkeley, California. The workshop brought together academic, government and industry leaders in the research programs developing 3D seismic models and methods for the nuclear explosion monitoring and seismic ground motion hazard communities. The workshop was designed to assess the current state of work in 3D seismology and to discuss a path forward for determining if and how 3D Earth models and techniques can be used to achieve measurable increases in our capabilities for monitoring underground nuclear explosions and characterizing seismic ground motion hazards. This paper highlights some of the presentations, issues, and discussions at the workshop and proposes two specific paths by which to begin quantifying the potential contribution of progressively refined 3D seismic models in critical applied arenas. Seismic monitoring agencies are tasked with detection, location, and characterization of seismic activity in near real time. In the case of nuclear explosion monitoring or seismic hazard, decisions to further investigate a suspect event or to launch disaster relief efforts may rely heavily on real-time analysis and results. Because these are weighty decisions, monitoring agencies are regularly called upon to meticulously document and justify every aspect of their monitoring system. In order to meet this level of scrutiny and maintain operational robustness requirements, only mature technologies are considered for operational monitoring systems, and operational technology necessarily lags

  14. Ground-water flow simulation and chemical and isotopic mixing equation analysis to determine source contributions to the Missouri River alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of the Independence, Missouri, well field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    from precipitation, and 8.3 percent between starting cells. Well-field pumpage that traveled 10 years or less from the source was 42.7 percent, with 32.6 percent from the Missouri River, 1.8 percent from precipitation, and 8.3 percent between starting cells. Well-field pumpage that traveled 25 years or less from the source was 71.9 percent, with 58.9 percent from the Missouri River, 4.7 percent from precipitation, and 8.3 percent between starting cells. Results of chemical (calcium, sodium, iron, and fluoride) and isotopic (oxygen and hydrogen) analyses of water samples collected from the Missouri River, selected monitoring wells around the Independence well field, and combined well-field pumpage were used in a two component mixing equation to estimate the relative amount of Missouri River water in total well-field pumpage. The relative amounts of induced inflow from the Missouri River in well-field pumpage ranged from 49 percent for sodium to 80 percent for calcium, and sensitivities ranged from 0 percent for iron to plus or minus 35 percent for naturally occurring stable isotope (18O). The average of all mixing equation results indicated that 61 percent of well-field pumpage was from induced inflow from the Missouri River. All methods used in the study indicate that more than one-half of the water in well-field pumpage was inflow from the Missouri River. River inflow estimates from ground-water simulation methods are larger and error values are smaller than those using chemical and isotopic data in the mixing equation, although substantial uncertainties exist for both estimation methods. Because of the complex hydrology of the aquifer near the Independence well field, the source estimates using particle tracking probably are the most reliable of the ground-water simulation methods. Mixing equation results are less reliable than those of the ground-water simulation for this study. However, more reliable results can be obtained from the mixing equatio

  15. Development and Application of Database for Mine Ground pressure Monitoring%矿山地压监测数据库开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少林; 毛建华; 杨伟忠

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic database for ground pressure monitoring in Tongken mine has been established. By such technical means as the treatment of primary data, graphics conversion, model generation, data classification and analysis, the attribute connection of data between models,as well as spatial analysis,the data of pressure monitoring is combined into an organic whole. The database system is used to achieve the automatic process and visualization output of monitored data. The authorized query and sharing of results of rock movement and surface collapse forecast and analysis have been realized. It provides technical guarantee for the safety in production of Tongken mine.%针对铜坑矿地压监测资料建立了动态数据库,通过原始数据整理、图形转换、模型生成、数据分类分析、模型数据间属性连接、空间分析等技术手段,使各种不同类别的地压监测数据有机结合成一个整体,利用数据库系统进行自动化处理和可视化输出,实现了矿山地压的全天候连续监控和岩层移动、塌陷预测与分析资料的局域网授权查询与共享.为铜坑安全生产提供了保障.

  16. Wells provide a distorted view of life in the aquifer: implications for sampling, monitoring and assessment of groundwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Kathryn; Chariton, Anthony; Stephenson, Sarah; Greenfield, Paul; Hose, Grant C.

    2017-01-01

    When compared to surface ecosystems, groundwater sampling has unique constraints, including limited access to ecosystems through wells. In order to monitor groundwater, a detailed understanding of groundwater biota and what biological sampling of wells truly reflects, is paramount. This study aims to address this uncertainty, comparing the composition of biota in groundwater wells prior to and after purging, with samples collected prior to purging reflecting a potentially artificial environment and samples collected after purging representing the surrounding aquifer. This study uses DNA community profiling (metabarcoding) of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA, combined with traditional stygofauna sampling methods, to characterise groundwater biota from four catchments within eastern Australia. Aquifer waters were dominated by Archaea and bacteria (e.g. Nitrosopumilales) that are often associated with nitrification processes, and contained a greater proportion of bacteria (e.g. Anaerolineales) associated with fermenting processes compared to well waters. In contrast, unpurged wells contained greater proportions of pathogenic bacteria and bacteria often associated with denitrification processes. In terms of eukaryotes, the abundances of copepods, syncarids and oligochaetes and total abundances of stygofauna were greater in wells than aquifers. These findings highlight the need to consider sampling requirements when completing groundwater ecology surveys. PMID:28102290

  17. Question No. 5: What Role Can Satellites Take, as a Complement to Ground Based Measurement Systems, to Provide Sustained Observations to Monitor GHG Emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Moustafa; Olsen, Edward

    2011-01-01

    What role can satellites take, as a complement to ground based measurement systems, to provide sustained observations to monitor GHG emissions (e.g., CO2, CH4, O3, N2O, CFC s, NH3, and NF3) that contribute to global warming?

  18. Long-term sequential monitoring of controlled graves representing common burial scenarios with ground penetrating radar: Years 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John J.; Walter, Brittany S.; Healy, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Geophysical techniques such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR) have been successfully used for forensic searches to locate clandestine graves and physical evidence. However, additional controlled research is needed to fully understand the applicability of this technology when searching for clandestine graves in various environments, soil types, and for longer periods of time post-burial. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of GPR for detecting controlled graves in a Spodosol representing multiple burial scenarios for Years 2 and 3 of a three-year monitoring period. Objectives included determining how different burial scenarios are factors in producing a distinctive anomalous response; determining how different GPR imagery options (2D reflection profiles and horizontal time slices) can provide increased visibility of the burials; and comparing GPR imagery between 500 MHz and 250 MHz dominant frequency antennae. The research site contained a grid with eight graves representing common forensic burial scenarios in a Spodosol, a common soil type of Florida, with six graves containing a pig carcass (Sus scrofa). Burial scenarios with grave items (a deep grave with a layer of rocks over the carcass and a carcass wrapped in a tarpaulin) produced a more distinctive response with clearer target reflections over the duration of the monitoring period compared to naked carcasses. Months with increased precipitation were also found to produce clearer target reflections than drier months, particularly during Year 3 when many grave scenarios that were not previously visible became visible after increased seasonal rainfall. Overall, the 250 MHz dominant frequency antenna imagery was more favorable than the 500 MHz. While detection of a simulated grave may be difficult to detect over time, long term detection of a grave in a Spodosol may be possible if the disturbed spodic horizon is detected. Furthermore, while grave visibility increased with the 2D

  19. Estimation of some geohydrological properties in a set of monitoring wells in Mexicali Valley, B.C., Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Fuentes-Arreazola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the response of the water level related to variations in barometric pressure and the action of theoretical Earth tide, in a set of monitoring wells in the Mexicali Valley; are propose and implement analysis techniques in the time and frequency domain to obtain as result from the calculation of transfer functions and harmonic analysis, values of barometric efficiency and sensitivity to Earth tide, with which under conditions of theoretical static-confined response, was possible to obtain estimates of some geohydrological and geophysical properties as: porosity, specific storage, and compressibility. In five wells considered in this paper were obtained estimates of the properties of the aquifer in a state before and after an earthquake. This work has enabled a better understanding of the parameters that control the processes that occur in the study area.

  20. Design and Implementation of Ground Monitoring System in Low - altitude Airship%低空飞艇地面监控系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹芬; 侯中峰; 谢利理

    2011-01-01

    The background of this paper is a project of an experimental low - altitude airship. The ground monitoring system in low - altitude airship based on LabWindows/CVI is developed, and some key questions in software design are illustrated in detail, such as low - level communication program design of serial port, joystick programming and airship real -time database design. After a long run, the system software works well, and meets the requirements of the practical needs, as well as being valuable in engineering application.%以某低空实验飞艇项目为背景,基于LabWindows/CVI设计并实现了低空飞艇地面监控系统的上层软件,对底层串口通信程序、飞艇遥控操纵杆程序以及飞艇实时状态数据库连接等几个关键问题进行了详细设计.该地面监控系统经过长期运行表明该监控软件运行稳定,功能完备实用,具有较高的工程应用价值.

  1. 基于GPRS和PLC的飞机地面除冰监控系统%Aircraft ground deicing monitoring system based on GPRS and PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立文; 陈垣均; 陈斌

    2016-01-01

    针对飞机地面除冰系统的远程管理和维护需求,提出基于 GPRS DTU (data transfer unit)通信模块和 PLC 控制单元的飞机地面除冰远程监控系统方案。通过以松下PLC为主控制单元的飞机地面除冰系统终端,将系统运行状况和故障信息经 GPRS网络实时传送到远程监控中心,经过对远程监控中心上位机软件的操纵,实现对飞机地面除冰系统的远程监测与控制,解决机场特殊环境下对飞机地面除冰信息传输和运行监控的难题。测试结果验证了该方案的可行性。%According to remote management and maintenance requirements of aircraft ground deicing system,the program of air-craft ground deicing remote monitoring system was proposed based on GPRS DTU and PLC control unit.Through aircraft ground deicing system terminal based on Panasonic PLC control unit,the system running status and fault information were real-time sent to the remote monitoring center via the GPRS network.The software of computer monitoring center was operated,re-mote measure and control of aircraft ground deicing system was realized.The problems of information transmitting and operation monitoring about aircraft ground deicing system were solved in the special environment at the airport.Testing results show that the monitoring system program is feasible.

  2. Preliminary results of sequential monitoring of simulated clandestine graves in Colombia, South America, using ground penetrating radar and botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Hernández, Orlando

    2015-03-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of missing people and forced disappearances, 68,000 alone currently in Colombia. Successful detection of shallow buried human remains by forensic search teams is difficult in varying terrain and climates. This research has created three simulated clandestine burial styles at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America to gain knowledge of optimum forensic geophysics detection techniques. Repeated monitoring of the graves post-burial was undertaken by ground penetrating radar. Radar survey 2D profile results show reasonable detection of ½ clothed pig cadavers up to 19 weeks of burial, with decreasing confidence after this time. Simulated burials using skeletonized human remains were not able to be imaged after 19 weeks of burial, with beheaded and burnt human remains not being able to be detected throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good early results up to 19 weeks of burial as more area was covered and bi-directional surveys were collected, but these decreased in amplitude over time. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Analysis of excavated soil found soil moisture content almost double compared to those reported from temperate climate studies. Vegetation variations over the simulated graves were also noted which would provide promising indicators for grave detection.

  3. 地表水文监测在岩溶隧道施工中的应用%Application of Ground Surface Hydrology Monitoring in Construction of Karst Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周坤; 方俊波

    2013-01-01

    为探讨岩溶隧道施工涌水对地表水文环境的影响程度及范围,以圆梁山深埋特长隧道工程施工为依托,对隧道地表水文进行监测和分析.主要研究内容及结论为:1)介绍圆梁山隧道向斜段地表水文地质情况,说明进行悬挂泉流量及地表井泉水位监测可以评估隧道突涌水对地表环境的影响程度及范围;2)进行地表大气降雨及隧道涌水量观测并对比,可以据此判定隧道与地表的水力连通性;3)证明隧道施工会对隧道洞身上方泉眼产生影响,但对山顶植被影响较轻;4)在岩溶隧道施工中进行地表水文监测是必要的,对施工具有指导作用.%The ground surface hydrology of Yuanliangshan deep-buried extra-long tunnel is monitored and analyzed,so as to obtain the degree and range of the influence on the ground surface hydrology imposed by water burst occurring during the construction of karst tunnels.Conclusions drawn are as follows:1) The degree and range of the influence of water bursts on the ground surface hydrology can be evaluated by means of monitoring the flow volume of hanging springs and the water levels of ground surface well springs.2) The hydraulic conductivity between the tunnel and the ground surface can be deduced from monitoring of and comparison and contrast between ground surface rainfalls and water bursts.3) The tunnel construction has some influence on the springs above the tunnel,but has little influence on the vegetations.4) It is necessary to monitor the ground surface hydrology,which can provide reference for the construction of karst tunnels.

  4. Monitoring CO2 gas-phase migration in a shallow sand aquifer using cross-borehole ground penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Rune Nørbæk; Sonnenborg, T.O.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding potential pathways of gaseous CO2 into and through the shallow subsurface from deep geological storage is one of many requirements related to risk assessment of a carbon capture and storage (CCS) site. In this study, a series of field experiments were carried out at a site located...... in Vrøgum in western Denmark. Up to 45 kg of gaseous CO2 was injected into a shallow aquifer approximately 8 m below the groundwater table. In the upper 6 m, the aquifer consisted of fine Aeolian sand underlain by coarser glacial sand. The migration of the gaseous CO2 was tracked using cross-borehole ground...... penetrating radar (GPR). A total of six GPR-boreholes were installed around the injection well and in the dominant flow direction of the groundwater. The GPR measurements were collected before, during, and after the CO2-injection. The GPR method proved to be very sensitive to desaturation of the aquifer when...

  5. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-08-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  6. Performance evaluation of a ground-source heat pump system utilizing a flowing well and estimation of suitable areas for its installation in Aizu Basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gaurav; Uchida, Youhei; Kuronuma, Satoru; Yamaya, Mutsumi; Katsuragi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Shohei; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Yoshioka, Mayumi

    2017-02-01

    Development of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system with higher efficiency, and evaluation of its operating performance, is essential to expand the growth of GSHP systems in Japan. A closed-loop GSHP system was constructed utilizing a flowing (artesian) well as a ground heat exchanger (GHE). The system was demonstrated for space-heating and space-cooling of a room (area 126.7 m2) in an office building. The average coefficient of performance was found to be 4.5 for space-heating and 8.1 for space-cooling. The maximum heat exchange rate was 70.8 W/m for space-heating and 57.6 W/m for space-cooling. From these results, it was determined that a GSHP system with a flowing well as a GHE can result in higher performance. With this kind of highly efficient system, energy saving and cost reduction can be expected. In order to assess appropriate locations for the installation of similar kinds of GSHP systems in Aizu Basin, a suitability map showing the distribution of groundwater up-flowing areas was prepared based on the results of a regional-scale three-dimensional analytical model. Groundwater up-flowing areas are considered to be suitable because the flowing well can be constructed at these areas. Performance evaluation of the GSHP system utilizing the flowing well, in conjunction with the prepared suitability map for its installation, can assist in the promotion of GSHP systems in Japan.

  7. Monitoring stratospheric chlorine activation from time series of OClO DSCDs above Kiruna using ground-based zenith sky DOAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Pukite, Janis; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    After to the Montreal protocol and amendments, the production of CFCs was strongly reduced. Since then scientists have steadily made efforts to monitor the amount of chlorine compounds which are responsible for the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. Although very recent research of stratospheric ozone indicates an ozone recovery, ozone depletion is still observed in the polar spring and is expected to last for about another 70 years according to the WMO. Therefore, continuous observation and analysis of the stratospheric ozone as well as other stratospheric trace gases are highly demanded. Several previous studies have investigated OClO which is an indicator for stratospheric chlorine activation using satellite, ground-based, and balloon remote sensing measurements. In this work, we investigate long-term time series of OClO DSCDs (Differential Slant Column densities) above Kiruna, Sweden (67.84°N, 20.41°E) which is located inside the Arctic Circle by using the ground-based zenith sky DOAS measurements. Since our measurements are performed at the fixed site, for the interpretation also the relative position of the polar vortex has to be considered. Our long-term data obtained during about 15 years allows us to classify the dependence of the OClO amount on the various meteorological conditions. Our data show a large variability with high OClO SCDs in cold, and low OClO SCDs in warm winters. Our measurements also allow to investigate the effect of the chlorine activation and its duration on the strength of the ozone destruction.

  8. Final work plan : targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation for potential site reclassification at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-07-11

    This ''Work Plan'' outlines the scope of work for a targeted groundwater sampling investigation and monitoring well installation at Barnes, Kansas. This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Data resulting from the proposed work will be used to determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and determine additional monitoring requirements at Barnes. The overall goal is to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The proposed work will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Farm Service Agency of the USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a ''Master Work Plan'' (Argonne 2002) to provide general guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The ''Master Work Plan'', approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document must be consulted for the complete details of plans for this work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Barnes.

  9. Occurrence and distribution of enteric viruses in shallow ground water and factors affecting well vulnerability to microbiological contamination in Worcester and Wicomico counties, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Klohe, Cheryl A.; Battigelli, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment and the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, conducted a study to characterize the occurrence and distribution of viral contamination in small (withdrawing less than 10,000 gallons per day) public water-supply wells screened in the water-table aquifer in the Coastal Plain in Worcester and Wicomico Counties, Maryland.Two hundred seventy-eight well sites were evaluated with regard to simulated ground-water flow paths, land use, natural soils groups, and well characteristics, such as well depth and well age. Flow and transport simulations of the water-table aquifer indicated that wells screened less than about 50 feet below land surface (shallow wells) were most vulnerable to surface contamination, which in some cases could originate from as far as 2,000 feet upgradient of the well. Animal-feeding and agricultural-storage operations were considered among the most likely sources for viral contamination; therefore, sites close to these activities were considered most vulnerable. Soil groups were evaluated with regard to depth to water and moisture-holding capacity. Wells with shallow depths to water or in very sandy soils were considered more vulnerable to contamination than deep wells (greater than 50 feet) and those completed in finer-grained soils. Older wells and wells where coliform bacteria had been detected in the past were classified as highly vulnerable. On the basis of this evaluation, 27 sites considered to be susceptible were sampled.Samples were collected by pumping up to 400 gallons of untreated well water through an electropositive filter. Water concentrates were subjected to cell-culture assay for the detection of culturable viruses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction/gene probe assays to detect nonculturable viruses; grab samples were analyzed for somatic and male-specific coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  11. Comparison of CO2 Detection Methods Tested in Shallow Groundwater Monitoring Wells at a Geological Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenborn, Harry M.; Jain, Jinesh N.

    2016-05-17

    The geological storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is one method of reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. Monitoring programs typically determine baseline conditions in surface and near-surface environments before, during, and after CO2 injection to evaluate if impacts related to injection have occurred. Because CO2 concentrations in groundwater fluctuate naturally due to complex geochemical and geomicrobiologicalinteractions, a clear understanding of the baseline behavior of CO2 in groundwater near injection sites is important. Numerous ways of measuring aqueous CO2 in the field and lab are currently used, but most methods have significant shortcomings (e.g., are tedious, lengthy, have interferences, or have significant lag time before a result is determined). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of two novel CO2 detection methods and their ability to rapidly detect CO2in shallow groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Illinois Basin –Decatur Project geological sequestration site. The CarboQC beverage carbonation meter was used to measure the concentration of CO2 in water by monitoring temperature and pressure changes and calculating the PCO2 from the ideal gas law. Additionally, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO< sub>2sensor enclosed in a gas-permeable, water-impermeable membrane measured CO2by determining an equilibrium concentration. Results showed that the CarboQC method provided rapid (< 3 min) and repeatable results under field conditions within a measured concentration range of 15 –125 mg/L CO2. The NDIR sensor results correlated well (r2= 0.93) with the CarboQC data, but CO2 equilibration required at least 15 minutes, making the method somewhat less desirable under field conditions. In contrast, NDIR-based sensors have a greater potential for long-term deployment. Both

  12. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  13. Analysis of Dual- and Full-Circular Polarimetric SAR Modes for Rice Phenology Monitoring: An Experimental Investigation through Ground-Based Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Izumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized synthetic aperture radar (CP-SAR is known to be insensitive to polarization mismatch losses caused by the Faraday rotation effect and antenna misalignment. Additionally, the dual-circular polarimetric (DCP mode has proven to have more polarimetric information than that of the corresponding mode of linear polarization, i.e., the dual-linear polarimetric (DLP mode. Owing to these benefits, this paper investigates the feasibility of CP-SAR for rice monitoring. A ground-based CP-radar system was exploited, and C-band anechoic chamber data of a self-cultivated Japanese rice paddy were acquired from germination to ripening stages. Temporal variations of polarimetric observables derived from full-circular polarimetric (FCP and DCP as well as synthetically generated DLP data are analyzed and assessed with regard to their effectiveness in phenology retrieval. Among different observations, the H / α ¯ plane and triangle plots obtained by three scattering components (surface, double-bounce, and volume scattering for both the FCP and DCP modes are confirmed to have reasonable capability in discriminating the relevant intervals of rice growth.

  14. Polarimetric analysis of radar backscatter from ground-based scatterometers and wheat biomass monitoring with advanced synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Tong, Ling; Li, Yuxia; Chen, Yan; Tan, Longfei; Guo, Caizheng

    2016-04-01

    This article presents an analysis of the scattering measurements for an entire wheat growth cycle by ground-based scatterometers at a frequency of 5.3 GHz. Since wheat ears are related to wheat growth and yield, the radar backscatter of wheat was analyzed at two different periods, i.e., with and without wheat ears. Simultaneously, parameters such as wheat and soil characteristics as well as volume scattering and soil scattering were analyzed for the two periods during the entire growth cycle. Wheat ears have been demonstrated to have a great influence on radar backscatter; therefore, a modified version of water-cloud model used for retrieving biomass should consider the effect of wheat ears. This work presents two retrieval models based on the water-cloud model and adopts the advanced integral equation model to simulate the soil backscatter before the heading stage and the backscatter from the layer under wheat ears after the heading stage. The research results showed that the biomass retrieved from the advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) images to agree well with the data measured in situ after setting the modified water-cloud model for the growth stages with ears. Furthermore, it was concluded that wheat ears should form an essential component of theoretical modeling as they influence the final yield.

  15. Monitoring the Restart of a High-Rate Wastewater Disposal Well in the Val d'Agri Oilfield (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gori, P.; Improta, L.; Moretti, M.; Colasanti, G.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri Quaternary basin in the Southern Apennine range of Italy hosts the largest inland oil field in Europe. Wastewater coming from the oil exploitation is re-injected by a high-rate disposal well into strongly fractured limestones of the hydrocarbon carbonate reservoir. Disposal activity has induced micro-seismicity since the beginning of injection in June 2006. Around 220 small magnitude events (ML Vulcanologia. The induced micro-seismicity illuminated a pre-existing high-angle fault located 1 km below the well. Since June 2006, wastewater has been re-injected with only short interruptions due acid stimulations. In January 2015 disposal activity was halted due to technical operations in the oil refinery and wastewater injection restarted after two weeks. We installed 5 short-period stations within 10 km of the disposal well to carefully monitor the re-start phase and the subsequent 3 months of disposal activity. This temporary network was complemented by stations of the National Seismic Network giving this final configuration:9 stations within 10 km of the well with the closest station 2 km apart, 13 stations within 20 km. Here we report on the preliminary analysis of the local earthquake recorded during the survey focusing on the events occurred in the injection area. The seismicity rate is compared with injection data.In spite of the dense network, we found that the rate of induced seismicity (both the number and energy of events) is very low when compared to the seismicity recorded during the first 5 years of injection activity carried out with comparable rate and pressure.

  16. Successful field application in continuous DTS monitoring under harsh environment of SAGD wells using improved optical fiber technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaura, J.; Sierra, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). WellDynamics

    2008-10-15

    Most protective materials of conventional optical fibers used in well monitoring applications are not designed for the extreme temperatures associated with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations. Optical fiber performance is highly affected by hydrogen ingression; thermal resistance of materials; and mechanical resistance of the fiber. Optical fibers exposed to hydrogen experience increased absorption or light loss due to various chemical species in the glass fiber. This paper described the performance of a newly developed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) high temperature (HT) system for use in a hydrogen-rich SAGD environment. The OptoLog uses a new single-mode fiber that is hydrogen resilient under severe temperature. Hydrogen molecular reactions with impurities from the manufacturing process are minimized by a pure core glass fiber. The new temperature calculation algorithm used by the system was also described in this paper along with a comparative evaluation of the system performance with that of a conventional multi-mode DTS system. It was concluded that this newly developed system is a feasible solution for lowering Opex and minimizing interventions. It also reduces personnel exposure to hazardous well conditions because of the enhanced longevity of the OptoLog DTS-HT fiber. The data provided by the new system enables users to quickly identify anomalies; implement corrective actions immediately; and allow for better steam utilization. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines

  18. Effects of groundwater withdrawal on borehole flow and salinity measured in deep monitor wells in Hawai'i-implications for groundwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja

    2010-01-01

    Water-resource managers in Hawai`i rely heavily on salinity profiles from deep monitor wells to estimate the thickness of freshwater and the depth to the midpoint of the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater in freshwater-lens systems. The deep monitor wells are typically open boreholes below the water table and extend hundreds of feet below sea level. Because of possible borehole-flow effects, there is concern that salinity profiles measured in these wells may not accurately reflect the salinity distribution in the aquifer and consequently lead to misinterpretations that adversely affect water-resource management. Steplike changes in salinity or temperature with depth in measured profiles from nonpumped deep monitor wells may be indicative of water moving within the well, and such changes are evident to some extent in all available profiles. The maximum vertical step length, or displacement, in measured profiles ranges from 7 to 644 feet. Vertical steps longer than 70 feet exceed the typical thickness of massive lava flows; they therefore cannot be attributed entirely to geologic structure and may be indicative of borehole flow. The longest vertical steps occur in monitor wells located in southern O'ahu, coinciding with the most heavily developed part of the aquifer. Although regional groundwater withdrawals have caused a thinning of the freshwater lens over the past several decades, the measured midpoint of the transition zone in most deep monitor wells has shown only inconsequential depth displacement in direct response to short-term variations in withdrawals from nearby production wells. For profiles from some deep monitor wells, however, the depth of the measured top of the transition zone, indicated by a specific-conductance value of 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter, has risen several hundred feet in response to withdrawals from nearby production wells. For these deep monitor wells, monitoring the apparent top of the transition zone may not

  19. Monitoring actual performance of ground source heat pump system using GPRS-based data transmission:A case analysis in Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红普; 孔祥飞; 李敏; 齐承英

    2015-01-01

    The energy efficiency monitoring is an essential precondition for ground source heat pump system’s controlling and energy saving operation. Based on the data monitoring applied in the school building, this work is focused on the parameters acquisition and operation analysis of the GSHP system in Tangshan. Results show the average COPs (coefficient of performance) are 2.85 and 2.70 in summer and winter, respectively, and heat(cold) unbalance underground existed after whole year operation. The analysis of data also indicates that the direct borehole air-conditioning saved some power consumption obviously in the early stage of summer and energy saving of the GSHP system depended remarkably on its operation and management level. Besides the observation points of ground temperature are laid for a large-scale GSHP system, and the hydraulic balance of the pipes group needs to be concerned specially in safeguarding better reliability.

  20. Deployment and design of bi-directional corner reflectors for op-timal ground motion monitoring using InSAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro Cuenca, M.; Dheenathayalan, P.; Rossum, W.L. van; Hoogeboom, P.

    2014-01-01

    SAR interferometry (InSAR) requires coherent radar reflections to measure ground displacements. Howev-er, natural coherent reflectors are not always available due to changes in the scattering properties of the ground, e.g., growing vegetation. Furthermore, the opportunistic nature of InSAR measureme

  1. Analysis of the ground vibration produced by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abancó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ground vibration sensors for debris-flow monitoring has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the seismic signals produced by debris flows still presents many uncertainties. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain two different ground vibration stations with different characteristics in terms of recording systems and site-specific factors have been compared. The shape of the time series has been recognised as one of the key parameters to identify events and to distinguish between different types of torrential processes. The results show that the site-specific factors strongly influence on the ground vibration registered at each geophone. The attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential. In addition, the assembly of the geophones to the terrain also has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task which is clearly influenced by site-specific conditions of the geophones.

  2. Chemical Characteristics, Water Sources and Pathways, and Age Distribution of Ground Water in the Contributing Recharge Area of a Public-Supply Well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Metz, Patricia A.; McBride, William S.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. The main goal of the TANC program was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to public-supply wells in representative aquifers of the United States. Studies were first conducted at regional scales at four of the eight TANC study areas during 2002-03 and at small (local) scales during 2003-05 in California, Nebraska, Connecticut, and Florida. In the Temple Terrace study area near Tampa, Florida, multiple chemical indicators and geochemical and ground-water flow modeling techniques were used to assess the vulnerability of a public-supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer to contamination from anthropogenic and naturally occurring contaminants. During 2003-05, water samples were collected from the public-supply well and 13 surrounding monitoring wells that all tap the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 15 monitoring wells in the overlying surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit that are located within the modeled ground-water contributing recharge area of the public-supply well. Six volatile organic compounds and four pesticides were detected in trace concentrations (well below drinking-water standards) in water from the public-supply well, which had an open interval from 36 to 53 meters below land surface. These contaminants were detected more frequently in water samples from monitoring wells in the overlying clastic surficial aquifer system than in water from monitoring wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. Likewise, nitrate-N concentrations in the public-supply well (0.72-1.4 milligrams per liter) were more similar to median concentrations in the oxic surficial aquifer system (2.1 milligrams per liter) than to median nitrate-N concentrations in the anoxic

  3. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  4. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  5. Ground subsidence and associated ground fracturing in urban areas: InSAR monitoring of active tectonic structures (Ciudad Guzman, Colima Graben - Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignami, C.; Brunori, C.; Zucca, F.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.; Hernandez, N. D.; Stramondo, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on the observation of a creeping phenomenon that produces subsidence of the Zapotlan basin and ground fracturing in correspondence of the Ciudad Guzmàn (Jalisco - Mexico). The September 21, 2012, the Ciudad Guzmàn has been struck by a phenomenon of ground fracturing of about 1.5 km of length. This event caused the deformation of the roads and the damage of 30 houses, of which eight have been declared uninhabitable. The alignment of fractures is coincident with the escarpments produced in September 19, 1985, in the Ciudad Guzman urban area, when a strong earthquake, magnitude 8.1, struck the Mexican area, causing the deaths of at least 10,000 people and serious damage in Mexico City. In Ciudad Guzmán, about 60% of the buildings were destroyed, with about 50 loss of life. The city is located in the Zapotlan basin (northern Colima graben), a wide tectonic depression where the depth of the infilling sediments is about 1 km. This subsidence cannot be measured outside the urbanized area, but it can be considered as a deformation mechanism of the central part of the basin. In order to detect and mapping the spatio-temporal features of the processes that led to this event, we applied InSAR multi-temporal techniques to analyze a dataset of ENVISAT satellite SAR images, acquired in a time span between 2003-2010. InSAR techniques detect a subsidence of the north-western part of Ciudad Guzmàn of about 15 mm/yr in the time interval 2003-2010. The displacement occurred in September 21, 2012, was detected using two RadarSAT2 acquisitions (2012-03-22 and 2013-03-17). The explanation of surface movements based on interferometric results, ground data and geological field observations, allowed confirming surface effect due to the overexploitation of the aquifers and highlights a subsidence due to anthropogenic causes coupled to buried tectonic structures.

  6. Electricity production and benzene removal from groundwater using low-cost mini tubular microbial fuel cells in a monitoring well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Hung; Wang, Ruei-Cyun; Lin, Chi-Wen

    2017-05-15

    A low-cost mini tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed for treating groundwater that contained benzene in monitoring wells. Experimental results indicate that increasing the length and density, and reducing the size of the char particles in the anode effectively reduced the internal resistance. Additionally, a thinner polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel separator and PVA with a higher molecular weight improved electricity generation. The optimal parameters for the MFC were an anode density of 1.22 g cm(-3), a coke of 150 μm, an anode length of 6 cm, a PVA of 105,600 g mol(-1), and a separator thickness of 1 cm. Results of continuous-flow experiments reveal that the increasing the sets of MFCs and connecting them in parallel markedly improved the degradation of benzene. More than 95% of benzene was removed and electricity of 38 mW m(-2) was generated. The MFC ran continuously up to 120 days without maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.; Vélez, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    and shallow earthquakes happened, producing in some cases large tilt variations of tens of µrad. By other side, in 2003 we established a control gravity network that was measured again in 2004 and 2008. After the beginning of the eruption on October 2011, we have carried out gravity measurements in various points of the network as well as other new points to attain more accurate control of the possible variations of gravity or/and altitude. Gravity data are still under study although some results about observed gravity changes could reflect the ground deformations pattern according to tiltmeter records and GPS measurements, or a change in the subsurface mass distribution as consequence of the new emplacement the magmatic material in the area with volcanic and seismic activity.

  8. Processing, Analysis, and General Evaluation of Well-Driller Logs for Estimating Hydrogeologic Parameters of the Glacial Sediments in a Ground-Water Flow Model of the Lake Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihood, Leslie D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot study for the National Assessment of Water Availability and Use Program to assess the availability of water and water use in the Great Lakes Basin. Part of the study involves constructing a ground-water flow model for the Lake Michigan part of the Basin. Most ground-water flow occurs in the glacial sediments above the bedrock formations; therefore, adequate representation by the model of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments is important to the accuracy of model simulations. This work processed and analyzed well records to provide the hydrogeologic parameters of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and ground-water levels for the model layers used to simulated ground-water flow in the glacial sediments. The methods used to convert (1) lithology descriptions into assumed values of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity for entire model layers, (2) aquifer-test data into point values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and (3) static water levels into water-level calibration data are presented. A large data set of about 458,000 well driller well logs for monitoring, observation, and water wells was available from three statewide electronic data bases to characterize hydrogeologic parameters. More than 1.8 million records of lithology from the well logs were used to create a lithologic-based representation of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments. Specific-capacity data from about 292,000 well logs were converted into horizontal hydraulic conductivity values to determine specific values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and its aerial variation. About 396,000 well logs contained data on ground-water levels that were assembled into a water-level calibration data set. A lithology-based distribution of hydraulic conductivity was created by use of a computer program to convert well-log lithology descriptions into aquifer or

  9. Construction, water-level, and water-quality data for multiple-well monitoring sites and test wells, Fort Irwin National Training Center, San Bernardino County, California, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Adam R.; Densmore, Jill N.; Nawikas, Joseph M.; Brown, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Because of increasing water demands at the U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army carried out a study to evaluate the water quality and potential groundwater supply of undeveloped basins within the U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center. In addition, work was performed in the three developed basins—Langford, Bicycle, and Irwin—proximal to or underlying cantonment to provide information in support of water-resources management and to supplement monitoring in these basins. Between 2009 and 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey installed 41 wells to expand collection of water-resource data within the U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center. Thirty-four monitoring wells (2-inch diameter) were constructed at 14 single- or multiple-well monitoring sites and 7 test wells (8-inch diameter) were installed. The majority of the wells were installed in previously undeveloped or minimally developed basins (Cronise, Red Pass, the Central Corridor area, Superior, Goldstone, and Nelson Basins) proximal to cantonment (primary base housing and infrastructure). Data associated with well construction, water-level monitoring, and water-quality sampling are presented in this report.

  10. 40 CFR 146.68 - Testing and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to provide other site specific data; (iii) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the first aquifer overlying the injection zone; (iv) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the... Applicable to Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.68 Testing and monitoring requirements....

  11. 40 CFR 146.13 - Operating, monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (iii) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the first aquifer overlying the injection zone; (iv) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the lowermost USDW; and (v) Any additional... Applicable to Class I Wells § 146.13 Operating, monitoring and reporting requirements. (a)...

  12. Results of a monitoring program of continuous water levels and physical water properties at the Operable Unit 1 area of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, water years 2000-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    The Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer, in south-central New Hampshire, is an important source of industrial, commercial, and domestic water. The MSGD aquifer was also an important source of drinking water for the town of Milford until it was found to contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Savage and Keyes municipal-supply wells in the early 1980s. A VOC plume was found to cover part of the southwestern half of the MSGD aquifer. In September 1984, the site was designated a Superfund site, called the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site. The primary source area of contaminants was a former tool manufacturing facility (called the OK Tool facility, and now called the Operable Unit 1 (OU1) area) that disposed of solvents at the surface and in the subsurface. The facility was closed in 1987 and removed in 1998. A low-permeability containment barrier wall was constructed and installed in the overburden (MSGD aquifer) in 1998 to encapsulate the highest concentrations of VOCs, and a pump-and-treat remediation facility was also added. Remedial operations of extraction and injection wells started in May 1999. A network of water-level monitoring sites was implemented in water year 2000 (October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000) in the OU1 area to help assess the effectiveness of remedial operations to mitigate the VOC plume, and to evaluate the effect of the barrier wall and remedial operations on the hydraulic connections across the barrier and between the overburden and underlying bedrock. Remedial extraction and injections wells inside and outside the barrier help isolate ground-water flow inside the barrier and the further spreading of VOCs. This report summarizes both continuous and selected periodic manual measurements of water level and physical water properties (specific conductance and water temperature) for 10 monitoring locations during water years 2000-03. Additional periodic manual measurements of water levels were

  13. Design of Ground Source Heat Pump Monitoring System Based on MCGS%基于MCGS的地源热泵监控系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商家伟; 苏华

    2016-01-01

    A monitoring system is developed for a ground source heat pump system in Chengdu. Equipments are controlled by PLC and monitoring data is transported from PLC to PC. The host PC moni-toring system is developed by MCGS whose functions cover controlling, operation status displaying, data logging and displaying and alarming.%针对成都某别墅地源热泵系统,设计了一个监控系统方案。利用PLC控制空调设备、监测并上传现场数据给上位机。利用MCGS开发上位机监控系统。该监控系统包含设备控制、状态显示、参数采集及显示、报警等功能。

  14. Activation of the SIGRIS monitoring system for ground deformation mapping during the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence, using COSMO-SkyMed InSAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Salvi

    2012-10-01

    designed to provide the DPC with value-added information products in the different phases of the seismic cycle. During earthquake emergencies, its goal is to rapidly provide decision-support products, such as validated ground-displacement maps and seismic source models. This study reports the details of the activation of the SIGRIS system in the case of the Emilia sequence. It provides a description of the COSMO-SkyMed datasets and processing procedures, as well as selected interferometric results for the coseismic and post-seismic ground deformation. […

  15. Monitoring of ground movement in open pit iron mines of Carajás Province (Amazon region) based on A-DInSAR techniques using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Mura, José Claudio; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Temporim, Filipe Altoé

    2017-04-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) analysis of a large area is always a challenging task regarding the removal of the atmospheric phase component. This work presents an investigation of ground movement measurements based on a combination of differential SAR interferometry time-series (DTS) and PSI techniques, applied on a large area of extent with open pit iron mines located in Carajás (Brazilian Amazon Region), aiming at detecting linear and nonlinear ground movement. These mines have presented a history of instability, and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mines (pit walls) have been carried out based on ground-based radar and total station (prisms). Using a priori information regarding the topographic phase error and a phase displacement model derived from DTS, temporal phase unwrapping in the PSI processing and the removal of the atmospheric phases can be performed more efficiently. A set of 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) images, acquired during the period from March 2012 to April 2013, was used to perform this investigation. The DTS analysis was carried out on a stack of multilook unwrapped interferograms using an extension of SVD to obtain the least-square solution. The height errors and deformation rates provided by the DTS approach were subtracted from the stack of interferograms to perform the PSI analysis. This procedure improved the capability of the PSI analysis for detecting high rates of deformation, as well as increased the numbers of point density of the final results. The proposed methodology showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in a large mining area, which is located in a rain forest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for planning and risk control.

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  17. Land subsidence, Ground Fissures and Buried Faults: InSAR Monitoring of Ciudad Guzmán (Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Brunori

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study land subsidence processes and the associated ground fissuring, affecting an active graben filled by thick unconsolidated deposits by means of InSAR techniques and fieldwork. On 21 September 2012, Ciudad Guzmán (Jalisco, Mexico was struck by ground fissures of about 1.5 km of length, causing the deformation of the roads and the propagation of fissures in adjacent buildings. The field survey showed that fissures alignment is coincident with the escarpments produced on 19 September 1985, when a strong earthquake with magnitude 8.1 struck central Mexico. In order to detect and map the spatio-temporal features of the processes that led to the 2012 ground fissures, we applied InSAR multi-temporal techniques to process ENVISAT-ASAR and RADARSAT-2 satellite SAR images acquired between 2003 and 2012. We detect up to 20 mm/year of subsidence of the northwestern part of Ciudad Guzmán. These incremental movements are consistent with the ground fissures observed in 2012. Based on interferometric results, field data and 2D numerical model, we suggest that ground deformations and fissuring are due to the presence of areal subsidence correlated with variable sediment thickness and differential compaction, partly driven by the exploitation of the aquifers and controlled by the distribution and position of buried faults.

  18. Vulnerability of shallow ground water and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States: Model of predicted nitrate concentration in shallow, recently recharged ground water -- Model output data set (gwava-s_out)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents predicted nitrate concentration in shallow, recently recharged ground water, in milligrams per liter, in the conterminous United States, and...

  19. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas. The Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test-well program. 1982 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the seismic risks associated with geopressured fluid production from the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 design well a seismic monitoring program was conducted in the vicinity of the Brazoria County design wells since 1979. The monitoring program was designed first to establish the nature of the local ambient seismicity prior to production, and second to provide continued surveillance of the area during the well tests to determine if production altered ambient seismic conditions significantly. The operation, data analyses, results and conclusions of the Brazoria seismic network during the operational period from 1 January through 31 December 1982 are described.

  20. Body size distribution in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as a possible monitoring method of environmental impacts of transgenic maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumo, Davide di; Lövei, Gabor L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the obligatory post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops in Europe, there are no available standards on methods. Our aim was to examine the suitability of using changes in carabid body size distribution as a possible monitoring method. The sampling was carried...

  1. Determination of the Characteristics of Ground-Based IR Spectral Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, M. V.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Hase, F.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Imhasin, Kh. Kh.

    2016-07-01

    This is a study of the spectral characteristics of a ground-based spectral system consisting of an original system for tracking the sun developed at St. Petersburg State University and a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier spectrometer. The importance of accounting for the actual instrument function of the spectral system during processing of ground-based IR spectra of direct solar radiation is illustrated by the example of determining the overall abundance of methane in the atmosphere. Spectral intervals are proposed for taking spectra of direct solar radiation with an HBr cell, which yield information on the parameters of the ground-based system, while simultaneously checking the alignment of the system for each spectrum of the atmosphere.

  2. Demonstration and Validation of a Regenerated Cellulose Dialysis Membrane Diffusion Sampler for Monitoring Ground Water Quality and Remediation Progress at DoD Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-30

    with biodegradation was probably because of their longer deployment times, warmer ground-water temperatures, and proximity to high bacteria ...NFESC Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center NJDEP New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection NTU Nephelometric turbidity units PAH ...high ionic strength waters and due to biodegradation were not significant when equilibration times in wells were one to two weeks. Water samples

  3. Simulating the thermal operating conditions in the thermal wells of ground-source heat-pump heat supply systems. Part I: Porous moisture freezing processes in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, G. P.; Peskov, N. V.; Lichman, V. A.; Gornov, V. F.; Kolesova, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    The mathematical models laid down in the new blocks of the INSOLAR.GSHP.12 software system simulating unsteady operating conditions of ground-source heat-pump (GSHP) heat supply systems are presented. The new model blocks take into account the effect the freezing of porous moisture in soil has on the GSHP system performance efficiency. Illustration is given to the need of taking into account the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes in soil, and the results from investigations devoted to the opening possibilities of constructing adaptive GSHP systems with controlled intensity of heat transfer in the soil-thermal well system are presented. The development of software simulating the porous moisture phase state variation processes in soil was preceded by development of mathematical equations representing the thermal conditions of soil body involving porous moisture freezing/thawing processes. A description of these equations is also given in the article. In constructing the mathematical model, the notion "effective thermal conductivity" of soil was introduced for taking into account the latent heat of phase transition that releases during the freezing of moisture. The above-mentioned effective thermal conductivity of soil involves two components: the soil thermal conductivity coefficient itself and an additional term modifying the thermal conductivity value for taking into account the influence of phase transition. For quantitatively evaluating the soil effective thermal conductivity component that takes into account the influence of phase transition, the soil freezing zone radius around the thermal well was determined. The obtained analytic solutions have been implemented in the form of computer program blocks, after which a "numerical experiment" was carried out for estimating the effect the porous moisture freezing/thawing processes have on the soil thermal conditions. It was demonstrated during that experiment that the soil thermal conductivities determined

  4. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys and GPS Surveys for Monitoring the Condition of Levees and Dykes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanajewski Dariusz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the possibility of using integrated GPS (Global Positioning System surveys and ground penetrating radar surveys to precisely locate damages to levees, particularly due to the activity of small fossorial mammals. The technology of intercommunication between ground penetrating radar (GPR and an RTK (Real-Time Kinematic survey unit, and the method of data combination, are presented. The errors which may appear during the survey work are also characterized. The procedure for processing the data so that the final results have a spatial character and are ready to be implemented in digital maps and geographic information systems (GIS is also described.

  5. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys and GPS Surveys for Monitoring the Condition of Levees and Dykes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanajewski, Dariusz; Bakuła, Mieczysław

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of using integrated GPS (Global Positioning System) surveys and ground penetrating radar surveys to precisely locate damages to levees, particularly due to the activity of small fossorial mammals. The technology of intercommunication between ground penetrating radar (GPR) and an RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) survey unit, and the method of data combination, are presented. The errors which may appear during the survey work are also characterized. The procedure for processing the data so that the final results have a spatial character and are ready to be implemented in digital maps and geographic information systems (GIS) is also described.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  7. Analysis of vertical flow during ambient and pumped conditions in four monitoring wells at the Pantex Plant, Carson County, Texas, July-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Gregory P.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stoval, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The Pantex Plant is a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (USDOE/NNSA)-owned, contractor-operated facility managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Pantex, LLC (B&W Pantex) in Carson County, Texas, approximately 17 miles northeast of Amarillo. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with B&W Pantex through the USDOE/NNSA, made a series of flowmeter measurements and collected other borehole geophysical logs during July–September 2008 to analyze vertical flow in screened intervals of four selected monitoring wells (PTX01–1012, PTX06–1044, PTX06–1056, and PTX06–1068) at the Pantex Plant. Hydraulic properties (transmissivity values) of the section of High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer penetrated by the wells also were computed. Geophysical data were collected under ambient and pumped flow conditions in the four monitoring wells. Unusually large drawdowns occurred at two monitoring wells (PTX06–1044 and PTX06–1056) while the wells were pumped at relatively low rates. A decision was made to redevelop those wells, and logs were run again after redevelopment in the two monitoring wells.

  8. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.; Damschen, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    The Hanford Site contains about 2200 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works days to the present. As of June 1977, about 1900 wells still exist, and about 850 of these existing wells were drilled to the ground-water table. About 700 of these wells (including about 24 farm wells) still contain water. The others have become dry through infiltration of sediments or a general lowering of the water table in their vicinity. This report, providing the most complete documentation of wells in and adjacent to the Hanford Site, supersedes all previous compilations of Hanford wells.

  9. The impact of light-colored pavements on active layer dynamics revealed by Ground-Penetrating Radar monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to study the variations in the depth of the frost table throughout a complete thaw-freeze season in Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland. In autumn 2000, three test areas were painted white on the parking area of the airport in order to reduce...

  10. Monitoring and remediation of on-farm and off-farm ground current measured as step potential on a Wisconsin dairy farm: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzer, Dave; Leavitt, Adam M; Goeke, Charles L; Havas, Magda

    2016-01-01

    Ground current commonly referred to as "stray voltage" has been an issue on dairy farms since electricity was first brought to rural America. Equipment that generates high-frequency voltage transients on electrical wires combined with a multigrounded (electrical distribution) system and inadequate neutral returns all contribute to ground current. Despite decades of problems, we are no closer to resolving this issue, in part, due to three misconceptions that are addressed in this study. Misconception 1. The current standard of 1 V at cow contact is adequate to protect dairy cows; Misconception 2. Frequencies higher than 60 Hz do not need to be considered; and Misconception 3. All sources of ground current originate on the farm that has a ground current problem. This case study of a Wisconsin dairy farm documents, 1. how to establish permanent monitoring of ground current (step potential) on a dairy farm; 2. how to determine and remediate both on-farm and off-farm sources contributing to step potential; 3. which step-potential metrics relate to cow comfort and milk production; and 4. how these metrics relate to established standards. On-farm sources include lighting, variable speed frequency drives on motors, radio frequency identification system and off-farm sources are due to a poor primary neutral return on the utility side of the distribution system. A step-potential threshold of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at 60 Hz is inadequate to protect dairy cows as decreases of a few mV peak-peak at higher frequencies increases milk production, reduces milking time and improves cow comfort.

  11. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  12. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou Texas: the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test-well program. 1981 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate normal ambient seismicity as well as potentially enhanced seismic activity induced by brine production, a seismic monitoring program has been conducted in the vicinity of the Chocolate Bayou geopressured test well (the Pleasant Bayou No. 2) since September 1978. The Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well has been completed and perforated at depths of 14,467-14,707 feet (4464.4-4482.7m). The brines produced from the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well are reinjected at a depth of 6226-6538 feet (1897.7-1992.8m) in the Pleasant Bayou No. 1 well. The seismic monitoring network and results obtained from January through November 1981 are described.

  13. Improved ground-based remote-sensing systems help monitor plant response to climate and other changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Bogle, Rian C.

    2016-05-26

    Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey are improving and developing new ground-based remote-sensing instruments and techniques to study how Earth’s vegetation responds to changing climates. Do seasonal grasslands and forests “green up” early (or late) and grow more (or less) during unusually warm years? How do changes in temperature and precipitation affect these patterns? Innovations in ground-based remote-sensing instrumentation can help us understand, assess, and mitigate the effects of climate change on vegetation and related land resources.

  14. Optimization of ground source heat pumps related to soil and groundwater conditions as well as grouting material; Optimierung von Waermepumpen in Bezug auf Boden- und Grundwasserverhaeltnisse sowie Verpressmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenbach, R.; Clauss, F.; Waberseck, T. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. und Versuchsanstalt fuer Geotechnik; Sass, J. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Fachgebiet Ingenieurgeologie

    2006-07-01

    The capacity and the performance of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems with borehole heat exchangers depend on the conditions of the encountered subsoil and the groundwater and furthermore on the thermal properties of the grouting material used for conclusive backfilling of the annular space after installing the heat exchanger pipes in the borehole. Intensive investigations are carried out at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt with the aim of an economical optimisation of the dimensioning of ground source heat pumps and seasonal thermal storage systems. (orig.)

  15. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  16. Leakage Causes of Ground Pipeline Measurement Valve in a Gas Well%某气井井口管线计量阀刺漏原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李循迹; 李先明; 陈东风; 王福善; 常泽亮; 何银达; 林冠发

    2013-01-01

    The pitting leakage of ground pipeline measurement valve in a gas well and its producing condition were investigated,and the failure reasons were analyzed by field research,metallographic structure,spectroscopy and chemical composition analyses.The results show that the microstructure and chemical composition of the valve and the chemical compositions of the inner surface plating,sealing ring and top cover meet the demands of the standards.There was serious erosion corrosion in the substrate and upstream of the valve.The ring ditch on the top cover of the valve ball resulted from the simultaneous action of erosion corrosion and crevice corrosion,which related to the structure defect of the ring crevice in the top cover.The finally formed ditch between the top cover and the ball resulted from erosion corrosion,gas corrosion and galvanic corrosion.The reason of the corrosion ditch on the inner surface of the valve was also the results of erosion corrosion,gas corrosion and galvanic corrosion on the coarse and uneven surface.%针对某高产气井单井管线的计量阀发生刺漏,进行了现场失效情况和相关生产参数的调研,并进行了金相组织、能谱和化学成分分析.结果表明,阀体铸铁的金相组织和化学成分符合标准要求,内表面镀层、密封环和压盖材质化学成分也符合标准要求.计量阀本体和上游存在严重的冲刷腐蚀;计量阀阀球压盖上的环形沟槽的腐蚀是冲刷腐蚀与缝隙腐蚀的结果,这与压盖留有一环形缝隙结构缺陷有关.压盖与球体间暴露出来的铸铁是形成腐蚀坑槽的起因,但腐蚀沟槽的最终形成则是由冲蚀、气蚀和电偶腐蚀共同作用的结果.阀室内表面的腐蚀沟槽起因在于阀室内表面粗糙不均匀而受到冲蚀和气蚀作用,而后由冲蚀、气蚀和电偶腐蚀共同作用.

  17. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

  18. Intercomparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Ground-Based Narrow Band Spectrometers Applied to Crop Trait Monitoring in Organic Potato Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues Franceschini, Marston Héracles; Bartholomeus, Harm; van Apeldoorn, Dirk; Suomalainen, Juha; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-06-18

    Vegetation properties can be estimated using optical sensors, acquiring data on board of different platforms. For instance, ground-based and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne spectrometers can measure reflectance in narrow spectral bands, while different modelling approaches, like regressions fitted to vegetation indices, can relate spectra with crop traits. Although monitoring frameworks using multiple sensors can be more flexible, they may result in higher inaccuracy due to differences related to the sensors characteristics, which can affect information sampling. Also organic production systems can benefit from continuous monitoring focusing on crop management and stress detection, but few studies have evaluated applications with this objective. In this study, ground-based and UAV spectrometers were compared in the context of organic potato cultivation. Relatively accurate estimates were obtained for leaf chlorophyll (RMSE = 6.07 µg·cm(-2)), leaf area index (RMSE = 0.67 m²·m(-2)), canopy chlorophyll (RMSE = 0.24 g·m(-2)) and ground cover (RMSE = 5.5%) using five UAV-based data acquisitions, from 43 to 99 days after planting. These retrievals are slightly better than those derived from ground-based measurements (RMSE = 7.25 µg·cm(-2), 0.85 m²·m(-2), 0.28 g·m(-2) and 6.8%, respectively), for the same period. Excluding observations corresponding to the first acquisition increased retrieval accuracy and made outputs more comparable between sensors, due to relatively low vegetation cover on this date. Intercomparison of vegetation indices indicated that indices based on the contrast between spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared, like OSAVI, MCARI2 and CIg provided, at certain extent, robust outputs that could be transferred between sensors. Information sampling at plot level by both sensing solutions resulted in comparable discriminative potential concerning advanced stages of late blight incidence. These results indicate that optical sensors

  19. Monitoring of the mass density profile along the 0° geomagnetic longitude during magnetic storms with the use of ground magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, N.; Stepanova, M. V.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Pilipenko, V.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ground magnetometers offer a very cheap and robust means of globally monitoring the magnetospheric mass density, by determining the ULF field line resonant frequency. ULF waves are almost always present in near-Earth environment and are generated by the solar wind interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere. These waves from the magnetopause propagate through the magnetosphere. When they encounter a field line that resonates at the same frequency, coupling to the Alfven field line oscillations occurs and the resonance can be detected on the ground at that particular latitude. There are different methods for determining resonant frequencies from ground ULF waves. the density profiles along the 0° geomagnetic longitude were obtained using both the gradient and the amplitude-phase methods for the analysis of the magnetic field data from the magnetometer arrays: SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array), MAGDAS and American Antarctic bases (Palmer, WAIS-D). We compared the density profiles during quiet magnetic conditions and during strong magnetic storms (recovery phase). It is shown that in the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms (Dst <-150 nT) profile of the equatorial mass density varies greatly in comparison with the density distribution in quiet days.

  20. Monte Carlo transport simulation for a long counter neutron detector employed as a cosmic rays induced neutron monitor at ground level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazianotto, Mauricio Tizziani; Carlson, Brett Vern [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio Antonio; Goncalez, Odair Lelis [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Avancados

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Great effort is required to understand better the cosmic radiation (CR) dose received by sensitive equipment, on-board computers and aircraft crew members at Brazil airspace, because there is a large area of South America and Brazil subject to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). High energy neutrons are produced by interactions between primary cosmic ray and atmospheric atoms, and also undergo moderation resulting in a wider spectrum of energy ranging from thermal energies (0:025eV ) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. Measurements of the cosmic radiation dose on-board aircrafts need to be followed with an integral flow monitor on the ground level in order to register CR intensity variations during the measurements. The Long Counter (LC) neutron detector was designed as a directional neutron flux meter standard because it presents fairly constant response for energy under 10MeV. However we would like to use it as a ground based neutron monitor for cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum (CRINS) that presents an isotropic fluency and a wider spectrum of energy. The LC was modeled and tested using a Monte Carlo transport simulation for irradiations with known neutron sources ({sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 251}Cf) as a benchmark. Using this geometric model its efficiency was calculated to CRINS isotropic flux, introducing high energy neutron interactions models. The objective of this work is to present the model for simulation of the isotropic neutron source employing the MCNPX code (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) and then access the LC efficiency to compare it with experimental results for cosmic ray neutrons measures on ground level. (author)

  1. X-ray facility for the ground calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loffredo, G.; Pelliciari, C.; Frontera, F.;

    2003-01-01

    We describe the X-ray facility developed for the calibration of the X-ray monitor JEM-X on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparatus allowed the scanning of the detector geometric area with a pencil beam of desired energy over the major part of the passband of the instrument. The monochromatic...

  2. Monitoring impacts of Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda elongata) on the leaf phenology and water use of Tamarix spp. using ground and remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Brown, T.; Hultine, K. R.; van Riper, C.; Bean, D. A.; Murray, R.; Pearlstein, S.; Glenn, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Tamarix leaf beetles (Diorhabda elongata) have been released in several locations on western U.S. rivers to control the introduced shrub, Tamarix ramosissima and related species. As they are expanding widely throughout the region, information is needed on their impact on Tamarix leaf phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. We used networked digital cameras (phenocams) and ground surveys to monitor the defoliation process from 2008-2010 at multiple sites on the Dolores River, and MODIS satellite imagery from 2000 to 2009 to monitor leaf phenology and evapotranspiration (ET) at beetle release sites on the Dolores, Lower Colorado, Carson, Walker and Bighorn Rivers. Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) values for selected MODIS pixels were used to estimate green foliage density before and after beetle releases at each site. EVI values were transformed into estimates of ET using an empirical algorithm relating ET to EVI and potential ET (ETo) at each site. Phenocam and ground observations show that beetle damage is temporary, and plants regenerate new leaves following an eight week defoliation period in summer. The original biocontrol model predicted that Tamarix mortality would reach 75-85% over several years of defoliation due to progressive weakening of the shrubs each year, but over the early stages of leaf beetle-Tamarix interactions studied here (3-8 years), our preliminary findings show actual reductions in EVI and ET of only 13-15% across sites due to the relatively brief period of defoliation and because not all plants at a site were defoliated. Also, baseline ET rates varied across sites but averaged only 329 mm yr-1 (23% of ETo), constraining the possibilities for water salvage through biocontrol of Tamarix. The spatial and temperol resolution of MODIS imagery were too coarse to capture the details of the defoliation process, and high-resolution imagery or expanded phenocam networks are needed for future monitoring programs.

  3. ULTIMA: Array of ground-based magnetometer arrays for monitoring magnetospheric and ionospheric perturbations on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, K.; Chi, P. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Connors, M. G.; Engebretson, M. J.; Fraser, B. J.; Mann, I. R.; Milling, D. K.; Moldwin, M. B.; Russell, C. T.; Stolle, C.; Tanskanen, E.; Vallante, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.

    2012-12-01

    ULTIMA (Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array) is an international consortium that aims at promoting collaborative research on the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere through the use of ground-based magnetic field observatories. ULTIMA is joined by individual magnetometer arrays in different countries/regions, and the current regular-member arrays are Australian, AUTUMN, CARISMA, DTU Space, Falcon, IGPP-LANL, IMAGE, MACCS, MAGDAS, McMAC, MEASURE, THEMIS, and SAMBA. The Chair of ULTIMA has been K. Yumoto (MAGDAS), and its Secretary has been P. Chi (McMAC, Falcon). In this paper we perform case studies in which we estimate the global patterns of (1) near-Earth currents and (2) magnetic pulsations; these phenomena are observed over wide areas on the ground, thus suitable for the aims of ULTIMA. We analyze these two phenomena during (a) quiet period and (b) magnetic storm period. We compare the differences between these two periods by drawing the global maps of the ionospheric equivalent currents (which include the effects of all the near-Earth currents) and pulsation amplitudes. For ionospheric Sq currents at low latitudes during quiet periods, MAGDAS data covering an entire solar cycle has yielded a detailed statistical model, and we can use it as a reference for the aforementioned comparison. We also estimate the azimuthal wave numbers of pulsations and compare the amplitude distribution of pulsations with the distribution of highly energetic (in MeV range) particles simultaneously observed at geosynchronous satellites.

  4. Broad-spectrum monitoring strategies for predicting occult precipitation contribution to water balance in a coastal watershed in California: Ground-truthing, areal monitoring and isotopic analysis of fog in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohafkan, M.; Thompson, S. E.; Leonardson, R.; Dufour, A.

    2013-12-01

    We showcase a fog monitoring study designed to quantitatively estimate the contribution of summer fog events to the water balance of a coastal watershed managed by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. Two decades of research now clearly show that fog and occult precipitation can be major contributors to the water balance of watersheds worldwide. Monitoring, understanding and predicting occult precipitation is therefore as hydrologically compelling as forecasting precipitation or evaporation, particularly in the face of climate variability. We combine ground-based monitoring and collection strategies with remote sensing technologies, time-lapse imagery, and isotope analysis to trace the ';signature' of fog in physical and ecological processes. Spatial coverage and duration of fog events in the watershed is monitored using time-lapse cameras and leaf wetness sensors strategically positioned to provide estimates of the fog bank extent and cloud base elevation, and this fine-scale data is used to estimate transpiration suppression by fog and is examined in the context of regional climate through the use of satellite imagery. Soil moisture sensors, throughfall collectors and advective fog collectors deployed throughout the watershed provide quantitative estimates of fog drip contribution to soil moisture and plants. Fog incidence records and streamflow monitoring provide daily estimates of fog contribution to streamflow. Isotope analysis of soil water, fog drip, stream water and vegetation samples are used to probe for evidence of direct root and leaf uptake of fog drip by plants. Using this diversity of fog monitoring methods, we develop an empirical framework for the inclusion of fog processes in water balance models.

  5. Monitoring the effect of poplar trees on petroleum-hydrocarbon and chlorinated-solvent contaminated ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    At contaminated groundwater sites, poplar trees can be used to affect groundwater levels, flow directions, and ultimately total groundwater and contaminant flux to areas downgradient of the trees. The magnitude of the hydrologic changes can be monitored using fundamental concepts of groundwater hydrology, in addition to plant physiology-based approaches, and can be viewed as being almost independent of the contaminant released. The affect of poplar trees on the fate of groundwater contaminants, however, is contaminant dependent. Some petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated solvents may be mineralized or transformed to innocuous compounds by rhizospheric bacteria associated with the tree roots, mineralized or transformed by plant tissues in the transpiration stream or leaves after uptake, or passively volatilized and rapidly dispersed or oxidized in the atmosphere. These processes also can be monitored using a combination of physiological- or geochemical-based field or laboratory approaches. When combined, such hydrologic and contaminant monitoring approaches can result in a more accurate assessment of the use of poplar trees to meet regulatory goals at contaminated groundwater sites, verify that these goals continue to be met in the future, and ultimately lead to a consensus on how the performance of plant-based remedial strategies (phytoremediation) is to be assessed.

  6. Dynamic factor analysis for estimating ground water arsenic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Chang, Fi-John

    2010-01-01

    Drinking ground water containing high arsenic (As) concentrations has been associated with blackfoot disease and the occurrence of cancer along the southwestern coast of Taiwan. As a result, 28 ground water observation wells were installed to monitor the ground water quality in this area. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA) is used to identify common trends that represent unexplained variability in ground water As concentrations of decommissioned wells and to investigate whether explanatory variables (total organic carbon [TOC], As, alkalinity, ground water elevation, and rainfall) affect the temporal variation in ground water As concentration. The results of the DFA show that rainfall dilutes As concentration in areas under aquacultural and agricultural use. Different combinations of geochemical variables (As, alkalinity, and TOC) of nearby monitoring wells affected the As concentrations of the most decommissioned wells. Model performance was acceptable for 11 wells (coefficient of efficiency >0.50), which represents 52% (11/21) of the decommissioned wells. Based on DFA results, we infer that surface water recharge may be effective for diluting the As concentration, especially in the areas that are relatively far from the coastline. We demonstrate that DFA can effectively identify the important factors and common effects representing unexplained variability common to decommissioned wells on As variation in ground water and extrapolate information from existing monitoring wells to the nearby decommissioned wells.

  7. Death Valley Lower Carbonate Aquifer Monitoring Program Wells Down gradient of the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyo County

    2006-07-26

    Inyo County has participated in oversight activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository since 1987. The overall goal of these studies are the evaluation of far-field issues related to potential transport, by ground water, or radionuclides into Inyo County, including Death Valley, and the evaluation of a connection between the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the biosphere. Our oversight and completed Cooperative Agreement research, and a number of other investigators research indicate that there is groundwater flow between the alluvial and carbonate aquifers both at Yucca Mountain and in Inyo County. In addition to the potential of radionuclide transport through the LCA, Czarnecki (1997), with the US Geological Survey, research indicate potential radionuclide transport through the shallower Tertiary-age aquifer materials with ultimate discharge into the Franklin Lake Playa in Inyo County. The specific purpose of this Cooperative Agreement drilling program was to acquire geological, subsurface geology, and hydrologic data to: (1) establish the existence of inter-basin flow between the Amargosa Basin and Death Valley Basin; (2) characterize groundwater flow paths in the LCA through Southern Funeral Mountain Range, and (3) Evaluation the hydraulic connection between the Yucca Mountain repository and the major springs in Death Valley through the LCA.

  8. 基于多影响因子计算模型在城市地面沉降监测中的应用研究%Study on Application of Multiple - influence - factor - based Calculation Model in Monitoring Urban Ground Subsidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝亚东; 许加东; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: In recent years, with the urban development and utilization of underground water, a large number of underground water have been pumped out, and it will bring out the ground subsidence.This paper describes the influences of the changes of underwater level, pore water pressure and ground load on the ground subsidence and analyzes the influence mechanism of these factors.A calculation model was established for monitoring the ground subsidence with the principles of regression analysis, and the model accuracy was verified by using it to monitoring the ground subsidence.The model can be used for providing the scientific basis for determining the quantity and density of underground water pumping well and it is of great significance to predicting the ground subsidence in urban areas and along the transportation routes and prevention of the disasters.Research conclusions: The calculation model of monitoring subsidence affected directly the calculation results of ground subsidence.Based on the relation between the groundwater table, pore water pressure, ground load and ground subsidence, this model established with the regression analysis principle is suitable for monitoring the ground subsidence in urban areas and along transportation routes.%研究目的:近年来,随着城市地下水被开发利用,大量地下水被抽取,久而久之将引起地表沉降.本文阐述地下水位变化、孔隙水压力变化和地面荷载变化对地面沉降的影响,分析这些因素的影响机理;应用回归分析原理,建立地面沉降监测计算模型,并结合实例,分析验证该模型,为城市取水井的数量和密度布设提供科学依据,对城市区域、交通干线地面沉降的预测及减灾、防灾具有重要意义.研究结论:沉降监测计算模型直接影响地面沉降计算结果:基于地下水位、孔隙水压力和荷载与地面沉降的关系,应用逐步回归分析原理建立的地面沉降计算模型,适合城市

  9. Change detection and characterization of volcanic activity using ground based low-light and near infrared cameras to monitor incandescence and thermal signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, Martin; Webley, Peter; Dehn, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of precursory events and thermal signatures are vital for monitoring volcanogenic processes, as activity can often range from low level lava effusion to large explosive eruptions, easily capable of ejecting ash up to aircraft cruise altitudes. Using ground based remote sensing techniques to monitor and detect this activity is essential, but often the required equipment and maintenance is expensive. Our investigation explores the use of low-light cameras to image volcanic activity in the visible to near infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These cameras are ideal for monitoring as they are cheap, consume little power, are easily replaced and can provide near real-time data. We focus here on the early detection of volcanic activity, using automated scripts, that capture streaming online webcam imagery and evaluate image pixel brightness values to determine relative changes and flag increases in activity. The script is written in Python, an open source programming language, to reduce the overall cost to potential consumers and increase the application of these tools across the volcanological community. In addition, by performing laboratory tests to determine the spectral response of these cameras, a direct comparison of collocated low-light and thermal infrared cameras has allowed approximate eruption temperatures and effusion rates to be determined from pixel brightness. The results of a field campaign in June, 2013 to Stromboli volcano, Italy, are also presented here. Future field campaigns to Latin America will include collaborations with INSIVUMEH in Guatemala, to apply our techniques to Fuego and Santiaguito volcanoes.

  10. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.

    1998-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  11. Discharge of treated wastewater from drilling exploratory wells by infiltration of hydrocarbons in the ground; Vertido de aguas residuales tratadas provenientes de pozos de perforacion exploratoria de hidrocarburos mediante la infiltracion en el terreno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Miranda, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    The discharge of treated waste water from a well drilling exploratory oil, such as the consideration ser out to determine the minimum area needed to saturate the ground is not where he planned the infiltration of the dumping in special conditions of soil type and permeability, limited space, water quality and influence of underground aquifers in the study area. (Author) 16 refs.

  12. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  13. In-situ Curvature Monitoring and X-Ray Diffraction Study of InGaAsP/InGaP Quantum Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kuciauskas, Darius [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dippo, Patricia C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sayed, Islam E. M. [North Carolina State University; Colter, Peter C. [North Carolina State University

    2017-06-02

    The use of InGaAsP/InGaP quantum well structures is a promising approach for subcells in next generation multi-junction devices due to their tunable bandgap (1.50-1.80 eV) and for being aluminum-free. Despite these potentials, the accumulation of stress during the growth of these structures and high background doping in the quantum well region have previously limited the maximum number of quantum wells and barriers that can be included in the intrinsic region and the sub-bandgap external quantum efficiency to less than 30.0%. In this paper, we report on the use of in-situ curvature monitoring by multi-beam optical stress (MOS) sensor measurements during the growth of this quantum well structure to monitor the stress evolution in these thin films. A series of In0.32Ga0.68AsP/In0.49Ga0.51P quantum wells with various arsine to phosphine ratios have been analyzed by in-situ curvature monitoring and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to obtain nearly strain-free lattice matched structures. Sharp interfaces, as indicated by the XRD fringes, have been achieved by using triethyl-gallium and trimethyl-gallium as gallium precursors in InGaAsP and InGaP, respectively, with constant flows of trimethyl-indium and phosphine through the entire quantum well structure. The effect of the substrate miscut on quantum well growth was compared and analyzed using XRD, photoluminescence and time resolved photoluminescence. A 100 period quantum well device was successfully grown with minimal stress and approximately flat in-situ curvature.

  14. Development of a Mobile Phone App to Support Self-Monitoring of Emotional Well-Being: A Mental Health Digital Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki; Arjmand, Hussain-Abdulah; Bakker, David; Seabrook, Elizabeth

    2016-11-23

    Emotional well-being is a primary component of mental health and well-being. Monitoring changes in emotional state daily over extended periods is, however, difficult using traditional methodologies. Providing mental health support is also challenging when approximately only 1 in 2 people with mental health issues seek professional help. Mobile phone technology offers a sustainable means of enhancing self-management of emotional well-being. This paper aims to describe the development of a mobile phone tool designed to monitor emotional changes in a natural everyday context and in real time. This evidence-informed mobile phone app monitors emotional mental health and well-being, and it provides links to mental health organization websites and resources. The app obtains data via self-report psychological questionnaires, experience sampling methodology (ESM), and automated behavioral data collection. Feedback from 11 individuals (age range 16-52 years; 4 males, 7 females), who tested the app over 30 days, confirmed via survey and focus group methods that the app was functional and usable. Recommendations for future researchers and developers of mental health apps to be used for research are also presented. The methodology described in this paper offers a powerful tool for a range of potential mental health research studies and provides a valuable standard against which development of future mental health apps should be considered.

  15. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas: The Pleasant Bayou no. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test well program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, F. J.; Kimball, B.; Davis, R. A.

    The Brazoria seismic network, instrumentation, design, and specifications are described. The data analysis procedures are presented. Seismicity is described in relation to the Pleasant Bayou production history. Seismicity originating near the chemical plant east of the geopressured/geothermal well is discussed.

  16. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas: the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test well program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Kimball, B.; Davis, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Brazoria seismic network, instrumentation, design, and specifications are described. The data analysis procedures are presented. Seismicity is described in relation to the Pleasant Bayou production history. Seismicity originating near the chemical plant east of the geopressured/geothermal well is discussed. (MHR)

  17. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  18. Comparisons of ground-based monitor data with Pioneers 8, 9, 10 and 11 observations in 1968-1974. [Forbush decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Webber, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    The paper examines ground-based neutron monitor data and the counting rates in different energy channels on the Pioneer 8, 9, 10 and 11 spacecraft to determine the scale size of the transient cosmic-ray variations (Forbush decreases) and the relationship of these variations to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field. Since the Pioneer spacecraft sampled the inner modulating region extensively, the spatial extent of Forbush decreases (Fd's) can be determined. In some cases the Fd modulating region was co-rotating and in others radially expanding. The azimuthal extent of the Fd region was variable but was typically about 45 deg in extent. These observations will be interpreted in terms of models proposed for Fds.

  19. Hanford wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGhan, V.L.

    1989-06-01

    The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Ground-based monitoring of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko gas activity throughout the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitom, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Tozzi, G. P.; Faggi, S.; Gillon, M.

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneously to the ESA Rosetta mission, a world-wide ground-based campaign provided measurements of the large scale activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through measurement of optically active gas species and imaging of the overall dust coma. We present more than 2 yr of observations performed with the FORS2 low-resolution spectrograph at the VLT, TRAPPIST and ACAM at the WHT. We focus on the evolution of the CN production as a tracer of the comet activity. We find that it is asymmetric with respect to perihelion and different from that of the dust. The CN emission is detected for the first time at 1.34 au pre-perihelion and production rates then increase steeply to peak about 2 weeks after perihelion at (1.00 ± 0.10) × 1025 molecules s-1, while the post-perihelion decrease is more shallow. The evolution of the comet activity is strongly influenced by seasonal effects with enhanced CN production when the Southern hemisphere is illuminated.

  1. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1--March 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the progress of eight Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988. The facilities represented by the eight projects are the 300 Area Process trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds, Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, 216-A-36B Crib, 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, and 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds. The latter four projects are included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. This report is the seventh in a series of periodic status reports; the first six cover the period from May 1, 1986, through December 31, 1987 (PNL 1986; 1987a, b, c, d; 1988a). This report satisfies the requirements of Section 17B(3) of the Consent Agreement and Compliance Order issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (1986a) to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. 13 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Monitoring Groundwater Temperatures in a Shallow Urban Aquifer Before, During and After Installation of a Ground Source Heat System in Cardiff, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ashley M.; Farr, Gareth J.; Boon, David P.; James, David R.; Williams, Bernard; Tucker, David; Harcombe, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    Exploitation of shallow urban aquifers, warmed by the Urban Heat Island Effect, is a relatively new concept in the U.K. An extensive groundwater temperature baseline monitoring network has been established for a shallow superficial aquifer in the city of Cardiff, U.K., to characterise groundwater temperatures and monitor the impacts of the first open-loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) installed in the city. In Spring 2014, temperature profiling was carried out at 1m depth intervals at 168 groundwater monitoring boreholes across Cardiff, establishing baseline groundwater temperatures within the shallow (form the first U.K. 2D city heat map. During the warmest time of year, Autumn 2014, a subset of boreholes were re-profiled to ascertain seasonal temperature variation, defining the Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation. Re-profiling was again carried out at these boreholes in Autumn 2015 to confirm these temperatures as normal for that time of year. By comparing Spring and Autumn profiles, the average depth to the base of the Zone of Seasonal Fluctuation was found to be 9.5mbgl. Two >100m boreholes showed the urban warming effect may extend to 80mbgl, before temperatures follow the predicted geothermal gradient. We term this the Zone of Anthropogenic Influence. After initial baseline temperatures were established, a site was selected for the installation of a shallow GSHP. Before installation work began, a monitoring network was set up to establish a temperature baseline for future GSHPs and identify any impacts on the thermal resource caused by removing ~2°C from the abstracted groundwater prior to reinjection into the aquifer. This comprised of 97 temperature loggers in 60 boreholes, including the abstraction and recharge boreholes and boreholes up and down gradient of the site. Some of these boreholes have multiple loggers at different depths, including the near-surface, but the majority of loggers were placed within the boreholes' slotted sections, below the base of the

  3. The structurally-controlled rockslide of Barmasse (Valais, Switzerland): structural geology, ground-based monitoring and displacement vs. rainfall modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, C.; Abellan, A.; Baillifard, F.-J.; Demierre, J.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Jakubowski, J.; May-Delasoie, F.

    2012-04-01

    In this communication, we show a case study on the Barmasse rockslide (Val de Bagnes, Valais, Switzerland), which is an active structurally-controlled instability that threaten roads and inhabitants. The entire slope is included within the Middle Penninic unit. According to regional tectonic stresses, the micaschists that compose the instability have been intensively deformed and metamorphised leading to an important foliation and fracturing. Structural settings have been extracted from 3D points-clouds of the crown area. These datasets were acquired with a terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) and processed with Coltop-3D software. The landslide can be defined as a complex instability, with a continuous movement on a basal surface. This deformation also generates a frequent rockfall activity in the upper part of the slope. The landslide was monitoring using different remote sensing techniques (TLS, GNSS and GB-InSAR): a) regarding TLS measurements, we monitored long term 3D displacements comparing two different TLS points clouds acquired in 2009 and 2011, showing more than 3 m displacements in two years in the upper part of the slope (crown area); b) differential GNSS measures were obtained at the toe of the slide, validating TLS measurements in those areas were vegetation hampered remote sensing measurement; c) finally the landslide was also monitored by a GB-InSAR in order to investigate short term displacements. The experiment was carried out during summer 2011, recording displacement rates exceeding 7 mm in 12 h in the main scarp, and confirmed the high amplitude of daily displacements. We are also continuously recording landslide displacements at a daily rate over the most active part of the slope using one crackmeter. The kinematics of the landslide is characterized by a continuous displacement (3rd creep state) which is clearly controlled by external forces (rainfall episodes): on the one side, landslide velocity sharply increases it value after rainfall episodes; on the

  4. Borehole Geophysical, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Investigation of a Monitoring Well Completed in the St. Francois Aquifer in Oregon County, Missouri, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.; Kleeschulte, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (more than 2,000 feet) monitoring well was installed in an area being explored for lead and zinc deposits within the Mark Twain National Forest in southern Missouri. The area is a mature karst terrain where rocks of the Ozark aquifer, a primary source of water for private and public supplies and major springs in the nearby Eleven Point National Wild and Scenic River and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, are exposed at the surface. The potential lead deposits lie about 2,000 feet below the surface within a deeper aquifer, called the St. Francois aquifer. The two aquifers are separated by the St. Francois confining unit. The monitoring well was installed as part of a series of investigations to examine potentiometric head relations and water-quality differences between the two aquifers. Results of borehole flowmeter measurements in the open borehole and water-level measurements from the completed monitoring well USGS-D1 indicate that a seasonal upward gradient exists between the St. Francois aquifer and the overlying Ozark aquifer from about September through February. The upward potentiometric heads across the St. Francois confining unit that separates the two aquifers averaged 13.40 feet. Large reversals in this upward gradient occurred during the late winter through summer (about February through August) when water levels in the Ozark aquifer were as much as 138.47 feet higher (average of 53.84 feet) than water levels in the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the fluctuation of potentiometric gradient is caused by precipitation and rapid recharge that cause large and rapid increases in water levels in the Ozark aquifer. Analysis of water-quality samples collected from the St. Francois aquifer interval of the monitoring well indicated a sodium-chloride type water containing dissolved-solids concentrations as large as 1,300 milligrams per liter and large concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, boron, and lithium. In contrast, water in the overlying Ozark

  5. Monitoring the intensity of locust damage to vegetation using hyper-spectra data obtained at ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shaoxiang; Wu, Tong

    2007-09-01

    Since 1980s of the last century, outbreak of Oriental Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen) has rampantly emerged again in some regions of China. It is extremely important to monitor efficiently the locust damage to vegetation in order to control this kind of insect pest. In this paper, taking Huanghua County of Hebei province, China as the study area and based on the in situ hyper-spectral data, the differences in canopy reflectance spectra and the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra were analyzed and compared for the reeds at normal growing and for those under encroaching from locusts. In addition, five models were developed to simulate the relations between the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra and Leaf Area Index (LAI) of reeds. The result showed that among those indices the locust damage spectra index (LDSI) is mostly applicable to reflect the intensity of locust damage in the study area. Finally, a scheme for the intensity distinction of locust damage to reeds was suggested based on LDSI data, i.e., no damage if LDSI is over 62.856, slightly damage if LDSI is between 41.254 and 59.496, and seriously damage if LDSI is less than 41.254.

  6. Dynamics of glacial lakes in Malaya Almatinka River basin according to the ground-based monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kasatkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of three moraine lakes (two of which are located on frontal moraines, and one is lateral lasted some years. It was defined that each lake has individual temperature mode which depends partly by air temperature and much more by incoming melted waters, volumeof their accumulation and typeof underlying rocks. Type of underlying rock in which the lake kettleis formed has decisive importance. Direct contact of lake water with glacierice gives its temperature during ablation period of 2.54 °С or in 3.1 times lower, than in frontal lakes. That’s why the dam quicklycollapses and the lake volume increases. Dams of the lakeslocated on frontal moraines are subject of destructionmuch less. Dynamics of these lakes is caused by retreat of glaciers, and the maximum depths ar