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Sample records for monitoring water level

  1. GNSS-Reflectometry based water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckheinrich, Jamila; Schön, Steffen; Beyerle, Georg; Apel, Heiko; Semmling, Maximilian; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Due to climate changing conditions severe changes in the Mekong delta in Vietnam have been recorded in the last years. The goal of the German Vietnamese WISDOM (Water-related Information system for the Sustainable Development Of the Mekong Delta) project is to build an information system to support and assist the decision makers, planners and authorities for an optimized water and land management. One of WISDOM's tasks is the flood monitoring of the Mekong delta. Earth reflected L-band signals from the Global Navigation Satellite System show a high reflectivity on water and ice surfaces or on wet soil so that GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) could contribute to monitor the water level in the main streams of the Mekong delta complementary to already existing monitoring networks. In principle, two different GNSS-R methods exist: the code- and the phase-based one. As the latter being more accurate, a new generation of GORS (GNSS Occultation, Reflectometry and Scatterometry) JAVAD DELTA GNSS receiver has been developed with the aim to extract precise phase observations. In a two week lasting measurement campaign, the receiver has been tested and several reflection events at the 150-200 m wide Can Tho river in Vietnam have been recorded. To analyze the geometrical impact on the quantity and quality of the reflection traces two different antennas height were tested. To track separately the direct and the reflected signal, two antennas were used. To derive an average height of the water level, for a 15 min observation interval, a phase model has been developed. Combined with the coherent observations, the minimum slope has been calculated based on the Least- Squares method. As cycle slips and outliers will impair the results, a preprocessing of the data has been performed. A cycle slip detection strategy that allows for automatic detection, identification and correction is proposed. To identify outliers, the data snooping method developed by Baarda 1968 is used. In this

  2. Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radio Frequency Based Water Level Monitor and Controller for Residential Applications. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... This paper elucidates a radio frequency (RF) based transmission and reception system used to remotely monitor ...

  3. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  4. Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Newcomer; J.P. McDonald; M.A. Chamness

    1999-09-30

    This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions. To meet this and other objectives, water-levels are measured annually in monitoring wells completed within the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and in the lower basalt-confined aquifers for surveillance monitoring. At regulated waste units, water levels are taken monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and regulatory status of a given site. The techniques used to collect water-level data are described in this document along with the factors that affect the quality of the data and the strategies employed by the project to minimize error in the measurement and interpretation of water levels. Well networks are presented for monitoring the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and the lower basalt-confined aquifers, all at a regional scale (surveillance monitoring), as well as the local-scale well networks for each of the regulated waste units studied by this project (regulated-unit monitoring). The criteria used to select wells for water-table monitoring are discussed. It is observed that poor well coverage for surveillance water-table monitoring exists south and west of the 200-West Area, south of the 100-F Area, and east of B Pond and the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This poor coverage results from a lack of wells suitable for water-table monitoring, and causes uncertainty in representation of the regional water-table in these areas. These deficiencies are regional in scale and apply to regions outside

  5. WATER-LEVEL MONITOR FOR BOREWELL AND WATER TANK BASED ON GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ramani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a days, home automation & remote control and monitoring systems have seen a rapid growth in terms of technology. Apparently there is no early warning system to monitor the tank water level and bore well water level when it has reached the critical level. In this paper we have provided water level monitoring in the tank as well as in the bore well. If the water level in a bore well drops below the threshold level for pumping its pump motor may get air locked or more burn out due to dry running. It is awkward for farmers to walk all the way to their fields at night just to switch the pump motor off. Besides, he may never get to identify the problem. This problem can be solved by using this GSM based system that will automatically make a call to the user mobile phone, when the water Level in the bore well drops threshold below or rises to the threshold level for pumping. The user can also remotely switch on or off the pump motor by sending a SMS from his mobile phone. The system is simple, reliable, portable and affordable. We proposed the work in which, Whenever water level in the tankdrops below the required level the system try to fill the tank by switching on the bore well motor to pump the water into the tank It is must to have enough water in the bore well to avoid the formation of air gap or empty running of bore well motor. High precision water level sensor is used to identify the reference water level to activate and deactivate the motor and system properly by interfacing the sensor devices into the well definedembedded system.

  6. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  7. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  8. radio frequency based radio frequency based water level monitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    used for point level sensing of sediments, liquids with suspended solids, and liquid-liquid interfaces. These sensors sense the decrease or change ... This RF data sent from the transmitter is received by the receiver sub-circuit placed remotely.

  9. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobmeyer, D.H.; Luckey, R.R.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-02-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 16 wells representing 24 intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water-level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for one interval to 100 percent for one interval. Fifteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed. Transducer output is presented in graphic form and, where appropriate, water-level altitude is presented in graphical and tabular form.

  10. The utility of gravity and water-level monitoring at alluvial aquifer wells in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Coincident monitoring of gravity and water levels at 39 wells in southern Arizona indicate that water-level change might not be a reliable indicator of aquifer-storage change for alluvial aquifer systems. One reason is that water levels in wells that are screened across single or multiple aquifers might not represent the hydraulic head and storage change in a local unconfined aquifer. Gravity estimates of aquifer-storage change can be approximated as a one-dimensional feature except near some withdrawal wells and recharge sources. The aquifer storage coefficient is estimated by the linear regression slope of storage change (estimated using gravity methods) and water-level change. Nonaquifer storage change that does not percolate to the aquifer can be significant, greater than 3 ??Gal, when water is held in the root zone during brief periods following extreme rates of precipitation. Monitor-ing of storage change using gravity methods at wells also can improve understanding of local hydrogeologic conditions. In the study area, confined aquifer conditions are likely at three wells where large water-level variations were accompanied by little gravity change. Unconfined conditions were indicated at 15 wells where significant water-level and gravity change were positively linearly correlated. Good positive linear correlations resulted in extremely large specific-yield values, greater than 0.35, at seven wells where it is likely that significant ephemeral streamflow infiltration resulted in unsaturated storage change. Poor or negative linear correlations indicate the occurrence of confined, multiple, or perched aquifers. Monitoring of a multiple compressible aquifer system at one well resulted in negative correlation of rising water levels and subsidence-corrected gravity change, which suggests that water-level trends at the well are not a good indicatior of overall storage change. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  11. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Toran

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM perfo...

  12. Water Level Monitoring on Tibetan Lakes Based on Icesat and Envisat Data Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. W.; Qiao, G.; Wu, Y. J.; Cao, Y. J.; Mi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Satellite altimetry technique is an effective method to monitor the water level of lakes in a wide range, especially in sparsely populated areas, such as the Tibet Plateau (TP). To provide high quality data for time-series change detection of lake water level, an automatic and efficient algorithm for lake water footprint (LWF) detection in a wide range is used. Based on ICESat GLA14 Release634 data and ENVISat GDR 1Hz data, water level of 167 lakes were obtained from ICESat data series, and water level of 120 lakes were obtained from ENVISat data series. Among them, 67 lakes contained two data series. Mean standard deviation of all lakes is 0.088 meters (ICESat), 0.339 meters (ENVISat). Combination of multi-source altimetry data is helpful for us to get longer and more dense periods cover water level, study the lake level changes, manage water resources and understand the impacts of climate change better. In addition, the standard deviation of LWF elevation used to calculate the water level were analyzed by month. Based on lake data set for the TP from the 1960s, 2005, and 2014 in Scientific Data, it is found that the water level changes in the TP have a strong spatial correlation with the area changes.

  13. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater control measures (SCMs are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM performance. Five case studies are presented that use water level loggers to evaluate the overflow of basins, compare a traditional stormpipe trench with an infiltration trench, monitor timing of blue roof storage, show the effects of retrofitting a basin, and provide long term performance data. Water level loggers can be used to answer questions about the timing and location of stormwater overflows, which helps to evaluate the effectiveness of SCMs. More expensive monitoring and modeling can be used as a follow up if needed to more thoroughly assess a site. Nonetheless, low-cost monitoring can be a first step in identifying sites that need improvement or additional monitoring.

  14. GPS inland water buoys for precise and high temporal resolution water level and movement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of river and lake stages is one of the basic issues in understanding catchment hydrology and hydraulic systems. There are numerous techniques available for this, but in case of large water bodies technical as well as financial problems may restrict the use of traditional techniques. Therefore we explored the potential of GPS based altimetry for stage monitoring by developing small and easy to handle buoys with mounted high precision GPS devices. The advantages of the buoys are the freedom of positioning over the whole water body and their quick and easy deployment. The developed devices were tested in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in two different locations: On the Mekong river where high currents over the flood season occur and in a small lake with hydraulic connections to a major channel with hardly any currents present. The collected GPS data were processed differentially and tested against standard pressure gauge data. The recorded stages proved to be of high quality and a valuable resource for flood monitoring and modeling. In addition to the stage data, the high-precision GPS positioning data could also be used for monitoring the movement of the buoys, from which alternating currents caused by ocean tides and flood waves could be detected, thus providing an additional information on the hydraulic system. We conclude that the developed buoys add well to the existing hydrological monitoring pool and are a goof option for the monitoring in large water bodies where a) traditional methods are technically difficult to deploy or are too costly, and b) where additional information about flow direction is needed.

  15. Formal specification and animation of a water level monitoring system. Research report No. INFO-0428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.S.; Stokes, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the Vienna Development Method (VDM), a formal method for software specification and development, and its use for a real-time application where it is used to formally specify the requirements of a water level monitoring system. The procedure and techniques used to produce an executable form (animation) of the specification are covered.

  16. Development of a nuclear technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless steel cylinders was developed. It is based on differences in attenuation coefficients of water and air for Cs137 (662 keV) gamma rays. Experimentally observed gamma ray counting rates with and without water in model reservoir cylinder were compared with corresponding calculated values for two different gamma ray detection theshold energies. Calculated values include the effects of multiple scattering and attendant gamma ray energy reductions. The agreement between the measured and calculated values is reasonably good. Computer programs for calculating angular and spectral distributions of scattered radition in various media are included.

  17. Characterising Bedrock Aquifer Systems in Korea Using Paired Water-Level Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on characterising aquifer systems based on water-level changes observed systematically at 159 paired groundwater monitoring wells throughout Korea. Using spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and cross-correlation analysis with linear regression, aquifer conditions were identified from the comparison of water-level changes in shallow alluvial and deep bedrock monitoring wells. The spectral analysis could identify the aquifer conditions (i.e., unconfined, semi-confined and confined of 58.5% of bedrock wells and 42.8% of alluvial wells: 93 and 68 wells out of 159 wells, respectively. Even among the bedrock wells, 50 wells (53.7% exhibited characteristics of the unconfined condition, implying significant vulnerability of the aquifer to contaminants from the land surface and shallow depths. It appears to be better approach for deep bedrock aquifers than shallow alluvial aquifers. However, significant portions of the water-level changes remained unclear for categorising aquifer conditions due to disturbances in data continuity. For different aquifer conditions, PCA could show typical pattern and factor scores of principal components. Principal component 1 due to wet-and-dry seasonal changes and water-level response time was dominant covering about 55% of total variances of each aquifer conditions, implying the usefulness of supplementary method of aquifer characterisation. Cross-correlation and time-lag analysis in the water-level responses to precipitations clearly show how the water levels in shallow and deep wells correspond in time scale. No significant differences in time-lags was found between shallow and deep wells. However, clear time-lags were found to be increasing from unconfined to confined conditions: from 1.47 to 2.75 days and from 1.78 to 2.75 days for both shallow alluvial and deep bedrock wells, respectively. In combination of various statistical methods, three types of water-level fluctuation

  18. Using a crowdsourced approach for monitoring water level in a remote Kenyan catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeser, Björn; Jacobs, Suzanne; Rufino, Mariana; Breuer, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models or effective water management strategies only succeed if they are based on reliable data. Decreasing costs of technical equipment lower the barrier to create comprehensive monitoring networks and allow both spatial and temporal high-resolution measurements. However, these networks depend on specialised equipment, supervision, and maintenance producing high running expenses. This becomes particularly challenging for remote areas. Low income countries often do not have the capacity to run such networks. Delegating simple measurements to citizens living close to relevant monitoring points may reduce costs and increase the public awareness. Here we present our experiences of using a crowdsourced approach for monitoring water levels in remote catchments in Kenya. We established a low-cost system consisting of thirteen simple water level gauges and a Raspberry Pi based SMS-Server for data handling. Volunteers determine the water level and transmit their records using a simple text message. These messages are automatically processed and real-time feedback on the data quality is given. During the first year, more than 1200 valid records with high quality have been collected. In summary, the simple techniques for data collecting, transmitting and processing created an open platform that has the potential for reaching volunteers without the need for special equipment. Even though the temporal resolution of measurements cannot be controlled and peak flows might be missed, this data can still be considered as a valuable enhancement for developing management strategies or for hydrological modelling.

  19. Monitoring Water Pollution Levels in Wadi Hanifa, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and its Public Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2017-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the levels of metals in the fish caught from Wadi Hanifa's main basin over four seasons, determine the potential fitness of the fish for human consumption, and evaluate the overall water quality after enforcement of local standards. The physical and chemical parameters from a total of 192 water samples were tested using standard methods. Additionally, a total of 48 fish samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. Mean values for basic water quality parameters of COD, PO4(-3), NH3(-)-N, and NO3(-)-N exceeded Saudi standards in all seasons. Mean metal concentrations in water were consistently at their highest concentrations in samples collected during the summer, and the lowest in samples collected during the winter. Mean metal concentrations in fish muscle tissue exceeded Saudi standards for As and Cd, and United Nations FAO standards for Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. Statistical analysis showed highly significant positive correlations between metal concentrations in water and metal concentrations in fish muscle for As-Fe, Pb-Cr, Pb-Ni, Cr-Cu, and Cu-Fe. This study highlights the urgent need for monitoring and controlling wastewater discharge in Wadi Hanifa to ensure public safety.

  20. High level tritiated water monitoring by Bremsstrahlung counting using a silicon drift detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemes, S.; Sturm, M.; Michling, R.; Bornschein, B. [Institute for Technical Physics - ITEP, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The β-ray induced X-ray spectrometry (BIXS) is a promising technique to monitor the tritium concentration in a fuel cycle of a fusion reactor. For in-situ measurements of high level tritiated water by Bremsstrahlung counting, the characteristics of a low-noise silicon drift detector (SDD) have been examined at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). In static measurements with constant sample volume and tritium concentration, the Bremsstrahlung spectra of tritiated water samples in a concentration range of 0.02 to 15 MBq/ml have been obtained. The volume has been kept constant at 5 cm{sup 3}. The observed spectra are well above the noise threshold. In addition to X-rays induced by β-rays, the spectra feature X-ray fluorescence peaks of the surrounding materials. No indications of memory effects have been observed. A linear relation between the X-ray intensity and the tritium concentration was obtained and the lower detection limit of the setup has been determined to 1 MBq ml{sup -1}, assessed by the Curie criterion. In addition, the spectra obtained experimentally could be reproduced with high agreement by Monte-Carlo simulations using the GEANT4-tool-kit. It was found that the present detection system is applicable to non-invasive measurements of high-level tritiated water and the SDD is a convenient tool to detect the low energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays. (authors)

  1. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  2. A Spaceborne Multisensory, Multitemporal Approach to Monitor Water Level and Storage Variations of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Taravat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia, the second largest saline Lake on earth and a highly endangered ecosystem, is on the brink of a serious environmental disaster similar to the catastrophic death of the Aral Sea. Progressive drying has been observed during the last decade, causing dramatic changes to Lake Urmia’s surface and its regional water supplies. The present study aims to improve monitoring of spatiotemporal changes of Lake Urmia in the period 1975–2015 using the multi-temporal satellite altimetry and Landsat (5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images. In order to demonstrate the impacts of climate change and human pressure on the variations in surface extent and water level, Lake Sevan and Van Lake with different characteristics were studied along with the Urmia Lake. Normalized Difference Water Index-Principal Components Index (NDWI-PCs, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, Modified NDWI (MNDWI, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, Water Ratio Index (WRI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI, and MultiLayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLP NNs classifier were investigated for the extraction of surface water from Landsat data. The presented results revealed that MLP NNs has a better performance in the cases where the other models generate poor accuracy. The results show that the area of Lake Sevan and Van Lake have increased while the area of Lake Urmia has decreased by ~65.23% in the past decades, far more than previously reported (~25% to 50%. Urmia Lake’s shoreline has been receding severely between 2010 and 2015 with no sign of recovery, which has been partly blamed on prolonged droughts, aggressive regional water resources development plans, intensive agricultural activities, and anthropogenic changes to the system. The results also indicated that (among the proposed factors changes in inflows due to overuse of surface water resources and constructing dams (mostly during 1995–2005 are the main reasons

  3. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS – WHAT’S WHAT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

  4. Monitoring water level using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulaki, Eleni; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) methodology can successfully detect phase variations related to water level changes and produce corresponding water level maps. Two lakes located in Western Crete, Greece, namely Lake Kournas and Lake Agia were used as case studies to study water level change with means of SAR interferometry. The change of the water surface in the lake is examined over a period of two years, 2015-2016 using Sentinel 1 IW mode images and in situ water level data. Initially, all the SAR images were preprocessed in terms of atmospheric and radiometric corrections. Various interferograms were developed to study the multi-temporal regime of water level in both lakes. Optical satellite sensor data (Landsat 8) were used to study the vegetation regime and how this affect the interferogram processing. The results denoted the fact that the combination of SAR backscattering intensity and unwrapped phase water level data can provide additional insight into hydrological state. It is also shown that integrated analysis of the backscattering mechanism and interferometric characteristics can considerably enhance the reliability of the water-level retrieval scheme and optimize the capture of hydrological patterns spatial distribution. Keywords: Sentinel-1, interferogram, water level, Backscattering

  5. Multi-temporal, high spatial resolution water level monitoring of the Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.; Wdowinski, S.; Kim, S.

    2008-05-01

    Water level information in South Florida's Everglades is very important for understanding the hydrology of this fragile ecosystem. Currently water levels are determined by a dense stage (water level) network providing high spatial resolution observation. However, because there are a finite number of stage stations in Everglades, water levels in areas located between stage stations can only be estimated by interpolation. Space-borne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques were successfully used to detect high spatial resolution (20-50 meter pixel resolution) water level changes in the Everglades and other wetlands. However, the InSAR observations are relative, providing measure of water level changes (not absolute). In this study we presents a new InSAR technique which enables to estimate a time series of absolute water levels using radar observations acquired successively over the Everglades. In this preliminary stage, we limit our study to Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA1), which is a managed area located in the northern section of the Everglades. The main advantage of the new technique is the reconstruction of absolute water level information instead of previous approaches calculating only relative water level changes. The new technique is called Small Temporal Baseline Subset (STBAS), which utilizes highly coherent interferometric phases obtained only with relatively short time difference between two SAR acquisitions (e.g. 24 or 48 recurrence periods in Radarsat-1 SAR system). The observed interferometric observations have to be calibrated with ground truth data as the reference wetland sheet flow vary daily. We use daily stage data measured at 13 stage stations in WCA1 to calibrate the space-based observations. This information is integrated using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method to generate a time series of absolute water levels. Our calibration-validation study shows a very good fit to the stage data. The correlation

  6. Monitoring Everglades freshwater marsh water level using L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lu, Zhong; Jones, John W.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, Hyongki; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The Florida Everglades plays a significant role in controlling floods, improving water quality, supporting ecosystems, and maintaining biodiversity in south Florida. Adaptive restoration and management of the Everglades requires the best information possible regarding wetland hydrology. We developed a new and innovative approach to quantify spatial and temporal variations in wetland water levels within the Everglades, Florida. We observed high correlations between water level measured at in situ gages and L-band SAR backscatter coefficients in the freshwater marsh, though C-band SAR backscatter has no close relationship with water level. Here we illustrate the complementarity of SAR backscatter coefficient differencing and interferometry (InSAR) for improved estimation of high spatial resolution water level variations in the Everglades. This technique has a certain limitation in applying to swamp forests with dense vegetation cover, but we conclude that this new method is promising in future applications to wetland hydrology research.

  7. Monitoring of ppm level humic acid in surface water using ZnO-chitosan nano-composite as fluorescence probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basumallick, Srijita; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2017-05-01

    Surface water contains natural pollutants humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid at ppm level which form carcinogenic chloro-compounds during chlorination in water treatment plants. We report here synthesis of ZnO-chitosan (CS) nano-composites by simple hydrothermal technique and examined their application potential as fluorescent probe for monitoring ppm level HA. These ZnO-CS composites have been characterized by HRTEM, EDX, FTIR, AFM and Fluorescence Spectra. HRTEM images show the formation of ZnO-CS nano-composites of average diameter of 50-250 nm. Aqueous dispersions of these nano-composites show fluorescence emission at 395 nm when excited at 300 nm which is strongly quenched by ppm level HA indicating their possible use in monitoring ppm level HA present in surface water.

  8. Data quality assurance in pressure transducer-based automatic water level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersible pressure transducers integrated with data loggers have become relatively common water-level measuring devices used in flow or well water elevation measurements. However, drift, linearity, hysteresis and other problems can lead to erroneous data. Researchers at the USDA-ARS in Watkinsvill...

  9. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 "Level of water stress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Wada, Y; Bouraoui, F; de Roo, A; Mekonnen, M M; van de Bund, W J; Batelaan, O; Pavelic, P; Bastiaanssen, W G M; Kummu, M; Rockström, J; Liu, J; Bisselink, B; Ronco, P; Pistocchi, A; Bidoglio, G

    2017-09-12

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  10. A temporal and spatial analysis of ground-water levels for effective monitoring in Huron County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, David J.; Sweat, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Quarterly water-level measurements were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of a monitoring network of 26 wells in Huron County, Michigan. Trends were identified as constant levels and autoregressive components were computed at all wells on the basis of data collected from 1993 to 1997, using structural time series analysis. Fixed seasonal components were identified at 22 wells and outliers were identified at 23 wells. The 95- percent confidence intervals were forecast for water-levels during the first and second quarters of 1998. Intervals in the first quarter were consistent with 92.3 percent of the measured values. In the second quarter, measured values were within the forecast intervals only 65.4 percent of the time. Unusually low precipitation during the second quarter is thought to have contributed to the reduced reliability of the second-quarter forecasts. Spatial interrelations among wells were investigated on the basis of the autoregressive components, which were filtered to create a set of innovation sequences that were temporally uncorrelated. The empirical covariance among the innovation sequences indicated both positive and negative spatial interrelations. The negative covariance components are considered to be physically implausible and to have resulted from random sampling error. Graphical modeling, a form of multivariate analysis, was used to model the covariance structure. Results indicate that only 29 of the 325 possible partial correlations among the water-level innovations were statistically significant. The model covariance matrix, corresponding to the model partial correlation structure, contained only positive elements. This model covariance was sequentially partitioned to compute a set of partial covariance matrices that were used to rank the effectiveness of the 26 monitoring wells from greatest to least. Results, for example, indicate that about 50 percent of the uncertainty of the water-level innovations currently monitored by the 26

  11. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  12. The design and application of an inexpensive pressure monitoring system for shallow water level measurement, tensiometry and piezometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greswell, Richard; Ellis, Paul; Cuthbert, Mark; White, Rachel; Durand, Véronique

    2009-07-01

    SummaryThe measurement of water level or pressure is often a key requirement in the study of hydrogeological, hydrological and soil science processes. Modern microelectronics can provide a range of solutions for the automated monitoring of water levels in boreholes, rivers as well as more specialised applications such as tensiometry. The advantages of stand-alone monitoring systems when compared to manual measurement approaches are well understood, especially when the point of measurement is remote or the frequency of perturbation is rapid. For this reason the combination of a pressure transducer and logging system within a single package has been widely adopted in commercially available systems. However, although the price of these devices continues to fall, they may still represent a significant cost for researchers on limited budgets. We therefore present a design for a simple, inexpensive (˜£30) but versatile pressure monitoring system which can interface to low-cost (£50-£70) data-loggers. We demonstrate how the design may be adapted for a range of field applications which include: river level measurements, tensiometers, permeameters and in situ river-bed piezometers. The performance of the system is assessed and for each application the specific design and examples of resulting data are described.

  13. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  14. Understanding the Value of Satellite Altimetry for Monitoring Water Level Dynamics of Large Rivers in Bangladesh Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, F.; Akbor, S.; Sustainability, Satellites, Water; Environment (Saswe) Research Group

    2010-12-01

    Although transboundary river flow accounts for more than 40% of global surface flow across 145 nations (many of them water-stressed and conflict-prone), most of this flow is difficult to monitor in developing nations at operational timescales. For Bangladesh, this situation is particularly acute because it comprises only 7% of the entire Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin and is located at the downstream end of the basin. Thus more than 90% of the water is generated in upstream nations and yet this information is hard to obtain in Bangladesh due to lack of transboundary instrumentation or international treaties. This work therefore investigates the value of satellite radar altimetry in detecting the water level changes for large rivers in the Bangladesh Delta. It is founded on the hypothesis that a satellite altimeter can detect water level to the same accuracy for both inside and outside of Bangladesh. First, the river hydraulic model called HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System) is set up and calibrated over Bangladesh using a comprehensive database on in-situ river bathymetry and observed water level records. Next, the calibrated HEC-RAS model is provided boundary flow conditions upstream and downstream of the model domain. At the upstream end where the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan enter Bangladesh, high resolution flow data modeled from a well calibrated hydrologic model called MIKE BASIN is provided as input. The observed tidal flow records of the Meghna estuary near the Bay of Bengal are used as the downstream boundary conditions. HEC-RAS is then used to simulate daily water level data for the period of 2003-2005 for major rivers of Bangladesh. These water level simulations are directly compared with altimeter estimates of water level from the ENVISAT mission. Accuracy of ENVISAT data is characterized as a function of season, flow regime and river type. The important question that this study aims to answer is, “To what extent can

  15. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  16. Borehole Geophysical, Water-Level, and Water-Quality Investigation of a Monitoring Well Completed in the St. Francois Aquifer in Oregon County, Missouri, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.; Kleeschulte, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A deep (more than 2,000 feet) monitoring well was installed in an area being explored for lead and zinc deposits within the Mark Twain National Forest in southern Missouri. The area is a mature karst terrain where rocks of the Ozark aquifer, a primary source of water for private and public supplies and major springs in the nearby Eleven Point National Wild and Scenic River and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, are exposed at the surface. The potential lead deposits lie about 2,000 feet below the surface within a deeper aquifer, called the St. Francois aquifer. The two aquifers are separated by the St. Francois confining unit. The monitoring well was installed as part of a series of investigations to examine potentiometric head relations and water-quality differences between the two aquifers. Results of borehole flowmeter measurements in the open borehole and water-level measurements from the completed monitoring well USGS-D1 indicate that a seasonal upward gradient exists between the St. Francois aquifer and the overlying Ozark aquifer from about September through February. The upward potentiometric heads across the St. Francois confining unit that separates the two aquifers averaged 13.40 feet. Large reversals in this upward gradient occurred during the late winter through summer (about February through August) when water levels in the Ozark aquifer were as much as 138.47 feet higher (average of 53.84 feet) than water levels in the St. Francois aquifer. Most of the fluctuation of potentiometric gradient is caused by precipitation and rapid recharge that cause large and rapid increases in water levels in the Ozark aquifer. Analysis of water-quality samples collected from the St. Francois aquifer interval of the monitoring well indicated a sodium-chloride type water containing dissolved-solids concentrations as large as 1,300 milligrams per liter and large concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, boron, and lithium. In contrast, water in the overlying Ozark

  17. On-Line Condition Monitoring System for High Level Trip Water in Steam Boiler’s Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Alnaimi Firas B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monitoring technique using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN with four different training algorithms for high level water in steam boiler’s drum. Four Back-Propagations neural networks multidimensional minimization algorithms have been utilized. Real time data were recorded from power plant located in Malaysia. The developed relevant variables were selected based on a combination of theory, experience and execution phases of the model. The Root Mean Square (RMS Error has been used to compare the results of one and two hidden layer (1HL, (2HL ANN structures

  18. Characterization of Drain Surface Water: Environmental Profile, Degradation Level and Geo-statistic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characterization of the surface water. Samples was carried out collected from nine sampling points of drain passing by the territory of Hafizabad city, Punjab, Pakistan. The water of drain is used by farmers for irrigation purposes in nearby agricultural fields. Twenty water quality parameters were evaluated in three turns and the results obtained were compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS municipal and industrial effluents prescribed limits. The highly significant difference (p0.05 was noted for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, hardness, calcium, sodium, chemical oxygen demand and chloride among water samples from different sampling points. Furthermore, the experimental results of different water quality parameters studied at nine sampling points of the drain were used and interpolated in ArcGIS 9.3 environment system using kriging techniques to obtain calculated values for the remaining locations of the Drain.

  19. Water quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conio, O. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua spa, Genua (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it`s necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions.

  20. A reliable low cost integrated wireless sensor network for water quality monitoring and level control system in UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Khaleeq, Hyder; Abou-Elnour, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, wireless sensor network and real-time controlling and monitoring system are integrated for efficient water quality monitoring for environmental and domestic applications. The proposed system has three main components (i) the sensor circuits, (ii) the wireless communication system, and (iii) the monitoring and controlling unit. LabView software has been used in the implementation of the monitoring and controlling system. On the other hand, ZigBee and myRIO wireless modules have been used to implement the wireless system. The water quality parameters are accurately measured by the present computer based monitoring system and the measurement results are instantaneously transmitted and published with minimum infrastructure costs and maximum flexibility in term of distance or location. The mobility and durability of the proposed system are further enhanced by fully powering via a photovoltaic system. The reliability and effectiveness of the system are evaluated under realistic operating conditions.

  1. SOLS: A lake database to monitor in the Near Real Time water level and storage variations from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétaux, J.-F.; Jelinski, W.; Calmant, S.; Kouraev, A.; Vuglinski, V.; Bergé-Nguyen, M.; Gennero, M.-C.; Nino, F.; Abarca Del Rio, R.; Cazenave, A.; Maisongrande, P.

    2011-05-01

    An accurate and continuous monitoring of lakes and inland seas is available since 1993 thanks to the satellite altimetry missions (Topex-Poseidon, GFO, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat). Global data processing of these satellites provides temporal and spatial time series of lakes surface height with a decimetre precision on the whole Earth. The response of water level to regional hydrology is particularly marked for lakes and inland seas in semi-arid regions. A lake data centre is under development at by LEGOS (Laboratoire d'Etude en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiale) in Toulouse, in coordination with the HYDROLARE project (Headed by SHI: State Hydrological Institute of the Russian Academy of Science). It already provides level variations for about 150 lakes and reservoirs, freely available on the web site (HYDROWEB: http://www.LEGOS.obs-mip.fr/soa/hydrologie/HYDROWEB), and surface-volume variations of about 50 big lakes are also calculated through a combination of various satellite images (Modis, Asar, Landsat, Cbers) and radar altimetry. The final objective is to achieve in 2011 a fully operating data centre based on remote sensing technique and controlled by the in situ infrastructure for the Global Terrestrial Network for Lakes (GTN-L) under the supervision of WMO (World Meteorological Organization) and GCOS (Global Climate Observing System).

  2. ERPWS: An Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Conductive Sensor based Water Level Monitoring and Control System using Zigbee and 74HC14 Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Maqbool

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have shown how to use conductive sensor, Zigbee and 74HC14 Inverter to monitor the water level and to control the working of pump. This project is designed to automatically fill the over head tank when it gets empty and monitor the water level in it. The motor is switched ON when the water level in the overhead tank drops below a pre fixed low level (on point and puts off the motor when water level rises up to pre fixed high level (off point.The motor is also switched off during the following conditions: when the sump water is exhausted before filling overhead tank, pump running dry, mains voltage fluctuations. We also introduce an energy efficient routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (ERPWS for Conductive Sensor based Water Level Monitoring and Control System using Zigbee (XBEE 802.15.4 in terms of energy consumptions, the packet loss ratio, network lifetime and the average delivery delay. The XBEE used here is XBEE Pro Series 1(XBP24-AWI-001 and IC used is 74HC14 Hex Inverting Schmitt trigger. Simulation results have been obtained by using NS2 simulator. The evaluation results show that the energy consumption of routing using ERPWS is significantly lower than LEACH and traditional routing protocols.

  3. Optimization of water-level monitoring networks in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer using a kriging-based genetic algorithm method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason C.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term groundwater monitoring networks can provide essential information for the planning and management of water resources. Budget constraints in water resource management agencies often mean a reduction in the number of observation wells included in a monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to determine which wells to exclude from a monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information. A kriging-based genetic algorithm method was used to optimize the monitoring network. The algorithm was used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the weighted sum of the (1) mean standard error at all nodes in the kriging grid where the water table is estimated, (2) root-mean-squared-error between the measured and estimated water-level elevation at the removed sites, (3) mean standard deviation of measurements across time at the removed sites, and (4) mean measurement error of wells in the reduced network. The solution to the optimization problem (the best wells to retain in the monitoring network) depends on the total number of wells removed; this number is a management decision. The network design tool was applied to optimize two observation well networks monitoring the water table of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho; these networks include the 2008 Federal-State Cooperative water-level monitoring network (Co-op network) with 166 observation wells, and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory water-level monitoring network (USGS-INL network) with 171 wells. Each water-level monitoring network was optimized five times: by removing (1) 10, (2) 20, (3) 40, (4) 60, and (5) 80 observation wells from the original network. An examination of the trade-offs associated with changes in the number of wells to remove indicates that 20 wells can be removed from the Co-op network with a relatively small degradation of the estimated water table map, and 40 wells

  4. Optimization of Water-Level Monitoring Networks in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer Using a Kriging-Based Genetic Algorithm Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term groundwater monitoring networks can provide essential information for the planning and management of water resources. Budget constraints in water resource management agencies often mean a reduction in the number of observation wells included in a monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to determine which wells to exclude from a monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information. A kriging-based genetic algorithm method was used to optimize the monitoring network. The algorithm was used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the weighted sum of the (1) mean standard error at all nodes in the kriging grid where the water table is estimated, (2) root-mean-squared-error between the measured and estimated water-level elevation at the removed sites, (3) mean standard deviation of measurements across time at the removed sites, and (4) mean measurement error of wells in the reduced network. The solution to the optimization problem (the best wells to retain in the monitoring network) depends on the total number of wells removed; this number is a management decision. The network design tool was applied to optimize two observation well networks monitoring the water table of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho; these networks include the 2008 Federal-State Cooperative water-level monitoring network (Co-op network) with 166 observation wells, and the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory water-level monitoring network (USGS-INL network) with 171 wells. Each water-level monitoring network was optimized five times: by removing (1) 10, (2) 20, (3) 40, (4) 60, and (5) 80 observation wells from the original network. An examination of the trade-offs associated with changes in the number of wells to remove indicates that 20 wells can be removed from the Co-op network with a relatively small degradation of the estimated water table map, and 40 wells

  5. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  6. Results of a monitoring program of continuous water levels and physical water properties at the Operable Unit 1 area of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, water years 2000-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    The Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer, in south-central New Hampshire, is an important source of industrial, commercial, and domestic water. The MSGD aquifer was also an important source of drinking water for the town of Milford until it was found to contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Savage and Keyes municipal-supply wells in the early 1980s. A VOC plume was found to cover part of the southwestern half of the MSGD aquifer. In September 1984, the site was designated a Superfund site, called the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site. The primary source area of contaminants was a former tool manufacturing facility (called the OK Tool facility, and now called the Operable Unit 1 (OU1) area) that disposed of solvents at the surface and in the subsurface. The facility was closed in 1987 and removed in 1998. A low-permeability containment barrier wall was constructed and installed in the overburden (MSGD aquifer) in 1998 to encapsulate the highest concentrations of VOCs, and a pump-and-treat remediation facility was also added. Remedial operations of extraction and injection wells started in May 1999. A network of water-level monitoring sites was implemented in water year 2000 (October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000) in the OU1 area to help assess the effectiveness of remedial operations to mitigate the VOC plume, and to evaluate the effect of the barrier wall and remedial operations on the hydraulic connections across the barrier and between the overburden and underlying bedrock. Remedial extraction and injections wells inside and outside the barrier help isolate ground-water flow inside the barrier and the further spreading of VOCs. This report summarizes both continuous and selected periodic manual measurements of water level and physical water properties (specific conductance and water temperature) for 10 monitoring locations during water years 2000-03. Additional periodic manual measurements of water levels were

  7. Implementation of ground water level monitoring system based on GPRS%基于GPRS的地下水位监测系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尧铮; 毛潭; 段震

    2012-01-01

    针对水位监测中的供电可靠性差和上线率低的问题,设计了一种地下水位监测系统.监测终端采用双电源供电,上位机采用Java实现网络通信,通过GPRS无线网络实现了监测终端和监控中心之间的数据实时采集和传输,并在实际中得到很好的应用.%In order to solve the problems of poor power supply reliability and low utilization rate of terminals in the process of monitoring ground water level. a ground water level monitoring system was designed in this paper. In the terminal of the monitoring system,a double power supply device was adopted. Network communication of the upper computer was realized by a program written in Java. Real-time data collection and data transmission between the terminals and the surveillance & control center was accomplished by use of GPRS wireless network, which is applied well in practical water level monitoring.

  8. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  9. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  10. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  11. Assessing the Kansas water-level monitoring program: An example of the application of classical statistics to a geological problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Geologists may feel that geological data are not amenable to statistical analysis, or at best require specialized approaches such as nonparametric statistics and geostatistics. However, there are many circumstances, particularly in systematic studies conducted for environmental or regulatory purposes, where traditional parametric statistical procedures can be beneficial. An example is the application of analysis of variance to data collected in an annual program of measuring groundwater levels in Kansas. Influences such as well conditions, operator effects, and use of the water can be assessed and wells that yield less reliable measurements can be identified. Such statistical studies have resulted in yearly improvements in the quality and reliability of the collected hydrologic data. Similar benefits may be achieved in other geological studies by the appropriate use of classical statistical tools.

  12. Aggregating Hydrometeorological Data from International Monitoring Networks Across Earth's Largest Lake System to Quantify Uncertainty in Historical Water Budget Records, Improve Regional Water Budget Projections, and Differentiate Drivers Behind a Recent Record-Setting Surge in Water Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Bruxer, J.; Smith, J.; Hunter, T.; Fortin, V.; Clites, A. H.; Durnford, D.; Qian, S.; Seglenieks, F.

    2015-12-01

    Resolving and projecting the water budget of the North American Great Lakes basin (Earth's largest lake system) requires aggregation of data from a complex array of in situ monitoring and remote sensing products that cross an international border (leading to potential sources of bias and other inconsistencies), and are relatively sparse over the surfaces of the lakes themselves. Data scarcity over the surfaces of the lakes is a particularly significant problem because, unlike Earth's other large freshwater basins, the Great Lakes basin water budget is (on annual scales) comprised of relatively equal contributions from runoff, over-lake precipitation, and over-lake evaporation. Consequently, understanding drivers behind changes in regional water storage and water levels requires a data management framework that can reconcile uncertainties associated with data scarcity and bias, and propagate those uncertainties into regional water budget projections and historical records. Here, we assess the development of a historical hydrometeorological database for the entire Great Lakes basin with records dating back to the late 1800s, and describe improvements that are specifically intended to differentiate hydrological, climatological, and anthropogenic drivers behind recent extreme changes in Great Lakes water levels. Our assessment includes a detailed analysis of the extent to which extreme cold winters in central North America in 2013-2014 (caused by the anomalous meridional upper air flow - commonly referred to in the public media as the "polar vortex" phenomenon) altered the thermal and hydrologic regimes of the Great Lakes and led to a record setting surge in water levels between January 2014 and December 2015.

  13. Modeling and monitoring cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes in a wastewater treatment plant using constant water level sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, De-Gao, E-mail: degaowang@dlmu.edu.cn; Du, Juan; Pei, Wei; Liu, Yongjun; Guo, Mingxing

    2015-04-15

    The fate of cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) was evaluated in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using constant water level sequencing batch reactors from Dalian, China. Influent, effluent, and sewage sludge samples were collected for seven consecutive days. The mean concentrations of cyclic VMSs (cVMSs) in influent and effluent samples are 1.05 μg L{sup −1} and 0.343 μg L{sup −1}; the total removal efficiency of VMSs is > 60%. Linear VMS (lVMS) concentration is under the quantification limitation in aquatic samples but is found in sludge samples with a value of 90 μg kg{sup −1}. High solid-water partition coefficients result in high VMS concentrations in sludge with the mean value of 5030 μg kg{sup −1}. No significant differences of the daily mass flows are found when comparing the concentration during the weekend and during working days. The estimated mass load of total cVMSs is 194 mg d{sup −1} 1000 inhabitants{sup −1} derived for the population. A mass balance model of the WWTP was developed and derived to simulate the fate of cVMSs. The removal by sorption on sludge increases, and the volatilization decreases with increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing volatility for cVMSs. Sensitivity analysis shows that the total suspended solid concentration in the effluent, mixed liquor suspended solid concentration, the sewage sludge flow rate, and the influent flow rate are the most influential parameters on the mass distribution of cVMSs in this WWTP. - Highlights: • A mass balance model for siloxanes was developed in sequencing batch reactor. • Total suspended solid in effluent has the most influence on removal efficiency. • Enhancement of suspended solid removal reduces the release to aquatic environment.

  14. Modeling and monitoring cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes in a wastewater treatment plant using constant water level sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Gao; Du, Juan; Pei, Wei; Liu, Yongjun; Guo, Mingxing

    2015-04-15

    The fate of cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) was evaluated in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using constant water level sequencing batch reactors from Dalian, China. Influent, effluent, and sewage sludge samples were collected for seven consecutive days. The mean concentrations of cyclic VMSs (cVMSs) in influent and effluent samples are 1.05 μg L(-1) and 0.343 μg L(-1); the total removal efficiency of VMSs is >60%. Linear VMS (lVMS) concentration is under the quantification limitation in aquatic samples but is found in sludge samples with a value of 90 μg kg(-1). High solid-water partition coefficients result in high VMS concentrations in sludge with the mean value of 5030 μg kg(-1). No significant differences of the daily mass flows are found when comparing the concentration during the weekend and during working days. The estimated mass load of total cVMSs is 194 mg d(-1)1000 inhabitants(-1) derived for the population. A mass balance model of the WWTP was developed and derived to simulate the fate of cVMSs. The removal by sorption on sludge increases, and the volatilization decreases with increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing volatility for cVMSs. Sensitivity analysis shows that the total suspended solid concentration in the effluent, mixed liquor suspended solid concentration, the sewage sludge flow rate, and the influent flow rate are the most influential parameters on the mass distribution of cVMSs in this WWTP.

  15. Ion Mobility Spectrometry for Water Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current water quality monitors aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are specialized and provide limited data. The Colorimetric Water Quality Monitor Kit...

  16. Construction, water-level, and water-quality data for multiple-well monitoring sites and test wells, Fort Irwin National Training Center, San Bernardino County, California, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Adam R.; Densmore, Jill N.; Nawikas, Joseph M.; Brown, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Because of increasing water demands at the U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army carried out a study to evaluate the water quality and potential groundwater supply of undeveloped basins within the U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center. In addition, work was performed in the three developed basins—Langford, Bicycle, and Irwin—proximal to or underlying cantonment to provide information in support of water-resources management and to supplement monitoring in these basins. Between 2009 and 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey installed 41 wells to expand collection of water-resource data within the U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center. Thirty-four monitoring wells (2-inch diameter) were constructed at 14 single- or multiple-well monitoring sites and 7 test wells (8-inch diameter) were installed. The majority of the wells were installed in previously undeveloped or minimally developed basins (Cronise, Red Pass, the Central Corridor area, Superior, Goldstone, and Nelson Basins) proximal to cantonment (primary base housing and infrastructure). Data associated with well construction, water-level monitoring, and water-quality sampling are presented in this report.

  17. Ballast Water Self Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    water treatment systems for disinfection including:  Chlorination  Electrochlorination  Ozonation  Chlorine dioxide  Peracetic acid ...presents a challenge since the reagents used are themselves chemically hazardous. Peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (provided as a blend of the two...dosage and usage -Hydrogen peroxide readings from both on-line sensor and sample analysis -Hydrogen peroxide dosage and usage Peracetic acid On

  18. Service Water and Impoundment Monitoring Database (SWIM1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Service Water and Impoundment Monitoring (SWIM1) database was developed for the purpose of managing water level and water quality (salinity) data for areas...

  19. Service Water and Impoundment Monitoring Database (SWIM2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Service Water and Impoundment Monitoring (SWIM2) database was developed for the purpose of managing water level and water quality (salinity) data for areas...

  20. 银川平原潜水水位监测网设计%Design of Phreatic Water Level Monitoring Network in Yinchuan Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 钱会; 王红英; 刘宏伟

    2011-01-01

    The amount of irrigation water from the Yellow River has been reduced to a large extent in recent years, which has caused an increased ground water extraction, falling funnel in part of the irrigation areas, and further narrowed lake area. In this paper, the optimization design of groundwater level monitoring wells was mainly based on the groundwater dynamic type method. The total area of Yinchuan Pain could be divided into 249 dynamic zones,and the accuracy of contour of the monitoring well values was evaluated using Kriging method. So it could be used to evaluate the results of monitoring network optimization. Through comparative analysis on error contour before and after interpolation, finally 250 monitoring wells were needed to be located in Yinchuan Plain. The optimization of the monitoring wells can provide a base for monitoring the spatial distribution and variation of groundwater levels effectively and accurately,and for the regional evaluation of groundwater resources,environmental protection and agricultural planning.%近年来由于对黄河水的引用逐年减少,引黄灌区部分地区由于过度开采地下水,已形成地下水降落漏斗,湖泊面积进一步缩小.采用编制地下水动态分区图的方法对银川平原地下潜水水位监测井进行了优化设计,将整个银川平原分为249个动态类型区,运用Kriging方法能定量评价依据监测网观测值绘制的地下水位等值线的精度,因而可以用来评价监测网的优化结果.对比分析优化前和优化后插值误差等值线,并最终确定在银川平原需布设250口监测井.对监测井进行优化后,使得监测井能够更有效和准确的监测到地下水位在区域上的时、空分布,为区域地下水资源评价,环境保护,农业规划等服务.

  1. Ground-water monitoring sites for Carson Valley, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the monitoring sites where water levels were collected and used to develop a spatial ground-water data base in Carson Valley, west-central...

  2. Structural Changes in Senescing Oilseed Rape Leaves at Tissue and Subcellular Levels Monitored by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry through Water Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maja Musse; Loriane De Franceschi; Mireille Cambert; Clément Sorin; Françoise Le Caherec; Agnès Burel; Alain Bouchereau; François Mariette; Laurent Leport

    2013-01-01

    ... and the associated senescence processes. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry was used to describe water distribution and status at the cellular level in different leaf ranks of well-watered plants...

  3. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ooshaksaraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

  4. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower and maximum (upper level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, fabrication and mounting at a lower cost. Its testing had shown and proved that it works efficiently with Archimedes’ principle of floatation. This eliminates the frequent human intervention/monitoring of the water level in the overhead tank to control overflow manually, thereby eliminating water and energy wastages.

  5. RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS OF REAL -TIME MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR WATER LEVEL AND DISCHARGE OF OPEN CHANNEL IN IRRIGATION DISTRICT%灌区明渠水位流量实时监测技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马腾远; 张庆; 宋玉娟; 王贵田; 马树升

    2011-01-01

    Real-time monitoring water level and discharge of open channel in irrigation district is critical to improve water saving and crop water productivity with quantitative irrigation. In this paper, the necessary components in the monitoring system: water level sensor, ultrasonic flowmeter, data acquisition and flow calculation software and data communication system are described in detail.%灌区明渠水位流量监测对于计量灌溉促进灌区节水和提高作物水分生产率意义重大.本文就监测系统中必备的水位传感器、明渠超声波流量计、数据采集及流量积算软件及数据通信系统等进行了详细阐述.

  6. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  7. Rapid method for monitoring N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water at the ng/L level without pre-concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Yamasaki, Hitomi; Sakaguchi, Takeru; Itoh, Shinya; Iwaya, Yoshimi; Saga, Makoto; Saito, Keiitsu; Kanzaki, Ryo; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2016-08-19

    As a contaminant in drinking water, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is of great concern because of its carcinogenicity; it has been limited to levels of ng/L by regulatory bodies worldwide. Consequently, a rapid and sensitive method for monitoring NDMA in drinking water is urgently required. In this study, we report an improvement of our previously proposed HPLC-based system for NDMA determination. The approach consists of the HPLC separation of NDMA, followed by NDMA photolysis to form peroxynitrite and detection with a luminol chemiluminescence reaction. The detection limit for the improved HPLC method was 0.2ng/L, which is 10 times more sensitive than our previously reported system. For tap water measurements, only the addition of an ascorbic acid solution to eliminate residual chlorine and passage through an Oasis MAX solid-phase extraction cartridge are needed. The proposed NDMA determination method requires a sample volume of less than 2mL and a complete analysis time of less than 15min per sample. The method was utilized for the long-term monitoring of NDMA in tap water. The NDMA level measured in the municipal water survey was 4.9ng/L, and a seasonal change of the NDMA concentration in tap water was confirmed. The proposed method should constitute a useful NDMA monitoring method for protecting drinking water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polymer microcantilevers for water quality monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The microcantilever project aims to develop novel polymer based microcantilevers able to detect E.coli in water samples for use as a rapid diagnostic for on-site water quality monitoring....

  9. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  10. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  11. Iowater Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points representing monitoring locations on streams, lakes and ponds that have been registered by IOWATER monitors. IOWATER, Iowa's volunteer...

  12. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  13. Evaluating Mobile Survey Tools (MSTs) for Field-Level Monitoring and Data Collection: Development of a Novel Evaluation Framework, and Application to MSTs for Rural Water and Sanitation Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael B; Mann, Benjamin H; Cronk, Ryan D; Shields, Katherine F; Klug, Tori L; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2016-08-23

    Information and communications technologies (ICTs) such as mobile survey tools (MSTs) can facilitate field-level data collection to drive improvements in national and international development programs. MSTs allow users to gather and transmit field data in real time, standardize data storage and management, automate routine analyses, and visualize data. Dozens of diverse MST options are available, and users may struggle to select suitable options. We developed a systematic MST Evaluation Framework (EF), based on International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) software quality modeling standards, to objectively assess MSTs and assist program implementers in identifying suitable MST options. The EF is applicable to MSTs for a broad variety of applications. We also conducted an MST user survey to elucidate needs and priorities of current MST users. Finally, the EF was used to assess seven MSTs currently used for water and sanitation monitoring, as a validation exercise. The results suggest that the EF is a promising method for evaluating MSTs.

  14. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1994. Twelve wells representing 13 intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 6 wells representing 10 intervals were monitored hourly, and 10 wells representing 13 intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one, that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and pressure transducers. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1994. The mean-annual water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1994. Water levels were only an average of about 0.01 meters lower than 1993 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  15. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT{number_sign}12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  16. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  17. Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.

    2006-09-01

    Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

  18. 基于 GPRS 的灌区水位智能监测系统设计%The Design of an Intelligent Wireless Based Water Level Monitoring System for Irrigated Land Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻成章; 董桂菊; 李广军

    2015-01-01

    In order to monitor and gather the groundwater level data of irrigated land area in Sanjiang Plain in real time , a wireless based water level monitoring system is designed .Ultrasonic sensor is used as part of the terminal to collect and monitor the water level in real-time.GPRS networkis utilized to transport the water level data from terminals to the moni-toring center .Water level data are then processed , stored and displayed along with the automatically generated figures and curves about water-level changes.The experiment result shows that the measurement error is between 0 .1 cm and 0.5cm.The system proofs to be capable of monitoring the water level of irrigated land area in real -time while work-ing in a very stable condition .And the system is also valuable of providing scientific evidence for the local authorities to wisely and rationally develop the groundwater resources in the irrigated land area .%为实现三江平原灌区地下水位数据的实时采集和监控,设计了基于无线传输的灌区水位监控系统。数据采集终端使用超声波水位传感器对地下水位进行实时监测,使用 GPRS 无线通讯技术实现水位数据的远距离传输;水位监控中心接收、处理、存储并实时显示水位数据,同时绘制出水位变化折线图。试验结果表明,系统测量误差介于0.1~0.5cm 之间,能完成对灌区地下水位的实时监测,运行十分稳定,为当地政府部门合理开发灌区地下水资源提供了宝贵的科学依据。

  19. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  20. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  1. Thoughts on Integrated Monitoring of Ecological Environment at Provincial Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hong; Jack E. Coster; SONG Xiao-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The Law of Soil and Water Conservation entitles the administrations of water resources at various level to monitor ecological environment and to proclaim status of soil erosion periodically.Monitoring units of soil and water conservation approved by local governments are obliged to undertake this work.How to develop a monitoring program needs an overall and long-term concept.Particularity and objectives of ecological environment monitoring was discussed. Monitoring at provincial level may be divided into two levels:province-wide and at project level. Those indicators meaningful,sensitive to any disturbances,and simple to measure may be selected to test status of ecosystem stability and health.It makes sense to have an integrated sampling design,to set up permanent observation plots and to collect data, so that to have a relative timely,accurate understanding of ecosystems in the province.A program regarding sampling design,field methods, data analysis,documentation and implementation was detailed.

  2. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  3. Environmental monitoring of Norwegian water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollan, A.

    1980-01-01

    A national environmental monitoring program was started in Norway in 1980, under the auspices of the Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority. Within this program The Norwegian Institute for Water Research is responsible for: (1) Chemical and biological monitoring of selected rivers and fjord areas. Typically, the monitoring of a particular river or fjord starts with a basic investigation of 1-3 years, comprising physiography, human impacts on the water quality and a broad description of the present water quality status. This stage is followed by a permanent monitoring of carefully selected variables at a limited number of stations. Special water quality problems may be studied separately. (2) Participation in a coordinated monitoring of long-range transported atmospheric pollution, and its effects on water chemistry, aquatic life and soil properties. (3) Methodological development, standardization of analytical procedures and evaluation techniques for water quality assessment, and assistance as a national reference laboratory for water analyses. (4) Depository for environmental data collected within the national monitoring program.

  4. Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing maize foliar water stress levels under field conditions using in-situ ... is non-destructive to the crops as opposed to other traditional ground-based methods. ... water indices that could monitor the water status at leaf level on maize (Zea ... about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and Conditions of Use.

  5. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.

    1998-11-01

    Water levels were monitored in 24 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1996. Twenty-two wells representing 28 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored both hourly and periodically. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using either calibrated steel tapes or a pressure sensor. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 727.86 to about 1,034.58 meters above sea level during 1996. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 752.57 meters above sea level during 1996. Mean water-level altitudes for 1996 were an average of about 0.06 meter lower than 1995 mean water-level altitudes and 0.03 meter lower than 1985--95 mean water-level altitudes. During 1996, water levels in the Yucca Mountain area could have been affected by long-term pumping at the C-hole complex that began on May 8, 1996. Through December 31, 1996, approximately 196 million liters were pumped from well UE-25 c{number_sign}3 at the C-hole complex. Other ground-water pumpage in the Yucca Mountain area includes annual pumpage from water-supply wells UE-25 J-12 and UE-25 J-13 of approximately 163 and 105 million liters, respectively, and pumpage from well USW G-2 for hydraulic testing during February and April 1996 of approximately 6 million liters.

  6. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  7. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  8. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  9. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701... Monitoring Requirements § 141.701 Source water monitoring. (a) Initial round of source water monitoring... sampling frequency is evenly spaced throughout the monitoring period. (b) Second round of source water...

  10. High Impedance Comparator for Monitoring Water Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holewinski, Paul K.

    1984-01-01

    A high-impedance comparator suitable for monitoring the resistivity of a deionized or distilled water line supplying water in the 50 Kohm/cm-2 Mohm/cm range is described. Includes information on required circuits (with diagrams), sensor probe assembly, and calibration techniques. (JN)

  11. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of: (1...

  12. Monitoring Telluric Water Absorption with CAMAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ashley; Blake, Cullen; Sliski, David

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based observations are severely limited by telluric water vapor absorption features, which are highly variable in time and significantly complicate both spectroscopy and photometry in the near-infrared (NIR). To achieve the stability required to study Earth-sized exoplanets, monitoring the precipitable water vapor (PWV) becomes necessary to mitigate the impact of telluric lines on radial velocity measurements and transit light curves. To address this issue, we present the Camera for the Automatic Monitoring of Atmospheric Lines (CAMAL), a stand-alone, inexpensive 6-inch aperture telescope dedicated to measuring PWV at the Whipple Observatory. CAMAL utilizes three NIR narrowband filters to trace the amount of atmospheric water vapor affecting simultaneous observations with the MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) and MINERVA-Red telescopes. We present the current design of CAMAL, discuss our calibration methods, and show PWV measurements taken with CAMAL compared to those of a nearby GPS water vapor monitor.

  13. Understanding Local Ecology: Syllabus for Monitoring Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City.

    This syllabus gives detailed information on monitoring water quality for teachers and students. It tells how to select a sample site; how to measure physical characteristics such as temperature, turbidity, and stream velocity; how to measure chemical parameters such as alkalinity, dissolved oxygen levels, phosphate levels, and ammonia nitrogen…

  14. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  15. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  16. Monitoring the waste water of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Rühl, I

    1999-01-01

    Along the LEP sites CERN is discharging water of differing quality and varying amounts into the local rivers. This wastewater is not only process water from different cooling circuits but also water that infiltrates into the LEP tunnel. The quality of the discharged wastewater has to conform to the local environmental legislation of our Host States and therefore has to be monitored constantly. The most difficult aspect regarding the wastewater concerns LEP Point 8 owing to an infiltration of crude oil (petroleum), which is naturally contained in the soil along octant 7-8 of the LEP tunnel. This paper will give a short summary of the modifications made to the oil/water separation unit at LEP Point 8. The aim was to obtain a satisfactory oil/water separation and to install a monitoring system for a permanent measurement of the amount of hydrocarbons in the wastewater.

  17. COLLABORATIVE MULTI-LEVEL PLAN MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad K. ALLOUCHE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent worldwide connectivity and the net-centricity of military operations (coalition-based operations are witnessing an increasing need for the monitoring of plan execution for enhanced resource management and decision making. Monitoring of ongoing operations is the process of continuous observation recording and reporting. In this process the plan becomes a resource that needs to be managed effi ciently. The centralized approach to plan monitoring soon reaches its limits when plan execution is distributed across different organizations/countries. We propose a new framework that would allow different monitoring nodes distributed across the network. An effi cient propagation mechanism that allows information exchange between the different nodes would also be needed. The main purpose of this mechanism is to present the right information, to the right person, at the right time. To cope with a rapid increase of information fl ow through the network, an effi cient alarm management mechanism allows the presentation of the information with an appropriate level of details.

  18. 21 CFR 868.2450 - Lung water monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lung water monitor. 868.2450 Section 868.2450 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2450 Lung water monitor. (a) Identification. A lung water monitor is a device used to monitor the trend of fluid volume changes in a patient's lung...

  19. 40 CFR 141.706 - Reporting source water monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting source water monitoring... Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.706 Reporting source water monitoring results. (a) Systems must report results from the source water monitoring required under § 141.701 no later than 10...

  20. Using DNA damage to monitor water environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    DNA damage of aquatic organisms living in polluted environments can be used as a biomarker of the genotoxicity of toxic agents to organisms. This technique has been playing an important role in ecotoxicological study and environmental risk assessment. In this article, main types of DNA damage caused by pollutants in water environments were reviewed; methods of detecting DNA damage were also documented for water environmental monitoring.

  1. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  2. Data processing for water monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L.; Linton, A. T.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring data acquisition system is structured about central computer that controls sampling and sensor operation, and analyzes and displays data in real time. Unit is essentially separated into two systems: computer system, and hard wire backup system which may function separately or with computer.

  3. 基于ZigBee无线通信技术的河流水位监测系统%Water Level Monitoring and Measurement System of River Based on ZigBee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭元松; 彭端

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the current status of water level monitoring and measurement of river, the water level monitoring and measurement system of river was proposed,utilizing both ZigBee technology and ultrasonic waves measurement technology. In the system , the ultrasonic waves measurement modules were combined with wireless sensor nodal points. The system has broad application prospects,because the wireless sensors are small,easy to expand,and of low power comsumption.%针对目前国内的河流水位监测现状,文中提出了一种将ZigBee无线通信技术和超声波测量技术相结合的河流水位监测系统.该系统将超声波测量模块与无线传感器节点相结合,充分发挥无线传感器体积小、功耗低、易于扩展的特点,具有广阔的应用前景.

  4. Remote Working Level Monitor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-18

    The Remote Working Level Monitor (RWLM) is an instrument used to remotely monitor the RN-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL). It is an ac powered, microprocessor based instrument which multiplexes two independent detector units to a single central processor unit (CPU). The CPU controls the actuation of the detector units and processes and outputs the data received from these remote detector units. The remote detector units are fully automated and require no manual operation once they are set up. They detect and separate the alpha emitters of RaA and RaC' as well as detecting the beta emitters of RaB and RaC. The resultant pulses from these detected radioisotopes are transmitted to the CPU for processing. The programmed microprocessor performs the mathematical manipulations necessary to output accurate Rn-daughter concentrations and the WL. A special subroutine within the program enables the RWLM to run and output a calibration procedure on command. The data resulting from this request can then be processed in a separate program on most computers capable of BASIC programming. The calibration program results in the derivation of coefficients and beta efficiencies which provides calibrated coefficients and beta efficiencies.

  5. Gender Sensitive Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation in Agricultural Water Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Suman Rimal; Kuriakose, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural water management projects that take an inclusive, participatory gendersensitive approach at all levels of the project cycle help increase project effectiveness and improve account of livelihood concerns of women and the rural poor. Participatory planning methods; creation of genderspecific indicators; continuous monitoring; and beneficiary-led impact assessment are key features of this approach.

  6. Assessing temporal representativeness of water quality monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Saku; Ketola, Mirva; Vakkilainen, Kirsi; Kairesalo, Timo

    2012-02-01

    The effectiveness of different monitoring methods in detecting temporal changes in water quality depends on the achievable sampling intervals, and how these relate to the extent of temporal variation. However, water quality sampling frequencies are rarely adjusted to the actual variation of the monitoring area. Manual sampling, for example, is often limited by the level of funding and not by the optimal timing to take samples. Restrictions in monitoring methods therefore often determine their ability to estimate the true mean and variance values for a certain time period or season. Consequently, we estimated how different sampling intervals determine the mean and standard deviation in a specific monitoring area by using high frequency data from in situ automated monitoring stations. Raw fluorescence measurements of chlorophyll a for three automated monitoring stations were calibrated by using phycocyanin fluorescence measurements and chlorophyll a analyzed from manual water samples in a laboratory. A moving block bootstrap simulation was then used to estimate the standard errors of the mean and standard deviations for different sample sizes. Our results showed that in a temperate, meso-eutrophic lake, relatively high errors in seasonal statistics can be expected from monthly sampling. Moreover, weekly sampling yielded relatively small accuracy benefits compared to a fortnightly sampling. The presented method for temporal representation analysis can be used as a tool in sampling design by adjusting the sampling interval to suit the actual temporal variation in the monitoring area, in addition to being used for estimating the usefulness of previously collected data.

  7. On-line application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water levels in parts per million in a manufacturing-scale distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertus, Gordon; Shi, Zhenqi; Forbes, Robert; Kramer, Timothy T; Doherty, Steven; Hermiller, James; Scully, Norma; Wong, Sze Wing; LaPack, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An on-line analytical method based on transmission near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative determination of water concentrations (in parts per million) was developed and applied to the manufacture of a pharmaceutical intermediate. Calibration models for water analysis, built at the development site and applied at the manufacturing site, were successfully demonstrated during six manufacturing runs at a 250-gallon scale. The water measurements will be used as a forward-processing control point following distillation of a toluene product solution prior to use in a Grignard reaction. The most significant impact of using this NIRS-based process analytical technology (PAT) to replace off-line measurements is the significant reduction in the risk of operator exposure through the elimination of sampling of a severely lachrymatory and mutagenic compound. The work described in this report illustrates the development effort from proof-of-concept phase to manufacturing implementation.

  8. Monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala using Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Cordova, A. I.; Christopher, S. A.; Griffin, R.; Limaye, A. S.; Irwin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent and spatially continuous water quality monitoring is either unattainable or challenging for developing nations if only standard methods are used. Such standard methods rely on in situ water sampling, which is expensive, time-consuming and point specific. Through the Regional Visualization and Monitoring System (SERVIR), Lake Atitlan's water quality was first monitored in 2009 using Earth observation satellites. Lake Atitlan is a source of drinking water for the towns located nearby and a major touristic attraction for the country. Several multispectral sensors were used to monitor the largest algal bloom known to date for the lake, which covered 40% of the lake's 137 square kilometer surface. Red and Near-Infrared bands were used to isolate superficial algae from clean water. Local authorities, media, universities and local communities, broadly used the information provided by SERVIR for this event. It allowed estimating the real extent of the algal bloom and prompted immediate response for the government to address the event. However, algal blooms have been very rare in this lake. The lake is considered oligotrophic given its relatively high transparency levels that can reach 15 m in the dry season. To continue the support provided by SERVIR in the algal bloom event, an algorithm to monitor chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration under normal conditions was developed with the support of local institutions. Hyperspectral data from Hyperion on board EO-1 and in situ water quality observations were used to develop a semi-empirical algorithm for the lake. A blue to green band ratio successfully modeled Chl a concentration in Lake Atitlan with a relative error of 33%. This presentation will explain the process involved from providing an emergency response to developing a tailored tool for monitoring water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala.

  9. 40 CFR 257.22 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator. When physical obstacles preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 257... Waste Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.22 Ground-water......

  10. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  11. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  12. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-06-30

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

  13. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  14. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  15. Pesticides in Drinking Water – The Brazilian Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Auria M. C.; Solano, Marize de L. M.; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer; therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua) with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring). Brazilian drinking water norm (Ordinance 2914/2011 from Ministry of Health) includes 27 pesticide active ingredients that need to be monitored every 6 months. This number represents <10% of current active ingredients approved for use in the country. In this work, we analyzed data compiled in Sisagua database in a qualitative and quantitative way. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 169,000 pesticide analytical results were prepared and evaluated, although approximately 980,000 would be expected if all municipalities registered their analyses. This shows that only 9–17% of municipalities registered their data in Sisagua. In this dataset, we observed non-compliance with the minimum sampling number required by the norm, lack of information about detection and quantification limits, insufficient standardization in expression of results, and several inconsistencies, leading to low credibility of pesticide data provided by the system. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate exposure of total Brazilian population to pesticides via drinking water using the current national database system Sisagua. Lessons learned from this study could provide insights into the monitoring and reporting of pesticide residues in drinking water worldwide. PMID:26581345

  16. PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATER - THE BRAZILIAN MONITORING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auria Maria Cavalvante Barbosa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer, therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring. Brazilian drinking water norm (Ordinance 2914/2011 from Ministry of Health includes 27 pesticide active ingredients that need to be monitored every six months. This number represents less than 10% of current active ingredients approved for use in the country. In this work we analyzed data compiled in Sisagua database in a qualitative and quantitative way. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 169,000 pesticide analytical results were prepared and evaluated, although approximately 980,000 would be expected if all municipalities registered their analyses. This shows that only 9 to 17% of municipalities registered their data in Sisagua. In this dataset we observed noncompliance with the minimum sampling number required by the norm, lack of information about detection and quantification limits, insufficient standardization in expression of results, and several inconsistencies, leading to low credibility of pesticide data provided by the system. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate exposure of total Brazilian population to pesticides via drinking water using the current national database system Sisagua. Lessons learned from this study could provide insights into the monitoring and reporting of pesticide residues in drinking water worldwide.

  17. Estimating Water Levels with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, E.; Russo, T. A.; Zentner, M.; May, J.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Reservoirs serve multiple functions and are vital for storage, electricity generation, and flood control. For many areas, traditional ground-based reservoir measurements may not be available or data dissemination may be problematic. Consistent monitoring of reservoir levels in data-poor areas can be achieved through remote sensing, providing information to researchers and the international community. Estimates of trends and relative reservoir volume can be used to identify water supply vulnerability, anticipate low power generation, and predict flood risk. Image processing with automated cloud computing provides opportunities to study multiple geographic areas in near real-time. We demonstrate the prediction capability of a cloud environment for identifying water trends at reservoirs in the US, and then apply the method to data-poor areas in North Korea, Iran, Azerbaijan, Zambia, and India. The Google Earth Engine cloud platform hosts remote sensing data and can be used to automate reservoir level estimation with multispectral imagery. We combine automated cloud-based analysis from Landsat image classification to identify reservoir surface area trends and radar altimetry to identify reservoir level trends. The study estimates water level trends using three years of data from four domestic reservoirs to validate the remote sensing method, and five foreign reservoirs to demonstrate the method application. We report correlations between ground-based reservoir level measurements in the US and our remote sensing methods, and correlations between the cloud analysis and altimetry data for reservoirs in data-poor areas. The availability of regular satellite imagery and an automated, near real-time application method provides the necessary datasets for further temporal analysis, reservoir modeling, and flood forecasting. All statements of fact, analysis, or opinion are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or any

  18. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control.

  19. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.04 spring water monitoring (quality) and 1.06 management unit water monitoring (quality) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge....

  20. Continuous monitoring of plant water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, N L; Trickett, E S; Ceresa, A; Barrs, H D

    1986-05-01

    Plant water potential was monitored continuously with a Wescor HR-33T dewpoint hygrometer in conjunction with a L51 chamber. This commercial instrument was modified by replacing the AC-DC mains power converter with one stabilized by zener diode controlled transistors. The thermocouple sensor and electrical lead needed to be thermally insulated to prevent spurious signals. For rapid response and faithful tracking a low resistance for water vapor movement between leaf and sensor had to be provided. This could be effected by removing the epidermis either by peeling or abrasion with fine carborundum cloth. A variety of rapid plant water potential responses to external stimuli could be followed in a range of crop plants (sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., var. Hysun 30); safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L., var. Gila); soybean (Glycine max L., var. Clark); wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Egret). These included light dark changes, leaf excision, applied pressure to or anaerobiosis of the root system. Water uptake by the plant (safflower, soybean) mirrored that for water potential changes including times when plant water status (soybean) was undergoing cyclical changes.

  1. Automated system for monitoring groundwater levels at an experimental low-level waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J.D.; Bogle, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    One of the major problems with disposing of low-level solid wastes in the eastern United States is the potential for water-waste interactions and leachate migration. To monitor groundwater fluctuations and the frequency with which groundwater comes into contact with a group of experimental trenches, work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Engineered Test Facility (ETF) has employed a network of water level recorders that feed information from 15 on-site wells to a centralized data recording system. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system being used and to document the computer programs that have been developed to process the data. Included in this report are data based on more than 2 years of water level information for ETF wells 1 through 12 and more than 6 months of data from all 15 wells. The data thus reflect both long-term trends as well as a large number of short-term responses to individual storm events. The system was designed to meet the specific needs of the ETF, but the hardware and computer routines have generic application to a variety of groundwater monitoring situations. 5 references.

  2. Antineutrino monitoring for the Iranian heavy water reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this note we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a non-proliferation measure. We demonstrate that an above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet and in some cases significantly exceed the verification goals identified by IAEA for plutonium production or diversion from declared inventories. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shutdown. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to re-establish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary.

  3. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section 106(e)(1.../quality control guidance. (b) The State's water monitoring program shall include collection and analysis...

  4. 40 CFR 258.51 - Ground-water monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... preclude installation of ground-water monitoring wells at the relevant point of compliance at existing... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring systems. 258... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.51...

  5. Biological Status Monitoring of European Fresh Water with Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Romain; Mangin, Antoine; Fanton d'Andon, Odile Hembise; Lauters, Francois; Thomasset, Franck; Martin-Lauzer, Francois-Regis

    2016-08-01

    Thanks to a widening range of sensors available, the observation of continental water quality for lakes and reservoirs is gaining more and more consistency and accuracy.Consistency because back in 2012, the only free sensor with a sufficient resolution (30m) was Landsat-7 which has truncated data since 2003 and a 16-day revisit time. But today, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A are now operating so depending on the latitude of interest, the combined revisit time dropped to 2 to 4 days which is more appropriate for such a monitoring (especially considering the cloud cover).Accuracy because Landsat-7 has a poor contrast over water whereas Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A have a better radiometric sensitivity (more bit) and moreover Sentinel-2 offers additional spectral bands in the visible which are helpful for Chlorophyll-A concentration assessment. To sum up, with Sentinel-2, continental water quality monitoring capabilities are making a giant leap and it is important to exploit this potential the sooner. ACRI-HE has already built a strong basis to prepare Sentinel-2 by using Landsat data.Indeed, more than 600 lakes are already constantly monitored using Landsat data and their biological statuses are available on EyeOnWater (see eyeonwater.eu). Chlorophyll-A retrieval from (fresh) water leaving reflectances is the result of research activities conducted by ACRI-HE in parallel with EDF (Electricité de France) to respond to an emerging very demanding environmental monitoring through European regulations (typically the Water Framework Directive). Two parallel and complementary algorithms have thus been derived for Chlorophyll-a retrieval.Upstream of Eyeonwater, there is a complex and complete system automatically collecting images, extracting areas of interest around lakes, applying atmospheric correction (very sensitive part as atmosphere can contribute to 90% of the signal at sensor level) and then algorithms to retrieve water transparency (Secchi disk), turbidity and Chlorophyll

  6. A comparison between remote sensing approaches to water extent monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    elmi, omid; javad tourian, mohammad; sneeuw, nico

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the variation of water storage in a long period is a primary issue for understanding the impact of climate change and human activities on earth water resources. In order to obtain the change in water volume in a lake and reservoir, in addition to water level, water extent must be repeatedly determined in an appropriate time interval. Optical satellite imagery as a passive system is the main source of determination of coast line change as it is easy to interpret. Optical sensors acquire the reflected energy from the sunlight in various bands from visible to near infrared. Also, panchromatic mode provides more geometric details. Establishing a ratio between visible bands is the most common way of extract coastlines because with this ratio, water and land can be separated directly. Also, since the reflectance value of water is distinctly less than soil in infrared bands, applying a histogram threshold on this band is a effective way of coastline extraction. However, optical imagery is highly vulnerable to occurrence of dense clouds and fog. Moreover, the coastline is hard to detect where it is covered by dense vegetation. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an active system provides an alternative source for monitoring the spatial change in coastlines. Two methods for monitoring the shoreline with SAR data have been published. First, the backscatter difference is calculated between two images acquired at different times. Second, the change in coastline is detected by computing the coherence of two SAR images acquired at different times. A SAR system can operate in all weather, so clouds and fog don't impact its efficiency. Also, it can penetrate into the plant canopy. However, in comparison with optical imagery, interpretation of SAR image in this case is relatively hard because of limitation in the number of band and polarization modes, also due to effects caused by speckle noises, slant-range imaging and shadows. The primary aim of this study is a

  7. Monitoring Continental Water Mass Variations by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, H.; Akyılmaz, O.

    2015-12-01

    The low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking mission GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment), launched in March 2002, aims to determine Earth's static gravity field and its temporal variations. Geophysical mass changes at regional and global scale, which are related with terrestrial water bodies, ocean and atmosphere masses, melting and displacements of ice sheets and tectonic movements can be determined from time-dependent changes of the Earth's gravity field. In this study, it is aimed to determine total water storage (TWS) (soil moisture, groundwater, snow and glaciers, lake and river waters, herbal waters) variations at different temporal and spatial resolution, monitoring the hydrologic effect causing time-dependent changes in the Earth's gravity field by two different methods. The region between 30°-40° northern latitudes and 36°-48° eastern longitudes has been selected as a study area covering the Euphrates - Tigris basin. TWS maps were produced with (i) monthly temporal and 400 km spatial resolution, based on monthly mean global spherical harmonic gravity field models of GRACE satellite mission (L2), and with (ii) monthly and semi-monthly temporal and spatial resolution as fine as 200 km based on GRACE in-situ observations (L1B). Decreasing trend of water mass anomalies from the year 2003 to 2013 is proved by aforesaid approaches. Monthly TWS variations are calculated using two different methods for the same region and time period. Time series of both solutions are generated and compared.

  8. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  9. Biological water quality monitoring using chemiluminescent and bioluminescent techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Automated chemiluminescence and bioluminescence sensors were developed for the continuous monitoring of microbial levels in water supplies. The optimal chemical procedures were determined for the chemiluminescence system to achieve maximum sensitivity. By using hydrogen peroxide, reaction rate differentiation, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and carbon monoxide pretreatments, factors which cause interference were eliminated and specificity of the reaction for living and dead bacteria was greatly increased. By employing existing technology with some modifications, a sensitive and specific bioluminescent system was developed.

  10. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  11. Development of Mechanical Water Level Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Akonyi Nasiru Sule; Chinedu Cletus Obinwa; Christian Ebele Okekeze; Eyo Ifreke

    2012-01-01

    The automatic water level controller is a device designed to regulate automatically the pumping of water to an overhead tank without allowing the water in the tank to be exhausted. The design of this mechanical device was achieved using the Archimedes principle of floatation; having a float which determines the water level in the tank depending on the choice of the minimum (lower) and maximum (upper) level inscribed in the tank. The fundamental attribute of this device is the ease in design, ...

  12. DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL MONITORING NETWORK WITH ORDINARY KRIGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng-guang; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian; YANG Ke-jun

    2008-01-01

    The primary network of groundwater level observation wells aims at realizing a regional groundwater management policy. It may give a regional picture of groundwater level with emphasis on the natural situation. Observation data from the primary network can be used to estimate the actual state of groundwater system. Since the cost of the installation and maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network is extremely high, the assessment of effectiveness of the network becomes very necessary. Groundwater level monitoring networks are the examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, ordinary kriging provides estimates of the variable sampled and a standard error of the estimate. In this article, the average Kriging standard deviation was used as a criterion for the determination of network density,and the GIS-based approach was analysized. A case study of groundwater level network simulation in the Chaiwopu Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, was presented. In the case study, the initial phreatic water observation wells were 18, a comparison of the three variogram parameters of the three defferent variogram models shows that the Gaussian model is the best. Finally, a network with 55 wells was constructed.

  13. Monitoring and modeling of microbial and biological water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial and biological water quality informs on the health of water systems and their suitability for uses in irrigation, recreation, aquaculture, and other activities. Indicators of microbial and biological water quality demonstrate high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore, monitoring str...

  14. Guidelines for use of water-quality monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A. Brice; Katzenbach, Max S.

    1983-01-01

    This manual contains methods and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for collecting specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and pH data for ground water, streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries by means of permanently installed, continuously recording, water quality monitors. The topics discussed include the selection of monitoring sites, selection and installation of shelters and equipment, and standard methods of calibration, operation and maintenance of water-quality monitors.

  15. The strategy for improving water-quality monitoring in the United States; final report of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality; technical appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) prepared this report in collaboration with representatives of all levels of government and the private sector. The report recommends a strategy for nationwide water-quality monitoring and technical monitoring improvements to support sound water-quality decisionmaking. The strategy is intended to achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resources management. It is also designed to expand the base of information useful to a variety of users at multiple geographic scales. Institutional and technical changes are needed to improve water-quality monitoring and to meet the full range of monitoring requirements. Monitoring must be incorporated as a critical element of program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The strategy includes recommendations in many key elements, such as the development of goal-oriented monitoring and indicators, institutional collaboration, and methods comparability. Initial actions have been taken to implement the strategy. Several Federal agencies have jointly purchased and shared remotely sensed land-cover information needed for water assessment. Major agency data systems are using common data-element names and reference tables that will ensure easy sharing of data. A number of States have held meetings with collectors of water information to initiate statewide monitoring strategies. New monitoring guidance has been developed for Federal water-quality grants to States. Many State offices have changed monitoring programs to place emphasis on priority watersheds and to improve assessment of water quality. As the competition increases for adequate supplies of clean water, concerns about public health and the environment escalate, and more demands are placed on the water information infrastructure. To meet these demands, the collaborative approach has already produced benefits, which will continue to grow as

  16. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  17. Monitoring Stand Level Photosynthesis from Spectral Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, T.; Coops, N. C.; Hall, F. G.; Black, A. T.; Krishnan, P.; Chen, B.; Wulder, M. A.; Nesic, Z.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E. M.; Margolis, H. A.; Drolet, G.; Cheng, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global determination and monitoring of gross primary production (GPP) is a critical component of climate change research. On local scales, GPP can be assessed from measuring CO2 exchange above the plant canopy using tower-based eddy covariance (EC) systems. The limited footprint inherent to this method however, restricts observations to relatively few discrete areas making continuous predictions of global CO2 fluxes challenging. Recently, the advent of high resolution optical remote sensing devices has offered new possibilities to address some of the scaling issues related to GPP using approaches based on spectral reflectance. One key component for inferring GPP from remote sensing is the efficiency (e) with which plants can convert absorbed photosynthetically active radiation into biomass. Whilst recent years have seen progress determining e at the leaf level using the photochemical reflectance index PRI, little is known about the temporal and spatial requirements for upscaling PRI. For instance, satellite observations of canopy reflectance are subject to view and illumination geometry effects induced by the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of canopies that can confound the desired signal; however little is known about interactions between these effects and PRI. Further areas of research include dependencies of PRI on canopy structure, understorey and species composition. One potential way to investigate these requirements is using automated tower-based remote sensing platforms, facilitating spectral observations of the canopy with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. The experimental setup presented herein features an automated spectral radiometer (AMSPEC) with a motor-driven probe allowing observations in a nearly full circle around the tower. Year round data are sampled every 5 sec., a full rotation is completed within 15 min. The spatial similarity to the flux-footprint allows direct comparisons with EC and micro

  18. Residual water bactericide monitor development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A silver-ion bactericidal monitor is considered for the Space Shuttle Potable Water System. Potentiometric measurement using an ion-selective electrode is concluded to be the most feasible of available techniques. Four commercially available electrodes and a specially designed, solid-state, silver-sulfide electrode were evaluated for their response characteristics and suitability for space use. The configuration of the solid-state electrode with its Nernstian response of 10 to 10,000 ppb silver shows promise for use in space. A pressurized double-junction reference electrode with a quartz-fiber junction and a replaceable bellows electrolyte reservoir was designed verification-tested, and paired with a solid-state silver-sulfide electrode in a test fixture.

  19. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S. [EPRIsolutions, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  20. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  1. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  2. Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based .... The measures for improvement of monitoring were: .... purposes, the effectiveness and desirability of a government.

  3. Initial Survey Instructions for Spring Water Monitoring : Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for the Spring Water Monitoring - Flow 1.02 survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This coop baseline monitoring survey has...

  4. Characterization of Electrospray Ionization for Spaceflight Water Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current methods for monitoring the water used on the ISS rely heavily on ground analysis of archival samples. Air monitors presently on board the ISS could be used...

  5. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    This contribution will focus on combining Object Based Image Analysis (i.e. OBIA with e-Cognition 8) and recent sensors (i.e. Spot 5 XS, Pan and ALOS Prism, Avnir2, Palsar) to address the technical feasibility for an operational monitoring of surface water. Three cases of river meandering (India), flood mapping (Nepal) and dam's seasonal water level monitoring (Morocco) using recent sensors will present various application of surface water monitoring. The operational aspect will be demonstrated either by sensor properties (i.e. spatial resolution and bandwidth), data acquisition properties (i.e. multi sensor, return period and near real-time acquisition) but also with OBIA algorithms (i.e. fusion of multi sensors / multi resolution data and batch processes). In the first case of river meandering (India) we will address multi sensor and multi date satellite acquisition to monitor the river bed mobility within a floodplain using an ALOS dataset. It will demonstrate the possibility of an operational monitoring system that helps the geomorphologist in the analysis of fluvial dynamic and sediment budget for high energy rivers. In the second case of flood mapping (Nepal) we will address near real time Palsar data acquisition at high spatial resolution to monitor and to map a flood extension. This ALOS sensor takes benefit both from SAR and L band properties (i.e. atmospheric transparency, day/night acquisition, low sensibility to surface wind). It's a real achievement compared to optical imagery or even other high resolution SAR properties (i.e. acquisition swath, bandwidth and data price). These advantages meet the operational needs set by crisis management of hydrological disasters but also for the implementation of flood risk management plans. The last case of dam surface water monitoring (Morocco) will address an important issue of water resource management in countries affected by water scarcity. In such countries water users have to cope with over exploitation

  6. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  7. 42 CFR 403.754 - Monitoring expenditure level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Monitoring expenditure level. 403.754 Section 403.754 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., Conditions of Participation, and Payment § 403.754 Monitoring expenditure level. (a) Tracking expenditures...

  8. Monitoring of recharge water quality under woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajenbrink, G. J. W.; Ronen, D.; Van Duijvenbooden, W.; Magaritz, M.; Wever, D.

    1988-03-01

    The study compares the quality of groundwater in the water table zone and soil moisture below the root zone, under woodland, with the quality of the regional precipitation. The water quality under forest shows evidence of the effect of atmospheric deposition of acidic components (e.g. SO 2) and ammonia volatilized from land and feed lots. Detailed chemical profiles of the upper meter of groundwater under different plots of forest, at varying distances from cultivated land, were obtained with a multilayer sampler, using the dialysis-cell method. Porous ceramic cups and a vacuum method were used to obtain soil moisture samples at 1.20 m depth under various types of trees, an open spot and arable land, for the period of a year. The investigation took place in the recharge area of a pumping station with mainly mixed forest, downwind of a vast agricultural area with high ammonia volatilization and underlain by an ice-deformed aquifer. Very high NO -3 concentrations were observed in soil moisture and groundwater (up to 21 mg Nl -1) under coniferous forest, especially in the border zone. This raises the question of the dilution capacity of recharge water under woodland in relation to the polluted groundwater under farming land. The buffering capacity of the unsaturated zone varies substantially and locally a low pH (4.5) was observed in groundwater. The large variability of leachate composition on different scales under a forest and the lesser but still significant concentration differences in the groundwater prove the importance of a monitoring system for the actual solute flux into the groundwater.

  9. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-03-02

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  10. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Peletz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies, served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p < 0.05. Our results indicate that smaller water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  11. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  12. Pier scour monitoring system by bed-level image tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yi CHANG; Jihn-Sung LAI; Teng-Yi YU; Franco LIN; Lung-Cheng LEE; Whey-Fone TSAI; Chin-Hsiung LOH

    2014-01-01

    A scour monitoring system with a micro camera tracking the bed-level images is proposed in this study. Two image recognition algorithms have been developed to support the bed-level image tracking approach. Through the laboratory experiments of pier scour, this study demonstrates that the proposed system is able to accurately monitor the scour-depth evolution in real time. In addition, five commonly-used temporal scour models are employed to simulate scour-depth evolution and their results are compared with monitoring data. In general, the results indicate that the proposed scour monitoring system has the potential for further applications in the field.

  13. Monitoring levels of preservative sensitivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkinson, J D; Shaw, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year multicentre analysis of the frequency of sensitivity to common preservatives collected in 16 centres in 11 countries has shown stable but persisting high levels of sensitivity to formaldehyde and 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one + 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MCI/MI). It has als...

  14. MOBILLAB-NIVA - a complete station for monitoring water quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Henriksen; Røgeberg, E.; Andersen, S.; Veidel, A.

    1986-01-01

    MOBILLAB-NIVA is a complete mobile station for monitoring water quality with telemetric transmission of recorded data to a central receiving station. It is intended for use in studies of rapid changes in water quality and its effects on aquatic life and short term studies to decide on water quality monitoring strategy. The present version of Mobillab-niva is specially designed to study effects of acid inputs on water chemistry, fish and invertebrates. The station is equipped with physical and...

  15. Forecasting Water Levels Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreenivas N. Londhe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For all Ocean related activities it is necessary to predict the actual water levels as accurate as possible. The present work aims at predicting the water levels with a lead time of few hours to a day using the technique of artificial neural networks. Instead of using the previous and current values of observed water level time series directly as input and output the water level anomaly (difference between the observed water level and harmonically predicted tidal level is calculated for each hour and the ANN model is developed using this time series. The network predicted anomaly is then added to harmonic tidal level to predict the water levels. The exercise is carried out at six locations, two in The Gulf of Mexico, two in The Gulf of Maine and two in The Gulf of Alaska along the USA coastline. The ANN models performed reasonably well for all forecasting intervals at all the locations. The ANN models were also run in real time mode for a period of eight months. Considering the hurricane season in Gulf of Mexico the models were also tested particularly during hurricanes.

  16. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  17. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  18. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  19. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses groundwater level monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Groundwater level monitoring will be conducted at 129 sites within the WAG. All of the sites will be manually monitored on a semiannual basis. Forty-five of the 128 wells, plus one site in White Oak Lake, will also be equipped with automatic water level monitoring equipment. The 46 sites are divided into three groups. One group will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level, conductivity, and temperature. The other two groups will be equipped for continuous monitoring of water level only. The equipment will be rotated between the two groups. The data collected from the water level monitoring will be used to support determination of the contaminant flux at WAG 6.

  20. Stability monitoring for boiling water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecenas-Falcon, Miguel

    1999-11-01

    A methodology is presented to evaluate the stability properties of Boiling Water Reactors based on a reduced order model, power measurements, and a non-linear estimation technique. For a Boiling Water Reactor, the feedback reactivity imposed by the thermal-hydraulics has an important effect in the system stability, where the dominant contribution to this feedback reactivity is provided by the void reactivity. The feedback reactivity is a function of the operating conditions of the system, and cannot be directly measured. However, power measurements are relatively easy to obtain from the nuclear instrumentation and process computer, and are used in conjunction with a reduced order model to estimate the gain of the thermal-hydraulics feedback using an Extended Kalman Filter. The reduced order model is obtained by estimating the thermal-hydraulic transfer function from the frequency-domain BWR code LAPUR, and the stability properties are evaluated based on the pair of complex conjugate eigenvalues. Because of the recursive nature of the Kalman Filter, an estimate of the decay ratio is generated every sampling time, allowing continuous estimation of the stability parameters. A test platform based on a nuclear-coupled boiling channel is developed to validate the capability of the BWR stability monitoring methodology. The thermal-hydraulics for the boiling channel is modeled and coupled with neutron kinetics to analyze the non-linear dynamics of the closed-loop system. The model uses point kinetics to study core-wide oscillations, and normalized modal kinetics are introduced to study out-of-phase oscillations. The coolant flow dynamics is dominant in the power fluctuations observed by in-core nuclear instrumentation, and additive white noise is added to the solution for the channel flow in the thermal-hydraulic model to generate noisy power time series. The operating conditions of the channel can be modified to accommodate a wide range of stability conditions

  1. A neural network model for predicting aquifer water level elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Emery A; Rana, Anthony J; Poulton, Mary M; Szidarovszky, Ferenc; Uhl, Vincent W

    2005-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were developed for accurately predicting potentiometric surface elevations (monitoring well water level elevations) in a semiconfined glacial sand and gravel aquifer under variable state, pumping extraction, and climate conditions. ANNs "learn" the system behavior of interest by processing representative data patterns through a mathematical structure analogous to the human brain. In this study, the ANNs used the initial water level measurements, production well extractions, and climate conditions to predict the final water level elevations 30 d into the future at two monitoring wells. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with the ANNs that quantified the importance of the various input predictor variables on final water level elevations. Unlike traditional physical-based models, ANNs do not require explicit characterization of the physical system and related physical data. Accordingly, ANN predictions were made on the basis of more easily quantifiable, measured variables, rather than physical model input parameters and conditions. This study demonstrates that ANNs can provide both excellent prediction capability and valuable sensitivity analyses, which can result in more appropriate ground water management strategies.

  2. Drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance for safe water supply in Gangtok, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Gajanan K; Kalita, Morami; Pimpalkar, Sarika N; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2011-07-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied, water quality monitoring and surveillance was conducted in Gangtok city at various treatment stages, service reservoirs, distribution network, public standposts, and households. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/l in the sump water/finished water. Throughout the year (i.e., during summer, winter, and monsoon seasons), the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were ranged from nil to 7 CFU/100 ml and nil to 3 CFU/100 ml, respectively, in sump water of Selep and VIP complex water treatment plant; however, at consumer end, those were observed as nil to 210 CFU/100 ml and nil to 90 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These variations in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicates that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physicochemical characteristics.

  3. Efficient species-level monitoring at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Sisk, Thomas D; McKelvey, Kevin S

    2012-06-01

    Monitoring the population trends of multiple animal species at a landscape scale is prohibitively expensive. However, advances in survey design, statistical methods, and the ability to estimate species presence on the basis of detection-nondetection data have greatly increased the feasibility of species-level monitoring. For example, recent advances in monitoring make use of detection-nondetection data that are relatively inexpensive to acquire, historical survey data, and new techniques in genetic evaluation. The ability to use indirect measures of presence for some species greatly increases monitoring efficiency and reduces survey costs. After adjusting for false absences, the proportion of sample units in a landscape where a species is detected (occupancy) is a logical state variable to monitor. Occupancy monitoring can be based on real-time observation of a species at a survey site or on evidence that the species was at the survey location sometime in the recent past. Temporal and spatial patterns in occupancy data are related to changes in animal abundance and provide insights into the probability of a species' persistence. However, even with the efficiencies gained when occupancy is the monitored state variable, the task of species-level monitoring remains daunting due to the large number of species. We propose that a small number of species be monitored on the basis of specific management objectives, their functional role in an ecosystem, their sensitivity to environmental changes likely to occur in the area, or their conservation importance.

  4. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  5. Level monitoring system with pulsating sensor—Application to online level monitoring of dashpots in a fast breeder reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, N.; Sahoo, P.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Murali, N.

    2015-02-01

    An innovative continuous type liquid level monitoring system constructed by using a new class of sensor, viz., pulsating sensor, is presented. This device is of industrial grade and it is exclusively used for level monitoring of any non conducting liquid. This instrument of unique design is suitable for high resolution online monitoring of oil level in dashpots of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. The sensing probe is of capacitance type robust probe consisting of a number of rectangular mirror polished stainless steel (SS-304) plates separated with uniform gaps. The performance of this novel instrument has been thoroughly investigated. The precision, sensitivity, response time, and the lowest detection limit in measurement using this device are reactor. With the evolution of this level measurement approach, it is possible to provide dashpot oil level sensors in fast breeder reactor for the first time for continuous measurement of oil level in dashpots of Control & Safety Rod Drive Mechanism during reactor operation.

  6. Level monitoring system with pulsating sensor--application to online level monitoring of dashpots in a fast breeder reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malathi, N; Sahoo, P; Ananthanarayanan, R; Murali, N

    2015-02-01

    An innovative continuous type liquid level monitoring system constructed by using a new class of sensor, viz., pulsating sensor, is presented. This device is of industrial grade and it is exclusively used for level monitoring of any non conducting liquid. This instrument of unique design is suitable for high resolution online monitoring of oil level in dashpots of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. The sensing probe is of capacitance type robust probe consisting of a number of rectangular mirror polished stainless steel (SS-304) plates separated with uniform gaps. The performance of this novel instrument has been thoroughly investigated. The precision, sensitivity, response time, and the lowest detection limit in measurement using this device are reactor. With the evolution of this level measurement approach, it is possible to provide dashpot oil level sensors in fast breeder reactor for the first time for continuous measurement of oil level in dashpots of Control & Safety Rod Drive Mechanism during reactor operation.

  7. Preliminary monitoring of faecal indicator organisms of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary monitoring of faecal indicator organisms of surface water: A case study ... in Mvudi River used as a source of domestic water for people who live around it. ... of Water Affairs and Forestry of South Africa (DWAF) and the World Health ...

  8. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  9. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  10. Hydrochemical monitoring of water production in wells at the Orenburg formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevastyanov, O.M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses advantages of a method monitoring water production in gas condensate wells by evaluation of calcium ion concentrate in the water samples. Service water and condensate water contains 30-40 times less of calcium ions than connate water of the principal deposit at the Orenburg site, and 400 times less than connate water of the Kungurian deposit. Use of methanol as an inhibitor (of hydrate formation) results in removal of well water in the form of a water-methanol mixture. Much time is required to determine composition of this mixture. Thus, the article suggests use of a simplified monitoring technique on composition of connate water in the well. On the basis of a large number of tests on the water-methanol mixtures, the author has designed a chart that allows monitoring formation water in the exploratory well on the basis of the potassium ion concentration in the water-methanol mixture. Production of formation water is fixed with an accuracy to 10%. Potassium content of less than 100 mg/1 signifies absence of formation water; excess of this figure indicates appearance of formation water. Use of this technique is now applied at the Orenburg gas condensate site to measure level of water production. The author believes the technique could be applied at other large deposits of natural gas.

  11. Water quality monitoring and data collection in the Mississippi sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runner, Michael S.; Creswell, R.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey and the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources are collecting data on the quality of the water in the Mississippi Sound of the Gulf of Mexico, and streamflow data for its tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey is collecting continuous water-level data, continuous and discrete water-temperature data, continuous and discrete specific-conductance data, as well as chloride and salinity samples at two locations in the Mississippi Sound and three Corps of Engineers tidal gages. Continuous-discharge data are also being collected at two additional stations on tributaries. The Mississippi Department of Marine Resources collects water samples at 169 locations in the Gulf of Mexico. Between 1800 and 2000 samples are collected annually which are analyzed for turbidity and fecal coliform bacteria. The continuous data are made available real-time through the internet and are being used in conjunction with streamflow data, weather data, and sampling data for the monitoring and management of the oyster reefs, the shrimp fishery and other marine species and their habitats.

  12. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  13. Future water quality monitoring - Adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburger, R.; Ait-Aissa, S.; Antczak, P.; Backhaus, T.; Barcelo, D.; Seiler, T.; Brion, F.; Focks, A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental quality monitoring of water resources is challenged with providing the basis for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination from diffuse and point sources. While current regulatory efforts focus on monitoring and assessing a

  14. Use of seaweeds for monitoring trace elements in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

    1996-06-01

    Concentrations of a wide range of trace elements: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, hafnium, nickel, thorium, uranium, zinc and the rare earth elements, cerium, europium, samarium, terbium and ytterbium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the brown alga,Fucus vesiculosus from Eckwarder Hörne, North Sea and from Rügen, Baltic Sea. Another brown alga,Sargassum filipendula from Sri Lanka, Indian ocean (representing an unpolluted control station) was similarly investigated. Cobalt, chromium and nickel concentrations were highest inF. vesiculosus from the North Sea while zinc was highest in samples from the Baltic Sea, reflecting high levels of these elements in coastal waters of the North and the Baltic sea. Cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc levels were lowest inS. filipendula from Sri Lanka, probably demonstrating lower levels of those elements in coastal waters. Concentration levels of hafnium, thorium, uranium, and the rare earth elements were highest inS. filipendula. Two years later in 1994,S. filipendula along withUlva sp. (green alga) was resampled from the same sampling site, and in addition to the above elements, six other trace elements (Ag, Ba, Br, Rb, Se and Sr) were determined.Sargassium filipendula showed a particular affinity for Ag, As, Br and Sr. For the other elements, marginal concentration differences were observed betweenS. filipendula andUlva sp., probably reflecting the regional background levels. Substantially higher concentrations of Hf, Th, U, and the rare earths were found again in the 1994Sargassum andUlva samples, reflecting the effect of a substrate rich in rare earth elements. The brown algae used in this study may be used to monitor trace elements in coastal waters.

  15. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1990--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 27 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada during 1990--91. Twelve wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 15 wells representing 24 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,035 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1990--91. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

  16. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades.

  17. Learner's Guide: Water Quality Monitoring. An Instructional Guide for the Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide is designed to meet the training needs for technicians involved in monitoring activities related to the Federal Water Pollution Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. In addition it will assist technicians in learning how to perform process control laboratory procedures for drinking water and wastewater treatment plant…

  18. Water quality monitoring records for estimating tap water arsenic and nitrate: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Carrie M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tap water may be an important source of exposure to arsenic and nitrate. Obtaining and analyzing samples in the context of large studies of health effects can be expensive. As an alternative, studies might estimate contaminant levels in individual homes by using publicly available water quality monitoring records, either alone or in combination with geographic information systems (GIS. Methods We examined the validity of records-based methods in Washington State, where arsenic and nitrate contamination is prevalent but generally observed at modest levels. Laboratory analysis of samples from 107 homes (median 0.6 μg/L arsenic, median 0.4 mg/L nitrate as nitrogen served as our "gold standard." Using Spearman's rho we compared these measures to estimates obtained using only the homes' street addresses and recent and/or historical measures from publicly monitored water sources within specified distances (radii ranging from one half mile to 10 miles. Results Agreement improved as distance decreased, but the proportion of homes for which we could estimate summary measures also decreased. When including all homes, agreement was 0.05-0.24 for arsenic (8 miles, and 0.31-0.33 for nitrate (6 miles. Focusing on the closest source yielded little improvement. Agreement was greatest among homes with private wells. For homes on a water system, agreement improved considerably if we included only sources serving the relevant system (ρ = 0.29 for arsenic, ρ = 0.60 for nitrate. Conclusions Historical water quality databases show some promise for categorizing epidemiologic study participants in terms of relative tap water nitrate levels. Nonetheless, such records-based methods must be used with caution, and their use for arsenic may be limited.

  19. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  20. La Parguera, Puerto Rico Water Quality Monitoring Data 2003 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These water quality data are one of many studies being done to assess and monitor coral reef ecosystems. The intent of this work is three fold: (1) to spatially...

  1. St. John, USVI Water Quality Monitoring Data 2003 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These water quality data are one of many studies being done to assess and monitor coral reef ecosystems. The intent of this work is three fold: (1) to spatially...

  2. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  3. Continuous water-quality monitoring to improve lake management at Lake Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Tom Augspurger

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has partnered with U.S. Geological Survey to establish 2 continuous water-quality monitoring stations at Lake Mattamuskeet. Stations on the east and west side of the lake measure water level, clarity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, and conductivity.

  4. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  5. Water Quality Monitoring of Texas Offshore Artificial Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, L.; Lee, M.

    2016-02-01

    Artificial reefs provide a habitat for marine organisms and abundant ecosystem services. In reef ecosystems, several organisms tolerate a small range of physical water properties and any change in water quality could affect their survival. Therefore, monitoring how these artificial reefs respond to environmental changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes is essential for management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD-ARP) are collaboratively monitoring artificial reefs located in the Gulf of Mexico in order to understand the productivity of these ecosystems, and their response to environmental changes. To accomplish this, TPWD use established protocols for biological monitoring, and the USGS collects physical and chemical water quality data. The selected artificial reef sites are located nearby national marine sanctuaries to facilitate comparison to natural reefs, but also provide enough spatial variability for comparison purposes. Additionally, the sites differ in artificial reef foundation providing an opportunity to evaluate variability in reefing structure. Physical water quality parameter profiles are collected to: (1)document variability of water quality between sites, (2)characterize the environmental conditions at the artificial reefs, and (3)monitor the reefs for potential impacts from anthropogenic stresses. Monitors have also been deployed at selected locations between trips to obtain a continuous record of physical water quality parameters. Water quality samples for nutrients, chlorophyll a, Pheophytin a, and an assortment of metal analytes are collected by USGS divers at the top of each artificial reef structure. Collecting long-term monitoring data with targeted sampling for constituents of concern at artificial reefs may provide a foundation to determine their current status and establish trends that can be used for future management. A record of hydrographic variables could be used to explain and

  6. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  7. How Much Will It Cost To Monitor Microbial Drinking Water Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Microbial water quality monitoring is crucial for managing water resources and protecting public health. However, institutional testing activities in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited. Because the economics of water quality testing are poorly understood, the extent to which cost may be a barrier to monitoring in different settings is unclear. This study used cost data from 18 African monitoring institutions (piped water suppliers and health surveillance agencies in six countries) and estimates of water supply type coverage from 15 countries to assess the annual financial requirements for microbial water testing at both national and regional levels, using World Health Organization recommendations for sampling frequency. We found that a microbial water quality test costs 21.0 ± 11.3 USD, on average, including consumables, equipment, labor, and logistics, which is higher than previously calculated. Our annual cost estimates for microbial monitoring of piped supplies and improved point sources ranged between 8 000 USD for Equatorial Guinea and 1.9 million USD for Ethiopia, depending primarily on the population served but also on the distribution of piped water system sizes. A comparison with current national water and sanitation budgets showed that the cost of implementing prescribed testing levels represents a relatively modest proportion of existing budgets (cost 16.0 million USD per year, which is minimal in comparison to the projected annual capital costs of achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 of safe water for all (14.8 billion USD). PMID:28459563

  8. Operational Surface Water Detection and Monitoring Using Radarsat 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bolanos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional on-site methods for mapping and monitoring surface water extent are prohibitively expensive at a national scale within Canada. Despite successful cost-sharing programs between the provinces and the federal government, an extensive number of water features within the country remain unmonitored. Particularly difficult to monitor are the potholes in the Canadian Prairie region, most of which are ephemeral in nature and represent a discontinuous flow that influences water pathways, runoff response, flooding and local weather. Radarsat-2 and the Radarsat Constellation Mission (RCM offer unique capabilities to map the extent of water bodies at a national scale, including unmonitored sites, and leverage the current infrastructure of the Meteorological Service of Canada to monitor water information in remote regions. An analysis of the technical requirements of the Radarsat-2 beam mode, polarization and resolution is presented. A threshold-based procedure to map locations of non-vegetated water bodies after the ice break-up is used and complemented with a texture-based indicator to capture the most homogeneous water areas and automatically delineate their extents. Some strategies to cope with the radiometric artifacts of noise inherent to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images are also discussed. Our results show that Radarsat-2 Fine mode can capture 88% of the total water area in a fully automated way. This will greatly improve current operational procedures for surface water monitoring information and impact a number of applications including weather forecasting, hydrological modeling, and drought/flood predictions.

  9. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - TMDL Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  10. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - TMDL Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  11. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  12. Africa-Wide Monitoring of Small Surface Water Bodies Using Multisource Satellite Data: A Monitoring System for FEWS NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Continental Africa has the largest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers, yet it suffers with problems such as water availability and access. Furthermore, African countries are amongst the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards such as droughts and floods. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access is bound to increase. The U.S Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water bodies in Africa. Under this project, multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor these water bodies in Africa. First, small water bodies are mapped using satellite data such as Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat, and high resolution Google Earth imagery. Stream networks and watersheds for each water body are identified using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. Finally, a hydrologic modeling approach that uses satellite-derived precipitation estimates and evapotranspiration data calculated from global data assimilation system climate parameters is applied to model water levels. This approach has been implemented to monitor nearly 300 small water bodies located in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data in East Africa demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60% of the observed gauge variability with an average RMSE of 22%. Current and historic data (since 2001) on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration for each water body is made available in near real time. The water point monitoring network

  13. Analytical chemistry in water quality monitoring during manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyeva, Anastasia A.

    2016-09-01

    Water quality monitoring during human spaceflights is essential. However, most of the traditional methods require sample collection with a subsequent ground analysis because of the limitations in volume, power, safety and gravity. The space missions are becoming longer-lasting; hence methods suitable for in-flight monitoring are demanded. Since 2009, water quality has been monitored in-flight with colorimetric methods allowing for detection of iodine and ionic silver. Organic compounds in water have been monitored with a second generation total organic carbon analyzer, which provides information on the amount of carbon in water at both the U.S. and Russian segments of the International Space Station since 2008. The disadvantage of this approach is the lack of compound-specific information. The recently developed methods and tools may potentially allow one to obtain in-flight a more detailed information on water quality. Namely, the microanalyzers based on potentiometric measurements were designed for online detection of chloride, potassium, nitrate ions and ammonia. The recent application of the current highly developed air quality monitoring system for water analysis was a logical step because most of the target analytes are the same in air and water. An electro-thermal vaporizer was designed, manufactured and coupled with the air quality control system. This development allowed for liberating the analytes from the aqueous matrix and further compound-specific analysis in the gas phase.

  14. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  15. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  16. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  17. Pre-operational monitor system of large inland lake water quality with MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, Zhang; Dingtian, Yang; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Difeng, Wang; Shujing, Li; Delu, Pan

    2005-10-01

    EOS\\MODIS data have been proved a suitable and relative low-cost complementary tool to monitor large inland lake water quality for its re-visit frequency, moderate spatial and spectral resolution and appropriate channels designed for inversing water quality parameters. In this study, by the support of hi-tech research and development program of China, Lake water quality remote monitoring pre-operational system (LWQRMPS) was constructed aimed for practical monitoring of Taihu Lake water quality. The main water quality parameters including Chl-a and SPM, TN and TP inversion algorithm were developed. These parameters were obtained every month from time series fusion satellite data. With the routine trophic state evaluation system, the water quality was assessed every month based on the above retrieved MODIS water quality parameters, varied level of eutrophic area was computed. The obvious high reflectance in near-infrared spectrum caused by blue-green algal bloom support the application of 250m MODIS data in the algal bloom emergency monitor. Therefore, MODIS data were utilized successfully for inversing water quality parameters, evaluating eutrophication status, and detecting algal bloom in near real time. Standard thematic maps were produced and distributed to corresponding management departments. The accuracy of products and retrieve algorithm for operational use were tested with separate data sets. The result suggested that system is good enough for practical monitoring water quality of large size lakes and acquired identification.

  18. Analysis of water-level data in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.; Tucci, P.; O`Brien, G.M.

    1997-12-31

    From 1985 through 1995, a water-level network that consists of 28 wells for monitoring 36 depth intervals has been maintained in the Yucca Mountain area. The network includes wells that were measured manually, approximately monthly, and/or measured hourly with a transducer/data logger system. Manual water-level measurements were made with either calibrated steel tapes or single or multiconductor-cable units. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Annual mean water-level altitudes for all wells for the period 1985-95 ranged from 727.93 to 1,034.60 meters. The maximum range in water-level change between monthly measurements and/or monthly mean values was 12.22 meters in well USW H-3 lower interval, and the minimum range was 0.31 meter in wells UE-25 b-1 upper interval, and J-11. In 31 of the 36 depth intervals monitored, the range of water-level change was less than 1 meter. The range of standard deviation of all depth interval measurements for all wells that were monitored was 0.053 to 3.098 meters. No seasonal water-level trends were detected in any of the wells, and regional ground-water withdrawals did not appear to cause water-level changes. Most annual water-level fluctuations can be attributed to barometric and Earth-tide changes. Regional earthquakes, which occurred on June 28--29, 1992, might have simultaneously affected the water level in seven wells. Periods of rising and declining water levels were observed in most wells. However, 11 years of record were not sufficient to determine if these periods were cyclic. Because a goal of monitoring water levels at Yucca Mountain is to determine if there are water-level trends that could affect the potential repository, observed water-level changes over the period of this report may not be representative of the overall long-term trends in water levels.

  19. Minimum Reservoir Water Level in Hydropower Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkardeh, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    Vortex formation over the intakes is an undesirable phenomenon within the water withdrawal process from a dam reservoir. Calculating the minimum operating water level in power intakes by empirical equations is not a safe way and sometimes contains some errors. Therefore, current method to calculate the critical submergence of a power intake is construction of a scaled physical model in parallel with numerical model. In this research some proposed empirical relations for prediction of submergence depth in power intakes were validated with experimental data of different physical and numerical models of power intakes. Results showed that, equations which involved the geometry of intake have better correspondence with the experimental and numerical data.

  20. IMPROVING CYANOBACTERIA AND CYANOTOXIN MONITORING IN SURFACE WATERS FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.

  1. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Administrators of recreational waters face the basic tasks of surveillance of water quality and decisions on beach closure in case of unacceptable quality. Monitoring and subsequent decisions are based on sampled water probes and fundamental questions are which type of data to extract from......-term actions, such as the closing of beaches and long-term monitoring tasks. Chapter 4 compares sampling plans as control charts and acceptance sampling and relates them to decision rules for closing beach waters. Chapter 5 contrasts modeling approaches using design-based sampling strategies either...... recreational governmental authorities controlling water quality. The book opens with a historical account of water quality criteria in the USA between 1922 and 2003. Five chapters are related to sampling strategies and decision rules. Chapter 2 discusses the dependence of decision-making rules on short...

  2. Monitoring the level of sustainable development of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Markina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive approach to monitoring the level of sustainable development of the enterprise. The basic principles and elements of forming the system of monitoring sustainable development of the enterprise were considered and systematized. The paper provides an analysis of existing approaches to assessing the sustainability of the enterprise during its development. The analysis of the results of monitoring the sustainable development of the enterprise allows to record stable and unstable periods of its development, which helps managers choose the strength of management impact according to the current situation. The theoretical foundations of the concept of sustainable development of economic systems are elucidated on the basis of the analysis of scientific publications. The authors have pointed out the importance of introducing the concept of sustainable development and possible benefits from its use. The enterprises implementing the sustainable development strategy in Ukraine have been highlighted. Based on the results of the study, the information and analytical content of the monitoring system for sustainable development of some processing enterprises of Ukraine was substantiated. The analysis of the application directions of the sustainable concept development has been carried out and a practical example of the information implementation and analytical system for monitoring the sustainable development of a food industry enterprise has been examined using as an example the Obolon Corporation, Kiev. The positive experience of using this method of monitoring the sustainable development of the Obolon Corporation should become an example for most processing enterprises in Ukraine.

  3. Monitoring eastern Oklahoma lake water quality using Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Clay

    The monitoring of public waters for recreational, industrial, agricultural, and drinking purposes is a difficult task assigned to many state water agencies. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) is only physically monitoring a quarter of the lakes it is charged with monitoring in any given year. The minimal sample scheme adopted by the OWRB is utilized to determine long-term trends and basic impairment but is insufficient to monitor the water quality shifts that occur following influx from rains or to detect algal blooms, which may be highly localized and temporally brief. Recent work in remote sensing calibrates reflectance coefficients between extant water quality data and Landsat imagery reflectance to estimate water quality parameters on a regional basis. Remotely-sensed water quality monitoring benefits include reduced cost, more frequent sampling, inclusion of all lakes visible each satellite pass, and better spatial resolution results. The study area for this research is the Ozark foothills region in eastern Oklahoma including the many lakes impacted by phosphorus flowing in from the Arkansas border region. The result of this research was a moderate r2 regression value for turbidity during winter (0.52) and summer (0.65), which indicates that there is a seasonal bias to turbidity estimation using this methodology and the potential to further develop an estimation equation for this water quality parameter. Refinements that improve this methodology could provide state-wide estimations of turbidity allowing more frequent observation of water quality and allow better response times by the OWRB to developing water impairments.

  4. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  5. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  6. Monitoring of radon in water of Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ming; Chen, Chin-Chiang (Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Station, Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan, Kaohsiung Hsien (Republic of China))

    1983-03-01

    The toluene extraction-liquid scintillation counting method was used to measure the radon concentration in water samples of Taiwan, R.O.C. The experimental results showed that the counting efficiency for both ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. emitted from radon and its daughters could reach 100%. The separation of activity of /sup 222/Rn from /sup 220/Rn was performed according to Bunny method. Thirty sampling stations including water samples from wells and hot springs throughout Taiwan were analyzed. The measured data show that /sup 220/Rn has much higher concentration than /sup 222/Rn. The concentration for the former is in the order of 10/sup -7/ Ci/l while that for the later is about 10/sup -10/ Ci/l.

  7. Assessing Drinking Water Quality and Water Safety Management in Sub-Saharan Africa Using Regulated Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-10-18

    Universal access to safe drinking water is prioritized in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Collecting reliable and actionable water quality information in low-resource settings, however, is challenging, and little is known about the correspondence between water quality data collected by local monitoring agencies and global frameworks for water safety. Using 42 926 microbial water quality test results from 32 surveillance agencies and water suppliers in seven sub-Saharan African countries, we determined the degree to which water sources were monitored, how water quality varied by source type, and institutional responses to results. Sixty-four percent of the water samples were collected from piped supplies, although the majority of Africans rely on nonpiped sources. Piped supplies had the lowest levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) compared to any other source type: only 4% of samples of water piped to plots and 2% of samples from water piped to public taps/standpipes were positive for FIB (n = 14 948 and n = 12 278, respectively). Among other types of improved sources, samples from harvested rainwater and boreholes were less often positive for FIB (22%, n = 167 and 31%, n = 3329, respectively) than protected springs or protected dug wells (39%, n = 472 and 65%, n = 505). When data from different settings were aggregated, the FIB levels in different source types broadly reflected the source-type water safety framework used by the Joint Monitoring Programme. However, the insufficient testing of nonpiped sources relative to their use indicates important gaps in current assessments. Our results emphasize the importance of local data collection for water safety management and measurement of progress toward universal safe drinking water access.

  8. A Seamless Framework for Global Water Cycle Monitoring and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Chaney, N.; Fisher, C. K.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy ('From Observations to Decisions') recognizes that 'water is essential for ensuring food and energy security, for facilitating poverty reduction and health security, and for the maintenance of ecosystems and biodiversity', and that water cycle data and observations are critical for improved water management and water security - especially in less developed regions. The GEOSS Water Strategy has articulated a number of goals for improved water management, including flood and drought preparedness, that include: (i) facilitating the use of Earth Observations for water cycle observations; (ii) facilitating the acquisition, processing, and distribution of data products needed for effective management; (iii) providing expertise, information systems, and datasets to the global, regional, and national water communities. There are several challenges that must be met to advance our capability to provide near real-time water cycle monitoring, early warning of hydrological hazards (floods and droughts) and risk assessment under climate change, regionally and globally. Current approaches to monitoring and predicting hydrological hazards are limited in many parts of the world, and especially in developing countries where national capacity is limited and monitoring networks are inadequate. This presentation describes the development of a seamless monitoring and prediction framework at all time scales that allows for consistent assessment of water variability from historic to current conditions, and from seasonal and decadal predictions to climate change projections. At the center of the framework is an experimental, global water cycle monitoring and seasonal forecast system that has evolved out of regional and continental systems for the US and Africa. The system is based on land surface hydrological modeling that is driven by satellite remote sensing precipitation to predict current hydrological conditions

  9. [Review of monitoring soil water content using hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dai-hui; Fan, Wen-jie; Cui, Yao-kui; Yan, Bin-yan; Xu, Xi-ru

    2010-11-01

    Soil water content is a key parameter in monitoring drought. In recent years, a lot of work has been done on monitoring soil water content based on hyperspectral remotely sensed data both at home and abroad. In the present review, theories, advantages and disadvantages of the monitoring methods using different bands are introduced first. Then the unique advantages, as well as the problems, of the monitoring method with the aid of hyperspectral remote sensing are analyzed. In addition, the impact of soil water content on soil reflectance spectrum and the difference between values at different wavelengths are summarized. This review lists and summarizes the quantitative relationships between soil water content and soil reflectance obtained through analyzing the physical mechanism as well as through statistical way. The key points, advantages and disadvantages of each model are also analyzed and evaluated. Then, the problems in experimental study are pointed out, and the corresponding solutions are proposed. At the same time, the feasibility of removing vegetation effect is discussed, when monitoring soil water content using hyperspectral remote sensing. Finally, the future research trend is prospected.

  10. Platform for monitoring water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Aubert, Coralie; Belleudy, Philippe; Coulaud, Catherine; Bois, Jérôme; Geay, Thomas; Gratiot, Nicolas; Legout, Cédric; Mercier, Bernard; Némery, Julien; Michielin, Yoann

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to develop a platform that electronically integrates a set of existing sensors for the continuous measurement at high temporal frequency of water and solid fluxes (bed load and suspension), characteristics of suspended solids (distribution in particle size, settling velocity of the particles) and other variables on water quality (color, nutrient concentration). The project is preferentially intended for rivers in mountainous catchments draining areas from 10 to 1000 km², with high suspended sediment concentrations (maxima between 10 and 300 g/l) and highly dynamic behavior, water discharge varying of several orders of magnitude in a short period of time (a few hours). The measurement of water and solid fluxes in this type of river remains a challenge and, to date, there is no built-in device on the market to continuously monitor all these variables. The development of this platform is based on a long experience of measurement of sediment fluxes in rivers within the French Critical Zone Observatories (http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/), especially in the Draix-Bléone (http://oredraixbleone.irstea.fr/) and OHMCV (http://www.ohmcv.fr/) observatories. The choice was made to integrate in the platform instruments already available on the market and currently used by the scientific community (water level radar, surface velocity radar, turbidity sensor, automatic water sampler, video camera) and to include also newly developed instruments (System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs - see EGU2016-8542 - and hydrophone) or commercial instruments (spectrophotometer and radiometer) to be tested in surface water with high suspended sediment concentration. Priority is given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness in this type of environment with high destructive potential. Development work includes the construction of a platform prototype "smart" and remotely configurable for implantation in an isolated environment (absence of electric

  11. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  12. Alternative techniques for deep-water monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, Viktor A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Zheleznykh, Igor M., E-mail: zhelezny@minus.inr.ac.r [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Korotin, Pavel I. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul' yanov Str., 46, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Paka, Vadim T. [P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology - Atlantic Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mir Prospect 1, Kaliningrad 236022 (Russian Federation); Surin, Nikolai M. [N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsojuznaya Str. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-21

    A cruise of the Soviet R/V 'Dmitry Mendeleyev' in the Mediterranean Sea in 1989 is mentioned as the first step towards an international cooperation for high energy neutrino astrophysics in the Mediterranean. New proposals are considered related to carrying out common investigations connected with the construction of a large-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean. In these investigations new techniques, which were developed in the last years or are being developed now by the Russian institutes, could be used, and in particular: (1) a system of multi-parameter non-tethered probes for deep-water hydrographic measurements, (2) a bottom-mounted acoustical antenna consisting of smart digital hydrophones, and (3) a deep-water scintillation spectrometer for the determination of the composition and for measuring the concentration of dissolved radionuclides. Given the necessity of making a best choice for the KM3 Neutrino Telescope construction, the idea of using light-weight flexible elements for making a 'flexible tower' presented at the Taormina Workshop in 1997 is reviewed.

  13. Agricultural Applications for Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration Data in Monitoring Water Use, Water Quality, and Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Gao, F.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L.; Dulaney, W.; Sharifi, A.; Holmes, T. R.; Kustas, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Across the U.S. and globally there are ever increasing and competing demands for freshwater resources in support of food production, ecosystems services and human/industrial consumption. Recent studies using the GRACE satellite have identified severely stressed aquifers globally, which are being unsustainably depleted due to over-extraction primarily in support of irrigated agriculture. In addition, historic droughts and ongoing political conflicts threaten food and water security in many parts of the world. To facilitate wise water management, and to develop sustainable agricultural systems that will feed the Earth's growing population into the future, there is a critical need for robust assessments of daily water use, or evapotranspiration (ET), over a wide range in spatial scales - from field to globe. While Earth Observing (EO) satellites can play a significant role in this endeavor, no single satellite provides the combined spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics required for actionable ET monitoring world-wide. In this presentation we discuss new methods for combining information from the current suite of EO satellites to address issues of water use, water quality and water security, particularly as they pertain to agricultural production. These methods fuse multi-scale diagnostic ET retrievals generated using shortwave, thermal infrared and microwave datasets from multiple EO platforms to generate ET datacubes with both high spatial and temporal resolution. We highlight several case studies where such ET datacubes are being mined to investigate changes in water use patterns over agricultural landscapes in response to changing land use, land management, and climate forcings.

  14. Applications for remotely sensed evapotranspiration data in monitoring water quality, water use, and water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Martha; Hain, Christopher; Feng, Gao; Yang, Yun; Sun, Liang; Yang, Yang; Dulaney, Wayne; Sharifi, Amir; Kustas, William; Holmes, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Across the globe there are ever-increasing and competing demands for freshwater resources in support of food production, ecosystems services and human/industrial consumption. Recent studies using the GRACE satellite have identified severely stressed aquifers that are being unsustainably depleted due to over-extraction, primarily in support of irrigated agriculture. In addition, historic droughts and ongoing political conflicts threaten food and water security in many parts of the world. To facilitate wise water management, and to develop sustainable agricultural systems that will feed the Earth's growing population into the future, there is a critical need for robust assessments of daily water use, or evapotranspiration (ET), over a wide range in spatial scales - from field to globe. While Earth Observing (EO) satellites can play a significant role in this endeavor, no single satellite provides the combined spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics required for actionable ET monitoring world-wide. In this presentation we discuss new methods for combining information from the current suite of EO satellites to address issues of water quality, water use and water security, particularly as they pertain to agricultural production. These methods fuse multi-scale diagnostic ET retrievals generated using shortwave, thermal infrared and microwave datasets from multiple EO platforms to generate ET datacubes with both high spatial and temporal resolution. We highlight several case studies where such ET datacubes are being mined to investigate changes in water use patterns over agricultural landscapes in response to changing land use, land management, and climate forcings.

  15. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    input) were calculated for each treatment. The outcomes show that the water application efficiencies of all treatments were higher in 2013 than in 2012 (by 23%, 25% and 4% for FLD, 3L-FLD, and IRR respectively). These results could be ascribed to the higher groundwater level observed in 2013 (about 10-15 cm closer to the soil surface), likely due to the conversion of the field beyond the monitored plots from soybean to flooded rice. Moreover, a small increase of the water application efficiency of 3L-FLD was found if compared to FLD (3% on average), while the water application efficiency of IRR was, on average, higher by 67% compared to FLD. The good performance of IRR is related to lower percolation rates and a relevant contribution of capillary rise due to the shallow groundwater table maintained by the continuous submergence of the surrounding paddy fields. The performed experiment highlighted that significant improvement in the water use efficiency at the field scale can be achieved. However, a widespread adoption of water regimes different from continuous flooding should be carefully evaluated by a larger-scale approach since a consequent drop in the groundwater table depth could have repercussions on the potential gains themselves.

  16. Decreasing residual aluminum level in drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2004-01-01

    The relativity of coagulant dosage, residual turbidity, temperature, pH etc. with residual aluminum concentration were investigated, and several important conclusions were achieved. Firstly, dosage of alum-coagulant or PAC1 influences residual aluminum concentration greatly. There is an optimal-dosage-to-aluminum, a bit less than the optimal-dosage-to-turbidity. Secondly, it proposes that decreasing residual aluminum concentration can be theoretically divided into two methods, either decreasing (even removing) the concentration of particulate aluminum component, or decreasing dissolved aluminum. In these tests there is an optimal value of residual turbidity of postprecipitation at 7.0 NTU. Thirdly, residual aluminum level will increase while water temperature goes higher. At the last, optimal pH value corresponds a minimum dissolved aluminum at a given turbidity. Data shows the optimal pH value decreases with water temperature's increasing.

  17. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  18. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks. ... The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water levels at Kainji Dam, which supplies water to Nigeria's largest ... Article Metrics.

  19. Performance monitoring of a multi-unit solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Solar Calorimetry Lab.

    1994-12-01

    A solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system was installed on an existing multi-family apartment building in 1991. Energy monitoring hardware was installed in 1992. It was a preheat system that was retrofitted upstream of existing hot water tanks located in the building. Monitoring of the system continued for eight months. As a result of this monitoring, average daily values could be made available for each month, as well as values of incident solar radiation, outdoor temperature, hot water use, total system energy, auxiliary energy, solar energy delivered to the load, energy loss from the recirculation loop and pump run time. Performance results indicated that the system performed at a level close to simulated values, but that system performance during the summer period was severely reduced due to low hot water usage. 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Introduction of Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System based on Real-time Water Information Using ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y., II; Kim, H. S.; Chun, G.

    2016-12-01

    There were severe damages such as restriction on water supply caused by continuous drought from 2014 to 2015 in South Korea. Through this drought event, government of South Korea decided to establish National Drought Information Analysis Center in K-water(Korea Water Resources Corporation) and introduce a national drought monitoring and early warning system to mitigate those damages. Drought index such as SPI(Standard Precipitation Index), PDSI(Palmer Drought Severity Index) and SMI(Soil Moisture Index) etc. have been developed and are widely used to provide drought information in many countries. However, drought indexes are not appropriate for drought monitoring and early warning in civilized countries with high population density such as South Korea because it could not consider complicated water supply network. For the national drought monitoring and forecasting of South Korea, `Drought Information Analysis System' (D.I.A.S) which is based on the real time data(storage, flowrate, waterlevel etc.) was developed. Based on its advanced methodology, `DIAS' is changing the paradigm of drought monitoring and early warning systems. Because `D.I.A.S' contains the information of water supply network from water sources to the people across the nation and provides drought information considering the real-time hydrological conditions of each and every water source. For instance, in case the water level of a specific dam declines to predetermined level of caution, `D.I.A.S' will notify people who uses the dam as a source of residential or industrial water. It is expected to provide credible drought monitoring and forecasting information with a strong relationship between drought information and the feelings of people rely on water users by `D.I.A.S'.

  1. Return to normal streamflows and water levels: summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Caslow, Kerry; Peck, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) South Atlantic Water Science Center (SAWSC) Georgia office, in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 340 real-time continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages), including 10 real-time lake-level monitoring stations, 67 real-time surface-water-quality monitors, and several water-quality sampling programs. Additionally, the SAWSC Georgia office operates more than 180 groundwater monitoring wells, 39 of which are real-time. The wide-ranging coverage of streamflow, reservoir, and groundwater monitoring sites allows for a comprehensive view of hydrologic conditions across the State. One of the many benefits of this monitoring network is that the analyses of the data provide a spatially distributed overview of the hydrologic conditions of creeks, rivers, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.

  2. Monitoring water quality from LANDSAT. [satellite observation of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Water quality monitoring possibilities from LANDSAT were demonstrated both for direct readings of reflectances from the water and indirect monitoring of changes in use of land surrounding Swift Creek Reservoir in a joint project with the Virginia State Water Control Board and NASA. Film products were shown to have insufficient resolution and all work was done by digitally processing computer compatible tapes. Land cover maps of the 18,000 hectare Swift Creek Reservoir watershed, prepared for two dates in 1974, are shown. A significant decrease in the pine cover was observed in a 740 hectare construction site within the watershed. A measure of the accuracy of classification was obtained by comparing the LANDSAT results with visual classification at five sites on a U-2 photograph. Such changes in land cover can alert personnel to watch for potential changes in water quality.

  3. 基于长期监测的高水压岩溶隧道二次衬砌水压特征研究%Study on Characteristics of Water Pressure on the Second Lining for High Water Level Karst Tunnel Based on Long Term Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申志军

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,based on long term tunnel lining water pressure monitoring for 4 typical high-risk karst tunnels in Yi-Wan railway line,the character of water pressure on the second lining of the karst tunnels was studied,together with model test and theory analysis.A generalized model for karst tunnel was put up to esti-mate water pressure on the second lining.The study showed:(1)The overall level of the measured water pres-sure on the second lining of each tunnel was low with the maximum of 0.13 MPa,far below 1 MPa,the design value of water pressure resistant lining .The distribution of water pressure of the cross section was significant-ly affected by tunnel drainage,while water pressure dynamic was closely related with rainy season.(2)The de-termination of the original water pressure of karst tunnel was controlled by drainage base level on or under the tunnel.The original water pressure was also related with drainage capacity and rainfall replenishment.The re-lease tunnel during construction formed the new drainage base level.(3)Only when there is drainage in tunnel, can the grouting reinforcement circle play the role of reducing water pressure on the lining.The water pressure on the second lining,inversely proportional to tunnel drainage(Q2 )and water seepage into the primary lining (Q1 ),was affected by Q2/Q1 .(4)As the successful drainage of the release tunnel has great influence on the wa-ter pressure on the second lining,scheduled check and maintenance should be done during the operation of the release tunnel to ensure smooth drainage.The study can provide a reference for the design and operation of high water level karst tunnel.%通过长期监测宜万铁路4座典型高风险岩溶隧道运营期衬砌水压,结合模型试验、理论分析研究岩溶隧道二次衬砌水压的特征,提出岩溶隧道衬砌水压计算的概化模型。研究表明:(1)各隧道实测衬砌水压总体值不大,最大0.13 MPa,低于1 MPa抗水压衬砌设计值;断

  4. Changes in CO2 dynamics related to rainfall and water level variations in a subtropical lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonetta, Denise; Staehr, Peter Anton; Petrucio, Mauricio Mello

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the implications of low rainfall and reduced water level for changes in nutrients and chlorophyll-a in a subtropical lake, and how these changes affected levels and atmospheric fluxes of CO2. Based on nine consecutive years of monthly monitoring of pH, alkalinity, oxygen, and temp......We investigated the implications of low rainfall and reduced water level for changes in nutrients and chlorophyll-a in a subtropical lake, and how these changes affected levels and atmospheric fluxes of CO2. Based on nine consecutive years of monthly monitoring of pH, alkalinity, oxygen......, and temperature, we calculated the pCO(2) and CO2 flux and related these to environmental drivers. Variations in annual rainfall, with extreme low levels along 2012-2014 caused the water level to decrease up to 1 m. Low water levels were associated with higher concentrations of chlorophyll-a and organic carbon...

  5. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  6. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.29 Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. When a public water system supplies water to...

  7. Results of ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry monitoring, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, G.R.; Monroe, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Black Mesa monitoring program is designed to document long-term effects of ground-water pumping from the N aquifer by industrial and municipal users. The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area, and the ground water occurs under confined and unconfined conditions. Monitoring activities include continuous and periodic measurements of (1) ground-water pumpage from the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (2) ground-water levels in the confined and unconfined areas of the aquifer, (3) surface-water discharge, and (4) chemistry of the ground water and surface water. In 1994, ground-water withdrawals for industrial and municipal use totaled about 7,000 acre-feet, which is an 8-percent increase from the previous year. Pumpage from the confined part of the aquifer increased by about 9 percent to 5,400 acre-feet, and pumpage from the unconfined part of the aquifer increased by about 2 percent to 1,600 acre-feet. Water-level declines in the confined area during 1994 were recorded in 10 of 16 wells, and the median change was a decline of about 2.3 feet as opposed to a decline of 3.3 feet for the previous year. The median change in water levels in the unconfined area was a rise of 0.1 foot in 1994 as opposed to a decline of 0.5 foot in 1993. Measured low-flow discharge along Moenkopi Wash decreased from 3.0 cubic feet per second in 1993 to 2.9 cubic feet per second in 1994. Eleven low-flow measurements were made along Laguna Creek between Tsegi, Arizona, and Chinle Wash to determine the amount of discharge that would occur as seepage from the N aquifer under optimal base-flow conditions. Discharge was 5.6 cubic feet per second near Tsegi and 1.5 cubic feet per second above the confluence with Chinle Wash. Maximum discharge was 5.9 cubic feet per second about 4 miles upstream from Dennehotso. Discharge was measured at three springs. The changes in discharge at Burro and Whisky Springs were small and within the uncertainty of

  8. Single-dish monitoring of circumstellar water masers

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, J; Engels, D

    2002-01-01

    We present an overview of the long-term water maser monitoring program of a sample of late-type stars, carried out with the Medicina 32-m and Effelsberg 100-m telescopes, and describe the results in some detail. The role the SRT (Sardinia Radio Telescope) could play in this program is outlined.

  9. A controlled experiment for water front monitoring using GPR technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We use a stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) radar and an impulse radar to monitor a water flood experiment in a sand box. The SFCW system operates in the bandwidth from 800 MHz to 2.8 GHz. The impulse radar system is bi-static and works with a central frequency of 1 GHz. The sand box is a mete

  10. A controlled experiment for water front monitoring using GPR technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We use a stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) radar and an impulse radar to monitor a water flood experiment in a sand box. The SFCW system operates in the bandwidth from 800 MHz to 2.8 GHz. The impulse radar system is bi-static and works with a central frequency of 1 GHz. The sand box is a

  11. Radioactivity monitoring in environmental water and air around QNPP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yuanyi; WANG Kan; ZHANG Yu; CAO Zhonggang; YE Jida; WANG Hongfeng

    2007-01-01

    Results of environmental radioactivity monitoring around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) are reported in this paper. From 1992 to 2005, concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H in terrestrial freshwater are (4.4±1.7) mBq·L-1, (0.3±0.1) mBq·L-1 and (1.6±0.5) Bq·L-1, respectively, and (2.8±2.4) Bq·L-1 of 3H in rainwater. Concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H in the seawater samples collected from sea area nearby QNPP are (5.4±4.1) mBq·L-1,(0.7±0.2) mBq·L-1 and (1.0±0.5) Bq·L-1, respectively. Concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H in the total waste water discharged from NPP-I are (4.0±1.8) m Bq·L-1, (1.0±0.5) mBq·L-1 and (2.8±2.2) Bq·L-1, respectively, and (1.4±0.4)Bq·L-1 of 3H in seawater sampled from No.1 outlet. Atomspheric 3H concentration in 1993 ~ 2005 at two monitoring sites is (78.9±96.3) and (64.2±40.2) mBq·m-3, respectively, with an increasing trend after 2003. Atmospheric 14C concentrations at the two sites are in the same levels as the background and data of the reference site.

  12. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  13. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Monitoring and data reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, David; Hong, Tae; Carlson, Benjamin; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the monitoring and data reprocessing for the calorimeter-based hardware level-1 trigger system (L1Calo) for the ATLAS experiment. This trigger system was upgraded after the Run-1 data taking period (2009-2012) to prepare for Run-2 (2015-current), which allowed better control the event rates for algorithms based on jets and/or missing energy. Monitoring tools for the upgraded system is described. We also present a new offline tool to reprocess previous data samples with altered L1Calo settings, such as calibration constants and noise cuts. The samples are used to study the dependence of the event rates and signal efficiencies on the settings. The studies can help plan the appropriate L1Calo settings for upcoming data taking periods as well as for future runs.

  14. Monitoring Water Targets in the Post-2015 Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) provides a comprehensive approach to developing water services in a way that ensures social equity, health, well-being and sustainability for all. In particular, the water goal includes targets related to sanitation, wastewater, water quality, water efficiency, integrated water management and ecosystems (details to be finalized in September 2015). As part of its implementation, methods to monitor target indicators must be developed. National governments will be responsible for reporting on progress toward these targets using national data sets and possibly information from global data sets that applies to their countries. Oversight of this process through the use of global data sets is desirable for encouraging the use of standardized information for comparison purposes. Disparities in monitoring due to very sparse data networks in some countries can be addressed by using geospatially consistent data products from space-based remote sensing. However, to fully exploit these data, capabilities will be needed to downscale information, to interpolate and assimilate data both in time and space, and to integrate these data with socio-economic data sets, model outputs and survey data in a geographical information system framework. Citizen data and other non-standard data types may also supplement national data systems. A comprehensive and integrated analysis and dissemination system is needed to enable the important contributions that satellites could make to achieving Water SDG targets. This presentation will outline the progress made in assessing the needs for information to track progress on the Water SDG, options for meeting these needs using existing data infrastructure, and pathways for expanding the role of Earth observations in SDG monitoring. It will also discuss the potential roles of Future Earth's Sustainable Water Futures Programme (SWFP) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in coordinating these efforts.

  15. Electric Sensors for Express-Method Checking of Liquid Quality Level Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro STOLYARCHUK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The research covered in the suggested article is meant for ecological monitoring in the broad sense. The express-method of water solution quality level estimation and the technique of fast response to the quality level of industrial, agricultural and domestic wastewaters along with food products are proposed. The novelty of the proposed technique roots in the implementation of suggested methods and means of electric parameter measurement aimed at the quality index controlling of nonelectric qualimetry objects. Relevant research includes the exploration of water-solutions as well as different-level purification of industrial and domestic spillage waters, colloid solutions (cream, milk with the known contaminants, mixtures of superficially active substances and chlorine-containing substances.

  16. Water quality monitoring of an international wetland at Harike, Punjab and its impact on biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmit; Walia, Harpreet; Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Arora, Saroj

    2015-10-01

    The present study entails the investigation of mutagenic and genotoxic effect of surface water samples collected from 13 different sites of the Harike wetland using the histidine reversion point mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) strain and plasmid nicking assay using pBR322, respectively. The physicochemical characterization of water samples using different parameters was conducted for water quality monitoring. Heavy metal analysis was performed to quantify the toxic components present in water samples. It was observed that although the water samples of all the sites demonstrated mutagenic as well as genotoxic activity, the effect was quite significant with the water samples from sites containing water from river Satluj, i.e., site 1 (upstream Satluj river), site 2 (Satluj river) and site 3 (reservoir Satluj). The high level of pollution due to industrial effluents and agricultural run-off at these sites may engender the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples.

  17. Water quality monitoring of an international wetland at Harike, Punjab and its impact on biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmit; Walia, Harpreet; Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Arora, Saroj

    2017-06-01

    The present study entails the investigation of mutagenic and genotoxic effect of surface water samples collected from 13 different sites of the Harike wetland using the histidine reversion point mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) strain and plasmid nicking assay using pBR322, respectively. The physicochemical characterization of water samples using different parameters was conducted for water quality monitoring. Heavy metal analysis was performed to quantify the toxic components present in water samples. It was observed that although the water samples of all the sites demonstrated mutagenic as well as genotoxic activity, the effect was quite significant with the water samples from sites containing water from river Satluj, i.e., site 1 (upstream Satluj river), site 2 (Satluj river) and site 3 (reservoir Satluj). The high level of pollution due to industrial effluents and agricultural run-off at these sites may engender the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples.

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  19. Indicator Organisms: Learner's Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide on indicator organisms is derived from a water monitoring curriculum developed at Ulster County Community College. There are 37 modules in this guide; each is introduced with a statement of purpose and then broken down into units of instruction. These units contain an objective, learning conditions, and a performance level.…

  20. Nutrients: Learner's Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide on nutrients is derived from a water monitoring curriculum developed at Ulster County Community College. There are 30 modules in this guide; each introduced with a statement of purpose and then broken down into an objective, learning conditions, and performance level. The modules cover: (1) safety; (2) chemical compounds; (3)…

  1. Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C.; Santos, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the results obtained from the introductory monitoring programme of surface water quality in the Nature Reserve to emphasize the detrimental impact of the anthropogenic activities in the water quality of such an important ecosystem. The study involved physicochemical and biotic variables, microbial parameters and biological indicators. Results after 3 years of monitoring bring to evidence a poor water quality further impaired by seasonal patterns. Statistical analysis of data attributed water quality variation to 3 main parameters - pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrates, indicating heavy contamination loads from both organic and agricultural sources. Seasonality plays a role in water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data, suggesting a depurative function of the wetland.

  2. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  3. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  4. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification

  5. ADCP application for long-term monitoring of coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOSHIOKA Hiroshi; TAKAYAMA Tomotsuka; SERIZAWA Shigeatsu

    2005-01-01

    Three kind of application of ADCP is reported for long-term monitoring in coastal sea.(1)The rourine monitoring of water qualities.The water quality and ADCP echo data (600 kHz) observed in the long-term are analgzed at MT (Marine Tower) Station of Kansai International Airport in the Osaka Bay, Japan. The correlation between the turbidity and echo intensity in the surface layer is not good because air bubbles generated by breaking wave are not detected by the turbidity meter, but detected well by ADCP. When estimating the turbidity consists of plankton population from echo intensity, the effect ofbubbles have to be eliminated. (2) Monitoring stirring up of bottom sediment. The special observation was carded out by using following two ADCP in the Osaka Bay, One ADCP was installed upward on the sea. The other ADCP was hanged downward at the gate type stand about 3 m above from the bottom. At the spring tide, high echo intensities indicating the stirring up of bottom sediment were observed. (3) The monitoring for the boundary condition of water mixing at an estuary. In summer season, the ADCP was set at the mouth of Tanabe Bay in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.During the observation, water temperature near the bottom showed remarkable falls with interval of about 5~7 d. When the bottom temperature fell, the inflow current with low echo intensity water appears at the bottom layer in the ADCP record. It is concluded that when occasional weak northeast wind makes weak coastal upwelling at the mouth of the bay, the combination of upwelling with internal tidal flow causes remarkable water exchange and dispels the red tide.

  6. Monitoring And Modeling Environmental Water Quality To Support Environmental Water Purchase Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, S. E.; Elmore, L.; Mouzon, N. R.; Wood, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 million cubic meters (20,000 acre feet) of water has been purchased from willing agricultural sellers for environmental flows in Nevada's Walker River to improve riverine habitat and connectivity with downstream Walker Lake. Reduced instream flows limit native fish populations, like Lahontan cutthroat trout, through warm daily stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Environmental water purchases maintain instream flows, although effects on water quality are more varied. We use multi-year water quality monitoring and physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality modeling to estimate streamflow, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations with alternative environmental water purchases. We simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that environmental water purchases most enhance trout habitat as a function of water quality. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage. Model results indicate that low streamflows generally coincide with critically warm stream temperatures, water quality refugia exist on a tributary of the Walker River, and environmental water purchases may improve stream temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions for some reaches and seasons, especially in dry years and prolonged droughts. This research supports environmental water purchase decision-making and allows water purchase decisions to be prioritized with other river restoration alternatives.

  7. Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Ottermanns, Richard; Keiter, Steffen; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bluhm, Kerstin; Brack, Werner; Breitholtz, Magnus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Carere, Mario; Chalon, Carole; Cousin, Xavier; Dulio, Valeria; Escher, Beate I; Hamers, Timo; Hilscherová, Klára; Jarque, Sergio; Jonas, Adam; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Marneffe, Yves; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Pandard, Pascal; Schifferli, Andrea; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Tang, Janet; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Zounková, Radka; Zwart, Nick; Hollert, Henner

    2016-11-01

    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2

  8. Integrated landslide monitoring: rainfalls, pore water pressures and surface movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, M.; Casula, G.; Elmi, C.; Fabris, M.; Ghirotti, M.; Loddo, F.; Mora, P.; Pesci, A.; Simoni, A.

    2003-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides involving clay-rich soils are widely represented in the Apennines. They cover up to 30% of the slopes forming the relief constituted by chaotic clayey units and are typically subject to repeated reactivations of the movement which are often triggered by a series of discrete failures located in the upper part (headscarp). Failures and movement can then propagate downslope and reactivate the whole landslide deposit which displays a typical elongated body, limited depth and a fan-shaped toe as a result of successive slow earth-flow like movements. An experimental monitoring programme was designed and is currently operating on the Rocca Pitigliana landslide whose characteristics well represent the above described type of movements. Its last parossistic movement date back to 1999 and, since then, remedial works were realized on behalf of local authorities. They basically consist of surficial and deep drainage works located on the landslide body. Experimental activities focus on the main headscarp whose morphology and sub-surface water circulation scheme were unaffected by the interventions. The monitoring approach includes measuring rainfalls and pore-pressure responses in both saturated and unsaturated soils. Surficial movements are continuously measured by means of GPS permanent stations and by wire extensometers which allow real time control of headscarp activity. Main aim of the monitoring activities is to provide experimental data, which can be used to test various existing hydrologic models and to identify triggering conditions. Since the ‘70s, many hydrologic models have been proposed to describe the pore water pressure distribution within the soil and its response to precipitation. The topic has recently drawn growing attention because of the recognized importance in landslide triggering but still experimental data are very much needed in order to obtain and validate capable predicting tools. This is mostly due to the multiple and

  9. Use Of The Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) For In-Flight Water Testing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    A primary requirement for manned spaceflight is Environmental Health which ensures air and water contaminants, acoustic profiles, microbial flora, and radiation exposures within the cabin are maintained to levels needed for crew health and for vehicle system functionality. The reliance on ground analyses of returned samples is a limitation in the current environmental monitoring strategy that will prevent future Exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. This proposal attempts to address this shortcoming by advancing in-flight analyses of water and air. Ground analysis of in-flight, air and water samples typically employ vapor-phase analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify organic compounds present in the samples. We envision the use of newly-developed direct ionization approaches as the most viable avenue leading towards an integrated analytical platform for the monitoring of water, air, and, potentially bio-samples in the cabin environment. Development of an in-flight instrument capable of analyzing air and water samples would be the logical next step to meeting the environmental monitoring needs of Exploration missions. Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides this specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant subset of common target compounds between air and water. Naturally, the following question arises, "Can the AQM be used for both air and water quality monitoring?" Previous directorate-level IR&D funding led to the development of a water sample introduction method for mass spectrometry using electrothermal vaporization (ETV). This project will focus on the integration of the ETV with a ground-based AQM. The capabilities of this integrated platform will be evaluated using a subset of toxicologically important compounds.

  10. Using Fyrite to monitor incubator carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Boone, W R; Lee, S T; Blackhurst, D W

    1995-02-01

    The Fyrite analyzer (Bacharach, Incorporated) was evaluated to ascertain whether it would perform within the range specified by the manufacturer (+/- 0.5%). Fyrite analyzer samples were compared to control samples obtained using an infrared CO2 monitor (Ohmeda, Model Number 5200). Ten Fyrite analyzer measurements from each of three incubators were obtained using two different analyzers by three investigators for a total of 60 measurements per investigator. Twenty control measurements for each of the three incubators were obtained using an infrared monitor calibrated at the 5.0% CO2 level. Fyrite analyzer values fell outside of an acceptable range (Control mean CO2 +/- 0.5%) for 7 of 60 (11.7%) observations for Incubator 1 and 4 of 60 (6.7%) observations for Incubator 2. (Incubator 3 had no values outside the range.) The Fyrite analyzers were significantly different from each other (P = 0.002). The three investigators (I) differed significantly from the control (I1 and I3, P incubator calibration and monthly CO2 checks in concert with daily use of the Fyrite as a monitoring tool only is the better method.

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy application in environmental monitoring of water quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaodong; Li, Yang; Gu, Xiaofeng; Bao, Jiming; Yang, Huizhong; Sun, Li

    2014-12-01

    Water quality monitoring is a critical part of environmental management and protection, and to be able to qualitatively and quantitatively determine contamination and impurity levels in water is especially important. Compared to the currently available water quality monitoring methods and techniques, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has several advantages, including no need for sample pre-preparation, fast and easy operation, and chemical free during the process. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the fundamentals of aqueous LIBS analysis and effectively apply this technique to environmental monitoring. This article reviews the research conducted on LIBS analysis for liquid samples, and the article content includes LIBS theory, history and applications, quantitative analysis of metallic species in liquids, LIBS signal enhancement methods and data processing, characteristics of plasma generated by laser in water, and the factors affecting accuracy of analysis results. Although there have been many research works focusing on aqueous LIBS analysis, detection limit and stability of this technique still need to be improved to satisfy the requirements of environmental monitoring standard. In addition, determination of nonmetallic species in liquid by LIBS is equally important and needs immediate attention from the community. This comprehensive review will assist the readers to better understand the aqueous LIBS technique and help to identify current research needs for environmental monitoring of water quality.

  12. Inland and coastal water environment remote sensing monitoring system: rapid construction and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Gu, Xingfa; Yin, Qiu; Li, Li; Chen, Qiang; Ren, Yuhuan; Chen, Hong; Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Juan

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims at bridging the gap between the academic research and practical application in water environment monitoring by remote sensing. It mainly focuses on how to rapidly construct the Inland and coastal Water Environment Remote Sensing Monitoring System (IWERSMS) in a software perspective. In this paper, the remote sensed data processing framework, dataflow and product levels are designed based on the retrieval algorithms of water quality parameters. The prototype is four-tier architecture and modules are designed elaborately. The paper subsequently analyzes the strategy and key technology of conglutinating hybrid components, adopting semantic metafiles and tiling image during rapid construction of prototype. Finally, the paper introduces the successful application to 2008 Qingdao enteromorpha prolifra disaster emergency monitoring in Olympics Sailing Match fields. The solution can also fit other domains in remote sensing and especially it provides a clue for researchers who are in an attempt to establish a prototype to apply research fruits to practical applications.

  13. Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Topological clustering was explored as a tool for water supply utilities in preparation of monitoring and contamination contingency plans. A complex water distribution network model of Copenhagen, Denmark, was simplified by topological clustering into recognizable water movement patterns to: (1......) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) analyze this event by the use of mesh diagrams; and (3) analyze the use of mesh diagrams as a decision support tool for planning water quality monitoring. Initially, the network model was divided...... into strongly and weakly connected clusters for selected time periods and mesh diagrams were used for analysing cluster connections in the Nørrebro district. Here, areas of particular interest for water quality monitoring were identified by including user-information about consumption rates and consumers...

  14. Coral skeletal geochemistry as a monitor of inshore water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Narottam, E-mail: n.saha@uq.edu.au; Webb, Gregory E.; Zhao, Jian-Xin

    2016-10-01

    Coral reefs maintain extraordinary biodiversity and provide protection from tsunamis and storm surge, but inshore coral reef health is degrading in many regions due to deteriorating water quality. Deconvolving natural and anthropogenic changes to water quality is hampered by the lack of long term, dated water quality data but such records are required for forward modelling of reef health to aid their management. Reef corals provide an excellent archive of high resolution geochemical (trace element) proxies that can span hundreds of years and potentially provide records used through the Holocene. Hence, geochemical proxies in corals hold great promise for understanding changes in ancient water quality that can inform broader oceanographic and climatic changes in a given region. This article reviews and highlights the use of coral-based trace metal archives, including metal transported from rivers to the ocean, incorporation of trace metals into coral skeletons and the current ‘state of the art’ in utilizing coral trace metal proxies as tools for monitoring various types of local and regional source-specific pollution (river discharge, land use changes, dredging and dumping, mining, oil spills, antifouling paints, atmospheric sources, sewage). The three most commonly used coral trace element proxies (i.e., Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca, and Y/Ca) are closely associated with river runoff in the Great Barrier Reef, but considerable uncertainty remains regarding their complex biogeochemical cycling and controlling mechanisms. However, coral-based water quality reconstructions have suffered from a lack of understanding of so-called vital effects and early marine diagenesis. The main challenge is to identify and eliminate the influence of extraneous local factors in order to allow accurate water quality reconstructions and to develop alternate proxies to monitor water pollution. Rare earth elements have great potential as they are self-referencing and reflect basic terrestrial input

  15. Monitoring water stock variations by gravimetry in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguis, L.; Galle, S.; Descloitres, M.; Laurent, J.-P.; Grippa, M.; Pfeffer, J.; Luck, B.; Genthon, P.; Hinderer, J.

    2009-04-01

    In Central Benin (wet Soudanian climate), in the frame of the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) program, an hydrological observatory has been set up since 2000. It is based on embedded catchments from a few to twelve thousand squared kilometers. At the local scale, 3 hillslopes with contrasted vegetation covers were selected in 2005 to study the water redistribution processes. With the aim to close the water budget at this scale, the instrumentation device was composed of instruments which monitored the 1st meter of the vadoze zone (succion, humidetric and temperature probes), the groundwater (piezometers screened at different depths) and a flux station to control evapotranspiration. Seasonal water storage changes can be monitored at this local scale but determination of the water budget at catchment scale is still difficult and needs modelling. A promising method seems to be the monitoring of the gravimetric variations. The GHYRAF French project (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) started in 2008. It is devoted to the water storage variation assessment in sub-saharian Africa. In this aim it carries detailed comparison between models and multidisciplinary observations (ground and satellite gravity, geodesy, hydrology, meteorology). To perform this intercomparison, the main surface gravity experiment consists in periodic absolute gravity measurements at specific points along a north-south monsoonal gradient of rainfall in West Africa (Tamanrasset (20 mm annual rainfall depth) in southern Algeria, Niamey (500 mm) and a Soudanian site in Central Benin (1200 mm). In Benin, three gravity measurements have been already done on the key periods of the water cycle (July 2008 : on-set of the groundwater recharge, September 2008 : highest water table and wettest state in the vadoze zone, January 2009, low water table and dry state in the vadoze zone). We present here the preliminary comparisons of the water storage variation estimations deduced from the

  16. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  17. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  18. Monitoring the levels of important nutrients in the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, B; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Dunford, E; Snowdon, W; Webster, J; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbé, M; Lee, A; Lobstein, T; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to monitoring food composition that can both document the extent of the problem and underpin novel actions to address it. The monitoring approach seeks to systematically collect information on high-level contextual factors influencing food composition and assess the energy density, salt, saturated fat, trans fats and portion sizes of highly processed foods for sale in retail outlets (with a focus on supermarkets and quick-service restaurants). Regular surveys of food composition are proposed across geographies and over time using a pragmatic, standardized methodology. Surveys have already been undertaken in several high- and middle-income countries, and the trends have been valuable in informing policy approaches. The purpose of collecting data is not to exhaustively document the composition of all foods in the food supply in each country, but rather to provide information to support governments, industry and communities to develop and enact strategies to curb food-related NCDs.

  19. Geostatistics-based groundwater-level monitoring network design and its application to the Upper Floridan aquifer, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shirish; Motz, Louis H; Pathak, Chandra; Kuebler, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A geostatistical method was applied to optimize an existing groundwater-level monitoring network in the Upper Floridan aquifer for the South Florida Water Management District in the southeastern United States. Analyses were performed to determine suitable numbers and locations of monitoring wells that will provide equivalent or better quality groundwater-level data compared to an existing monitoring network. Ambient, unadjusted groundwater heads were expressed as salinity-adjusted heads based on the density of freshwater, well screen elevations, and temperature-dependent saline groundwater density. The optimization of the numbers and locations of monitoring wells is based on a pre-defined groundwater-level prediction error. The newly developed network combines an existing network with the addition of new wells that will result in a spatial distribution of groundwater monitoring wells that better defines the regional potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. The network yields groundwater-level predictions that differ significantly from those produced using the existing network. The newly designed network will reduce the mean prediction standard error by 43% compared to the existing network. The adoption of a hexagonal grid network for the South Florida Water Management District is recommended to achieve both a uniform level of information about groundwater levels and the minimum required accuracy. It is customary to install more monitoring wells for observing groundwater levels and groundwater quality as groundwater development progresses. However, budget constraints often force water managers to implement cost-effective monitoring networks. In this regard, this study provides guidelines to water managers concerned with groundwater planning and monitoring.

  20. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Ba...

  2. 40 CFR 141.87 - Monitoring requirements for water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for water... § 141.87 Monitoring requirements for water quality parameters. All large water systems, and all small... representative of water quality and treatment conditions throughout the system. (d) Monitoring after State...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-Water Monitoring List IX... Pt. 264, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 264—Ground-Water Monitoring List Ground-Water Monitoring List... species in the ground water that contain this element are included. 3 CAS index names are those used in...

  4. Advanced Detection Technology of Trace-level Borate for SG Leakage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seban; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Sung, Jinhyun [Radiation Eng. Center, Shihung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongbum [Academic Support Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Many studies have been reported for monitoring technology of steam generator, however, all of these methods have their own limitations. The leakage monitoring technology of steam generator of PWR has also got a limit due to the adoption of specific radionuclides (N-16, Ar-41, H-3, Xe, etc.) generated by nuclear fission, which are available only when reactor output is 20% or more. Most of domestic NPPs apply the N-16 technique for monitoring tube leakage but it has some problem that it is difficult to calculate the leakage rate because neutron flux are not completely formed during low power operation. For example, tube leakage of steam generator occurred in the Uljin nuclear power plant in 2002 during coast down operation for periodic plant maintenance. This plant could not prevent a rupture accident in advance because N-16 method is not possible the leak monitoring less than 20% reactor power. The development of excellent alternative monitoring technology that can monitor the real-time leakage is required under a variety of operating conditions like start-up and abnormal conditions of NPPs. This study was performed to lay a foundation in monitoring the leakage of steam generator coping with the lower output and low power operational condition using trace level of boron which is non-radioactive nuclide to inject control neutron injection. In this study, non-radioactive nuclide boron ion, which existed in the secondary system water, as leakage monitoring indicator was investigated for the separation of complex cation and anion phase. Borate was detected by using borate concentrator column coupled with the ion-exclusion column analytical column, revealing the problem of overlapped peak between fluoride and boron ions. Meanwhile, ion-exchange column could confirm the possibility as a leakage monitoring indicator of steam generator, despite the peak of glycolic acid salts was slightly overlapped. It will be needed for further research regarding the selectivity of the

  5. Hydrogeology, ground-water use, and ground-water levels in the Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles; Schumann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Withdrawals of ground water in the central Mill Creek Valley near Evendale, Ohio, caused water-level declines of more than 100 feet by the 1950s. Since the 1950s, management practices have changed to reduce the withdrawals of ground water, and recovery of water levels in long-term monitoring wells in the valley has been documented. Changing conditions such as these prompted a survey of water use, streamflow conditions, and water levels in several aquifers in the central Mill Creek Valley, Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Geohydrologic information, water use, and water levels were compiled from historical records and collected during the regional survey. Data collected during the survey are presented in terms of updated geohydrologic information, water use in the study area, water levels in the aquifers, and interactions between ground water and surface water. Some of the data are concentrated at former Air Force Plant 36 (AFP36), which is collocated with the General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) plant, and these data are used to describe geohydrology and water levels on a more local scale at and near the plant. A comparison of past and current ground-water use and levels indicates that the demand for ground water is decreasing and water levels are rising. Before 1955, most of the major industrial ground-water users had their own wells, ground water was mined from a confined surficial (lower) aquifer, and water levels were more than 100 feet below their predevelopment level. Since 1955, however, these users have been purchasing their water from the city of Cincinnati or a private water purveyor. The cities of Reading and Lockland, both producers of municipal ground-water supplies in the area, shut down their well fields within their city limits. Because the demand for ground-water supplies in the valley has lessened greatly since the 1950s, withdrawals have decreased, and, consequently, water levels in the lower aquifer are 65 to 105 feet higher than they were

  6. Smart sensors for real-time water quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Sensors are being utilised to increasing degrees in all forms of industry.  Researchers and industrial practitioners in all fields seek to obtain a better understanding of appropriate processes so as to improve quality of service and efficiency.  The quality of water is no exception, and the water industry is faced with a wide array of water quality issues being present world-wide.  Thus, the need for sensors to tackle this diverse subject is paramount.  The aim of this book is to combine, for the first time, international expertise in the area of water quality monitoring using smart sensors and systems in order that a better understanding of the challenges faced and solutions posed may be available to all in a single text.

  7. Considering rating curve uncertainty in water level predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Scheidegger, A.; Banasik, K.; Rieckermann, J.

    2013-11-01

    Streamflow cannot be measured directly and is typically derived with a rating curve model. Unfortunately, this causes uncertainties in the streamflow data and also influences the calibration of rainfall-runoff models if they are conditioned on such data. However, it is currently unknown to what extent these uncertainties propagate to rainfall-runoff predictions. This study therefore presents a quantitative approach to rigorously consider the impact of the rating curve on the prediction uncertainty of water levels. The uncertainty analysis is performed within a formal Bayesian framework and the contributions of rating curve versus rainfall-runoff model parameters to the total predictive uncertainty are addressed. A major benefit of the approach is its independence from the applied rainfall-runoff model and rating curve. In addition, it only requires already existing hydrometric data. The approach was successfully demonstrated on a small catchment in Poland, where a dedicated monitoring campaign was performed in 2011. The results of our case study indicate that the uncertainty in calibration data derived by the rating curve method may be of the same relevance as rainfall-runoff model parameters themselves. A conceptual limitation of the approach presented is that it is limited to water level predictions. Nevertheless, regarding flood level predictions, the Bayesian framework seems very promising because it (i) enables the modeler to incorporate informal knowledge from easily accessible information and (ii) better assesses the individual error contributions. Especially the latter is important to improve the predictive capability of hydrological models.

  8. Considering rating curve uncertainty in water level predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Sikorska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Streamflow cannot be measured directly and is typically derived with a rating curve model. Unfortunately, this causes uncertainties in the streamflow data and also influences the calibration of rainfall-runoff models if they are conditioned on such data. However, it is currently unknown to what extent these uncertainties propagate to rainfall-runoff predictions. This study therefore presents a quantitative approach to rigorously consider the impact of the rating curve on the prediction uncertainty of water levels. The uncertainty analysis is performed within a formal Bayesian framework and the contributions of rating curve versus rainfall-runoff model parameters to the total predictive uncertainty are addressed. A major benefit of the approach is its independence from the applied rainfall-runoff model and rating curve. In addition, it only requires already existing hydrometric data. The approach was successfully tested on a small urbanized basin in Poland, where a dedicated monitoring campaign was performed in 2011. The results of our case study indicate that the uncertainty in calibration data derived by the rating curve method may be of the same relevance as rainfall-runoff model parameters themselves. A conceptual limitation of the approach presented is that it is limited to water level predictions. Nevertheless, regarding flood level predictions, the Bayesian framework seems very promising because it (i enables the modeler to incorporate informal knowledge from easily accessible information and (ii better assesses the individual error contributions. Especially the latter is important to improve the predictive capability of hydrological models.

  9. Hampton roads regional Water-Quality Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Aaron J.; Jastram, John D.

    2016-12-02

    IntroductionHow much nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids are contributed by the highly urbanized areas of the Hampton Roads region in Virginia to Chesapeake Bay? The answer to this complex question has major implications for policy decisions, resource allocations, and efforts aimed at restoring clean waters to Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. To quantify the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids delivered to the bay from this region, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), in cooperation with the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), to conduct a water-quality monitoring program throughout the Hampton Roads region.

  10. "Periodic-table-style" paper device for monitoring heavy metals in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Cao, Rong; Nilghaz, Azadeh; Guan, Liyun; Zhang, Xiwang; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-03

    If a paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD) could be made by printing indicators for detection of heavy metals in chemical symbols of the metals in a style of the periodic table of elements, it could be possible for such μ-PAD to report the presence and the safety level of heavy metal ions in water simultaneously and by text message. This device would be able to provide easy solutions to field-based monitoring of heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharges and in irrigating and drinking water. Text-reporting could promptly inform even nonprofessional users of the water quality. This work presents a proof of concept study of this idea. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI) were chosen to demonstrate the feasibility, specificity, and reliability of paper-based text-reporting devices for monitoring heavy metals in water.

  11. Multi-interface Level Sensors and New Development in Monitoring and Control of Oil Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuqiang Yang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the oil industry, huge saving may be made if suitable multi-interface levelmeasurement systems are employed for effectively monitoring crude oil separators andefficient control of their operation. A number of techniques, e.g. externally mounteddisplacers, differential pressure transmitters and capacitance rod devices, have beendeveloped to measure the separation process with gas, oil, water and other components.Because of the unavailability of suitable multi-interface level measurement systems, oilseparators are currently operated by the trial-and-error approach. In this paper someconventional techniques, which have been used for level measurement in industry, and newdevelopment are discussed.

  12. Normal streamflows and water levels continue—Summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Ankcorn, Paul D.; Peck, Michael F.

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) South Atlantic Water Science Center (SAWSC) Georgia office, in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 350 real-time, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages). The network includes 14 real-time lake-level monitoring stations, 72 real-time surface-water-quality monitors, and several water-quality sampling programs. Additionally, the SAWSC Georgia office operates more than 204 groundwater monitoring wells, 39 of which are real-time. The wide-ranging coverage of streamflow, reservoir, and groundwater monitoring sites allows for a comprehensive view of hydrologic conditions across the State. One of the many benefits this monitoring network provides is a spatially distributed overview of the hydrologic conditions of creeks, rivers, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.Streamflow and groundwater data are verified throughout the year by USGS hydrographers and made available to water-resource managers, recreationists, and Federal, State, and local agencies. Hydrologic conditions are determined by comparing the statistical analyses of data collected during the current water year to historical data. Changing hydrologic conditions underscore the need for accurate, timely data to allow informed decisions about the management and conservation of Georgia’s water resources for agricultural, recreational, ecological, and water-supply needs and in protecting life and property.

  13. Autonomous analyser platforms for remote monitoring of water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Dermot; Cleary, John; Maher, Damien; Kim, Jung Ho; Lau, King-Tong

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the realization of reliable, relatively low-cost autonomous microfluidic analysers that are capable of monitoring the chemistry of water bodies for significant periods of time (weeks, months) without human intervention. The data generated is transmitted wireless to a remote web server and transferred to a web-database that renders data access location independent. Preliminary results obtained from a ‘matchbox’ scale analyzer are also presented and routes to...

  14. Improving Inland Water Quality Monitoring through Remote Sensing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ogashawara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (chl-a levels in lake water could indicate the presence of cyanobacteria, which can be a concern for public health due to their potential to produce toxins. Monitoring of chl-a has been an important practice in aquatic systems, especially in those used for human services, as they imply an increased risk of exposure. Remote sensing technology is being increasingly used to monitor water quality, although its application in cases of small urban lakes is limited by the spatial resolution of the sensors. Lake Thonotosassa, FL, USA, a 3.45-km2 suburban lake with several uses for the local population, is being monitored monthly by traditional methods. We developed an empirical bio-optical algorithm for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily surface reflectance product to monitor daily chl-a. We applied the same algorithm to four different periods of the year using 11 years of water quality data. Normalized root mean squared errors were lower during the first (0.27 and second (0.34 trimester and increased during the third (0.54 and fourth (1.85 trimesters of the year. Overall results showed that Earth-observing technologies and, particularly, MODIS products can also be applied to improve environmental health management through water quality monitoring of small lakes.

  15. Integrated approach to monitor water dynamics with drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymaekers, Dries; De Keukelaere, Liesbeth; Knaeps, Els; Strackx, Gert; Decrop, Boudewijn; Bollen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing has been used for more than 20 years to estimate water quality in the open ocean and study the evolution of vegetation on land. More recently big improvements have been made to extend these practices to coastal and inland waters, opening new monitoring opportunities, eg. monitoring the impact of dredging activities on the aquatic environment. While satellite sensors can provide complete coverage and historical information of the study area, they are limited in their temporal revisit time and spatial resolution. Therefore, deployment of drones can create an added value and in combination with satellite information increase insights in the dynamics and actors of coastal and aquatic systems. Drones have the advantages of monitoring at high spatial detail (cm scale), with high frequency and are flexible. One of the important water quality parameters is the suspended sediment concentration. However, retrieving sediment concentrations from unmanned systems is a challenging task. The sediment dynamics in the port of Breskens, the Netherlands, were investigated by combining information retrieved from different data sources: satellite, drone and in-situ data were collected, analysed and inserted in sediment models. As such, historical (satellite), near-real time (drone) and predictive (sediment models) information, integrated in a spatial data infrastructure, allow to perform data analysis and can support decision makers.

  16. Recent and late quaternary changes in water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    Water level changes of both the Great Lakes and the sea are described along with methods of analyzing water level data. The influence of elastic deformation of the earth and viscosity is discussed. Causes of water level changes reviewed include: earth movements, geoid changes, storm surges or meteorological phenomena, and melting ice in Antarctica, Greenland, and the mountain glaciers.

  17. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  18. Environmental monitoring of the Zhujiang Estuary and its coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. C. Chen(陈介中); L. Dong; L. A. Wong; G. W. Heinke

    2002-01-01

    The Zhujiang (Pearl River ) Estuary is a complex water system whose catchments basin coveers a very large part of southern China. The large quantity of fresh water carried by the river system flows into the northern coast of the South China Sea through its eight inlets. The Zhujiang River Delta has experienced the fastest economic growth in China during the past two decades. Rapid population expansion and increased industrial development coupled with insufficient waste management turned the Zhujiang Estuary into waste disposal channels just before entering the coastal waters. The water quality of the estuaries and the coastal oceans has become polluted. Dttfing the past two years, an intensive study and monitoring efforts of the pollutions of these waters have been made. A systematic and integrated monitoring task including shore-based measurements, shipboard in-situ measurements, and satellite and radar remote sensing surveys has been completed. Conprehensive collection of physical,chemical and biological parameters has been accomplished and a database has been established. Unlike the previous large scale-monitoring task in which the various pollutant concentrations were the objective,the present study aims to understand the process of the pollution from their initial disposal to their final states. The understanding of the processes makes it possible to evaluate the severity of the pollution with respect to the sustainability. Also the objective is to incorporate these processes into the mathematical models from which a predictive capability of the pollution situation can be realized. The present presentation will describe the planning, methodology and the results of this effort.

  19. Monitoring and remediation of organochlorine residues in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly; Ismail, Ahmed; Hamza, Amany; Shaheen, Sabry

    2014-07-01

    This study monitored the presence of organochlorines in drinking water in Kafr-El-Sheikh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem, and Metobess in the Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (i.e., lindane) in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine residues at all water sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorines in water. Nano photo-Fenton-like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drinking water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms removed 100% of the initial concentration of lindane after 23 days of treatment. The study found that there is no remaining toxicity of lindane-contaminated water after remediation on treated rats relative to the control with respect to histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Therefore, AOPs, particularly those with nanomaterials and bioremediation, can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water.

  20. Microminiature Monitor for Vital Electrolyte and Metabolite Levels of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Koji; Gratzl, Miklos

    2004-01-01

    Ions, such as proton (pH) and potassium, play a crucial role in body fluids to maintain proper basic functioning of cells and tissues. Metabolites, such as glucose, control the energy available to the entire human body in normal as well as stress situations, and before, during, and after meals. These molecules diffuse easily between blood in the capillaries and the interstitial fluid residing between cells and tissues. We have developed and approach to monitoring of critical ions (called electrolytes) and glucose in the interstitial fluid under the human skin. Proton and potassium levels sensed using optode technology that translates the respective ionic concentrations into variable colors of corresponding ionophore/dye/polymeric liquid membranes. Glucose is monitored indirectly, by coupling through immobilized glucose oxidase with local pH that is then detected using a similar color scheme. The monitor consists of a tiny plastic bar, 100-200 microns wide and 1-2 mm long, placed just under the skin, with color changing spots for each analyte as well as blanks. The colors are read and translated into concentration values by a CCD camera. Direct optical coupling between the in vivo sensing bar and the ex vivo detector device requires no power, and thus eliminates the need for wires or optical fibers crossing the skin. The microminiature bar penetrates the skin easily and painlessly, so that astronauts could insert it themselves. The approach is fully compatible with telemetry in space, and thus, in vivo clinical data will be available real time in the Earth based command center once the device is fully developed. The information provided can be used for collecting hitherto unavailable vital data on clinical effects of space travel. Managing clinical emergencies in space with the sensor already in place should also become much more efficient than without a continuous monitor, as is currently the case. Civilian applications may include better glucose control of

  1. Microminiature Monitor for Vital Electrolyte and Metabolite Levels of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Koji; Gratzl, Miklos

    2004-01-01

    Ions, such as proton (pH) and potassium, play a crucial role in body fluids to maintain proper basic functioning of cells and tissues. Metabolites, such as glucose, control the energy available to the entire human body in normal as well as stress situations, and before, during, and after meals. These molecules diffuse easily between blood in the capillaries and the interstitial fluid residing between cells and tissues. We have developed and approach to monitoring of critical ions (called electrolytes) and glucose in the interstitial fluid under the human skin. Proton and potassium levels sensed using optode technology that translates the respective ionic concentrations into variable colors of corresponding ionophore/dye/polymeric liquid membranes. Glucose is monitored indirectly, by coupling through immobilized glucose oxidase with local pH that is then detected using a similar color scheme. The monitor consists of a tiny plastic bar, 100-200 microns wide and 1-2 mm long, placed just under the skin, with color changing spots for each analyte as well as blanks. The colors are read and translated into concentration values by a CCD camera. Direct optical coupling between the in vivo sensing bar and the ex vivo detector device requires no power, and thus eliminates the need for wires or optical fibers crossing the skin. The microminiature bar penetrates the skin easily and painlessly, so that astronauts could insert it themselves. The approach is fully compatible with telemetry in space, and thus, in vivo clinical data will be available real time in the Earth based command center once the device is fully developed. The information provided can be used for collecting hitherto unavailable vital data on clinical effects of space travel. Managing clinical emergencies in space with the sensor already in place should also become much more efficient than without a continuous monitor, as is currently the case. Civilian applications may include better glucose control of

  2. New methods for the condition monitoring of level crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Márquez, Fausto Pedro; Pedregal, Diego J.; Roberts, Clive

    2015-04-01

    Level crossings represent a high risk for railway systems. This paper demonstrates the potential to improve maintenance management through the use of intelligent condition monitoring coupled with reliability centred maintenance (RCM). RCM combines advanced electronics, control, computing and communication technologies to address the multiple objectives of cost effectiveness, improved quality, reliability and services. RCM collects digital and analogue signals utilising distributed transducers connected to either point-to-point or digital bus communication links. Assets in many industries use data logging capable of providing post-failure diagnostic support, but to date little use has been made of combined qualitative and quantitative fault detection techniques. The research takes the hydraulic railway level crossing barrier (LCB) system as a case study and develops a generic strategy for failure analysis, data acquisition and incipient fault detection. For each barrier the hydraulic characteristics, the motor's current and voltage, hydraulic pressure and the barrier's position are acquired. In order to acquire the data at a central point efficiently, without errors, a distributed single-cable Fieldbus is utilised. This allows the connection of all sensors through the project's proprietary communication nodes to a high-speed bus. The system developed in this paper for the condition monitoring described above detects faults by means of comparing what can be considered a 'normal' or 'expected' shape of a signal with respect to the actual shape observed as new data become available. ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) models were employed for detecting faults. The statistical tests known as Jarque-Bera and Ljung-Box have been considered for testing the model.

  3. CryoSat-2 radar altimetry for monitoring surface water in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liguang; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Nielsen, Karina

    Surface water bodies (lakes, reservoirs and rivers) are key components of the water cycle and are important water sources. Water level and storage vary greatly under the impacts of climate change and human activities. A national-scale surface water monitoring dataset for China is not available...... at regional scale, i.e. declining in Junggar Basin, Huai River Basin and Hubei Province while rising in North Tibetan Plateau and Songnen Plain; 2) SWS change affects TWS variation greatly, especially in Tibetan Plateau ; 3) TWS in Songhua River basin has been fluctuating strongly over the past decade...... and the North China Plain maintained a consistently decreasing trend in TWS (- 20 mm/yr); 4) Change observed in Songnen Plain is also seen from SongLiao Water Resources Bulletin....

  4. Continuous monitoring of water flow and solute transport using vadose zone monitoring technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.

    2009-04-01

    Groundwater contamination is usually attributed to pollution events that initiate on land surface. These may be related to various sources such as industrial, urban or agricultural, and may appear as point or non point sources, through a single accidental event or a continuous pollution process. In all cases, groundwater pollution is a consequence of pollutant transport processes that take place in the vadose zone above the water table. Attempts to control pollution events and prevent groundwater contamination usually involve groundwater monitoring programs. This, however, can not provide any protection against contamination since pollution identification in groundwater is clear evidence that the groundwater is already polluted and contaminants have already traversed the entire vadose zone. Accordingly, an efficient monitoring program that aims at providing information that may prevent groundwater pollution has to include vadose-zone monitoring systems. Such system should provide real-time information on the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water and serve as an early warning system capable of detecting pollution events in their early stages before arrival of contaminants to groundwater. Recently, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) was developed to allow continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of percolating water in the deep vadose zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes for continuous tracking of water content profiles, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) for frequent sampling of the deep vadose pore water at multiple depths. The monitoring probes and sampling ports are installed through uncased slanted boreholes using a flexible sleeve that allows attachment of the monitoring devices to the borehole walls while achieving good contact between the sensors and the undisturbed sediment column. The system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and

  5. WPAN and PSO based Water Quality Monitoring with LabVIEW as data logger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gehlot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Earth is only resource for drinking water, with a huge amount of unexploited elements which lies under the earth. This water purifies by using different purifying techniques at the government end also at consumers end. But the most of the purifiers which are used by the middle class families of India, does not provides any mean of monitoring the quality of water. As a result most of the people use the same purifier for years without service, which ultimately results in more contaminated water. This paper proposes a WPAN based system for monitoring the water quality of the water purifier, and real time data acquisition on LabVIEW. An automated procedure is proposed to determine the total dissolved in the water and the data collected from the system is displayed on LCD as well as the same data acquired by the handheld device. Then whole data is analysed using LabVIEW. This system indicates the danger level on the bases of input range of the sensor. The system has advantages such as early warning of the contaminated water and the same time purifier services person can collect the data and on time service of the water purifier can be maintained.

  6. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  7. Multiplexed FBG Monitoring System for Forecasting Coalmine Water Inrush Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fiber-Bragg-grating- (FBG- based system which can monitor and analyze multiple parameters such as temperature, strain, displacement, and seepage pressure simultaneously for forecasting coalmine water inrush disaster. The sensors have minimum perturbation on the strain field. And the seepage pressure sensors adopt a drawbar structure and employ a corrugated diaphragm to transmit seepage pressure to the axial strain of FBG. The pressure sensitivity is 20.20 pm/KPa, which is 6E3 times higher than that of ordinary bare FBG. The FBG sensors are all preembedded on the roof of mining area in coalmine water inrush model test. Then FBG sensing network is set up applying wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM technology. The experiment is carried out by twelve steps, while the system acquires temperature, strain, displacement, and seepage pressure signals in real time. The results show that strain, displacement, and seepage pressure monitored by the system change significantly before water inrush occurs, and the strain changes firstly. Through signal fusion analyzed it can be concluded that the system provides a novel way to forecast water inrush disaster successfully.

  8. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, E.F.; Roundy, J.K.; Troy, T.J.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Blyth, E.; Roo, A.A. de; Doll, P.; Ek, M.; Famiglietti, J.; Gochis, D.; Giesen, N. van de; Houser, P.; Jaffe, P.R.; Kollet, S.; Lehner, B.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Peters-Liedard, C.; Sivapalan, M.; Sheffield, J.; Wade, A.; Whitehead, P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth’s terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and

  9. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  10. [Study on the optimization of monitoring indicators of drinking water quality during health supervision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; E, Xueli; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    To optimize non-regular drinking water quality indices (except Giardia and Cryptosporidium) of urban drinking water. Several methods including drinking water quality exceed the standard, the risk of exceeding standard, the frequency of detecting concentrations below the detection limit, water quality comprehensive index evaluation method, and attribute reduction algorithm of rough set theory were applied, redundancy factor of water quality indicators were eliminated, control factors that play a leading role in drinking water safety were found. Optimization results showed in 62 unconventional water quality monitoring indicators of urban drinking water, 42 water quality indicators could be optimized reduction by comprehensively evaluation combined with attribute reduction of rough set. Optimization of the water quality monitoring indicators and reduction of monitoring indicators and monitoring frequency could ensure the safety of drinking water quality while lowering monitoring costs and reducing monitoring pressure of the sanitation supervision departments.

  11. Citizen science for water resources management: toward polycentric monitoring and governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Dewulf, Art; De Bièvre, Bert; Clark, Julian; Hannah, David

    2016-04-01

    Novel and more affordable technologies are allowing new actors to engage increasingly in the monitoring of hydrological systems and the assessment of water resources. This trend may shift data collection from a small number of mostly formal institutions (e.g., statutory monitoring authorities, water companies) toward a much more dynamic, decentralized, and diverse network of data collectors (including citizens and other non-specialists). Such a move towards a more diverse and polycentric type of monitoring may have important consequences for the generation of knowledge about water resources and the way that this knowledge is used to govern these resources. An increasingly polycentric approach to monitoring and data collection will change inevitably the relation between monitoring and decision-making for water resources. On a technical level, it may lead to improve availability of, and access to, data. The opportunity for actors to design and implement monitoring may also lead to data collection strategies that are tailored better to locally specific management questions. However, in a policy context the evolution may also shift balances of knowledge and power. For example, it will be easier to collect data and generate evidence to support specific agendas, or for non-specialists to challenge existing agreements, laws, and statutory authorities. Analysing a case study in the Peruvian Andes, we identify strong links with polycentric models of river basin management and governance. Polycentric models recognize the existence of multiple centres of decision-making within a catchment and provide a potential alternative to the top-down centralizing tendencies of integrated water resources management. Although polycentric systems are often associated with data scarcity, we argue that citizen science provides a framework for data collection in such systems and that it provides opportunities for knowledge generation, institutional capacity building and policy support, in

  12. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for radionuclides in community water systems. (a) Monitoring and compliance requirements for gross... source of water must begin to conduct initial monitoring for the new source within the first quarter... initial monitoring requirements, a community water system having only one entry point to the distribution...

  13. Monitoring of Free Water and Particulate Contamination of F-24 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION OF F-24 FUEL INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 480...Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND...2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2014 - June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring of Free Water and

  14. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  15. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  16. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the

  17. Summary of the Ground-Water-Level Hydrologic Conditions in New Jersey 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Walter; Pope, Daryll

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides about 40 percent of our Nation's public water supply. Currently, nearly one-half of New Jersey's drinking-water is supplied by over 300,000 wells that serve more than 4.3 million people (John P. Nawyn, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). New Jersey's population is projected to grow by more than a million people by 2030 (U.S. Census Bureau, accessed March 2, 2006, at http://www.census.gov). As demand for water increases, managing the development and use of the ground-water resource so that the supply can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences is of paramount importance. This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Jersey Water Science Center Observation Well Networks. Record low ground-water levels during water year 2006 (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006) are listed, and water levels in six selected water-table observation wells and three selected confined wells are shown in hydrographs. The report describes the trends in water levels in various confined aquifers in southern New Jersey and in water-table and fracture rock aquifers throughout the State. Web site addresses to access the data also are included. The USGS has operated a network of observation wells in New Jersey since 1923 for the purpose of monitoring ground-water-level changes throughout the State. Long-term systematic measurement of water levels in observation wells provides the data needed to evaluate changes in the ground-water resource over time. Records of ground-water levels are used to evaluate the effects of climate changes and water-supply development, to develop ground-water models, and to forecast trends.

  18. Mobile Phone-Based Field Monitoring for Satsuma Mandarin and Its Application to Watering Advice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Toshiyuki; Numano, Nagisa; Yagyu, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Hideo

    This paper describes a mobile phone-based data logging system for monitoring the growing status of Satsuma mandarin, a type of citrus fruit, in the field. The system can provide various feedback to the farm producers with collected data, such as visualization of related data as a timeline chart or advice on the necessity of watering crops. It is important to collect information on environment conditions, plant status and product quality, to analyze it and to provide it as feedback to the farm producers to aid their operations. This paper proposes a novel framework of field monitoring and feedback for open-field farming. For field monitoring, it combines a low-cost plant status monitoring method using a simple apparatus and a Field Server for environment condition monitoring. Each field worker has a simple apparatus to measure fruit firmness and records data with a mobile phone. The logged data are stored in the database of the system on the server. The system analyzes stored data for each field and is able to show the necessity of watering to the user in five levels. The system is also able to show various stored data in timeline chart form. The user and coach can compare or analyze these data via a web interface. A test site was built at a Satsuma mandarin field at Kumano in Mie Prefecture, Japan using the framework, and farm workers monitor in the area used and evaluated the system.

  19. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  20. Monitoring water distribution systems: understanding and managing sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Ediriweera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently being trialed by the water distribution industry for monitoring complex distribution infrastructure. The paper presents an investigation in to the architecture and performance of a sensor system deployed for monitoring such a distribution network. The study reveals lapses in systems design and management, resulting in a fifth of the data being either missing or erroneous. Findings identify the importance of undertaking in-depth consideration of all aspects of a large sensor system with access to either expertise on every detail, or to reference manuals capable of transferring the knowledge to non-specialists. First steps towards defining a set of such guidelines are presented here, with supporting evidence.

  1. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnett, M.; Zeqiri, B.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies (leq 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  2. A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B [National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic cavitation occurring in the water path between a transducer and the target of a radiation force balance can provide a significant source of error during measurements of ultrasonic power. These problems can be particularly acute at physiotherapy levels (>1 W), and low frequencies ({<=} 1 MHz). The cavitating bubbles can absorb and scatter incident ultrasound, leading to an underestimate in the measured power. For these reasons, International Specification standards demand the use of degassed water. This imposes requirements that may actually be difficult to meet, for example, in the case of hospitals. Also, initially degassed water will rapidly re-gas, increasing the likelihood of cavitation occurring. For these reasons, NPL has developed a device that monitors acoustic emissions generated by bubble activity, for detecting the onset of cavitation during power measurements. A commercially available needle hydrophone is used to detect these emissions. The acoustic signals are then monitored using a Cavitation Detector (CD) unit, comprising an analogue electrical filter that may be tuned to detect frequency components generated by cavitating bubbles, and which provides an indication of when the measured level exceeds a pre-defined threshold. This paper describes studies to establish a suitable detection scheme, the principles of operation of the CD unit, and the performance tests carried out with a range of propagation media.

  3. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Potable water quality monitoring of primary schools in Magura district, Bangladesh: children's health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Hashem, Abul; Nur-A-Tomal, Shahruk

    2016-12-01

    Safe potable water is essential for good health. Worldwide, school-aged children especially in the developing countries are suffering from various water-borne diseases. In the study, drinking water supplies for primary school children were monitored at Magura district, Bangladesh, to ensure safe potable water. APHA standard analytical methods were applied for determining the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, the samples were collected from 20 randomly selected tube wells of primary schools at Magura. The metal contents, especially arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), in the water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The range of physicochemical parameters found in water samples were as follows: pH 7.05-9.03, electrical conductivity 400-2340 μS/cm, chloride 10-640 mg/L, hardness 200-535 mg/L as CaCO3, and total dissolved solids 208-1216 mg/L. The level of metals in the tube well water samples were as follows: As 1 to 55 μg/L, Fe 40 to 9890 μg/L, and Mn 10 to 370 μg/L. Drinking water parameters of Magura district did not meet the requirement of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guideline, or the Drinking Water Quality Standards of Bangladesh.

  5. Monitoring recent lake level variations on the Tibetan Plateau using CryoSat-2 SARIn mode data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liguang; Nielsen, Karina; Andersen, Ole Baltazar;

    2017-01-01

    to monitor lake levels. In this study, Cryosat-2 SARIn mode data over the period 2010–2015 are used to investigate recent lake level variations. The estimated water levels of the 70 largest lakes (> 100 km2) on the TP show that 48 lakes reveal a rising trend (avg. 0.28 ± 0.06 m/yr) while the other 22 show...

  6. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  7. Water management in capillary gas chromatographic air monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.F.; Tippler, A.; Seeley, I. [Perkin-Elmer Corp., Wilton, CT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Determining the identity and quantities of volatile organic compounds in air samples at trace levels often requires large sample sizes to achieve part-per-billion (ppb) detection levels. Given the volatile nature of many of low molecular weight chemical species, some form of cooling or adsorbent trapping of the organics is required. Unfortunately, cooling air samples below ambient temperature causes large amounts of water to be removed along with the organics. This paper investigates the magnitude of the problem and examines various alternatives for managing trapped water. The application of some of these techniques is demonstrated in a method for determining volatile polar and non-polar compounds in ambient air.

  8. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Water Quality Component Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    rapid, and plankton ) that are ignored under the existing cost- effective manner. design of the monitoring program, but which A major purpose of the... mussels on dissolved oxygen and planktonic specifically focus on local areas where projects chlorophyll levels at selected locations, but are...term goals of the Program are to understand the system, determine resource trends and effects , develop management alternatives, manage information, and

  9. Fixed-Level Frequency Threshold Testing for Ototoxicity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Catherine C; Clavier, Odile H; Allen, Lindsay V; Anderson, Allison P; Brooks, Chris A; Fellows, Abigail M; Brungart, Douglas S; Buckey, Jay C

    2017-03-30

    Hearing loss from ototoxicity is often most pronounced at high frequencies. To improve patient monitoring and compliance, high-frequency testing methods should be short and easy to administer. We evaluated the repeatability and accuracy of a Békésy-like, fixed-level frequency threshold (FLFT) technique. This test takes less than a minute and could provide a rapid and effective way to determine the highest audible frequency. We hypothesized the FLFT test would be repeatable in normal-hearing subjects, and accurate when compared with Békésy fixed-frequency audiometry in the sensitive region for ototoxicity (SRO). Twenty-nine normal-hearing subjects (20 females, 9 males) performed 2 different automated audiometry tests at least 4 times over a period of no less than 3 weeks. Ages ranged from 23 to 35 years (average = 28 years). Subjects completed testing under Sennheiser HDA-200 headsets. Initial fixed-frequency audiometry thresholds were obtained at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 20 kHz to identify each subject's highest audible frequency, which was used to determine the SRO. The SRO was defined as the seven frequencies at and below the highest audible frequency in 1/6-octave steps. These frequencies were monitored with fixed-frequency audiometry. At each session, the FLFT test was administered at 80 dB SPL. Subjects used a Békésy-style tracking method to determine the frequency threshold. All testing was completed in a sound booth (single wall, Industrial Acoustics Company) using a computerized, laptop-based, system. FLFT repeatability was calculated as the root mean square difference from the first test session. FLFT accuracy was calculated as the difference from the highest audible frequency determined from fixed-frequency audiometry interpolated to 80 dB SPL level. The FLFT average RMSD for intersession variability was 0.05 ± 0.05 octaves. The test showed no learning effect [F(3,78) = 0.7; p = 0.6]. The overall intersession variability for SRO fixed

  10. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  11. Socio–economic benefits and pollution levels of water resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Assessment of socio–economic activities and pollution levels of domestic water sources in Gulu Municipality, Pece ... The communities should be sensitized to treat water before drinking. ..... primarily related to the poor maintenance of sanitary.

  12. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    methods are vital for an improved surveillance and distribution of clean and safe drinking water. One of these rapid methods is the ATP assay. This thesis encompasses various methodological aspects of the ATP assay describing the principal and theory of the ATP assay measurement. ATP is the main energy...... carrying molecule in living cells, thus ATP can be used as a parameter for microbial activity. ATP is extracted from cells through cell lysis and subsequently assayed with the luciferase enzyme and its substrate luciferin, resulting in bioluminescence, i.e. light emission which can be quantified....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP...

  13. Multiple imputation for assessment of exposures to drinking water contaminants: evaluation with the Atrazine Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachael M; Stayner, Leslie T; Demirtas, Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Drinking water may contain pollutants that harm human health. The frequency of pollutant monitoring may occur quarterly, annually, or less frequently, depending upon the pollutant, the pollutant concentration, and community water system. However, birth and other health outcomes are associated with narrow time-windows of exposure. Infrequent monitoring impedes linkage between water quality and health outcomes for epidemiological analyses. To evaluate the performance of multiple imputation to fill in water quality values between measurements in community water systems (CWSs). The multiple imputation method was implemented in a simulated setting using data from the Atrazine Monitoring Program (AMP, 2006-2009 in five Midwestern states). Values were deleted from the AMP data to leave one measurement per month. Four patterns reflecting drinking water monitoring regulations were used to delete months of data in each CWS: three patterns were missing at random and one pattern was missing not at random. Synthetic health outcome data were created using a linear and a Poisson exposure-response relationship with five levels of hypothesized association, respectively. The multiple imputation method was evaluated by comparing the exposure-response relationships estimated based on multiply imputed data with the hypothesized association. The four patterns deleted 65-92% months of atrazine observations in AMP data. Even with these high rates of missing information, our procedure was able to recover most of the missing information when the synthetic health outcome was included for missing at random patterns and for missing not at random patterns with low-to-moderate exposure-response relationships. Multiple imputation appears to be an effective method for filling in water quality values between measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Threshold Monitoring Maps for Under-Water Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydro-acoustic energy in the 1-100 Hz range from under-water explosions can easily spread for thousands of miles due to the unique properties of the deep sound channel. This channel, aka SOFAR channel, exists almost everywhere in the earth's oceans where the water has at least 1500m depth. Once the energy is trapped in this channel it spreads out cylindrically, and hence experiences very little loss, as long as there is an unblocked path from source to receiver. Other losses such as absorption due to chemicals in the ocean (mainly boric acid and magnesium sulphate) are also quite minimal at these low frequencies. It is not surprising then that the International Monitoring System (IMS) maintains a global network of hydrophone stations listening on this particular frequency range. The overall objective of our work is to build a probabilistic model to detect and locate under-water explosions using the IMS network. A number of critical pieces for this model, such as travel time predictions, are already well known. We are extending the existing knowledge-base by building the remaining pieces, most crucially the models for transmission losses and detection probabilities. With a complete model for detecting under-water explosions we are able to combine it with our existing model for seismic events, NET-VISA. In the conference we will present threshold monitoring maps for explosions in the earth's oceans. Our premise is that explosive sources release an unknown fraction of their total energy into the SOFAR channel, and this trapped energy determines their detection probability at each of the IMS hydrophone stations. Our threshold monitoring maps compute the minimum amount of energy at each location that must be released into the deep sound channel such that there is a ninety percent probability that at least two of the IMS stations detect the event. We will also present results of our effort to detect and locate hydro-acoustic events. In particular, we will show results

  15. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  16. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  17. Monitoring of water quality of selected wells in Brno district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two wells in the country of Brno-district (Brčálka well and Well Olšová. The aim of work was monitoring of elementary parameters of water at regular monthly intervals to measure: water temperature, pH values, solubility oxygen and spring yield. According to the client's requirements (Lesy města Brno laboratory analyzes of selected parameters were done twice a year and their results were compared with Ministry of Health Decree no. 252/2004 Coll.. These parameters: nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD, calcium and magnesium and its values are presented in graphs, for ammonium ions and nitrite in the table. Graphical interpretation of spring yields dependence on the monthly total rainfall and dependence of water temperature on ambient temperature was utilized. The most important features of wells include a water source, a landmark in the landscape, aesthetic element or resting and relaxing place. Maintaining wells is important in terms of future generations.

  18. Water management in capillary gas chromatographic air monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, A. [Perkin Elmer Corp., Norwalk, CT (United States). Fresh Aire Lab.

    1994-12-31

    Capillary gas chromatography is an excellent technique for the speciated quantitation of low-level volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air. Although GC detectors have excellent sensitivity, some sample pre-concentration will be necessary to enable detection of VOCs at sub-ppb levels. This process normally employs a cooled and/or adsorbent trap to retain the analytes from a large volume of sample air. For very volatile VOCs, a very retentive trap is used and this may also retain water present as vapor in the sample. This trapped water causes significant problems with the chromatography and detector operation and methods must be sought to remove it or eliminate its effects. This paper investigates the magnitude of the problem and examines the various alternatives for managing the trapped water. The application of some of these techniques is demonstrated in a method for the determination of volatile polar and non-polar toxic organic compounds in ambient air.

  19. Water monitoring as a safety feature for nuclear desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masriera, N.A. [Nuclear Engineering Department, INVAP, Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)]. E-mail: masriera@invap.com.ar; Doval, A.S.; Di Tada, M.L. [Nuclear Engineering Department, INVAP, Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the general safety approach for nuclear facilities is valid for a Nuclear Desalination Plant (NDP), thus IAEA standards and guides are applicable. The coupling of a NDP should be designed with the safety objective of ensuring that it results in no adverse effect on the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety. The first objective (provisions of barriers) is complied with by the known NDP design, so the relevant issue becomes the design features preventing the transfer of radioactive material to the product water, even in the event of system failures. This presentation drafts a coupling-system safety assessment, from fundamentals and general requirements down to specific design requirements. The state of the art of monitoring systems imposes constraints on the coupling design, in terms of hold-up capability and piping interconnection. This conceptual design shows the system's complexity implied in having monitoring of product water as a safety feature, and conclusions are extremely relevant when drafting general user requirements for a NDP project. (author)

  20. Experiences and recommendations in deploying a real-time, water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, B.; Regan, F.; Lawlor, A.; Wallace, J.; Torres, J.; O'Mathuna, C.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of water quality at a river basin level to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) using conventional sampling and laboratory-based techniques poses a significant financial burden. Wireless sensing systems offer the potential to reduce these costs considerably, as well as provide more useful, continuous monitoring capabilities by giving an accurate idea of the changing environmental and water quality in real time. It is unlikely that the traditional spot/grab sampling will provide a reasonable estimate of the true maximum and/or mean concentration for a particular physicochemical variable in a water body with marked temporal variability. When persistent fluctuations occur, it is likely only to be detected through continuous measurements, which have the capability of detecting sporadic peaks of concentration. Thus, in situ sensors capable of continuous sampling of parameters required under the WFD would therefore provide more up-to-date information, cut monitoring costs and provide better coverage representing long-term trends in fluctuations of pollutant concentrations. DEPLOY is a technology demonstration project, which began planning and station selection and design in August 2008 aiming to show how state-of-the-art technology could be implemented for cost-effective, continuous and real-time monitoring of a river catchment. The DEPLOY project is seen as an important building block in the realization of a wide area autonomous network of sensors capable of monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of important water quality and environmental target parameters. The demonstration sites chosen are based in the River Lee, which flows through Ireland's second largest city, Cork, and were designed to include monitoring stations in five zones considered typical of significant river systems--these monitor water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, depth, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Over one million data points

  1. Impact of water-level changes to aquatic vegetation in small oligotrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egert VANDEL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the effect of drastic water-level changes to the aquatic vegetation in three small oligotrophic lakes situated in Kurtna Kame Field in north-eastern Estonia. The area holds around 40 lakes in 30 km2 of which 18 lakes are under protection as Natura Habitat lakes (Natura 2000 network. The area is under a strong human impact as it is surrounded by oil shale mines, sand quarry, peat harvesting field etc. The most severe impact comes from the groundwater intake established in 1972 in the vicinity of three studied lakes. The exploitation of groundwater led to drastic water-level drops. In 1980s the water-level drops were measured to be up to 3 to 4 meters compared to the levels of 1946. Lake Martiska and Lake Kuradijärv were severely affected and only 29% and 45% of lake area respectively and 21% of initial volume remained. Both lakes were described as oligotrophic lakes before severe human impact and held characteristic macrophytes such as Isoëtes lacustris L., Sparganium angustifolium Michx and Lobelia dortmanna L. As the water level declined the lakes lost their rare characteristic species and can now be described more as a meso- or even eutrophic lakes. When the volume of groundwater abstraction decreased in the 1990s the water levels started to recover but did not reach the natural levels of pre-industrialized era. Also the vegetation did not show any signs of recovery. In 2012 the pumping rates increased again causing a new rapid decline in water levels which almost exceed the previous minimum levels. The water-level monitoring alongside with the macrophyte monitoring data gives us a good case study on how the long term abrupt water-level changes can affect the aquatic vegetation

  2. Monitoring source water for microbial contamination: evaluation of water quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

    2007-08-01

    Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that implicates the sources of contamination. The objective of this study was to use a weight-of-evidence approach (land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring, and MST targets) to identify sources of pollution within a watershed that contains a raw drinking water source. For the study watersheds, statistical analyses demonstrated that one measure each of particulate matter (turbidity, particle counts), organic matter (total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254) absorbance), and indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci) were adequate for characterizing water quality. While these traditional parameters were useful for assessing overall water quality, they were not intended to differentiate between microbial sources at different locations. In contrast, the MST targets utilized (Rhodococcus coprophilus, sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, and male-specific coliphages) pinpointed specific sources of microbial pollution. However, these targets could not be used for routine monitoring due to a high percentage of non-detects.

  3. Human enteric viruses–potential indicators for enhanced monitoring of recreational water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin; Allmann; Updyke; Zi; Wang; Si; Sun; Christina; Connell; Marek; Kirs; Mayee; Wong; Yuanan; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Recreational waters contaminated with human fecal pollution are a public health concern, and ensuring the safety of recreational waters for public use is a priority of both the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC). Current recreational water standards rely on fecal indicator bacteria(FIB) levels as indicators of human disease risk. However present evidence indicates that levels of FIB do not always correspond to the presence of other potentially harmful organisms, such as viruses. Thus, enteric viruses are currently tested as water quality indicators, but have yet to be successfully implemented in routine monitoring of water quality. This study utilized enteric viruses as possible alternative indicators of water quality to examine 18 different fresh and offshore recreational waters on O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, by using newly established laboratory techniques including highly optimized PCR, real time PCR, and viral infectivity assays. All sample sites were detected positive for human enteric viruses by PCR including enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male specific FRNA coliphage. A six time-point seasonal study of enteric virus presence indicated significant variation in virus detection between the rainy and dry seasons. Quantitative PCR detected the presence of norovirus genogroup II at levels at which disease risk may occur, and there was no correlation found between enteric virus presence and FIB counts. Under the present laboratory conditions, no infectious viruses were detected from the samples PCR-positive for enteric viruses. These data emphasize both the need for additional indicators for improved monitoring of water quality, and the feasibility of using enteric viruses as these indicators.

  4. Data Assimilation to Estimate the Water Level of River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriliani, Erna; Hanafi, Lukman; Imron, Chairul

    2017-09-01

    Data assimilation is an estimation method for stochastic dynamic system by combining the mathematical model with measurement data. Water level and velocity of river are stochastic dynamic system, and it is important to estimate the water level and velocity of river flow to reduce flood risk disaster. Here, we estimate the water level and velocity of river flow by using data assimilation specially Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. We define mathematical model of river flow, discretize and do simulation by Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. In data assimilation, we forecast the water level and velocity by using mathematical model and based on the measurement data, the correction of forecasting is made.

  5. Animating ground water levels with Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2003-01-01

    This note describes the use of Microsoft Excel macros (programs written in Excel's internal language, Visual Basic for Applications) to create simple onscreen animations of transient ground water data within Excel. Compared to many specialized visualization software packages, the use of Excel macros is much cheaper, much simpler, and can rapidly be learned. The Excel macro can also be used to create individual GIF files for each animation frame. This series of frames can then be used to create an AVI video file using any of a number of graphics packages, such as Corel PhotoPaint. The technique is demonstrated through a macro that animates changes in the elevation of a water table along a transect over several years.

  6. Spacecraft Water Monitoring: Adapting to an Era of Emerging Scientific Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews spacecraft water monitoring, and the scientific challenges associated with spacecraft water quality. The contents include: 1) Spacecraft Water 101; 2) Paradigm Shift; and 3) Technology Needs.

  7. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-02-25

    Statistical analyses and maps representing mean, high, and low water-level conditions in the surface water and groundwater of Miami-Dade County were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade County Department of Regulatory and Economic Resources, to help inform decisions necessary for urban planning and development. Sixteen maps were created that show contours of (1) the mean of daily water levels at each site during October and May for the 2000–2009 water years; (2) the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the daily water levels at each site during October and May and for all months during 2000–2009; and (3) the differences between mean October and May water levels, as well as the differences in the percentiles of water levels for all months, between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. The 80th, 90th, and 96th percentiles of the annual maximums of daily groundwater levels during 1974–2009 (a 35-year period) were computed to provide an indication of unusually high groundwater-level conditions. These maps and statistics provide a generalized understanding of the variations of water levels in the aquifer, rather than a survey of concurrent water levels. Water-level measurements from 473 sites in Miami-Dade County and surrounding counties were analyzed to generate statistical analyses. The monitored water levels included surface-water levels in canals and wetland areas and groundwater levels in the Biscayne aquifer.

  8. First Derivative UV Spectra of Surface Water as a Monitor of Chlorination in Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zitko

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries require the presence of free chlorine at about 0.1 mg/l in their drinking water supplies. For various reasons, such as cast-iron pipes or long residence times in the distribution system, free chlorine may decrease below detection limits. In such cases it is important to know whether or not the water was chlorinated or if nonchlorinated water entered the system by accident. Changes in UV spectra of natural organic matter in lakewater were used to assess qualitatively the degree of chlorination in the treatment to produce drinking water. The changes were more obvious in the first derivative spectra. In lakewater, the derivative spectra have a maximum at about 280 nm. This maximum shifts to longer wavelengths by up to 10 nm, decreases, and eventually disappears with an increasing dose of chlorine. The water treatment system was monitored by this technique for over 1 year and changes in the UV spectra of water samples were compared with experimental samples treated with known amounts of chlorine. The changes of the UV spectra with the concentration of added chlorine are presented. On several occasions, water, which received very little or no chlorination, may have entered the drinking water system. The results show that first derivative spectra are potentially a tool to determine, in the absence of residual chlorine, whether or not surface water was chlorinated during the treatment to produce potable water.

  9. Changes in Water Levels and Storage in the High Plains Aquifer, Predevelopment to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.6 million acres (174,000 square miles) in parts of eight States - Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The area overlying the High Plains aquifer is one of the primary agricultural regions in the Nation. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with ground water in the aquifer area. By 1980, water levels in the High Plains aquifer in parts of Texas, Oklahoma, and southwestern Kansas had declined more than 100 feet (Luckey and others, 1981). In response to these water-level declines, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with numerous Federal, State, and local water-resources agencies, began monitoring more than 7,000 wells in 1988 to assess annual water-level changes in the aquifer. This fact sheet summarizes changes in water levels and drainable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (before about 1950) to 2007 and serves as a companion product to a USGS report that presents more detailed and technical information about water-level and storage changes in the High Plains aquifer during this period (McGuire, 2009).

  10. GPR para a verificação do nível d'água subterrânea em transição floresta amazônica e cerrado Ground Penetratin Radar (GPR water level monitoring study of a mature transitional tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Helena Marcelino

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo do monitoramento do nível de água foi realizado com medidas diretas e com Radar de Penetração no Solo (GPR em uma floresta tropical de transição para o cerrado. Três poços de monitoramento do nível de água foram instalados durante 2001/2002 em três locais diferentes: o primeiro em uma área de floresta permanente, outro em área de floresta manejada e outra em uma área de pasto. Os perfis de GPR mostram que o nível do topo do lençol freático aparece como um refletor horizontal forte em março e em agosto de 2002, e como um refletor fraco durante medidas em maio e outubro de 2001 com descontinuidades devido a diversas lentes de solo laterítico no solo. O topo do lençol de água é facilmente confundido com a presença de tais lentes. A umidade do solo teve uma influência nestes sinais da reflexão, mudando a constante dielétrica do solo. A profundidade do topo do lençol da água variou 1,8 m sob a floresta permanente, 0,9 m sob a floresta manejada e 3,7 m sob o pasto.A Ground Penetratin Radar (GPR water level monitoring study of a mature transitional tropical forest is presented. Three water tables monitoring wells were installed during 2001/2002 at three different sites: under permanent forest, under managed forest and pasture. The GPR profiles show that the water table appears as a strong horizontal reflector in March and August, 2002,and as a weak, discontinuous reflector during measurements in May and October 2001. Due to several laterite lenses in the soil, the water table can easily be mistaken in place of such lenses. Soil moisture had an influence on these reflection signals, changing the dielectric constant of soil. The depth of the water table varied 1.8 m under permanent forest, 0.9 m under management forest and 3.7 m under pasture.

  11. Passive samplers for chemical substance monitoring and associated toxicity assessment in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, N; Devier, M H; Soulier, C; Creusot, N; Le Menach, K; Aït-Aïssa, S; Vrana, B; Budzinski, H

    2011-01-01

    The European legislation, and in particular the Water Framework Directive requires the development of cost efficient monitoring tools that can provide the required information for the assessment of water contamination. Passive sampling methods represent one of the novel tools that have a potential to be used in various regulatory monitoring programmes aimed at assessing the levels of chemical pollutants. These methods are particularly interesting for sampling polar organic pollutants in water because they provide representative information of the water quality over extended time periods (days to weeks) in environments with fluctuating contaminant concentrations. This is achieved by integrative sampling of pollutants over the whole sampler deployment period. These tools can be coupled to toxicity testing using bioassays that give information on toxic and ecotoxic hazards associated to substances that are present, these substances being identified or not. In this study the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was used in surface water to evaluate the water contamination by polar organic compounds and their potential toxicity.

  12. Monitoring of the Earth's surface deformation in the area of water dam Zarnowiec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzes, Marcel; Wozniak, Marek; Habel, Branislav; Macak, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Mathematical and physical research directly motivates geodetic community which can provide very accurate measurements for testing of the proposed models Earth's surface motion near the water dams should be monitored due to the security of the area. This is a process which includes testing of existing models and their physical parameters. Change of the models can improve the practical results for analyzing the trends of motion in the area of upper reservoir of water dam Zarnowiec. Since 1998 Warsaw University of Technology realized a research focused on the horizontal displacements of the upper reservoir of water dam Zarnowiec. The 15 selected control points located on the upper reservoir crown of the water dam were monitored by classical distance measurements. It was found out that changes in the object's geometry occur due to the variation of the water level. The control measurements of the changes in the object's geometry occurring during the process of emptying and filling of the upper reservoir of water dam were compared with the deformations computed using improved Boussinesqués method programmed in the software MATLAB and ANSYS for elastic and isotropic half space as derivation of suitable potentials extended to the loaded region. The details and numerical results of this process are presented This presentation was prepared within the project "National Centre for Diagnostic of the Earth's Surface Deformations in the Area of Slovakia", ITMS code: 26220220108.

  13. GISMOWA: Geospatial Risk-Based Analysis Identifying Water Quality Monitoring Sites in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sille Lyster; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring water quality in drinking water distribution systems is the basis for proactive approaches to prevent or manage emerging water quality issues, and such a monitoring requires a strategic selection of relevant and representative monitoring sites. GISMOWA is a new GIS and risk......-based analysis tool to identify and prioritize pipe segments for water quality monitoring and to comply with existing monitoring and sampling guidelines. The tool was designed to integrate multiple parameters categorized as (1) hydraulic and structural weaknesses in the system, e.g., residence time; (2) external...... threats, e.g., contaminated sites; and (3) sensitive consumers, e.g., hospitals, in a GIS environment. The tool used a multicriteria decision analysis to evaluate multiple monitoring site parameters and map zones particularly suitable for water quality monitoring. GISMOWA was applied to Danish water...

  14. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Crocker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states, Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  15. Comparison and cost analysis of drinking water quality monitoring requirements versus practice in seven developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-07-18

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country's ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  16. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  17. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  18. Reliable groundwater levels: failures and lessons learned from modeling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2017-04-01

    Adequate management of groundwater resources requires an a priori assessment of impacts of intended groundwater abstractions. Usually, groundwater flow modeling is used to simulate the influence of the planned abstraction on groundwater levels. Model performance is tested by using observed groundwater levels. Where a multi-aquifer system occurs, groundwater levels in the different aquifers have to be monitored through observation wells with filters at different depths, i.e. above the impermeable clay layer (phreatic water level) and beneath (artesian aquifer level). A reliable artesian level can only be measured if the space between the outer wall of the borehole (vertical narrow shaft) and the observation well is refilled with impermeable material at the correct depth (post-drilling phase) to prevent a vertical hydraulic connection between the artesian and phreatic aquifer. We were involved in improper refilling, which led to impossibility to monitor reliable artesian aquifer levels. At the location of the artesian observation well, a freely overflowing spring was seen, which implied water leakage from the artesian aquifer affected the artesian groundwater level. Careful checking of the monitoring sites in a study area is a prerequisite to use observations for model performance assessment. After model testing the groundwater model is forced with proposed groundwater abstractions (sites, extraction rates). The abstracted groundwater volume is compensated by a reduction of groundwater flow to the drainage network and the model simulates associated groundwater tables. The drawdown of groundwater level is calculated by comparing the simulated groundwater level with and without groundwater abstraction. In lowland areas, such as vast areas of the Netherlands, the groundwater model has to consider a variable drainage network, which means that small streams only carry water during the wet winter season, and run dry during the summer. The main streams drain groundwater

  19. Risk and monitoring based indicators of receiving water status: alternative or complementary elements in IWRM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, J; Richter, S; Borchardt, D; Mohaupt, V

    2013-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) was enacted in the year 2000 with a stepwise approach. After legal implementation in the various member states large efforts were undertaken for the initial characterization of water bodies, risk assessment, to implement extensive monitoring schemes and to develop management plans at different aggregation levels by the year 2010. The initial characterization process and risk assessment had to be finalized by 2004 and delineated water bodies including a typological classification and identified the significant pressures and impacts in a screening procedure. In parallel, monitoring programmes and new biological indicator systems were developed in order to proof and refine the results of the risk assessment with an ecological indicator based assessment in a subsequent step which was finalized in 2009. Although the risk assessment for Germany was based on existing data that were originally collected for other purposes and came from a large variety of environmental or economical sectors, the results differ only slightly from the monitoring and indicator based information with respect to classifications of the 'ecological status' and 'chemical status'. From this result we conclude that a risk assessment based on a careful application and intelligent combination of existing data sources with proven quality allows the recognition of trends and the identification of priorities for action of measures already at an early stage of a management process. However, monitoring schemes and advanced sets of ecological indicators are essential in later management steps both for narrowing uncertainties remaining from the risk assessment and to allow for effect controls of implemented measures. Moreover, these monitoring indicators should differentiate the effects of multiple stressors more factor specific and with respect to ecosystem states and functions. In conclusion, we see risk and indicator based assessments as complementary elements

  20. Automatic measurement of water levels within the 300-FF-5 boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.D.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1992-04-01

    A network of pressure transducers with dataloggers and radio transceivers was designed to monitor water levels in 42 wells within the CERCLA 300-FF-5 boundary in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Automatic datalogging, radio retrieval, and computer processing provide hourly measurements that appear precise within {plus minus}0.02 ft at a cost expected to be less than $1 each compared with $9 each for steel-tape measurements made manually. Laboratory and field results both confirm that precision is half of that originally specified. This report is intended as a reference to be used in operating and maintaining the monitoring system. The report includes water-level measurements from the first eight wells monitored.

  1. Automatic measurement of water levels within the 300-FF-5 boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.D.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1992-04-01

    A network of pressure transducers with dataloggers and radio transceivers was designed to monitor water levels in 42 wells within the CERCLA 300-FF-5 boundary in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. Automatic datalogging, radio retrieval, and computer processing provide hourly measurements that appear precise within {plus_minus}0.02 ft at a cost expected to be less than $1 each compared with $9 each for steel-tape measurements made manually. Laboratory and field results both confirm that precision is half of that originally specified. This report is intended as a reference to be used in operating and maintaining the monitoring system. The report includes water-level measurements from the first eight wells monitored.

  2. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  3. Land Cover Monitoring for Water Resources Management in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Irina; Navarro, Ana; Rolim, Joao; Catalao, Joao; Silva, Joel; Painho, Marco; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of improved temporal resolution and multi-source satellite data (SAR and optical) on land cover mapping and monitoring for efficient water resources management. For that purpose, we developed an integrated approach based on image classification and on NDVI and SAR backscattering (VV and VH) time series for land cover mapping and crop's irrigation requirements computation. We analysed 28 SPOT-5 Take-5 images with high temporal revisiting time (5 days), 9 Sentinel-1 dual polarization GRD images and in-situ data acquired during the crop growing season. Results show that the combination of images from different sources provides the best information to map agricultural areas. The increase of the images temporal resolution allows the improvement of the estimation of the crop parameters, and then, to calculate of the crop's irrigation requirements. However, this aspect was not fully exploited due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  4. Monitoring pharmaceuticals and personal care products in reservoir water used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal-Ciro, Carolina; Botero-Coy, Ana María; López, Francisco J; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the presence of selected emerging contaminants has been investigated in two reservoirs, La Fe (LF) and Rio Grande (RG), which supply water to two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of Medellin, one of the most populated cities of Colombia. An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the sample followed by measurement by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for this purpose. Five monitoring campaigns were performed in each reservoir, collecting samples from 7 sites (LF) and 10 sites (RG) at 3 different depths of the water column. In addition, water samples entering in the DWTPs and treated water samples from these plans were also analysed for the selected compounds. Data from this work showed that parabens, UV filters and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen were commonly present in most of the reservoir samples. Thus, methyl paraben was detected in around 90% of the samples collected, while ibuprofen was found in around 60% of the samples. Water samples feeding the DWTPs also contained these two compounds, as well as benzophenone at low concentrations, which was in general agreement with the results from the reservoir samples. After treatment in the DWTPs, these three compounds were still present in the samples although at low concentrations (water are still unknown. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of chronic exposure to these compounds via consumption of drinking water.

  5. 36 CFR 223.281 - Monitoring and revising sustainable harvest levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sustainable harvest levels. 223.281 Section 223.281 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE....281 Monitoring and revising sustainable harvest levels. The Forest Service shall monitor and revise sustainable harvest levels for forest botanical products in accordance with § 223.219 of subpart G....

  6. 40 CFR 141.86 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.86 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water. (a) Sample site location. (1) By the... requirements of § 141.87(e)(2), that it has re-qualified for triennial monitoring. (vii) Any water system... requirements for lead (i.e., a “lead waiver”), the water system must provide certification and...

  7. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  8. Geoelectrical monitoring of water movement in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Susann; Geib, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    To continually track the water movement in the unsaturated zone and monitor groundwater recharge, two geoelectrical profiles were permanently installed in the catchment area of a waterworks. The geoelectrical profiles were set up in areas with different groundwater recharge. One profile was installed on a forest clearing, where the unsaturated zone is eight meters thick and dominated by sand. The second profile was installed in heathland, where the unsaturated zone is eleven meters thick and dominated by fine sand. The profile length for the geoelectrical measurements and the number of electrodes per profile were chosen depending on the depth of the groundwater table. The geoelectrical measurements were carried out autonomously twice a day. Remote data transmission made the data instantaneously available for analysis and evaluation. During the entire period of investigation, that is August 2011 to December 2012, the geoelectrical profiles worked independently with low maintenance. During this period, approximately 800 data sets were recorded at each location. Each individual data set contained several thousand measuring points in the geoelectrical cross section. To handle the large amounts of data and efficiently interpret them, a largely automatic algorithm, the so-called ELMON algorithm, was developed. The algorithm reads in the raw measurement values and allows fast acquisition of incorrect measurements and, where appropriate, initiation of maintenance (for example, to troubleshoot browsing by game). The detected erroneous measurements are automatically removed. Then, the change in soil electrical conductivity is determined via a physically founded calculation method developed in the framework of the project. The change in soil electrical conductivity is represented compared to a reference state, e.g. the day prior to a rain event. Using the ELMON algorithm, the water movement through the unsaturated zone could be monitored over a period of more than a year

  9. Africa-wide monitoring of small surface water bodies using multisource satellite data: a monitoring system for FEWS NET: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Rowland, James; Verdin, James P.; Alemu, Henok; Melesse, Assefa M.; Abtew, Wossenu; Setegn, Shimelis G.

    2014-01-01

    Continental Africa has the highest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs, and rivers, yet it suffers from problems such as water availability and access. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access will increase further. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water points in Africa. Under this project, multisource satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor several hundreds of small to medium surface water points in Africa. This approach has been already tested to operationally monitor 41 water points in East Africa. The validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60 % of the observed gauge variability with a mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 22 %. The data on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration (ETo) for water points in East and West Africa were modeled since 1998 and current information is being made available in near-real time. This chapter presents the approach, results from the East African study, and the first phase of expansion activities in the West Africa region. The water point monitoring network will be further expanded to cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of this study is to provide timely information on the water availability that would support already established FEWS NET activities in Africa. This chapter also presents the potential improvements in modeling approach to be implemented during future expansion in Africa.

  10. Monitoring van Vis in Overgangswateren conform de eisen van de Kaderrichtlijn Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In het kader van de monitoringsverplichtingen vanuit de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) is onderzocht welke vormen van visbemonsteringen geschikt zijn voor toestand en trend monitoring en operationele monitoring en worden monitoringsstrategieen voor overgangswateren en zoute meren besproken.

  11. A Multi-Satellite Approach for Water Storage Monitoring in an Arid Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit T. Ghebreyesus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use satellite imagery to monitor the water budget of Al Ain region in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Inflows and outflows were estimated and the trend of water storage variation in the study area was examined from 2005 to 2014. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the simplified Penman-Monteith equation. Landsat images were used to determine the extent of agricultural and green areas. Time series of gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE observations over the study area were used to assess the inferred water storage variation from satellite data. The change of storage inferred from the Water Budget Equation showed a decreasing trend at an average rate of 2.57 Mm3 annually. Moreover, GRACE readings showed a decreasing trend at a rate of 0.35 cm of water depth annually. Mann-Kendal, a non-parametric trend test, proved the presence of significant negative trends in both time series at a 5% significance level. A two-month lag resulted in a better agreement (R2 = 0.55 between the change in water storage and GRACE anomalies within the study area. These results suggest that water storage in the study area is being depleted significantly. Moreover, the potential of remote sensing in water resource management, especially in remote and arid areas, was demonstrated.

  12. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  13. Monitoring of glucose levels in mouse blood with noninvasive optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.

    2014-02-01

    We report the quantification/monitoring of glucose levels in a blood sample using optical diffuse reflectance (ODR) underlying variations in optical parameters with a white light source (at peak wavelength ˜600 nm and range 450-850 nm) and in blood in vivo using M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT) in terms of the translational diffusion coefficient (DT). In the ODR experiments, we have investigated two types of mono-dispersive particles, i.e. polystyrene microspheres (PMSs) with diameters of 1.4 μm (variable concentrations) and 2.6 μm (fixed concentration) in a water phantom by observing changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding and optimal use of laser applications in blood glucometry without piercing the skin. In the OCT experiments, this idea of glucose monitoring was applied on an in vivo normal mouse without injection of glucose intravenously to provide the threshold levels by envisioning/identifying a blood vessel by speckle variance (SV-OCT) using a dorsal skinfold mouse windows chamber model. We report an average value of translation decorrelation time τT = 41.18 ± 1.92 ms and DT = 8.90 × 10-14 m2 s-1 underlying the dynamic light scattering (DLS). Our results have a potential application in the quantification of higher glucose levels in vivo administrated intravenously.

  14. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  15. A systems approach to modeling Community-Based Environmental Monitoring: a case of participatory water quality monitoring in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Ana; Páez, Rosaura; Carmona, Estela; Rivas, Hilda

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBM) is a social practice that makes a valuable contribution to environmental management and construction of active societies for sustainable future. However, its documentation and analysis show deficiencies that hinder contrast and comparison of processes and effects. Based on systems approach, this article presents a model of CBM to orient assessment of programs, with heuristic or practical goals. In a focal level, the model comprises three components, the social subject, the object of monitoring, and the means of action, and five processes, data management, social learning, assimilation/decision making, direct action, and linking. Emergent properties were also identified in the focal and suprafocal levels considering community self-organization, response capacity, and autonomy for environmental management. The model was applied to the assessment of a CBM program of water quality implemented in rural areas in Mexico. Attributes and variables (indicators) for components, processes, and emergent properties were selected to measure changes that emerged since the program implementation. The assessment of the first 3 years (2010-2012) detected changes that indicated movement towards the expected results, but it revealed also the need to adjust the intervention strategy and procedures. Components and processes of the model reflected relevant aspects of the CBM in real world. The component called means of action as a key element to transit "from the data to the action." The CBM model offered a conceptual framework with advantages to understand CBM as a socioecological event and to strengthen its implementation under different conditions and contexts.

  16. Use of satellite images for the monitoring of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Baschek, Björn; Wolf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Satellite images are a proven source of information for monitoring ecological indicators in coastal waters and inland river systems. This potential of remote sensing products was demonstrated by recent research projects (e.g. EU-funded project Freshmon - www.freshmon.eu) and other activities by national institutions. Among indicators for water quality, a particular focus was set on the temporal and spatial dynamics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) was using the Weser and Elbe estuaries as test cases to compare in-situ measurements with results obtained from a temporal series of automatically generated maps of SPM distributions based on remote sensing data. Maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions in European inland rivers and alpine lakes were generated by the Freshmon Project. Earth observation based products are a valuable source for additional data that can well supplement in-situ monitoring. For 2015, the BfG and the Institute for Lake Research of the State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany (LUBW) are in the process to start implementing an operational service for monitoring SPM and Chl-a based on satellite images (Landsat 7 & 8, Sentinel 2, and if required other systems with higher spatial resolution, e.g. Rapid Eye). In this 2-years project, which is part of the European Copernicus Programme, the operational service will be set up for - the inland rivers of Rhine and Elbe - the North Sea estuaries of Elbe, Weser and Ems. Furthermore - Lake Constance and other lakes located within the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg. In future, the service can be implemented for other rivers and lakes as well. Key feature of the project is a data base that holds the stock of geo-referenced maps of SPM and Chl-a distributions. Via web-based portals (e.g. GGInA - geo-portal of the BfG; UIS - environmental information system of the

  17. Using Sealed Wells to Measure Water Levels Beneath Streams and Floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorduijn, Saskia L; Cook, Peter G; Wood, Cameron; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The design of wells beneath streams and floodplains has often employed with tall standpipes to prevent incursion of surface water into the well during flood events. Here, an approach has been presented to minimise the infrastructure demands in these environments by sealing the well top (e.g., prevent water entering the well) and monitor the total pressure in the water column using an absolute (non-vented) pressure transducer. The sealed well design was tested using a laboratory experiment where the total pressure responses were monitored in both an unsealed and sealed well, while the water level was varied. It is observed that, whether the well is sealed or not, the total pressure at a given depth in the aquifer will be equal to that within the well. This indicates that the sealed well design is a viable alternative to tall standpipes and also facilitates installation of wells beneath streams and floodplains.

  18. Monitoring the aftermath of Flint drinking water contamination crisis: Another case of sampling bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-15

    The delay in reporting high levels of lead in Flint drinking water, following the city's switch to the Flint River as its water supply, was partially caused by the biased selection of sampling sites away from the lead pipe network. Since Flint returned to its pre-crisis source of drinking water, the State has been monitoring water lead levels (WLL) at selected "sentinel" sites. In a first phase that lasted two months, 739 residences were sampled, most of them bi-weekly, to determine the general health of the distribution system and to track temporal changes in lead levels. During the same period, water samples were also collected through a voluntary program whereby concerned citizens received free testing kits and conducted sampling on their own. State officials relied on the former data to demonstrate the steady improvement in water quality. A recent analysis of data collected by voluntary sampling revealed, however, an opposite trend with lead levels increasing over time. This paper looks at potential sampling bias to explain such differences. Although houses with higher WLL were more likely to be sampled repeatedly, voluntary sampling turned out to reproduce fairly well the main characteristics (i.e. presence of lead service lines (LSL), construction year) of Flint housing stock. State-controlled sampling was less representative; e.g., sentinel sites with LSL were mostly built between 1935 and 1950 in lower poverty areas, which might hamper our ability to disentangle the effects of LSL and premise plumbing (lead fixtures and pipes present within old houses) on WLL. Also, there was no sentinel site with LSL in two of the most impoverished wards, including where the percentage of children with elevated blood lead levels tripled following the switch in water supply. Correcting for sampling bias narrowed the gap between sampling programs, yet overall temporal trends are still opposite.

  19. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, H.

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  1. Continuous water-quality and suspended-sediment transport monitoring in the San Francisco Bay, California, water years 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Downing-Kunz, Maureen A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Weidich, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitors water quality and suspended-sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay area is home to millions of people, and the bay teems with both resident and migratory wildlife, plants, and fish. Fresh water mixes with salt water in the bay, which is subject both to riverine and marine (tides, waves, influx of salt water) influences. To understand this environment, the USGS, along with its partners, has been monitoring the bay’s waters continuously since 1988. Several water-quality variables are of particular importance to State and Federal resource managers and are monitored at key locations throughout the bay. Salinity, which indicates the relative mixing of fresh and ocean waters in the bay, is derived from specific conductance measurements. Water temperature, along with salinity, affects the density of water, which causes gravity driven circulation patterns and stratification in the water column. Turbidity is measured using light-scattering from suspended solids in water, and is used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). Suspended sediment often carries adsorbed contaminants; attenuates sunlight in the water column; deposits on tidal marsh and intertidal mudflats, which can help sustain these habitats as sea level rises; and deposits in ports and shipping channels, which can necessitate dredging. Dissolved oxygen, which is essential to a healthy ecosystem, is a fundamental indicator of water quality, and its concentration is affected by water temperature, salinity, ecosystem metabolism, tidal currents, and wind. Tidal currents in the bay reverse four times a day, and wind direction and intensity typically change on a daily cycle: consequently, salinity, water temperature, suspendedsediment concentration, and dissolvedoxygen concentration vary spatially and temporally throughout the bay, and continuous measurements are needed to observe these changes. The purpose of this fact sheet

  2. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew W; Knight, Andrew W; Eitrheim, Eric S; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation--before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Water Demand Management by Monitoring the Technology Performance and the Water Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraj Chemak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Given the climate constraints and the limited resources, Tunisia has developed the irrigated sector in order to diversify the agricultural production and to meet the food needs of the population. Today the policy of water supply reaches its limits and the efforts should be turned to the management of the water demand. Within this context, this research aims to analyze the farming system, the technology performance and the water use efficiency of the irrigated farms in the Sidi Bouzid region. Approach: By monitoring the sample of 47 farms during the harvesting years 2007, 2008 and 2009 we have gathered database which involved technical and economical details. By analyzing the farming system we have identified the technology process in order to estimate the production frontier using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach. The sub-vector approach of the DEA model was used to compute the water use efficiency. Results: The empirical findings showed that farmers grow olive trees, cereal crops, forage crops and horticulture crops. During the surveyed period the share of the different crops did not change significantly. The water consumption reaches only an average of 2700 m3/ha. However, the charge of irrigation represents more than 40% out of the total expenditures. The results of the DEA model showed that 50% of farms are inefficient and the technical efficiency reaches an average of 81%. The average of the scale efficiency reached 88%. However, the water use efficiency did not exceed an average of 68%. Hence, 32% of the water currently used should be saved. Conclusion: There is a wide gap to improve skills and the ability of the farmers to achieve the best of the water use efficiency. Thus, we suggest that the state intervention is necessary not only to reduce the wasting of water but also to set up an accompanying device that reconciles water conservation and the production targets.

  4. Assessing browse trend at the landscape level Part 2: Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Fager, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    In Part 1, we assessed browse trend across a wide geographic area of Mt. Haggin Wildlife Management Area by conducting surveys of browsing-related architectures. Those data were qualitative. Below we describe the periodic collection of quantitative data from permanently marked locations; we refer to this phase of the trend assessment program as "monitoring." Trend was monitored by three methods: 1 Repeat photography. 2 Comparison of the height of live stems with the height of stems killed by browsing (LD Index). 3 Net annual stem growth rate (NAGRL3). The photography provides an assessment of trend from the comparison of photographs taken at intervals of a few years. The LD Index and NAGRL3 measurements provide an immediate assessment of trend.

  5. Prediction of Water-level Changes and Water Use in the High Plains Aquifer from Radar Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, D. O.; Butler, J. J., Jr.; Wilson, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Meteorological conditions are the primary driver of variations in the annual volume of groundwater pumped for irrigation from the High Plains aquifer (HPA), one of the largest aquifers of the world. Correlations between climatic indices (such as the Standardized Precipitation Index [SPI]) and mean annual water-level changes and water use have been shown to be valuable tools for assessing the aquifer's response to various climatic scenarios in the semi-arid Kansas HPA (Whittemore et al., 2015). The correlations are generally better for a relatively large area (region) of the aquifer (such as that encompassed by a climatic division) because of the number of weather stations from which the climatic indices are computed. Correlations can be poor for county-sized and smaller areas (less than a few to several hundred km2) because of the low density of weather stations. Since 2005, radar precipitation data have been served online by the National Weather Service. The radar data are adjusted based on ground observations and are available at a spatial resolution of ~4x4 km. Correlations between radar precipitation and mean annual water-level changes and water use are comparable to those using SPI for the same region. Correlations using radar precipitation data are generally higher than with SPI computed for smaller areas, such as for counties and areas around individual monitoring wells. The optimum correlations for radar precipitation are determined using sums of different spans of monthly mean precipitation that include the irrigation season for the area of interest. Coefficients of determination, R2, for radar precipitation versus annual water-level change and water use can exceed 0.8 for counties and monitoring well areas in the Kansas HPA. These correlations are being used to assess the impact of drought and water-use management on HPA sustainability. These correlations can also be used to assess the quality of the reported water-use data.

  6. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  7. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  8. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  9. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  10. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  11. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  12. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  13. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  14. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  15. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...... radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promising results, and show large potentials, exploiting the existing water infrastructure in future climate...

  16. Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE): Using Color to Monitor Spacecraft Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009, an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) technology was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The kit, called the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), was launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the suitability of CSPE technology for routine use monitoring water quality on the ISS. CSPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric technique that combines colorimetric reagents, solid-phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water samples. In CSPE, a known volume of sample is metered through a membrane disk that has been impregnated with an analyte-specific colorimetric reagent and any additives required to optimize the formation of the analyte-reagent complex. As the sample flows through the membrane disk, the target analyte is selectively extracted, concentrated, and complexed. Formation of the analyte-reagent complex causes a detectable change in the color of the membrane disk that is proportional to the amount of analyte present in the sample. The analyte is then quantified by measuring the color of the membrane disk surface using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer (DRS). The CWQMK provides the capability to measure the ionic silver (Ag +) and molecular iodine (I2) in water samples on-orbit. These analytes were selected for the evaluation of CSPE technology because they are the biocides used in the potable water storage and distribution systems on the ISS. Biocides are added to the potable water systems on spacecraft to inhibit microbial growth. On the United States (US) segment of the ISS molecular iodine serves as the biocide, while the Russian space agency utilizes silver as a biocide in their systems. In both cases, the biocides must be maintained at a level sufficient to control bacterial growth, but low enough to avoid any negative effects on crew health. For example, the

  17. Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE): Using Color to Monitor Spacecraft Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009, an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE) technology was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). The kit, called the Colorimetric Water Quality Monitoring Kit (CWQMK), was launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the suitability of CSPE technology for routine use monitoring water quality on the ISS. CSPE is a sorption-spectrophotometric technique that combines colorimetric reagents, solid-phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water samples. In CSPE, a known volume of sample is metered through a membrane disk that has been impregnated with an analyte-specific colorimetric reagent and any additives required to optimize the formation of the analyte-reagent complex. As the sample flows through the membrane disk, the target analyte is selectively extracted, concentrated, and complexed. Formation of the analyte-reagent complex causes a detectable change in the color of the membrane disk that is proportional to the amount of analyte present in the sample. The analyte is then quantified by measuring the color of the membrane disk surface using a hand-held diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer (DRS). The CWQMK provides the capability to measure the ionic silver (Ag +) and molecular iodine (I2) in water samples on-orbit. These analytes were selected for the evaluation of CSPE technology because they are the biocides used in the potable water storage and distribution systems on the ISS. Biocides are added to the potable water systems on spacecraft to inhibit microbial growth. On the United States (US) segment of the ISS molecular iodine serves as the biocide, while the Russian space agency utilizes silver as a biocide in their systems. In both cases, the biocides must be maintained at a level sufficient to control bacterial growth, but low enough to avoid any negative effects on crew health. For example, the

  18. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Monitoring drip water isotope and element variability: A new device for automatic drip water collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gilbert, M.-J.; Kwiecien, O.; Seifert, R.; Fleitmann, D.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding cave drip water elemental and stable isotope composition (δD and δ18O) are vital for interpreting climate proxy records derived from stalagmites as palaeoclimate archives. Delineating the temporal changes in drip water chemistry to climatic and environmental fluctuations (such as rainfall amount, degassing, bioactivity etc.) is even more important if calibration is attempted between climatic parameters and stalagmite proxy records. Monitoring of remote study sites has often been limited by the ability to regularly and manually collect drip water samples over an extended period of time. One important complication to be considered for stable isotope analysis is that sampling vials must be closed air-tight, in order to avoid post-sampling evaporation of the sampled water. To overcome these limitations we developed an automated and programmable sampling device that can collect 12 ml of drip water at pre-defined time intervals. A total of 49 samples can be collected in a turret over a period of up to one year. The device is powered by widely available C-cell batteries and works in cave environments with positive air temperature. The autosampler has been installed and tested in Waldheim Cave, Switzerland, where we collected water at 24h intervals. We present preliminary data for the winter period December 2011 to March 2012.

  20. Biological indicators for monitoring water quality of MTF canals system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Biological models, diversity indexes, were developed to predict environmental effects of NASA's Mississippi test facility (MTF) chemical operations on canal systems in the area. To predict the effects on local streams, a physical model of unpolluted streams was established. The model is fed by artesian well water free of background levels of pollutants. The species diversity and biota composition of unpolluted MTF stream was determined; resulting information will be used to form baseline data for future comparisons. Biological modeling was accomplished by adding controlled quantities or kinds of chemical pollutants and evaluating the effects of these chemicals on the biological life of the stream.

  1. Water quality monitoring of the Pirapó River watershed, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bortoletto

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Pirapó River watershed in Paraná, Brazil, and identify the critical pollution sites throughout the drainage basin. The water quality was monitored during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. Nine points distributed throughout the main channel of the Pirapó River were sampled for a total of 17 samplings. The water quality was evaluated based on the determination of 14 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Analysis of the variables monitored in the Pirapó River watershed using factor analysis/principal components analysis (FA/PCA indicated the formation of three distinct groups of parameters: water temperature (Twater, dissolved oxygen (DO and a group composed of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity and nitrite (NO2–. The parameters Twater and DO exhibited a relationship with the seasonality, and the TSS, turbidity, and NO2– levels were correlated with surface runoff caused by rainfall events. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sampling points enabled the selection of the 10 most important variables from among the 14 evaluated parameters. The results showed that the nitrate (NO3–, NO2–, TSS, turbidity and total phosphorous (TP levels were related to the soil type, and the parameters DO, electrical conductivity (EC, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and thermotolerant coliforms (TC were related to organic matter pollution, with the P5 sampling site being the most critical site. The ordination diagram of the sampling points as a function of the PCA indicated a reduction from 9 to 5 sampling points, indicating the potential for decreasing the costs associated with monitoring.

  2. EPA Team Helps Water Systems Comply with New Bacteria Monitoring Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    An EPA team issued nearly 200 Administrative Orders in support of Pennsylvania and Virginia to ensure that small public water systems followed new requirements for more frequent bacteria monitoring of their water supplies.

  3. Annual monitoring report for Dorris Reservoir Modoc National Wildlife Refuge water year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an annual water use report based on the Monitoring Plan for Dorris Reservoir. Table 1 provides monthly summaries of the information for the 1997 water year....

  4. Annual monitoring report for Dorris Reservoir Modoc National Wildlife Refuge water year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an annual water use report based on the Monitoring Plan for Dorris Reservoir. Table 1 provides monthly summaries of the information for the 1997 water year....

  5. Estimation of Peak Water Level in Pearl River Estuary under the Background of Sea Level Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG; Lan; CHEN; Xiao-hong; ZHUANG; Cheng-bin; CHEN; Dong-wei

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to predict the peak water level in Pearl River Estuary under the background of sea level rise. [Method] The changing trends of peak water level at Denglongshan station and Hengmen station were analyzed firstly on the basis of regression models, and then sea level rise in Pearl River Estuary in 2050 was predicted to estimate the 1-in-50-year peak water level in the same year. [Result] Regression analyses showed that the increasing rate of peak water level over past years was 6.3 mm/a at Denglongshan station and 5.8 mm/a at Hengmen station. In addition, if sea level will rise by 20, 30 and 60 cm respectively in 2050, it was predicted that the 1-in-50-year peak water level will reach 3.04, 3.14 and 3.44 m at Denglongshan station, and 3.19, 3.29 and 3.59 m at Hengmen station separately. [Conclusion] The estimation of peak water level in Pearl River Estuary could provide theoretical references for water resources planning.

  6. Application of the WHO alert level framework to cyanobacterial monitoring of Lake Champlain, Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzin, Mary C; Miller, Emily Brines; Shambaugh, Angela D; Kreider, Meghan A

    2006-06-01

    The increasing incidence of toxic cyanobacteria blooms worldwide has created a need for practical and efficient monitoring in order to protect public health. We developed a monitoring and alert framework based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and applied it on Lake Champlain during the summers of 2002-2004. The protocol began with collection of net samples of phytoplankton in order to maximize the chance of finding potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Samples were collected lake-wide in partnership with ongoing monitoring efforts, but because open water sample sites did not capture conditions along the shoreline, we added near-shore and shoreline stations in problem areas. Samples were examined qualitatively until potential toxin-producing taxa were found. Then quantitative analyses began, using a rapid screening method to estimate cell density based on colony size. A final cell density of 4000 cells/mL triggered toxin analyses. Primary analysis was for microcystins using ELISA methods. Cell densities, locations of colonies, and toxin concentrations were reported weekly to public health officials. We found that screening for potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria and then measuring toxin concentrations when cell densities reached critical levels worked well to identify problem locations. Although the WHO recommends using chlorophyll a concentration, it was not a good indicator of problem densities of potential toxin-producing cyanobacteria. Our cell density screening method missed no developing blooms but produced less precise density estimates at high cell counts. Overall, our framework appears to provide an efficient and effective method for monitoring cyanotoxin risks.

  7. Terrestrial Waters and Sea Level Variations on Interannual Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovel, W.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.; Jevrejeva, S.; Alkama, R.; Decharme, B.; Douville, H.; Ablain, M.; Beckley, B.

    2011-01-01

    On decadal to multi-decadal time scales, thermal expansion of sea waters and land ice loss are the main contributors to sea level variations. However, modification of the terrestrial water cycle due to climate variability and direct anthropogenic forcing may also affect sea level. For the past decades, variations in land water storage and corresponding effects on sea level cannot be directly estimated from observations because these are almost non-existent at global continental scale. However, global hydrological models developed for atmospheric and climatic studies can be used for estimating total water storage. For the recent years (since mid-2002), terrestrial water storage change can be directly estimated from observations of the GRACE space gravimetry mission. In this study, we analyse the interannual variability of total land water storage, and investigate its contribution to mean sea level variability at interannual time scale. We consider three different periods that, each, depend on data availability: (1) GRACE era (2003-2009), (2) 1993-2003 and (3) 1955-1995. For the GRACE era (period 1), change in land water storage is estimated using different GRACE products over the 33 largest river basins worldwide. For periods 2 and 3, we use outputs from the ISBA-TRIP (Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways) global hydrological model. For each time span, we compare change in land water storage (expressed in sea level equivalent) to observed mean sea level, either from satellite altimetry (periods 1 and 2) or tide gauge records (period 3). For each data set and each time span, a trend has been removed as we focus on the interannual variability. We show that whatever the period considered, interannual variability of the mean sea level is essentially explained by interannual fluctuations in land water storage, with the largest contributions arising from tropical river basins.

  8. Levels of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediments and Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    Key words: heavy metals, cadmium, lead, water, sediment, fish, Kenya coast. Abstract—Flame ... accumulate some metals within food chains ... levels of toxic heavy metals (particularly cadmium ... In order to have impact on aquatic organisms,.

  9. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  10. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  11. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  12. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1980 to 1995, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  13. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 1995 to 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 1995 to 2000, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  14. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2005 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2005 to 2009, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  15. Water-level change, High Plains aquifer, 2000 to 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents water-level change in the High Plains aquifer of the United States from 2000 to 2005, in feet. The High Plains aquifer underlies...

  16. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), hourly, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)....

  17. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 1-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 1-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  18. Water level and vegetation change analysis at Stillwater Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aim of the project summarized in this report was to determine the feasibility of detecting change in surface water levels and associated wetland biomass at the...

  19. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Preliminary, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has recent, preliminary (not quality-controlled), 6-minute, water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and...

  20. Ground Water Monitoring Using Laser Fluorescence And Fiber Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Wayne; Pohlig, Kenneth; Rico, Nicola; Johnson, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    In-situ measurement of aromatic ground water contaminants, including the benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTEX) fraction of gasoline, has been demonstrated using fiber optic systems. A prototype field instrument has shown that this method has advantages over traditional sampling and analysis. Problems encountered and solved include coupling of the laser energy into to fiber, sensor design, and detector configuration to optimize instrument sensitivity. The effects of sensor length, corresponding to well depth, on limits of detection are presented. Effects of potential interferences, including external fluorescence quenchers, are discuss-ed. The resolution of complex mixtures is addressed, with modifications to the detector shown to be effective in separation of groups of contaminants. Instrument design considerations include the need for portability, ruggedness at field sites, and ease of operation. The modular instrument design used is shown to help solve these potential problems, while maintaining analytical sensitivity and reproducibility. Modular optical system design has also shown to be useful when modifications are made. Changes in the detector as well as provisions for multiple laser sources have allowed a flexible system to be configured to meet analytical demands as they arise. Sensor design considerations included high ultraviolet transmission, physical flexibility, resistance to breakage, and resistance to chemical and/or biological fouling. The approach to these problem areas is presented, as well as discussion of the methods used to minimize effects of fiber solarization. Results of testing the field portable prototype are presented for a variety of typical ground water analysis sites, illustrating the usefulness of this new technology in environmental monitoring.

  1. Water-quality and ground-water-level trends, 1990-99, and data collected from 1995 through 1999, East Mountain area, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Bernalillo County officials recognize the importance of monitoring water quality and ground-water levels in rapidly developing areas. For this reason, water-quality and ground-water- level data were collected from 87 wells, 3 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County between January 1990 and June 1999. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; methylene blue active substances; and dissolved arsenic. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, air and water temperature, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground-water levels were measured at the time of sample collection. From January 1990 through June 1993, water-quality and ground- water-level data were collected monthly from an initial set of 20 wells; these data were published in a 1995 report. During 1995, water samples and ground-water-level data were collected and analyzed from the initial set of 20 wells and from an additional 31 wells, 2 springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia; these data were published in a 1996 report. Additional water-quality and ground-water-level data have been collected from sites in the east mountain area: 34 wells and the acequia during 1997, 14 wells and 1 spring during 1998, and 6 wells during 1999. Water-quality and ground- water-level data collected in the east mountain area during 1995 through 1999 are presented in tables. In addition, temporal trends for ground-water levels, concentrations of total and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, concentrations of dissolved chloride, and specific conductance are presented for 20 selected wells in water-quality and water- level hydrographs.

  2. Continuous monitoring and discrete water-quality data from groundwater wells in the Edwards aquifer, Texas, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Slattery, Richard N.

    2017-01-01

    In cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, continuous and discrete water-quality data were collected from groundwater wells completed in the Edwards aquifer, Texas, 2014-2015. Discrete measurements of nitrate were made by using a nitrate sensor. Precipitation data from two sites in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Historical Climatology Network are included in the dataset. The continuous monitoring data were collected using water quality sensors and include hourly measurements of nitrate, specific conductance, and water level in two wells. Discrete measurements of nitrate, specific conductance, and vertical flow rate were collected from one well site at different depths throughout the well bore.

  3. A tentative discussion on the monitoring of water resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianqing; Dai, Ning; Wu, Mengying; Wang, Guangsheng

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid economy development and social civilization progress, the Chinese Government also is improving ecological environmental conditions. More efforts have been made to solve water problems through the implementation of stringent water resources management, as a key government policy on water. Thus, monitoring of water resources has been strengthened, being a main component of the hydrological work in recent years. Compared with routine hydrological monitoring, water resources monitoring pays more attention to the quantity and quality variations of regional waters, to reflect the status of water in river basins and administrative regions. In this paper, the overall layout of the hydrometric network in China is presented, monitoring efforts of the natural water cycle and water consumptions are analyzed, methodologies of water resources monitoring, which are commonly applied in the country, are summed up. Taking the hydrometric network planning on interprovincial boundary waterbodies as example, a summary of the planning at interprovincial boundary river sections is presented. The planning can meet the need of water resources management of administrative divisions. It can also improve the overall water resources monitoring for the country.

  4. Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper

  5. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity

  6. Numerical simulation of the impacts of water level variation on water age in Dahuofang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwen; Shen, Yongming

    2015-06-01

    The transport timescales were investigated in response to water level variation under different constant flow rates in Dahuofang Reservoir. The concept of water age was applied to quantify the transport timescales. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed based on the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). The model was calibrated for water surface elevation and temperature profiles from April 1, 2008 to October 31, 2008. Comparisons of observed and modeled data showed that the model reproduced the water level fluctuation and thermal stratification during warm season and vertical mixing during cold season fairly well. The calibrated model was then applied to investigate the response of water age to water level changes in Dahuofang Reservoir. Model results showed that water age increases from confluence toward dam zone. In the vertical direction, the water age is relatively uniform at upstream and stratifies further downstream, with a larger value at bottom layer than at surface layer. Comparisons demonstrated that water level variation has a significant impact on transport timescales in the reservoir. The impact of water level drawdown on water age is stronger at bottom layer than at surface layer. Under high flow conditions, the water age decreases 0-20 days at surface layer and 15-25 days at bottom layer. Under mean flow conditions, the water age decreases 20-30 days at surface layer and 30-50 days at bottom layer. Furthermore, the impact is minor in the upstream and increases further downstream. The vertical stratification of water age weakens as the water level decreases. This study provides a numerical tool to quantify the transport timescale in Dahuofang Reservoir and supports adaptive management of regional water resources by local authorities.

  7. Occurrence and Control of Genotoxins in Drinking Water: A Monitoring Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti, Elisabetta; Moretti, Massimo; Zerbini, Ilaria; Villarini, Milena; Zani, Claudia; Monarca, Silvano; Feretti, Donatella

    2016-12-09

    Many studies have shown the presence of numerous organic genotoxins and carcinogens in drinking water. These toxic substances derive not only from pollution, but also from the disinfection treatments, particularly when water is obtained from surface sources and then chlorinated. Most of the chlorinated compounds in drinking water are nonvolatile and are difficult to characterize. Thus, it has been proposed to study such complex mixtures using short-term genotoxicity tests predictive of carcinogenic activity. Mutagenicity of water before and after disinfection has mainly been studied by the Salmonella/microsome (Ames test); in vitro genotoxicity tests have also been performed in yeasts and mammalian cells; in situ monitoring of genotoxins has also been performed using complete organisms such as aquatic animals or plants (in vivo). The combination of bioassay data together with results of chemical analyses would give us a more firm basis for the assessment of human health risks related to the consumption of drinking water. Tests with different genetic end-points complement each other with regard to sensitivity toward environmental genotoxins and are useful in detecting low genotoxicity levels which are expected in drinking water samples.

  8. Fundamentals of in Situ Digital Camera Methodology for Water Quality Monitoring of Coast and Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddijn-Murphy, Lonneke; Dailloux, Damien; White, Martin; Bowers, Dave

    2009-01-01

    Conventional digital cameras, the Nikon Coolpix885® and the SeaLife ECOshot®, were used as in situ optical instruments for water quality monitoring. Measured response spectra showed that these digital cameras are basically three-band radiometers. The response values in the red, green and blue bands, quantified by RGB values of digital images of the water surface, were comparable to measurements of irradiance levels at red, green and cyan/blue wavelengths of water leaving light. Different systems were deployed to capture upwelling light from below the surface, while eliminating direct surface reflection. Relationships between RGB ratios of water surface images, and water quality parameters were found to be consistent with previous measurements using more traditional narrow-band radiometers. This current paper focuses on the method that was used to acquire digital images, derive RGB values and relate measurements to water quality parameters. Field measurements were obtained in Galway Bay, Ireland, and in the Southern Rockall Trough in the North Atlantic, where both yellow substance and chlorophyll concentrations were successfully assessed using the digital camera method. PMID:22346729

  9. ATP monitoring technology for microbial growth control in potable water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Patrick A.; Whalen, Philip J.; Cairns, James E.

    2006-05-01

    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the primary energy transfer molecule present in all living biological cells on Earth. ATP cannot be produced or maintained by anything but a living organism, and as such, its measurement is a direct indication of biological activity. The main advantage of ATP as a biological indicator is the speed of the analysis - from collecting the sample to obtaining the result, only minutes are required. The technology to measure ATP is already widely utilized to verify disinfection efficacy in the food industry and is also commonly applied in industrial water processes such as cooling water systems to monitor microbial growth and biocide applications. Research has indicated that ATP measurement technology can also play a key role in such important industries as potable water distribution and biological wastewater treatment. As will be detailed in this paper, LuminUltra Technologies has developed and applied ATP measurement technologies designed for any water type, and as such can provide a method to rapidly and accurately determine the level of biological activity in drinking water supplies. Because of its speed and specificity to biological activity, ATP measurement can play a key role in defending against failing drinking water quality, including those encountered during routine operation and also bioterrorism.

  10. Putting Man in the Machine: Exploiting Expertise to Enhance Multiobjective Design of Water Supply Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, F.; Nowak, W.; Reed, P. M.; Reuschen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Drinking-water well catchments need effective early-warning monitoring networks. Groundwater water supply wells in complex urban environments are in close proximity to a myriad of potential industrial pollutant sources that could irreversibly damage their source aquifers. These urban environments pose fiscal and physical challenges to designing monitoring networks. Ideal early-warning monitoring networks would satisfy three objectives: to detect (1) all potential contaminations within the catchment (2) as early as possible before they reach the pumping wells, (3) while minimizing costs. Obviously, the ideal case is nonexistent, so we search for tradeoffs using multiobjective optimization. The challenge of this optimization problem is the high number of potential monitoring-well positions (the search space) and the non-linearity of the underlying groundwater flow-and-transport problem. This study evaluates (1) different ways to effectively restrict the search space in an efficient way, with and without expert knowledge, (2) different methods to represent the search space during the optimization and (3) the influence of incremental increases in uncertainty in the system. Conductivity, regional flow direction and potential source locations are explored as key uncertainties. We show the need and the benefit of our methods by comparing optimized monitoring networks for different uncertainty levels with networks that seek to effectively exploit expert knowledge. The study's main contributions are the different approaches restricting and representing the search space. The restriction algorithms are based on a point-wise comparison of decision elements of the search space. The representation of the search space can be either binary or continuous. For both cases, the search space must be adjusted properly. Our results show the benefits and drawbacks of binary versus continuous search space representations and the high potential of automated search space restriction

  11. Image-based Water Level Measurement Method under Stained Ruler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-do KIM; Young-joon HAN; Hern-soo HAHN

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the water level measuring method based on the image,while the ruler used to indicate the water level is stained.The contamination of the ruler weakens or eliminates many features which are required for the image processing.However,the feature of the color difference between the ruler and the water surface are firmer on the environmental change compare to the other features.As the color differences are embossed,only the region of the ruler is limited to eliminate the noise,and the average image is produced by using several continuous frames.A histogram is then produced based on the height axis of the produced intensity average image.Local peaks and local valleys are detected,and the section between the peak and valley which have the greatest change is looked for.The valley point at this very moment is used to detect the water level.The detected water level is then converted to the actual water level by using the mapping table.The proposed method is compared to the ultrasonic based method to evaluate its accuracy and efficiency on the various contaminated environments.

  12. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location, collection... water samples in accordance with the following requirements regarding sample location, number of samples... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for lead...

  13. Technology transfer potential of an automated water monitoring system. [market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, W. M.; Hillman, M. E. D.; Eischen, M. A.; Stilwell, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the potential economic need (markets) for a highly integrated water quality monitoring system were investigated. The technological, institutional and marketing factors that would influence the transfer and adoption of an automated system were studied for application to public and private water supply, public and private wastewater treatment and environmental monitoring of rivers and lakes.

  14. Data analytics methodology for monitoring quality sensors and events in the Barcelona drinking water network

    OpenAIRE

    García Valverde, Diego; Creus Rodriguez, Ramon; Minoves Ruiz, Meritxell; Pardo, Xavier; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    Water quality management is a key area to guarantee drinking water safety to users. This task is based on disinfection techniques, such as chlorination, applied to the drinking water network to prevent the growth of microorganisms present in the water. The continuous monitoring of water quality parameters is fundamental to assess the sanitary conditions of the drinking water and to detect unexpected events. The whole process is based on the assumption that the information retrieved from quali...

  15. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  16. ICESat Observations of Inland Surface Water Stage, Slope, and Extent: a New Method for Hydrologic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    River discharge and changes in lake, reservoir and wetland water storage are critical terms in the global surface water balance, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for adequate observations from in-situ networks are poor (Alsdorf et al., 2003). The NASA-sponsored Surface Water Working Group has established a framework for advancing satellite observations of river discharge and water storage changes which focuses on obtaining measurements of water surface height (stage), slope, and extent. Satellite laser altimetry, which can achieve centimeter-level elevation precision for single, small laser footprints, provides a method to obtain these inland water parameters and contribute to global water balance monitoring. Since its launch in January, 2003 the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a NASA Earth Observing System mission, has achieved over 540 million laser pulse observations of ice sheet, ocean surface, land topography, and inland water elevations and cloud and aerosol height distributions. By recording the laser backscatter from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m along track, ICESat acquires globally-distributed elevation profiles, using a 1064 nm laser altimeter channel, and cloud and aerosol profiles, using a 532 nm atmospheric lidar channel. The ICESat mission has demonstrated the following laser altimeter capabilities relevant to observations of inland water: (1) elevation measurements with a precision of 2 to 3 cm for flat surfaces, suitable for detecting river surface slopes along long river reaches or between multiple crossings of a meandering river channel, (2) from the laser backscatter waveform, detection of water surface elevations beneath vegetation canopies, suitable for measuring water stage in flooded forests, (3) single pulse absolute elevation accuracy of about 50 cm (1 sigma) for 1 degree sloped surfaces, with calibration work in progress indicating that a final accuracy of about 12 cm (1 sigma) will be

  17. The Relationship with Self Esteem Between Self Monitoring Levels of Sub Elite In - Door Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Behzat T U R A N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship with self - esteem between self monitoring levels of sub - elite in - door soccer players. For this aim, 86 male and 91 female athletes at the ages of 18 – 28 years were participated in this study voluntarily. The participants were studying at 7 different universities that join ed the in - door soccer championship of Turkish University Sport Federati on. The Socio - demographic data form, Self - monitoring Scale , and Coopersmith Self - Esteem Inventory were performed by the participants. The d ata was analyzed by using IBM SPSS (version 20.0. The Spearman Correlation parameter calculated in order to comment the relationship with data, Multiple regret ion analysis were performed for the predictive power of self - esteem for self monitoring levels of the participants. According to the analysis, a negative relationship was found among self - esteem, self - monitoring total score , and extraversion levels . A nd it was found that self - esteem levels predictived self monitoring levels substantially. It was found that the s elf - monitoring and extraversion affected self - esteem negatively, it was thought that highly self - esteem ed athletes have a tendency to see themselves as superior than the other athletes, ignore the extraneous criticism. No matter what self - esteem levels is that extraversion and acting altitute (attitude ? has not change. Consequently, self - esteem has revers e relationship with self - monitoring properties since trainers and teachers both is raised self - esteem and is helped self - monitoring themselves.

  18. Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnati Renzo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here – in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse – might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse.

  19. Stem Water Potential Monitoring in Pear Orchards through WorldView-2 Multispectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Van Beek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing can provide good alternatives for traditional in situ water status measurements in orchard crops, such as stem water potential (Ψstem. However, the heterogeneity of these cropping systems causes significant differences with regards to remote sensing products within one orchard and between orchards. In this study, robust spectral indicators of Ψstem were sought after, independent of sensor viewing geometry, orchard architecture and management. To this end, Ψstem was monitored throughout three consecutive growing seasons in (deficit irrigated and rainfed pear orchards and related to spectral observations of leaves, canopies and WorldView-2 imagery. On a leaf and canopy level, high correlations were observed between the shortwave infrared reflectance and in situ measured Ψstem. Additionally, for canopy measurements, visible and near-infrared wavelengths (R530/R600, R530/R700 and R720/R800 showed significant correlations. Therefore, the Red-edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ReNDVI was applied on fully sunlit satellite imagery and found strongly related with Ψstem (R2 = 0.47; RMSE = 0.36 MPa, undoubtedly showing the potential of WorldView-2 to monitor water stress in pear orchards. The relationship between ReNDVI and Ψstem was independent of management, irrigation setup, phenology and environmental conditions. In addition, results showed that this relation was also independent of off-nadir viewing angle and almost independent of viewing geometry, as the correlation decreased after the inclusion of fully shaded scenes. With further research focusing on issues related to viewing geometry and shadows, high spatial water status monitoring with space borne remote sensing is achievable.

  20. Hydrology and water-quality monitoring considerations, Jackpile uranium mine, northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Jackpile Uranium Mine, which is on the Pueblo of Laguna in northwestern New Mexico, was operated from 1953 to 1980. The mine and facilities have affected 3,141 acres of land, and about 2,656 acres were yet to be reclaimed by late 1980. The intended use of the restored land is stock grazing. Fractured Dakota Sandstone and Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age overlie the Jackpile sandstone and a 200-ft-thick tight mudstone unit of the Brushy Basin Member underlies the Jackpile. The hydraulic conductivity of the Jackpile sandstone probably is about 0.3 ft/day. The small storage coefficients determined from three aquifer tests indicate that the Jackpile sandstone is a confined hydrologic system throughout much of the mine area. Sediment from the Rio Paguate has nearly filled the Paguate Reservoir near Laguna since its construction in 1940. The mean concentrations of uranium, Ra-226, and other trace elements generally were less than permissible limits established in national drinking water regulations or New Mexico State groundwater regulations. No individual surface water samples collected upstream from the mine contained concentrations of Ra-226 in excess of the permissible limits. Ra-226 concentrations in many individual samples collected from the Rio Paguate from near the mouth of the Rio Moquino to the sampling sites along the downstream reach of the Rio Paguate, however, exceeded the recommended permissible concentration of Ra-226 for public drinking water supplies. Concentrations in surface water apparently are changed by groundwater inflow near the confluence of the two streams. The altitude of the water tables in the backfill of the pits will be controlled partly by the water level in the Rio Paguate. Other factors controlling the altitudes of the water tables are the recharge rate to the backfill and the hydraulic conductivities of the backfill, alluvium, Jackpile sandstone, and mudstone unit of the Brushy Basin Member. After reclamation, most of the shallow

  1. Swab culture monitoring of automated endoscope reprocessors after high-level disinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lung-Sheng Lu; Keng-Liang Wu; Yi-Chun Chiu; Ming-Tzung Lin; Tsung-Hui Hu; King-Wah Chiu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To conduct a bacterial culture study for monitoring decontamination of automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) after high-level disinfection (HLD).METHODS:From February 2006 to January 2011,authors conducted randomized consecutive sampling each month for 7 AERs.Authors collected a total of 420 swab cultures,including 300 cultures from 5 gastroscope AERs,and 120 cultures from 2 colonoscope AERs.Swab cultures were obtained from the residual water from the AERs after a full reprocessing cycle.Samples were cultured to test for aerobic bacteria,anaerobic bacteria,and mycobacterium tuberculosis.RESULTS:The positive culture rate of the AERs was 2.0% (6/300) for gastroscope AERs and 0.8% (1/120)for colonoscope AERs.All the positive cultures,including 6 from gastroscope and 1 from colonoscope AERs,showed monofloral colonization.Of the gastroscope AER samples,50% (3/6) were colonized by aerobic bacterial and 50% (3/6) by fungal contaminations.CONCLUSION:A full reprocessing cycle of an AER with HLD is adequate for disinfection of the machine.Swab culture is a useful method for monitoring AER decontamination after each reprocessing cycle.Fungal contamination of AERs after reprocessing should also be kept in mind.

  2. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J. (comps.)

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.

  3. Water security: continuous monitoring of water distribution systems for chemical agents by SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Farquharson, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Ensuring safe water supplies requires continuous monitoring for potential poisons and portable analyzers to map distribution in the event of an attack. In the case of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) analyzers are needed that have sufficient sensitivity (part-per-billion), selectivity (differentiate the CWA from its hydrolysis products), and speed (less than 10 minutes) to be of value. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to meet these requirements by detecting CWAs and their hydrolysis products in water. The expected success of SERS is based on reported detection of single molecules, the one-to-one relationship between a chemical and its Raman spectrum, and the minimal sample preparation requirements. Recently, we have developed a simple sampling device designed to optimize the interaction of the target molecules with the SERS-active material with the goal of increasing sensitivity and decreasing sampling times. This sampling device employs a syringe to draw the water sample containing the analyte into a capillary filled with the SERS-active material. Recently we used such SERS-active capillaries to measure 1 ppb cyanide in water. Here we extend these measurements to nerve agent hydrolysis products using a portable Raman analyzer.

  4. Development of a new risk-based framework to guide investment in water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Dani J; Ghadouani, Anas; Sinang, Som Cit; Ivey, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    An innovative framework for optimising investments in water quality monitoring has been developed for use by water and environmental agencies. By utilising historical data, investigating the accuracy of monitoring methods and considering the risk tolerance of the management agency, this new methodology calculates optimum water quality monitoring frequencies for individual water bodies. Such information can be applied to water quality constituents of concern in both engineered and natural water bodies and will guide the investment of monitoring resources. Here we present both the development of the framework itself and a proof of concept by applying it to the occurrence of hazardous cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes. This application to existing data demonstrates the robustness of the approach and the capacity of the framework to optimise the allocation of both monitoring and mitigation resources. When applied to cyanobacterial blooms in the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia, we determined that optimising the monitoring regime at individual lakes could greatly alter the overall monitoring schedule for the region, rendering it more risk averse without increasing the amount of monitoring resources required. For water resources with high-density temporal data related to constituents of concern, a similar reduction in risk may be observed by applying the framework.

  5. How to monitor and adjust in real time the total water consumption and water use efficiency: Earned value method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong; Dong, Zengchuan; Wu, Huixiu; Yang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation indexes of total water consumption and water use efficiency have the characteristics of post feedback. In this paper we introduce the basic concept and specific theory of Earned value method (EVM) from project management, and reconstruct parameters in the method to adapt to water resources monitoring. The case of Dandong was studied, by analyzing the industry and irrigation water utilization. Although the total water consumption of two aspects reaches standards, the industrial added value and water use efficiency of irrigation are not up to standard. The results show that PV can be used as a baseline for real-time monitoring and adjustment, and the advantage of the EVM is that it can be an organic unity of water consumption and efficiency, so we can analyze comprehensively water utilization process.

  6. Performance monitoring of a bubble pumped solar domestic hot water system - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Solar Calorimetry Lab.

    1995-12-01

    A new type of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system for cold climates was described. The bubble pump system is self pumping and self regulating (it circulates anti-freeze). The system transports heat from roof mounted solar collectors to a thermal storage located at a lower level when there is available solar radiation. The design is unique in that it has no moving parts and requires no external electrical or mechanical input to operate. A unit was installed on a row house in Kingston, Ontario, to evaluate its performance. The average daily solar fraction was 32.4 per cent, and the average system efficiency for the monitored period was 13.4 per cent. This was below expectations due to low hot water demand. Performance improved somewhat towards the end of the monitoring period due to increased demand for hot water, improvements to the system, and increased solar insulation. A more realistic annual performance was estimated at 19 per cent for system efficiency and 41 per cent for solar fraction. Further improvements could be expected, especially in mid-winter performance, if the solar collector slope could be increased to a value of 45 to 60 degrees to the horizontal. 8 refs., 14 tabs., 9 figs.

  7. Morphology and River Monitoring - Topobathymetry as a new level of monitoring and managing the morphology at the river Isar, Munich after the flood flows 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Frank; Schaufuß, Daniela; Aufleger, Markus; Baran, Ramona; Dobler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Topobathymetry is a new approach for the very detailed bathymetric survey of water bodies (rivers, lakes, nearshore) as well as the topographic side in a same resolution. This technique was made possible within the scope of a research project between the University of Innsbruck and Riegl LMS (Horn, Lower Austria). This airborne-operated, water-penetrating laser system capturing both sides of water's edge is considered as a technical revolution for the comprehensive and simultaneous survey and research of our countryside. Monitoring our waters area-wide and with a point density lager 20 points/m² a new data level is reached for managing them and performing research on hydraulics and morphology. By now operating the system over three years and due to the flood flows in Austria and Germany in 2013 a dataset before and after the effects of the flood could be analyzed at the river Isar. The changes monitored at the river Isar due to the flood flow will be presented as well as the new possibilities in calibrating hydro- morphologic numerical models. The project offers the city of Munich new knowledge and ways in managing inner-city river structures and planning the future of the close-to-nature approaches at the river Isar.

  8. Satellite Observations of Groundwater Storage Variations and Their Application for Water Security Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Li, B.; Kumar, S.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Fresh water demand is steadily increasing around the world due to population growth, economic development, and people's desire for a "western" lifestyle and diet. Where surface water availability is not sufficient or consistent, groundwater is often the resource of choice for agriculture, industry, and municipal and domestic uses. However, unlike lake levels, aquifer levels are unseen and are not easily measured. This can create the illusion of an infinite water source and impede efforts to monitor and conserve groundwater. Moreover, even where depth-to-water measurements do exist, they often are not digitized, centralized, and accessible. The GRACE satellites are a partial solution to this problem, enabling space-based estimates of groundwater variability at regional scales that are not limited by political boundaries. Here we discuss emerging trends in groundwater storage around the world based on GRACE observations and how they can be combined with other information in order attribute these apparent trends and support sub-regional scale analyses of changing groundwater availability.

  9. Towards the development of an automated ATP measuring platform to monitor microbial quality of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Hansen, C. B.; Rasmussen, A.

    clogged the microfluidic channels. An alternative thermal lysis step was implemented, by adding a flow-though heating/cooling step to the system. Thermal lysis showed efficient release of ATP from an E. coli dilution, but the releasing efficiency varied according to the type of water. Overall......This work aimed to develop an automated and nearly on-line method to monitor ATP levels in drinking water as an indicator of microbial contamination. The system consists of a microfluidic cartridge installed in a light tight box, where the sample is mixed with the reagents and the emitted light...... is detected by a photomultiplier. Temperature in the assay box is controlled and set to 25°C. Calibration of the system using ATP standard solutions was successful, both for free and for total ATP. Chemical release of ATP by reagent addition however resulted in the formation of particles that ultimately...

  10. Development of a 22 GHz ground-based spectrometer for middle atmospheric water vapour monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Paolo Bertagnolio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The water Vapour Emission SPectrometer for Antarctica at 22 GHz (VESPA-22 has been designed for long-term middle atmospheric climate change monitoring and satellite data validation. It observes the water vapour spectral line at 22.235 GHz using the balanced beam-switching technique. The receiver antenna has been characterized, showing an HPBW of 3.5° and a sidelobe level 40 dB below the main lobe. The receiver front-end has a total gain of 105 dB and a LNA noise temperature of 125 K. A FFT spectrometer (bandwidth 1 GHz, resolution 63 kHz will be used as back-end, allowing the retrieval of H2O concentration profiles in the 20 to 80 km altitude range. The control I/O interface is based on reconfigurable hardware (USB-CPLD.

  11. Implementation of CGPS at Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona harbours for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Perez, B.; Bosch, E.; Termens, A.; Martinez de Oses, X.

    2009-12-01

    The determination of global and regional mean sea level variations with accura-cies better than 1 mm/yr is a critical problem, the resolution of which is central to the current debate on climate change and its impact on the environment. Highly accurate time series from both satellite altimetry and tide gauges are needed. Measuring the sea surface height with in-situ tide gauges and GPS receivers pro-vides an efficient way to control the long term stability of the radar altimeters and other applications as the vertical land motion and studies of sea level change. L’Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l’Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from which each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support and delivered to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea level (PSMSL). Periodic surveying campaigns along the year are carried out for monitoring possible vertical movement of the geodetic benchmark adjacent to the tide gauge. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza har-bour in January 2003 and a near GPS reference station. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands (http://www.puertos.es). The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza, Barcelona and l’Estartit har-bours is presented.The main objective is the implementation of these harbours as a precise geodetic areas for sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration. Actually is a CGPS with a radar tide gauge from Puertos del Estado and a GPS belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. A precise levelling has been made by the Cartographic Insti-tute of Catalonia, ICC. The instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 3000C device and a

  12. Power analysis and trend detection for water quality monitoring data. An application for the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Manlove, Kezia; Hollimon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    An important consideration for long term monitoring programs is determining the required sampling effort to detect trends in specific ecological indicators of interest. To enhance the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network’s water resources protocol(s) (O’Ney 2006 and O’Ney et al. 2009 [under review]), we developed a set of tools to: (1) determine the statistical power for detecting trends of varying magnitude in a specified water quality parameter over different lengths of sampling (years) and different within-year collection frequencies (monthly or seasonal sampling) at particular locations using historical data, and (2) perform periodic trend analyses for water quality parameters while addressing seasonality and flow weighting. A power analysis for trend detection is a statistical procedure used to estimate the probability of rejecting the hypothesis of no trend when in fact there is a trend, within a specific modeling framework. In this report, we base our power estimates on using the seasonal Kendall test (Helsel and Hirsch 2002) for detecting trend in water quality parameters measured at fixed locations over multiple years. We also present procedures (R-scripts) for conducting a periodic trend analysis using the seasonal Kendall test with and without flow adjustment. This report provides the R-scripts developed for power and trend analysis, tutorials, and the associated tables and graphs. The purpose of this report is to provide practical information for monitoring network staff on how to use these statistical tools for water quality monitoring data sets.

  13. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  14. Groundwater and surface water monitoring program for karst river basin: example of the Jadro and Žrnovnica Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, D.; Denić-Jukić, V.

    2009-04-01

    The catchment of the Jadro and Žrnovnica Springs is situated in the Dinaric karst mainly formed of carbonate rocks and partly of impermeable flysch. The Jadro Spring has been used for water supply for almost 2000 years. Nowadays, it is the main water supply resource for the wider area of Split, the second largest city in Croatia, and it represents a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from deterioration and chemical pollution. Reliable and comparable methods for groundwater monitoring are an important tool for assessment of groundwater quality and also for choosing the most appropriate measures. The present meteorological, hydrological and water quality monitoring networks have several drawbacks, and consequently, do not provide a coherent and comprehensive overview of meteorological, hydrological or water quality situation within the river basin. Namely, there is no meteorological station located inside the river basin, so continuous measurements of meteorological parameters have not been performed. However, daily precipitations have been measured since 1961 at eight locations: Dugopolje, Lećevica, Dicmo, Muć, Klis, Bisko, Gornje Sitno and Prančević Brana. Hydrological observations have been performed in profiles which are interesting in terms of water use (e.g. determination of spring capacities, or discharge control for proscribed minimum flow rates). The collection of hydrological data including water levels and flow rates started in 1983. In the interim period, some hydrological stations ceased operating, some have unreliable data, mostly due to the changes in riverbeds and the influence of backwater, whereas some stations experience longer periods of very poor coverage of rate of flow measurements, particularly at high water levels. Currently, five hydrological stations are active: Jadro-Majdan, Jadro-Dioklecijanov kanal, Jadro-Novi kanal, Žrnovnica-Izvor and Žrnovnica-Laboratorij. Water temperatures and quantities of sediment

  15. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  16. Monitoring levels of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour of Brazilian varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano L Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum and its intake represents a severe risk to human and animal health. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of DON in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour from two representative locations of south Brazil. Experiments were carried out in Pato Branco (Paraná and Coxilha (Rio Grande do Sul in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Levels of DON were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS. This mycotoxin was detected in 97% of samples, ranging from 200 to 4140 u,g kg-1. Only 17% of samples presented DON beyond of the maximum allowed by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency up to the year 2012; even though, Fusarium head blight (FHB epidemics were slight low in the growing season that the study was performed. According to our knowledge, this is the first report showing genetic variability of Brazilian cultivars to DON contamination and some genotypes have potential to be exploited as a source of low accumulation of this toxin.

  17. A rapid and high-throughput quantum dots bioassay for monitoring of perfluorooctane sulfonate in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jiong; Wan Yanjian; Li Yuanyuan; Zhang Qiongfang; Xu Shunqing [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China); Zhu Huijun [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Kempston, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Shu Baihua, E-mail: shubaihua@hotmail.com [Minister of Education Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430030 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Currently HPLC/MS is the state of the art tool for environmental/drinking water perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) monitoring. PFOS can bind to peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}), which forms heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and binds to PPAR response elements. In this bioassay free PFOS in water samples competes with immobilized PFOS in ELISA plates for a given amount of PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha}. It can be determined indirectly by immobilizing PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha}-PFOS complex to another plate coated with PPAR{alpha} antibody and subsequent measuring the level of PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} by using biotin-modified PPAR{alpha}-RXR{alpha} probes-quantum dots-streptavidin detection system. The rapid and high-throughput bioassay demonstrated a detection limit of 2.5 ng L{sup -1} with linear range between 2.5 ng L{sup -1} and 75 ng L{sup -1}. Detection results of environmental water samples were highly consistent between the bioassay and HPLC/MS. - We developed a rapid and high-throughput bioassay for monitoring of PFOS in environmental water samples. - Highlights: > We developed a rapid and high-throughput bioassay for monitoring of PFOS in water. > We detected the PFOS concentration of water samples by two methods. > The bioassay is effective for evaluating PFOS contamination level.

  18. 高精度地下水位监测仪%High Precision Groundwater Level Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟佳迅; 庹先国; 王洪辉; 张兆义; 张贵宇

    2012-01-01

    Through studying the change of groundwater on the influence of the geological hazards, such as landslide, a high precision groundwater level monitor was designed. The monitor took advantage of static-pressure water level sensor to get ground-water level information. By means of sophisticated I/V conversion, high precision A/D conversion, high stability reference voltage and cooperating with curve fitting method, it realized the high precision collection of groundwater level information, and the system error was less than 1 mm. In the actual application, the instrument highlighted its advantages such as high precision, stable performance, small volume,installation flexible,convenient operation,etc. The monitor can be applied to all kinds of monitoring wells very well,and used in geological disaster monitoring.%通过地下水位变化对滑坡等地质灾害的影响研究,设计了一种高精度地下水位监测仪器.仪器采用静压力式水位传感器获取地下水位信息,通过精密I/V转换、高精度A/D转换及高稳定性基准电压,并配合曲线拟合方法,实现了地下水位信息的高精度采集,误差≤1 mm.在实际应用中,仪器突出了精度高、性能稳定、体积小、安装灵活、操作方便等优点,对各类监测井具有很强的适应性,适合用于地质灾害监测.

  19. Monitoring water content in Opalinus Clay within the FE-Experiment: Test application of dielectric water content sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, T.; Vogt, T.; Komatsu, M.; Müller, H. R.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of water content in the near field rock around repository tunnels for radioactive waste in clay formations is one of the essential quantities to be monitored for safety assessment in many waste disposal programs. Reliable measurements of water content are important not only for the understanding and prediction of coupled hydraulic-mechanic processes that occur during tunnel construction and ventilation phase, but also for the understanding of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (THM) processes that take place in the host rock during the post closure phase of a repository tunnel for spent fuel and high level radioactive waste (SF/HLW). The host rock of the Swiss disposal concept for SF/HLW is the Opalinus Clay formation (age of approx. 175 Million years). To better understand the THM effects in a full-scale heater-engineered barrier-rock system in Opalinus Clay, a full-scale heater test, namely the Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) experiment, was initiated in 2010 at the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in north-western Switzerland. The experiment is designed to simulate the THM evolution of a SF/HLW repository tunnel based on the Swiss disposal concept in a realistic manner during the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure phases. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors. The sensors will be distributed in the host rock, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier, which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks, and on the heaters. The excavation is completed and the tunnel is currently being ventilated. Measuring water content in partially saturated clay-rich high-salinity rock with a deformable grain skeleton is challenging. Therefore, we use the ventilation phase (before backfilling and heating) to examine the applicability of commercial water content sensors and to

  20. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  1. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...

  2. A water quality monitoring network design using fuzzy theory and multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Lin, You-Tze

    2014-10-01

    A proper water quality monitoring design is required in a watershed, particularly in a water resource protected area. As numerous factors can influence the water quality monitoring design, this study applies multiple criteria analysis to evaluate the suitability of the water quality monitoring design in the Taipei Water Resource Domain (TWRD) in northern Taiwan. Seven criteria, which comprise percentage of farmland area, percentage of built-up area, amount of non-point source pollution, green cover ratio, landslide area ratio, ratio of over-utilization on hillsides, and density of water quality monitoring stations, are selected in the multiple criteria analysis. The criteria are normalized and weighted. The weighted method is applied to score the subbasins. The density of water quality stations needs to be increased in priority in the subbasins with a higher score. The fuzzy theory is utilized to prioritize the need for a higher density of water quality monitoring stations. The results show that the need for more water quality stations in subbasin 2 in the Bei-Shih Creek Basin is much higher than those in the other subbasins. Furthermore, the existing water quality station in subbasin 2 requires maintenance. It is recommended that new water quality stations be built in subbasin 2.

  3. Development of a Conductivity Sensor for Monitoring Groundwater Resources to Optimize Water Management in Smart City Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Lorena; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio

    2015-08-26

    The main aim of smart cities is to achieve the sustainable use of resources. In order to make the correct use of resources, an accurate monitoring and management is needed. In some places, like underground aquifers, access for monitoring can be difficult, therefore the use of sensors can be a good solution. Groundwater is very important as a water resource. Just in the USA, aquifers represent the water source for 50% of the population. However, aquifers are endangered due to the contamination. One of the most important parameters to monitor in groundwater is the salinity, as high salinity levels indicate groundwater salinization. In this paper, we present a specific sensor for monitoring groundwater salinization. The sensor is able to measure the electric conductivity of water, which is directly related to the water salinization. The sensor, which is composed of two copper coils, measures the magnetic field alterations due to the presence of electric charges in the water. Different salinities of the water generate different alterations. Our sensor has undergone several tests in order to obtain a conductivity sensor with enough accuracy. First, several prototypes are tested and are compared with the purpose of choosing the best combination of coils. After the best prototype was selected, it was calibrated using up to 30 different samples. Our conductivity sensor presents an operational range from 0.585 mS/cm to 73.8 mS/cm, which is wide enough to cover the typical range of water salinities. With this work, we have demonstrated that it is feasible to measure water conductivity using solenoid coils and that this is a low cost application for groundwater monitoring.

  4. An innovative pot system for monitoring the effects of water stress on grapevines and grape quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccioni, Sergio; Leprini, Marco; Mocali, Stefano; Perria, Rita; Priori, Simone; Storchi, Paolo; Zombardo, Alessandra; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    The advantage of a pot system is the possibility to control many variables and factors with a large number of replicates, obtaining statistically significant results in only one year of experimentation. An innovative pot system for the monitoring of grapevine water stress was set up. The system consists of 99 pots of 70 liters, filled by 3 different soils collected from premium vineyards of the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany). The soils showed different texture (clay-loam, loam and sandy-loam), different gravel and carbonate content, and different available water capacity (AWC). The same soils had been field monitored for grapevine water stress; therefore it was possible to compare the grapevine behaviour both in pot and in field conditions. The grapevine cultivar was Pinot noir clone ENTAV 115, which can be used to investigate the genetic expression in response to environmental factors, since its genome has been sequenced. Different rootstocks theses were compared: not grafted, 1103 Paulsen and M101-14. Each combination rootstock-soil was repeated 9 times. Every pot was equipped for drip irrigation and with electrodes for soil moisture determination by TDR. A non-stop automated control unit recorded meteorological data (temperature and rainfalls), soil temperature and water potential on 9 selected pots. These 9 selected pots were also used to calibrate a model for soil water volume/tension curve. Soil, leaves and grapes samples from each pot were collected for microbial community determination, through NGS analysis. A preliminary study was based on testing the ability of the system to simulate the natural growing conditions of the grapevines. Therefore the grape performances of the potted plants were compared to those of plants cultivated in the vineyards where the soils were taken. In July 2015 three levels of water supply were tested during 5 weeks (up to veraison) in order to study the effects of water stress on the plants and the grape. Later, all the pots

  5. Water Security at Local Government Level: What do People Think?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Meissner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2853 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Meissner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Water Security at Local... Government Level: What do People Think? By Dr. Richard Meissner Integrated Water Assessment Group Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Presented at the Sustainable Water Seminar 2016, CSIR ICC, 2...

  6. Water-quality and ground-water-level data, Bernalillo County, central New Mexico, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality and ground-water-level data were collected in two areas of eastern Bernalillo County in central New Mexico between March and July of 1995. Fifty-one wells, two springs, and the Ojo Grande Acequia in the east mountain area of Bernalillo County and nine wells in the northeast area of the city of Albuquerque were sampled. The water samples were analyzed for selected nutrient species; total organic carbon; major dissolved constituents; dissolved arsenic, boron, iron, and manganese; and methylene blue active substances. Analytical results were used to compute hardness, sodium adsorption ratio, and dissolved solids. Specific conductance, pH, temperature, and alkalinity were measured in the field at the time of sample collection. Ground- water-level and well-depth measurements were made at the time of sample collection when possible. Water-quality data, ground- water-level data, and well-depth data are presented in tabular form.

  7. Optimisation of groundwater level monitoring networks using geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram and a genetic algorithm method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyris, Antonios E.; Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater level monitoring networks provide essential information for water resources management, especially in areas with significant groundwater exploitation for agricultural and domestic use. Given the high maintenance costs of these networks, development of tools, which can be used by regulators for efficient network design is essential. In this work, a monitoring network optimisation tool is presented. The network optimisation tool couples geostatistical modelling based on the Spartan family variogram with a genetic algorithm method and is applied to Mires basin in Crete, Greece, an area of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest, which suffers from groundwater overexploitation leading to a dramatic decrease of groundwater levels. The purpose of the optimisation tool is to determine which wells to exclude from the monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information to groundwater level mapping of the area. Unlike previous relevant investigations, the network optimisation tool presented here uses Ordinary Kriging with the recently-established non-differentiable Spartan variogram for groundwater level mapping, which, based on a previous geostatistical study in the area leads to optimal groundwater level mapping. Seventy boreholes operate in the area for groundwater abstraction and water level monitoring. The Spartan variogram gives overall the most accurate groundwater level estimates followed closely by the power-law model. The geostatistical model is coupled to an integer genetic algorithm method programmed in MATLAB 2015a. The algorithm is used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the minimum error between the original water level mapping using all the available wells in the network and the groundwater level mapping using the reduced well network (error is defined as the 2-norm of the difference between the original mapping matrix with 70 wells and the mapping matrix of the reduced well network). The solution to the

  8. Monitoring for a specific management objective: protection of shorebird foraging habitat adjacent to a waste water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Liz; Petch, David; May, David; Steele, William K

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal invertebrates are often used in environmental monitoring programs as they are good indicators of water quality and an important food source for many species of fish and birds. We present data from a monitoring program where the primary aim is to report on the condition of the potential invertebrate prey abundance, biomass and diversity for migrating shorebirds on mudflats adjacent to a waste water treatment plant in a Ramsar listed wetland in Victoria, Australia. A key threat to the foraging habitat at this site has been assessed as a reduction in potential prey items as a result of the changes to the waste water treatment processes. We use control charts, which summarise data from intertidal mudflats across the whole shoreline of the adjacent waste water treatment plant, to elicit a management response when trigger levels are reached. We then examine data from replicate discharge and control sites to determine the most appropriate management response. The monitoring program sits within an adaptive management framework where management decisions are reviewed and the data is examined at different scales to evaluate and modify our models of the likely outcomes of management actions. This study provides a demonstration of the process undertaken in a year when trigger levels were reached and a management decision was required. This highlights the importance of monitoring data from a range of scales in reducing uncertainty and improving decision making in complex systems.

  9. Monitoring of radioactivity in drinking water; Control de la radiactividad en las aguas de consumo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Letessier, P.

    2008-07-01

    Radioactivity is a physical phenomenon whose presence in water is monitored due to its potential capability to induce deleterious effects on human health. In this article the effects that can be caused by radioactivity as well as the way in which regulations establish how to perform a monitorization of water that enables us to ascertain that the radiological quality of water is in agreement with the accepted standard of quality of life are analyzed. Finally the means available to know the content of radioactivity in water together with some clues on how to remove it from water are described. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Using Satellite Imagery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Work done at Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota has demonstrated the feasibility of performing regional assessment of lake water quality using Landsat...

  11. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  12. Atmospheric effects on infrared measurements at ground level: Application to monitoring of transport infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Vincent; Dumoulin, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Being able to perform easily non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of critical transport infrastructures is a major preoccupation of many technical offices. Among all the existing electromagnetic methods [1], long term thermal monitoring by uncooled infrared camera [2] is a promising technique due to its dissemination potential according to its low cost on the market. Nevertheless, Knowledge of environmental parameters during measurement in outdoor applications is required to carry out accurate measurement corrections induced by atmospheric effects at ground level. Particularly considering atmospheric effects and measurements in foggy conditions close as possible to those that can be encountered around transport infrastructures, both in visible and infrared spectra. In the present study, atmospheric effects are first addressed by using data base available in literature and modelling. Atmospheric attenuation by particles depends greatly of aerosols density, but when relative humidity increases, water vapor condenses onto the particulates suspended in the atmosphere. This condensed water increases the size of the aerosols and changes their composition and their effective refractive index. The resulting effect of the aerosols on the absorption and scattering of radiation will correspondingly be modified. In a first approach, we used aerosols size distributions derived from Shettle and Fenn [3] for urban area which could match some of experimental conditions encountered during trials on transport infrastructures opened to traffic. In order to calculate the influence of relative humidity on refractive index, the Hänel's model [4] could be used. The change in the particulate size is first related to relative humidity through dry particle radius, particle density and water activity. Once the wet aerosol particle size is found, the effective complex refractive index is the volume weighted average of the refractive indexes of the dry aerosol substance

  13. Water-Table Levels and Gradients, Nevada, 1947-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Buto, Susan G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Welborn, Toby L.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began a program to protect the quality of ground water in areas other than ground-water protection areas. These other sensitive ground water areas (OSGWA) are areas that are not currently, but could eventually be, used as a source of drinking water. The OSGWA program specifically addresses existing wells that are used for underground injection of motor-vehicle waste. To help determine whether a well is in an OSGWA, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection needs statewide information on depth to water and the water table, which partly control the susceptibility of ground water to contamination and contaminant transport. This report describes a study that used available maps and data to create statewide maps of water-table and depth-to-water contours and surfaces, assessed temporal changes in water-table levels, and characterized water-table gradients in selected areas of Nevada. A literature search of published water-table and depth-to-water contours produced maps of varying detail and scope in 104 reports published from 1948 to 2004. Where multiple maps covered the same area, criteria were used to select the most recent, detailed maps that covered the largest area and had plotted control points. These selection criteria resulted in water-table and depth-to-water contours that are based on data collected from 1947 to 2004 being selected from 39 reports. If not already available digitally, contours and control points were digitized from selected maps, entered into a geographic information system, and combined to make a statewide map of water-table contours. Water-table surfaces were made by using inverse distance weighting to estimate the water table between contours and then gridding the estimates. Depth-to-water surfaces were made by subtracting the water-table altitude from the land-surface altitude. Water-table and depth-to-water surfaces were made for only 21 percent of Nevada because of a lack of

  14. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...... with sensitive electrical resistance technique and crevice corrosion current measurements....

  15. Biospeckle laser portable equipment monitoring water behavior at coffee tree leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botega, J. V. L.; Braga, R. A.; Machado, M. P. P.; Lima, L. A.; Rabelo, G. F.; Cardoso, R. R.

    2010-09-01

    Water is a noble natural resource and its monitoring and control are key to an efficient and responsible use concerning with the impacts in the ambient. Particularly in irrigation processes there are many approaches to monitor the water consumption, nevertheless the access of water demand in an irrigated crop presents some challenges to the routine methods. The effort to develop a non-destructive methodology associated with the ability to be handle, unfolds the way to the adoption of optical techniques. The biospeckle laser phenomenon can be elected as one of the potential instruments to access the water content in a leaf and to associate this information to the water demand. The sensitiveness of the biospeckle patterns related to biological activities is the basis of the hypothesis which concerns the monitoring of water activity in a leaf. This work evaluated the feasibility to implement the biospeckle laser as a tool to measure the water content in a leaf and to relate it with the demand of water in a perennial crop, such as coffee trees. Complementary it was tested the ability and the robustness of the proposed protocol in a portable assembly. Plants of coffee crop, coffee arabica trees, were prepared to be monitored during water stress. The proposed monitoring were carried out in leaves without detach them from the plant, within 5 consecutive days. The results presented a significant relation between the water content reduction and the biospeckle values.

  16. Water level and strain changes preceding and following the August 4, 1985 Kettleman Hills, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, E.; Quilty, E.

    1997-01-01

    Two of the four wells monitored near Parkfield, California, during 1985 showed water level rises beginning three days before the M4 6.1 Kettleman Hills earthquake. In one of these wells, the 3.0 cm rise was nearly unique in five years of water level data. However, in the other well, which showed a 3.8 cm rise, many other changes of comparable size have been observed. Both wells that did not display pre-earthquake rises tap partially confined aquifers that cannot sustain pressure changes due to tectonic strain having periods longer than several days. We evaluate the effect of partial aquifer confinement on the ability of these four wells to display water level changes in response to aquifer strain. Although the vertical hydraulic diffusivities cannot be determined uniquely, we can find a value of diffusivity for each site that is consistent with the site's tidal and barometric responses as well as with the rate of partial recovery of the coseismic water level drops. Furthermore, the diffusivity for one well is high enough to explain why the preseismic rise could not have been detected there. For the fourth well, the diffusivity is high enough to have reduced the size of the preseismic signal as much as 50%, although it should still have been detectable. Imperfect confinement cannot explain the persistent water level changes in the two partially confined aquifers, but it does show that they were not due to volume strain. The pre-earthquake water level rises may have been precursors to the Kettleman Hills earthquake. If so, they probably were not caused by accelerating slip over the part of the fault plane that ruptured in that earthquake because they are of opposite sign to the observed coseismic water level drops.

  17. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  18. Politics of innovation in multi-level water governance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Katherine A.; Coombes, Peter J.; White, Ian

    2014-11-01

    Innovations are being proposed in many countries in order to support change towards more sustainable and water secure futures. However, the extent to which they can be implemented is subject to complex politics and powerful coalitions across multi-level governance systems and scales of interest. Exactly how innovation uptake can be best facilitated or blocked in these complex systems is thus a matter of important practical and research interest in water cycle management. From intervention research studies in Australia, China and Bulgaria, this paper seeks to describe and analyse the behind-the-scenes struggles and coalition-building that occurs between water utility providers, private companies, experts, communities and all levels of government in an effort to support or block specific innovations. The research findings suggest that in order to ensure successful passage of the proposed innovations, champions for it are required from at least two administrative levels, including one with innovation implementation capacity, as part of a larger supportive coalition. Higher governance levels can play an important enabling role in facilitating the passage of certain types of innovations that may be in competition with currently entrenched systems of water management. Due to a range of natural biases, experts on certain innovations and disciplines may form part of supporting or blocking coalitions but their evaluations of worth for water system sustainability and security are likely to be subject to competing claims based on different values and expertise, so may not necessarily be of use in resolving questions of "best courses of action". This remains a political values-based decision to be negotiated through the receiving multi-level water governance system.

  19. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  20. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to

  1. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to asse

  2. Improving microcystin monitoring relevance in recreative waters: A regional case-study (Brittany, Western France, Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Vezie, Chantal; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are known as a health hazard in recreative and distributed waters. Monitoring data from 2004 to 2011 were collected at regional scale to characterize exposition parameters to microcystins in Brittany (Western France). The data show that cyanobacteria populations are experiencing a composition shift leading to a longer duration of cell densities higher than WHO alert levels 2 and 3. Microcystins however appear to be more frequently detected with subacute concentrations in low cell density samples than in high cell density samples or during bloom episodes. Positive relations are described between microcystin concentrations, detection frequencies and cyanobacteria biovolumes, allowing for a novel definition of alert levels and decision framework following WHO recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Groundwater level monitoring sampling and analysis plan for the environmental monitoring plan at waste area grouping 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document is the Groundwater Level Monitoring Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Note that this document is referred to as a SAP even though no sampling and analysis will be conducted. The term SAP is used for consistency. The procedures described herein are part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for WAG 6, which also includes monitoring tasks for seeps and springs, groundwater quality, surface water, and meteorological parameters. Separate SAPs are being issued concurrently to describe each of these monitoring programs. This SAP has been written for the use of the field personnel responsible for implementation of the EMP, with the intent that the field personnel will be able to take these documents to the field and quickly find the appropriate steps required to complete a specific task. In many cases, Field Operations Procedures (FOPs) will define the steps required for an activity. The FOPs for the EMP are referenced and briefly described in the relevant sections of the SAPs, and are contained within the FOP Manual. Both these documents (the SAP and the FOP Manual) will be available to personnel in the field.

  4. The response of mire vegetation to water level drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Kirsi; Laine, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2010-05-01

    Mires have a significant role in climate change mitigation due to their enormous carbon storage and due to the fluxes of greenhouse gases between ecosystem and the atmosphere. Mire vegetation is controlled by ecohydrology, climate and by the competition of plants on light and nutrients. The water logged conditions create a challenging environment for both vascular plants and bryophytes; therefore majority of plants growing in these habitats are highly specialized. Global warming is predicted to affect mire vegetation indirectly through increased evapotranspiration leading to decreased water table levels down to 14-22 centimeters. Water level drawdown is likely to affect the vegetation composition and consequently the ecosystem functioning of mires. Previous studies covering the first years following water table level drawdown have shown that vascular plants benefit from a lower water table and hollow-specific Sphagnum species suffer. In addition to changes in plant abundances the diversity of plant communities decreases. The lawn and hollow communities of Sphagna and sedges are found to be the most sensitive plant groups. It has been shown that surveys on vegetation changes can have different results depending on the time scale. The short and long term responses are likely vary in heterogenous mire vegetation; therefore predictions can be done more reliably with longer surveys. We applied BACI (before-after-control-impact) experimental approach to study the responses of different functional mire plant groups to water level drawdown. There are 3 control plots, 3 treatment plots with moderate water level drawdown and 3 plots drained for forestry 40 years ago as a reference. The plots are located in meso-, oligo- and ombrotrophic sites in Lakkasuo (Orivesi, Finland). The vegetation was surveyed from permanent sampling points before ditching in 2000 and during the years 2001-2003 and 2009. The data was analyzed with NMDS (PC-Ord) and DCA (CANOCO). Overall results show

  5. Walnut Creek Watershed Restoration and Water Quality Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this project is to establish a nonpoint source monitoring program in relation to the watershed habitat restoration and agricultural...

  6. Water chemistry - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  7. Influence of nutrient level on methylmercury content in water spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Dabrowska, Beata

    2010-08-01

    Widely consumed vegetables are often cultivated in sewage waters with high nutrient levels. They can contain high levels of methylmercury (MeHg), because they can form MeHg from inorganic Hg in their young shoots. We determined whether the MeHg uptake and the MeHg formation in the shoots of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were affected by the presence of a high nutrient level in the growth medium. Water spinach shoots were rooted and pretreated in growth medium containing 7% (low) or 70% (high) Hoagland nutrient solution; thereafter, the plants were treated with either 0.02 microM MeHg or 0.2 microM HgCl2 for 3 d. Half the plants were then analyzed for total Hg and MeHg. The remaining plants were transferred to mercury-free medium with low or high nutrient levels and posttreated for 3 days before analysis of total Hg and MeHg in order to measure MeHg formation in the absence of external Hg. The results indicate that nutrient level did not influence MeHg uptake, but that a high nutrient level reduced the distribution of MeHg to the shoots 2.7-fold versus low nutrient level. After treatment with HgCl2, MeHg was found in roots and new shoots but not in old shoots. The MeHg:total-Hg ratio was higher in new shoots than in roots, being 13 times higher at high versus low nutrient levels. Thus, MeHg formation was the same in new shoots independent of inorganic Hg concentration, since the total Hg level decreased at a high nutrient level.

  8. A conceptual hydrotectonic model of water level fluctuation in a cave at the Vienna Basin (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardege, Jonas; Plan, Lukas; Winkler, Gerhard; Baron, Ivo; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Eisensteinhöhle is a hydrothermally overprinted cave at the south-western margin of the Miocene Vienna pull-apart Basin. The basin has been formed by a still active NE-SW trending sinistral strike slip fault associated with NNE-SSW striking normal faults. These faults create pathways for thermal water to rise from the central basin and emerge in several lukewarm thermal springs along the basin margin. The cave was opened during quarrying in 1855 and is developed in a Miocene marine carbonate breccia. It has a crevice-shape while the morphology in most parts is coined by hydrothermal karstification. It is about 2 km long and has a vertical extend of 87 m. At the deepest point, there is a small pond filled with 14.5 °C warm water. This is about 5 °C above the annual average and it shows that there is some connection to a nearby subthermal spring with similar temperature. The water level fluctuates within a range of 3 m and at a certain level the water drains through a hole into a nearby slightly deeper gallery. This pond has attracted considerable attention because sporadic records of water level and discharge measurements since 1992 did not show any correlation with regional precipitation. Within the framework of the SPELEOTECT project (Austrian Science Fund # P25884-N29), the current tectonic activity of two faults along the margin of the Vienna Basin as well as the fault controlling the orientation of the cave are monitored by means of high-resolution moiré extensometers. Since October 2015, data loggers measure water level and temperature in the pond as well as CO2 in the air. A pumping test during medium water level, where the whole pond was emptied showed a volume of only 2800 l and a discharge of 4.5 l/h. Water temperature and hydrochemistry hint towards a mix of old thermal components and young meteoric components. However, water level and temperature change abruptly with no obvious relation to precipitation. Within the first year of the continuous

  9. Long-Term Monitoring of Rainfed Wheat Yield and Soil Water at the Loess Plateau Reveals Low Water Use Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, W.; Chi, B.L.; Oenema, O.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was

  10. Long-Term Monitoring of Rainfed Wheat Yield and Soil Water at the Loess Plateau Reveals Low Water Use Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, W.; Chi, B.L.; Oenema, O.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in dryland farming requires a quantitative understanding of relationships between crop yield and the water balance over many years. Here, we report on a long-term dryland monitoring site at the Loess Plateau, Shanxi, China, where winter wheat was

  11. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies with periods between 15 and 60 min, modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low-frequency oscillations support the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  12. Water level oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz water level data in Monterey California identifies Harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed with specific geographic features. It found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal interaction and that offshore wave energy is a primary driver of these modes. Synchronous coupling between modes is observed to significantly impact dynamic water levels. At lower frequencies between 15 and 60 min modes are independent of offshore wave energy, yet are continuously present. This is unexpected since seiches normally dissipate after cessation of the driving force, indicating an unknown forcing. Spectral and kinematic estimates of these low frequency oscillations supports the idea that a persistent anticyclonic mesoscale gyre adjacent to the Bay is a potential mode driver, while discounting other sources.

  13. Water-level altitudes 2006 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2005 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Houston, Natalie A.; Brown, Dexter W.

    2006-01-01

    This report is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region. The Houston-Galveston region comprises Harris, Galveston, Fort Bend, Waller, and Montgomery Counties and adjacent parts of Brazoria, Grimes, Walker, San Jacinto, Liberty, and Chambers Counties. The report was prepared in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, the City of Houston, the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District. For the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, maps show approximate water-level altitudes in 2006, water-level changes from 2005 to 2006, and approximate water-level changes from 2001 to 2006, from 1990 to 2006, and from 1977 to 2006 (figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). For the Jasper aquifer, maps show approximate water-level altitudes in 2006 and water-level changes from 2005 to 2006 and 2000 to 2006 (figs. 11, 12, 13). The report also contains a map showing borehole extensometer (well equipped with compaction monitor) site locations (fig. 14) and graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at these sites from 1973 or later to 2005 (fig. 15).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published annual reports of water-level altitudes and water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region since 1979; and annual reports of same for the Fort Bend subregion (Fort Bend County and adjacent areas) since 1990. The USGS published its first water-level-altitude map for the Jasper aquifer in the greater Houston area (primarily Montgomery County) in 2001. The 2006 water-level-altitude and water-level-change maps for the three aquifers are included in this report.

  14. design and implementation of a water level controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... ... E.C. Anoliefod,a a. National Ctr. For Energy Research and Development, Univ. of Nigeria Nsukka ... Experimental performance results indicated that the device is quite suitable for .... the water level indicator. In the design ...

  15. Canopy-Level Photochemical Reflectance Index from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Leaf-Level Non-Photochemical Quenching as Early Indicators of Water Stress in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuren Chou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of photochemical reflectance index (PRI and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ for assessing water stress in maize for the purpose of developing remote sensing techniques for monitoring water deficits in crops. Leaf-level chlorophyll fluorescence and canopy-level PRI were measured concurrently over a maize field with five different irrigation treatments, ranging from 20% to 90% of the field capacity (FC. Significant correlations were found between leaf-level NPQ (NPQleaf and the ratio of chlorophyll to carotenoid content (Chl/Car (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.01 and between NPQleaf and the actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΔF/Fm′ (R2 = 0.81, p < 0.005. At the early growing stage, both canopy-level PRI and NPQleaf are good indicators of water stress (R2 = 0.65 and p < 0.05; R2 = 0.63 and p < 0.05, respectively. For assessment of extreme water stress on plant growth, a relationship is also established between the quantum yield of photochemistry in PSII (ΦP and the quantum yield of fluorescence (ΦF as determined from photochemical quenching (PQ and non-photochemical quenching (NPQleaf of excitation energy at different water stress levels. These results would be helpful in monitoring soil water stress on crops at large scales using remote sensing techniques.

  16. Comprehensive monitoring of drinking well water quality in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Susaya, Janice P; Park, Chan Goo; Uhm, Jung-Hoon; Hur, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this research, the quality of drinking well waters from 14 districts around Seoul metropolitan city, Korea was assessed by measuring a number of parameters with established guideline (e.g., arsenic, fluoride, nitrate nitrogen, benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, dichloromethane, copper, and lead) and without such criteria (e.g., hardness, chloride ion, sulfate ion, ammonia nitrogen, aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc). Physical parameters such as evaporation residue (or total dissolved solids) and turbidity were also measured. The importance of each parameter in well waters was examined in terms of the magnitude and exceedance frequency of guideline values established by international (and national) health agencies. The results of this study indicate that among the eight parameters with well-established guidelines (e.g., WHO), arsenic and lead (guideline value of 0.01 mg L(-1) for both) recorded the highest exceedance frequency of 18 and 16 well samples ranging in 0.06-136 and 2-9 mg L(-1), respectively. As such, a number of water quality parameters measured from many well waters in this urban area were in critical levels which require immediate attention for treatment and continuous monitoring.

  17. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  18. Nectophotometer: an infrared motility monitor used to rapidly identify toxicity in effluents and receiving waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Pinto, Richard W.; Santelli, John

    2007-04-01

    A change in the motility pattern of fish and aquatic invertebrates when initially exposed to a toxin has long been used in tests designed to signal the presence of toxins in effluents and receiving waters. We have discovered that the level of motility change occurring within 2.5 hours of exposure to all concentrations of a test toxicant correlates well with mortality observed after three days exposure to the toxin, but that the first 30 minutes of exposure is a poor predictor of mortality. Defining this 'best to use exposure time' can increase the sensitivity of toxicity monitoring systems to a weak toxin, one that causes a motility change so minor that it may otherwise go unnoticed. Motility is monitored and automatically recorded using a Nectophotometer, an automated bio-monitor with computer interface that senses interruptions of infrared beams when organisms separately exposed to multiple concentrations of a toxin move through the beams. In our tests changes in the motility of Artemia salina within the first 2.5 hours of exposure predict 3 day mortality with an average accuracy of 89%. The Nectophotometer has promise for allowing rapid assessment of the toxicity to invertebrates and fish, and may also be used to assess airborne toxicity if motile insects respond in a similar manner.

  19. Adventures in Citizen Science: Lessons learned engaging volunteer water quality monitors for over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program was originally designed by faculty at the University of New Hampshire in 1979 to provide the capacity to better monitor for long-term lake water quality changes and trends. As participants became educated, empowered and engaged the program soon evolved to also become a participatory research enterprise. This resulted in not only providing useful information for informed local stewardship and protection at the local level but also for state and region-wide decision-making, state and federal assessments/reporting and advancing our understanding of lake and watershed science. Our successes and failures have been more dependent on understanding the particular human dimensions that influence our volunteers and less to do with the typical project management, quality assurance, and communication concerns we typically deal with in professional based research efforts. Our participants are extremely diverse in terms of their life experiences, interests and motivations so the key to long-term commitment and high quality participation is understanding the difference between a citizen monitor and your archetypical research technician or student. This presentation will highlight some important lessons learned on how to involve various types of volunteers from school groups to retirees, as well as particular approaches and concerns regarding program management, retention, quality control and communications.

  20. A review of methods for monitoring streamflow for sustainable water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobriyal, Pariva; Badola, Ruchi; Tuboi, Chongpi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of streamflow may help to determine the optimum levels of its use for sustainable water management in the face of climate change. We reviewed available methods for monitoring streamflow on the basis of six criteria viz. their applicability across different terrains and size of the streams, operational ease, time effectiveness, accuracy, environmental impact that they may cause and cost involve in it. On the basis of the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods reviewed, we conclude that the timed volume method is apt for hilly terrain having smaller streams due to its operational ease and accuracy of results. Although comparatively expensive, the weir and flume methods are suitable for long term studies of small hill streams, since once the structure is put in place, it yields accurate results. In flat terrain, the float method is best suited for smaller streams for its operational ease and cost effectiveness, whereas, for larger streams, the particle image velocimetry may be used for its accuracy. Our review suggests that the selection of a method for monitoring streamflow may be based on volume of the stream, accuracy of the method, accessibility of the terrain and financial and physical resources available.

  1. System Monitoring And Controlling Water Nutrition aquaponics Using Arduino Uno Based Web Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fahmi Maarif

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is a sustainable farming system that combines aquaculture and hydroponics systems as an integrated system that is symbiotic. In an aquaponics system results from animal excretion contained in this system will be used as natural nutrients hydroponic plants. As for the animals that live on this system will also result in clean water that has been filtered naturally by the plant roots. In the cultivation of an aquaponics system an important factor affecting the development of the ecosystem is the degree of acidity (PH which have a direct impact on the absorption of nutrients in the roots of plants and development of animals that live in this ecosystem. In addition, factors that are not less important is the electroconductivity (EC is the ability to conduct an electric ion in solution to the plant roots. The degree of acidity (pH of water that is normal for an aquaponics ecosystem at 6-7 and value for EC ranged in value of 0.8-1.2 ms / cm. From this study produced a tool that is capable of monitoring in the form of a web server and conduct automatic action in controlling the levels of PH and EC. Based on the results of system testing results obtained sensor Analog PH Meter Kit and Analog Electrical Conductivity Meter capable of monitoring water tank in accordance with the standard measurement tool used is PH meter and EC Solution and the system is also able to control the changes that occur in the water tank in accordance with the standards of PH and EC.

  2. Monitoring surface water quality using social media in the context of citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Hong, Yang; Long, Di; Jing, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Surface water quality monitoring (SWQM) provides essential information for water environmental protection. However, SWQM is costly and limited in terms of equipment and sites. The global popularity of social media and intelligent mobile devices with GPS and photography functions allows citizens to monitor surface water quality. This study aims to propose a method for SWQM using social media platforms. Specifically, a WeChat-based application platform is built to collect water quality reports from volunteers, which have been proven valuable for water quality monitoring. The methods for data screening and volunteer recruitment are discussed based on the collected reports. The proposed methods provide a framework for collecting water quality data from citizens and offer a primary foundation for big data analysis in future research.

  3. A high resolution water level forecast for the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Dangendorf, Sönke; Arns, Arne; Jensen, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Many coastal regions worldwide are potentially endangered by storm surges which can cause disastrous damages and loss of life. Due to climate change induced sea level rise, an accumulation of such events is expected by the end of the 21th century. Therefore, advanced storm surge warnings are needed to be prepared when another storm surge hits the coast. In the shallow southeastern North Sea these storm surge warnings are nowadays routinely provided for selected tide gauge locations along a coastline through state-of-the-art forecast systems, which are based on a coupled system of empirical tidal predictions and numerical storm surge forecasts. Along the German North Sea coastline, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency in cooperation with the German Weather Service is responsible for the storm surge warnings. They provide accurate, high frequency and real-time water level forecasts for up to six days ahead at selected tide gauge sites via internet, telephone and broadcast. Since water levels along the German North Sea coastline are dominated by shallow water effects and a very complex bathymetric structure of the seabed, the pointwise forecast is not necessarily transferable to un-gauged areas between the tide gauges. Here we aim to close this existing gap and develop water level forecasts with a high spatial (continuously with a resolution of at least 1 kilometer) as well as a high temporal (at least 15-minute values) resolution along the entire German North Sea coastline. We introduce a new methodology for water level forecasts which combines empirical or statistical and numerical models. While the tidal forecast is performed by non-parametric interpolation techniques between un-gauged and gauged sites, storm surges are estimated on the basis of statistical/empirical storm surge formulas taken from a numerical model hindcast. The procedure will be implemented in the operational mode forced with numerical weather forecasts.

  4. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment.

  5. Water Quality and Hydrology of Silver Lake, Barron County, Wisconsin, With Special Emphasis on Responses of a Terminal Lake to Changes in Phosphorus Loading and Water Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2009-01-01

    Silver Lake is typically an oligotrophic-to-mesotrophic, soft-water, terminal lake in northwestern Wisconsin. A terminal lake is a closed-basin lake with surface-water inflows but no surface-water outflows to other water bodies. After several years with above-normal precipitation, very high water levels caused flooding of several buildings near the lake and erosion of soil around much of the shoreline, which has been associated with a degradation in water quality (increased phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations and decreased water clarity). To gain a better understanding of what caused the very high water levels and degradation in water quality and collect information to better understand the lake and protect it from future degradation, the U.S. Geological Survey did a detailed study from 2004 to 2008. This report describes results of the study; specifically, lake-water quality, historical changes in water level, water and phosphorus budgets for the two years monitored in the study, results of model simulations that demonstrate how changes in phosphorus inputs affect lake-water quality, and the relative importance of changes in hydrology and changes in the watershed to the water quality of the lake. From 1987 to about 1996, water quality in Silver Lake was relatively stable. Since 1996, however, summer average total phosphorus concentrations increased from about 0.008 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 0.018 mg/L in 2003, before decreasing to 0.011 mg/L in 2008. From 1996 to 2003, Secchi depths decreased from about 14 to 7.4 feet, before increasing to about 19 feet in 2008. Therefore, Silver Lake is typically classified as oligotrophic to mesotrophic; however, during 2002-4, the lake was classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because productivity in Silver Lake is limited by phosphorus, phosphorus budgets for the lake were constructed for monitoring years 2005 and 2006. The average annual input of phosphorus was 216 pounds: 78 percent from tributary and

  6. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

  7. Electrical resistance tomography to monitor vadose water movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); LaBrecque, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1991-09-01

    We report results of one test in which Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) was used to map the changes in electrical resistivity in the vadose zone as a function of time while water infiltration occurred. The ERT images were used to infer shape and movement of the infiltration plume in the unsaturated soil. We supplied a continuous water source at a point about 10 feet below the surface (at the end of a shallow screened hole) for only a short time -- 2.5 hours. This pulsed source introduced a slug'' of water whose infiltration was followed to about 60 foot depth during a 23 hour period. The ERT images show resistivity decreases as the water content of the vadose zone increased while water was added to the soil; the resistivity of the soil later increased after the supply of water was cut-off and the induced soil moisture began to subside.

  8. State-of-the-art lab chip sensors for environmental water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Am; Zou, Zhiwei; Kug Lee, Kang; Ahn, Chong H.; Bishop, Paul L.

    2011-03-01

    As a result of increased water demand and water pollution, both surface water and groundwater quantity and quality are of major concern worldwide. In particular, the presence of nutrients and heavy metals in water is a serious threat to human health. The initial step for the effective management of surface waters and groundwater requires regular, continuous monitoring of water quality in terms of contaminant distribution and source identification. Because of this, there is a need for screening and monitoring measurements of these compounds at contaminated areas. However, traditional monitoring techniques are typically still based on laboratory analyses of representative field-collected samples; this necessitates considerable effort and expense, and the sample may change before analysis. Furthermore, currently available equipment is so large that it cannot usually be made portable. Alternatively, lab chip and electrochemical sensing-based portable monitoring systems appear well suited to complement standard analytical methods for a number of environmental monitoring applications. In addition, this type of portable system could save tremendous amounts of time, reagent, and sample if it is installed at contaminated sites such as Superfund sites (the USA's worst toxic waste sites) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facilities or in rivers and lakes. Accordingly, state-of-the-art monitoring equipment is necessary for accurate assessments of water quality. This article reviews details on our development of these lab-on-a-chip (LOC) sensors.

  9. Frameworks to monitor and predict resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 30,000 CPU cores which filter events at up to 100 kHz input rate. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. This talk will present an overview of how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on both CPU usage and dataflow over the data-acquisition network during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism will be explained along with how is used to profile expected resource usage and output event-rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  10. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  11. Successful water quality monitoring: The right combination of intent, measurement, interpretation, and a cooperating ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soballe, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is invaluable to ensure compliance with regulations, detect trends or patterns, and advance ecological understanding. However, monitoring typically measures only a few characteristics in a small fraction of a large and complex system, and thus the information contained in monitoring data depends upon which features of the ecosystem are actually captured by the measurements. Difficulties arise when these data contain something other than intended, bu