WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring stations located

  1. GSM Base Stations Location Monitoring using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboye B. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM is a digital system developed to meet the desires of the entire public. As the population of a particular area, city or country increases, the number of mobile subscribers increases too. GSM network operators have to reduce congestion on their networks in order to satisfy their subscribers, therefore, a means of monitoring the base stations' locations and the geographical area of where they are located are important factor to achieve this purpose. This work provides a simple step-by-step approach on how to monitor the location of the base stations. A review of GSM and Global Positioning System (GPS technology and their applications to the Geographic Information System (GIS are presented. The means of taken the coordinates of base stations using a GPS device is also presented. ESRI's ArcView application software was used to design the map that shows the location of the base station and thereafter was integrated into the web. It concluded with the recommendation to GSM operators in Nigeria. If the recommendations are given necessary attention, the planning and optimization of cell sites will be enhanced and thereby reduce congestion on network. As a result, the performance of Network will improve, and it will give rise to subscribers' satisfaction and increasing profit returns to the operators.

  2. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  3. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  4. Optimal locations of monitoring stations in water distribution systems under multiple demand patterns: a flaw of demand coverage method and modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuming LIU; Wenjun LIU; Jinduan CHEN; Qi WANG

    2012-01-01

    A flaw of demand coverage method in solving optimal monitoring stations problem under multiple demand patterns was identified in this paper. In the demand coverage method, the demand coverage of each set of monitoring stations is calculated by accumulating their demand coverage under each demand pattern, and the impact of temporal distribution between different time periods or demand patterns is ignored. This could lead to miscalculation of the optimal locations of the monitoring stations. To overcome this flaw, this paper presents a Demand Coverage Index (DCI) based method. The optimization considers extended period unsteady hydrau- lics due to the change of nodal demands with time. The method is cast in a genetic algorithm framework for integration with Environmental Protection Agency Net (EPANET) and is demonstrated through example applica- tions. Results show that the set of optimal locations of monitoring stations obtained using the DCI method can represent the water quality of water distribution systems under multiple demand patterns better than the one obtained using previous methods.

  5. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  6. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  7. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  8. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  9. Valles Caldera, New Mexico Microearthquakes: Improved Detection and Location with Expanded Caldera Station Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, L. S.; Roberts, P. M.; Ten Cate, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 44 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station (PER, installed in 1998) was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using arrival times at multiple stations. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus, improvements can be made to the

  10. Location of Road Emergency Stations in Fars Province, Using Spatial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To locate the road emergency stations in Fars province based on using spatial multi-criteria decision making (Delphi method. Methods: In this study, the criteria affecting the location of road emergency stations have been identified through Delphi method and their importance was determined using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP. With regard to the importance of the criteria and by using Geographical Information System (GIS, the appropriateness of the existing stations with the criteria and the way of their distribution has been explored, and the appropriate arenas for creating new emergency stations were determined. In order to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the stations, Moran’s Index was used. Results: The accidents (0.318, placement position (0.235, time (0.198, roads (0.160, and population (0.079 were introduced as the main criteria in location road emergency stations. The findings showed that the distribution of the existing stations was clustering (Moran’s I=0.3. Three priorities were introduced for establishing new stations. Some arenas including Abade, north of Eghlid and Khoram bid, and small parts of Shiraz, Farashband, Bavanat, and Kazeroon were suggested as the first priority. Conclusion: GIS is a useful and applicable tool in investigating spatial distribution and geographical accessibility to the setting that provide health care, including emergency stations

  11. Microearthquakes at Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Improved Detection and Location with Two Additional Caldera Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P. M.; House, L. S.; Ten Cate, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 43 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network was focused on monitoring seismic hazards and comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station—PER, installed in 1998—was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using multiple arrival times. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus

  12. CORS Station Location at Chaco Culture National Historical Park, NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the location of the continously operating reference station (CORS) at Chaco Culture National Historical Park. The coordinates for...

  13. Lake Beach Monitoring Locations in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Monitored state lake beach locations in Iowa. The Watershed Monitoring & Assessment Section of the Iowa DNR takes regular water samples at these listed beaches...

  14. Seismic Location Station for Detection of Unobserved Moving Military Machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramov, Azad; Hashimov, Elshan

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a seismic location station that can detect unobserved, moving military objects, and heavy military machineries behind a forest or a mountain at a distance of 1-2 kilometers from the determined location. Seismic location station includes specific 3D seismic detectors based on the very sensible piezoelectric sensors. The proposed piezoelectric detectors are based on the PVDF+BaTiO3+PZT polymer hybrid composite fabricated based on nano sized BaTiO3 (o...

  15. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.

  16. Radio-location of mobile stations in third generation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile station localization in mobile networks started with simple methods (e.g. Cell-ID method which required only slight modifications of network infrastructures. Principally, it was about network localization by which a localization service became available to all types of mobile phones. Due to low precision, the initiated development of more sophisticated methods has not been finished yet. Among the advanced location-based methods are those based on the measurement of location parameters in the time domain. In this paper the general consideration of radio location methods in 3G (UMTS radio networks is presented. The use of time based measurement methods was analysed in detail. Due to the limited article length, the use of other locating methods in 3G networks (based on power measurements, on radio direction measurement, and on cells identification – Cell ID and global positioning system - GPS are not described. Introduction Mobile station localization within modern cellular networks increases the level of user security and opens wide opportunities for commercial operators who provide this service. The major obstacle for the implementation of this service, which also prevents its practical usage, is the modification of the existing network infrastructure. In general, depending on the infrastructure used, positioning methods can be divided into two groups: integrated and independent. Integrated methods are primarily created for communication networks. A possibility to locate users represents just an additional service within a radio network. Independent methods are totally detached from the communication network in which the user whose location is being determined is. Radio location methods Determining the location of a mobile radio station is performed by determining the intersection of two or more lines of position. These lines represent the position of the set of points at which the mobile station may be located. These lines can be: (a

  17. Evaluation of a Possibility to Identify Port Pollutants Trace in Klaipeda City Air Pollution Monitoring Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. dr. habil. Vytautas SMAILYS; Renata Strazdauskienė; Kristina Bereišienė

    2009-01-01

    Attempts are made to determine whether it is possible to identify fractions of air pollutants emitted in Klaipeda port in the data recorded in the city air monitoring station. Two components, SO2 and NOx , controlled aboard ship since 2006 were chosen for evaluation. To determine the port influence, a due account was taken of the location of monitoring stations. For this purpose the sectors where port pollutants could enter the samplers of air monitoring stations were identified. For the asse...

  18. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  19. Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Data center equipment location systems include hardware and software to provide information on the location, monitoring, and security of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The systems provide a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  20. Locating PHEV Exchange Stations in V2G

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Feng; Berscheid, Alan; Izraelevitz, David

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are an environmentally friendly technology that is expected to rapidly penetrate the transportation system. Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar have received considerable attention as clean power options for future generation expansion. However, these sources are intermittent and increase the uncertainty in the ability to generate power. The deployment of PHEVs in a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system provide a potential mechanism for reducing the variability of renewable energy sources. For example, PHEV supporting infrastructures like battery exchange stations that provide battery service to PHEV customers could be used as storage devices to stabilize the grid when renewable energy production is fluctuating. In this paper, we study how to best site these stations in terms of how they can support both the transportation system and the power grid. To model this problem we develop a two-stage stochastic program to optimally locate the stations prior to the realizat...

  1. Accessibility analysis as an urban planning tool: Gas station location

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, D; Cadena-Gaitán, C.; Garcia,F.

    2014-01-01

    We apply geo-statistical techniques to find relationships between the geographic location of urban "Gas Stations" (GS) and operational features offered by the transport network in Manizales (Colombia). This research is built upon primary information collected during a period longer than one year using GPS (more than 18 million data points). The methodology consists of i) The set-up of the entire urban transport infrastructure network, ii) The calculation of the average operating speeds in the...

  2. Charging stations location model based on spatiotemporal electromobility use patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.

  3. Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnuolo, Antonio; Vetromile, Carmela; Formosi, Roberto; Lubritto, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The growth and development of the mobile phone network has led to an increased demand for energy by the telecommunications sector, with a noticeable impact on the environment. Monitoring of energy consumption is a great tool for understanding how to better manage this consumption and find the best strategy to adopt in order to maximize reduction of unnecessary usage of electricity. This paper reports on a monitoring campaign performed on six Base Transceiver Stations (BSs) located central Italy, with different technology, typology and technical characteristics. The study focuses on monitoring energy consumption and environmental parameters (temperature, noise, and global radiation), linking energy consumption with the load of telephone traffic and with the air conditioning functions used to cool the transmission equipment. Moreover, using experimental data collected, it is shown, with a Monte Carlo simulation based on power saving features, how the BS monitored could save energy.

  4. Lightning Location With Single-Station Observation of VLF Spherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, I.; Yagitani, S.; Komonmae, H.; Takezono, N.

    2001-12-01

    Most of the lightning location systems recently available require the simultaneous reception of lightning-generated radio pulses (spherics) at multiple stations. In this work, we develop a lightning location system to determine both the direction and range of a lightning stroke with a single-station observation of VLF spherics. The technique used here is a rather classical one, but we try to improve the ranging accuracy by applying sophisticated signal processing techniques, and our final goal is to develop a portable lightning locator. We observe wave forms of two horizontal magnetic fields and one vertical electric field of VLF spherics, each of which usually consists of a couple of sequential pulses. The first pulse comes directly from a lightning return stroke, and is used for the direction finding of the stroke. On the other hand, the second and later pulses are the multiple reflections of the first pulse inside the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Since the time-of-arrival (ToA) of each pulse is determined by its propagation path length in the waveguide, by using the observed difference in ToA of two or more pulses, we can inversely estimate not only the reflection height at the ionosphere but also the range of the lightning stroke. By installing the developed system at Kanazawa University, we have been observing lightning-generated spherics since April, 2000. Compared with the lightning location data provided by a local power company, preliminary analysis shows that this system can locate each lightning stroke within several hundred km with a sufficient accuracy.

  5. City and County of Denver Off Post Water Quality Monitoring Station : 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum encloses a letter and drawings from the City and County of Denver showing the design and location of the Off Post Water Quality Monitoring Station on...

  6. Optimising base station location for UMTS cellular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalata, G.; Pozniak-Koszalka, I.; Koszalka, L.; Kasprzak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid development of universal mobile telecommunication systems put demands on tools for assisting planning of cellular network infrastructure. The tools need to focus on critical issues in modern cellular networks and techniques used for previous generation system no longer serve useful. In this paper, an algorithm based on Branch & Bound approach is proposed for solving base station location problem, covering interference levels, traffic demands and power control mechanism. The efficiency of the algorithm is evaluated with respect to existing approaches for solving this problem - using the designed and implemented experimentation system.

  7. Microbial Monitoring of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Botkin, Douglas J.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Smith, Melanie J.; Oubre, Cherie M.; Ott, C. Mark

    2013-01-01

    microbial growth. Air filtration can dramatically reduce the number of airborne bacteria, fungi, and particulates in spacecraft breathing air. Waterborne bacteria can be reduced to acceptable levels by thermal inactivation of bacteria during water processing, along with a residual biocide, and filtration at the point of use can ensure safety. System design must include onboard capability to achieve recovery of the system from contamination. Robust housekeeping procedures that include periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Food for consumption in space must be thoroughly tested for excessive microbial content and pathogens before launch. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, payloads, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. Many of the lessons learned from the Space Shuttle and previous programs were applied in the early design phase of the International Space Station, resulting in the safest space habitat to date. This presentation describes the monitoring program for the International Space Station and will summarize results from preflight and on-orbit monitoring.

  8. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  9. Data center equipment location and monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , and runs a software application program that communicates with the equipment rack controllers. The software application program of the central control computer stores IDs of the equipment rack controllers and each of its connected electronic ID tags in a database.; The software application program......A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...... connected to each piece of equipment, each electronic ID tag connected directly by wires to a equipment rack controller on the equipment rack. The equipment rack controllers then link over a local area network to a central control computer. The central control computer provides an operator interface...

  10. MOBILLAB-NIVA - a complete station for monitoring water quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Henriksen; Røgeberg, E.; Andersen, S.; Veidel, A.

    1986-01-01

    MOBILLAB-NIVA is a complete mobile station for monitoring water quality with telemetric transmission of recorded data to a central receiving station. It is intended for use in studies of rapid changes in water quality and its effects on aquatic life and short term studies to decide on water quality monitoring strategy. The present version of Mobillab-niva is specially designed to study effects of acid inputs on water chemistry, fish and invertebrates. The station is equipped with physical and...

  11. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bisping, Lynn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  12. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-18

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  13. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6025 Antenna system and station... should be used for the maximum radiation. The plot of the pattern should be oriented so that 0 degrees (True North) corresponds to the maximum radiation of the directional antenna or, alternatively in...

  14. Integrated locating of helicopter stations and helipads for wounded transfer under demand location uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgi-Amiri, Ali; Tavakoli, Shayan; Mirzaeipour, Hossein; Rabbani, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Health emergency medical service (HEMS) plays an important role in reducing injuries by providing advanced medical care in the shortest time and reducing the transfer time to advanced treatment centers. In the regions without ground relief coverage, it would be faster to transfer emergency patients to the hospital by a helicopter. In this paper, an integer nonlinear programming model is presented for the integrated locating of helicopter stations and helipads by considering uncertainty in demand points. We assume three transfer modes: (1) direct transfer by an ambulance, (2) transfer by an ambulance to a helicopter station and then to the hospital by a helicopter, (3) transfer by an ambulance to a predetermined point and then to the hospital by a helicopter. We also assume that demands occur in a square-shaped area, in which each side follows a uniform distribution. It is also assumed that demands in an area decrease errors in the distances between each two cities. The purpose of this model is to minimize the transfer time from demand points to the hospital by considering different modes. The proposed model is examined in terms of validity and applicability in Lorestan Province and a sensitivity analysis is also conducted on the total allocated budget. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, INDOT Weather Stations, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, INDOT.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006....

  16. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, weather stations, Published in 2002, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Tooele County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2002. It is...

  17. Monitoring Stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the monitoring stations at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset were collected...

  18. Total Station Survey Monitoring Through an Observation Window: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    entirely different method, such as taking total station distance measurements ...... error and ensured that all distances measured through the glass medium fall within ... monitoring with RTS from transfer beacon shelter is called refractive effects ...

  19. Climate Monitoring Network on Maunakea - Master Station at Summit and Lower Elevation Satellite Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. M.; Klasner, F.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Maunakea, a dormant shield volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i, rises 13,796 feet above sea level, making it the highest point in the Pacific Basin. From sea floor to summit, it's the tallest mountain in the world. The high elevation, low air and light pollution, as well as dry weather year round make it the best location in the world for astronomy observations. The summit is home to 13 ground based telescope facilities. Like all alpine regions, it is an extremely fragile and unique ecosystem because of the harsh conditions and short growing seasons located at high altitudes. The summit is home to several federal and/or state protected species. It supports 11 species of arthropods found nowhere else on Earth. Most noted of these is the Wēkiu bug, whose habitat has been altered by the infrastructural development on the mountain. Arthropod habitat model development has highlighted gaps in climate information, for example, lack of climate precipitation data, snow data and reliable temperature data. Furthermore, in tropical regions, precipitation is the most variable climate component due to topography and local winds. The telescopes collect weather data for the purpose of knowing when it is dry and clear for astronomical observation. Although existing weather stations associated with the telescopes meet some weather and climate monitoring needs, it cannot address the full range of issues needed due to technological limitation and site design. Precipitation does not occur often and is likely to be in the form of snow or ice. Snow cover data has not been directly recorded despite astronomical recording of other meteorological data that began in the1960s. Therefore, the need to monitor the weather and climate in a long-term and well-calibrated way is critical for management of the ecosystems on the slopes of Maunakea. Long-term weather and climate monitoring stations are the primary building blocks for research partnerships, which encourage collaboration and ultimately

  20. Recommended Locations of Beam Loss Monitors for the ATLAS Roman Pots

    CERN Document Server

    Hall-Wilton, R J; Talanov, V

    2007-01-01

    This note suggests suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to observe losses on the ATLAS Roman Pot station located close to 240m from IP1. This monitoring is envisaged to help to avoid quenches of the super- conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots and to avert damage to either the LHC machine elements or the roman pot detectors. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. The recommended locations are determined using previous simulation results on BLM response to losses; therefore these results should be considered in conjunction with the previous results. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later.

  1. Recommended locations of beam-loss monitors for the ATLAS Roman pots

    CERN Document Server

    Hall-Wilton, R J; Talanov, V

    2007-01-01

    This note suggests suitable locations to position beam loss monitors to observe losses on the ATLAS Roman Pot station located close to 240m from IP1. This monitoring is envisaged to help to avoid quenches of the super- conducting magnets downstream of the roman pots and to avert damage to either the LHC machine elements or the roman pot detectors. The results presented in this note indicate the locations where the BLMs should be installed. The recommended locations are determined using previous simulation results on BLM response to losses; therefore these results should be considered in conjunction with the previous results. A more detailed note on the topic will follow later.

  2. Identifying optimal tag-along station locations for improving VLBI Intensive sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareinen, Niko; Klopotek, Grzegorz; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a unique space-geodetic technique capable of direct observation of the Earth's phase of rotation, namely Universal Time (UT1). The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) conducts daily 1-h Intensive VLBI sessions to determine rapid variations in the difference between UT1 and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The main objective of the Intensive sessions is to provide timely UT1-UTC estimates. These estimates are especially crucial for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The monitoring of rapid variations in Earth rotation also provides insight into various geophysical phenomena. There is an ongoing effort to improve the quality of the UT1-UTC estimates from single-baseline Intensive sessions to realise the expected accuracy and to bring them to a better agreement with the 24-h VLBI sessions. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to improve the Intensives by including a third station in tag-along mode to these regularly observed sessions. The impact of the additional station is studied via extensive simulations using the c5++ analysis software. The location of the station is varied within a predetermined grid. Based on actual Intensive session schedules, a set of simulated observations are generated for the two original stations and each grid point. These simulated data are used to estimate UT1-UTC for every Intensive session scheduled during the year 2014 on the Kokee-Wettzell and Tsukuba-Wettzell baselines, with the addition of a third station. We find that in tag-along mode when a third station is added to the schedule we can identify areas where the UT1-UTC estimates are improved up to 67% w.r.t. the original single-baseline network. There are multiple operational VLBI stations in these areas, which could with little effort be included in a tag-along mode to the currently scheduled Intensive sessions, thus providing the possibility to improve the UT1-UTC estimates by extending the

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  4. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin [Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Inc, 7701 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug [Alliant Techsystems, Inc, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie [Lockheed Martin, 1300 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse [NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, 2101 NASA Pkwy, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino [Conceptual Analytics, 8209 Woburn Abbey Rd, Glenn Dale, MD 20769 (United States); DeLatte, Danielle [ASRC Federal Space and Defense, 7000 Muirkirk Meadows Drive, Suite 100, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tull, Kimathi [Jackson and Tull, 7375 Executive Pl, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Warren, Eric [Wyle STE Group, 1290 Hercules Ave, Houston, TX 77058-2769 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  5. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; de Garcia, Kristina Montt; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbm//yr. to about 1 lbm/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  6. Considering the dynamic refueling behavior in locating electric vehicle charging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Sun, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) will certainly play an important role in addressing the energy and environmental challenges at current situation. However, location problem of EV charging stations was realized as one of the key issues of EVs launching strategy. While for the case of locating EV charging stations, more influence factors and constraints need to be considered since the EVs have some special attributes. The minimum requested charging time for EVs is usually more than 30minutes, therefore the possible delay time due to waiting or looking for an available station is one of the most important influence factors. In addition, the intention to purchase and use of EVs that also affects the location of EV charging stations is distributed unevenly among regions and should be considered when modelling. Unfortunately, these kinds of time-spatial constraints were always ignored in previous models. Based on the related research of refuelling behaviours and refuelling demands, this paper developed a new concept with dual objectives of minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for locating EV charging stations - named as Time-Spatial Location Model (TSLM). The proposed model and the traditional flow-capturing location model are applied on an example network respectively and the results are compared. Results demonstrate that time constraint has great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model has some obvious advantages and will help energy providers to make a viable plan for the network of EV charging stations.

  7. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  8. Analysis of Location Ambiguity, GDOP and Station Layout of Threestation in Multilateration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, the two-dimensional TDOA source location in the case of three stations would encounter the ambiguity problem of dual solutions. The relationship between distributions of location curve intersections, GDOP and receiving station layout is numerically analyzed, namely the distributions of location curve intersections and GDOP are determined by the receiving station layout, and the areas of two curve intersections are consistent with these of larger GDOP. These analysis results could serve as reference for avoiding or dealing with the ambiguity problem when multilateration is in application.

  9. An Analysis of Base Station Location Accuracy within Mobile-Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Smit

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important feature within a mobile-cellular net- work is that the location of a cellphone can be determined. As long as the cellphone is powered on, the location of the cellphone can always be traced to at least the cell from which it is receiving, or last received, signal from the cellular network. Such network-based methods of estimating the location of a cellphone is useful in cases where the cellphone user is unable or unwilling to reveal his or her location, and have practical value in digital forensic investigations. This study investigates the accuracy of using mobile-cellular network base station information for estimating the location of cellphones. Through quantitative analysis of mobile-cellular network base station data, large variations between the best and worst accuracy of recorded location information is exposed. Thus, depending on the requirements, base station locations may or may not be accurate enough for a particular application.

  10. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Oli B G Madsen; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted; Olsen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Environment-friendly electric vehicles have gained substantial attention in governments, industry and universities. The deployment of a network of recharging stations is essential given their limited travel range. This paper considers the problem of locating electronic replenishment stations for electric vehicles on a traffic network with flow-based demand. The objective is to optimize the network performance, for example to maximize the flow covered by a prefixed number of stations, or to mi...

  11. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; N. Pappa

    2012-01-01

    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  12. The geographical location of retail outlets/ service stations in the Nigerian petroleum industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Lawal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examinie the channels of petroleum distribution in Nigeria from the Refineries to Depot and Retail Outlets/Service Stations where the consumers finally purchase their products. Specifically the paper considers some of the geographical factors that are influencing the location of service stations in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry.

  13. Synthetic Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Station Location and Wagon Flow Organization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization in railway transport are interconnected, and each of them is complicated in a large-scale rail network. In this paper, a two-stage method is proposed to optimize railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization together. The location model is present with the objective to minimize the operation cost and fixed construction cost. Then, the second model of wagon flow organization is proposed to decide the optimal train service between different freight center stations. The location of the stations is the output of the first model. A heuristic algorithm that combined tabu search (TS with adaptive clonal selection algorithm (ACSA is proposed to solve those two models. The numerical results show the proposed solution method is effective.

  14. RSLES: an architectural implementation of a decision support system for optimal recruit station location

    OpenAIRE

    Houck, Dale E.; Shigley, Mark V.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes a component-based methodology for developing a decision support system (DSS) for optimal location of military recruiting stations in regional recruiting markets. The DSS is designed to ensure that stations are selected that minimize cost for a given level of production. The interface allows users to perform "what if' analysis to determine if there are better locations to meet desired objectives. The Recruit Statio...

  15. Multiple Charging Station Location-Routing Problem with Time Window of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-ying

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the electric vehicle (EV multiple charging station location-routing problem with time window to optimize the routing plan of capacitated EVs and the strategy of charging stations. In particular, the strategy of charging stations includes both infrastructure-type selection and station location decisions. The problem accounts for two critical constraints in logistic practice: the vehicle loading capacity and the customer time windows. A hybrid heuristic that incorporates an adaptive variable neighborhood search (AVNS with the tabu search algorithm for intensification was developed to address the problem. The specialized neighborhood structures and the selection methods of charging station used in the shaking step of AVNS were proposed. In contrast to the commercial solver CPLEX, experimental results on small-scale test instances demonstrate that the algorithm can find nearly optimal solutions on small-scale instances. The results on large-scale instances also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  16. Optimal Facility Location Model Based on Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm for Siting Urban Refueling Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact factors and principles of siting urban refueling stations and proposes a three-stage method. The main objective of the method is to minimize refueling vehicles’ detour time. The first stage aims at identifying the most frequently traveled road segments for siting refueling stations. The second stage focuses on adding additional refueling stations to serve vehicles whose demands are not directly satisfied by the refueling stations identified in the first stage. The last stage further adjusts and optimizes the refueling station plan generated by the first two stages. A genetic simulated annealing algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization problem in the second stage and the results are compared to those from the genetic algorithm. A case study is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and algorithm. The results indicate the proposed method can provide practical and effective solutions that help planners and government agencies make informed refueling station location decisions.

  17. Citizen Science Seismic Stations for Monitoring Regional and Local Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.; Myers, S.; Srikrishna, D.

    2016-12-01

    The earth has tens of thousands of seismometers installed on its surface or in boreholes that are operated by many organizations for many purposes including the study of earthquakes, volcanos, and nuclear explosions. Although global networks such as the Global Seismic Network and the International Monitoring System do an excellent job of monitoring nuclear test explosions and other seismic events, their thresholds could be lowered with the addition of more stations. In recent years there has been interest in citizen-science approaches to augment government-sponsored monitoring networks (see, for example, Stubbs and Drell, 2013). A modestly-priced seismic station that could be purchased by citizen scientists could enhance regional and local coverage of the GSN, IMS, and other networks if those stations are of high enough quality and distributed optimally. In this paper we present a minimum set of hardware and software specifications that a citizen seismograph station would need in order to add value to global networks. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, WeatherStations-This dataset contains the names and locations of weathers stations found throughout Utah, Published in 2005, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  19. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, WeatherStations-This dataset contains the names and locations of weathers stations found throughout Utah, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is...

  20. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  1. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  2. Real-time trend monitoring of gas compressor stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hardeveld, T. (Nova, an Alberta Corp., AB (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors' company has developed a machinery health monitoring system (MHealth) for short-term and long-term historical trending and analysis of data from its 40 gas compressor stations. The author discusses the benefits of real-time trending in troubleshooting operations, in preventative maintenance scheduling and cites specific applications in the startup operations of several new gas compressor/centrifugal compressor units.

  3. Geographic Accessibility - Providing government servies in an spatially equitable manner: Perspectives for Fire Station location

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available - Providing government services in an spatially equitable manner: Perspectives for Fire Station location CSIR: Built Environment October 2012 Analyse Existing Service Accessibility and Availability Explore & adjust facility locations & sizes... and distribution ? Facility operational thresholds- max & min size Basic approach and principles of facility location planning: WHO gets WHAT, WHERE and HOW MUCH ? Accessibility analysis models the access of residents to facilities - assuming people will go...

  4. Revision of earthquake hypocentre locations in global bulletin data sets using source-specific station terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooshiri, Nima; Saul, Joachim; Heimann, Sebastian; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    Global earthquake locations are often associated with very large systematic travel-time residuals even for clear arrivals, especially for regional and near-regional stations in subduction zones because of their strongly heterogeneous velocity structure. Travel-time corrections can drastically reduce travel-time residuals at regional stations and, in consequence, improve the relative location accuracy. We have extended the shrinking-box source-specific station terms technique to regional and teleseismic distances and adopted the algorithm for probabilistic, nonlinear, global-search location. We evaluated the potential of the method to compute precise relative hypocentre locations on a global scale. The method has been applied to two specific test regions using existing P- and pP-phase picks. The first data set consists of 3103 events along the Chilean margin and the second one comprises 1680 earthquakes in the Tonga-Fiji subduction zone. Pick data were obtained from the GEOFON earthquake bulletin, produced using data from all available, global station networks. A set of timing corrections varying as a function of source position was calculated for each seismic station. In this way, we could correct the systematic errors introduced into the locations by the inaccuracies in the assumed velocity structure without explicitly solving for a velocity model. Residual statistics show that the median absolute deviation of the travel-time residuals is reduced by 40-60 per cent at regional distances, where the velocity anomalies are strong. Moreover, the spread of the travel-time residuals decreased by ˜20 per cent at teleseismic distances (>28°). Furthermore, strong variations in initial residuals as a function of recording distance are smoothed out in the final residuals. The relocated catalogues exhibit less scattered locations in depth and sharper images of the seismicity associated with the subducting slabs. Comparison with a high-resolution local catalogue reveals that

  5. Stratigraphic Profiles for Selected Hanford Site Seismometer Stations and Other Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.

    2014-02-01

    Stratigraphic profiles were constructed for eight selected Hanford Site seismometer stations, five Hanford Site facility reference locations, and seven regional three-component broadband seismometer stations. These profiles provide interpretations of the subsurface layers to support estimation of ground motions from past earthquakes, and the prediction of ground motions from future earthquakes. In most cases these profiles terminated at the top of the Wanapum Basalt, but at selected sites profiles were extended down to the top of the crystalline basement. The composite one-dimensional stratigraphic profiles were based primarily on previous interpretations from nearby boreholes, and in many cases the nearest deep borehole is located kilometers away.

  6. Locating narrow bipolar events with single-station measurement of low-frequency magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Gaopeng; Qie, Xiushu; Jiang, Rubin; Fan, Yanfeng; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhuling; Liu, Mingyuan; Wang, Zhichao; Liu, Dongxia; Feng, Guili

    2016-06-01

    We developed a method to locate the narrow bipolar events (NBEs) based on the single-station measurement of low-frequency (LF, 40-500 kHz) magnetic fields. The direction finding of a two-axis magnetic sensor provides the azimuth of NBEs relative to the measurement site; the ionospheric reflection pairs in the lightning sferics are used to determine the range and height. We applied this method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) locations of 1475 NBEs with magnetic signals recorded during the SHandong Artificially Triggered Lightning Experiment (SHATLE) in summer of 2013. The NBE detections are evaluated on a storm basis by comparing with radar observations of reflectivity and lightning data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) for two mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) of different sizes. As revealed by previous studies, NBEs are predominately produced in the convective regions with relatively strong radar echo (with composite reflectivity ≥30 dBZ), although not all the convections with high reflectivity and active lightning production are in favor of NBE production. The NBEs located by the single-station magnetic method also exhibit the distinct segregation in altitude for positive and negative NBEs, namely positive NBEs are mainly produced between 7 km and 15 km, while negative NBEs are predominantly produced above 14 km. In summary, the results of comparison generally show that the single-station magnetic method can locate NBEs with good reliability, although the accuracy of 3D location remains to be evaluated with the traditional multi-station method based on the time-of-arrival technique. This method can be applied to track the motion of storm convection within 800 km, especially when they move out to ocean beyond the detection range (typically <400 km) of meteorological radars, making it possible to study NBEs in oceanic thunderstorms for which the location with multiple ground-based stations is usually not feasible.

  7. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  8. PASSIVE LOCATION AND ACCURACY ANALYSIS USING TDOA INFORMATION OF MULTI-STATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A new exact, explicit, uniterative, and computationally efficient solution of nonlinear equation set for estimation of emitter position based on the time differences of arrival (TDOA) measured by multi-stations is proposed. The accuracy analysis of the location method is also presented. Finally performance evaluation results of emitter location by using TDOA information are illustrated by some graphs of Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) for various conditions in the specific surveillance region.

  9. The International Remote Monitoring Project -- First results of the Argentina nuclear power station field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, A.; Pizarro, L.; Perez, A. [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schoeneman, J.L.; Dupree, S.A.; Martinez, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maxey, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of the International Remote Monitoring Project field trials, during the month of March, 1995 a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. This system monitors the status of four typical Candu spent fuel dry storage silos. The monitoring equipment for each silo consists of analog temperature and gamma radiation sensors and digital motion and electronic fiber-optic seals connected to a wireless Authenticate Item Monitoring System (AIMS). All sensor data are authenticated and transmitted via RF link to Receiver Processor Units (RPU) coupled to Remote Monitoring System equipment located in a nearby IAEA/ENREN inspector office. One of these RPUs is connected to Remote Monitoring equipment capable of information transmission (via commercial telephone links) to Data Review Stations (DRS) at ENREN laboratories in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The other RPU is used for on-site data storage and analysis. It is anticipated that this information will soon be transmitted to a DRS at the ABACC facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During these trials site data will be collected and analyzed periodically from Buenos Aires, Albuquerque, and Rio de Janeiro. Installation detail and data analysis will be presented in this paper.

  10. A Heuristic for Locating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Røpke, Stefan

    We present the problem of locating a limited number of electric vehiclecharging stations for a given set of trip chains, each of which consistsof a series of linked short trips and is represented by a sequence ofintervening stops along the trip chain. The objective of this problemis to maximize...

  11. An automatic continuous monitoring station for groundwater geochemistry at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Wei; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Fu, Ching-Chou; Hilton, David R.; Liu, Tsung-Kwei; Walia, Vivek; Lai, Tzu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that gas compositions of fluid samples collected from southwestern Taiwan where many hot springs and mud volcanoes are distributed along tectonic sutures show significant variation prior to and after some disaster seismic events. Such variations, including radon activity, CH4/CO2, CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios of gas compositions, are considered to be precursors of earthquakes in this area. To validate the relationship between fluid compositions and local earthquakes, a continuous monitoring station has been established at Yun-Shui, which is an artesian well located at an active fault zone in SW Taiwan. It is equipped with a radon detector and a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) for in-situ measurement of the dissolved gas composition. Data is telemetered to Taipei so we are able to monitor variations of gas composition in real time. Furthermore, we also installed a syringe pump apparatus for the retrieval and temporal analysis of helium (SPARTAH) at this station. From the SPARTAH samples, we can obtain detailed time series records of H-O isotopic compositions, DIC concentration and δ13C isotopic ratios, and anion concentration of the water samples at this station. After continuous monitoring for about one year, some anomalies occurred prior to some local earthquakes. It demonstrates that this automated system is feasible for long-term continuous seismo-geochemical research in this area. Keywords: monitoring; geochemistry; isotope; dissolved gases; pre-seismic signal.

  12. Landslide monitoring using terrestrial laser scanner and robotic total station in Rancabali, West Java (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, Irwan; Fattah, Alif; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sadarviana, Vera; Putri, Nabila S. E.; Kristianto

    2017-07-01

    West Java is one of the provinces in Indonesia which is prone to landslide. Over the past few years, landslides in this area have resulted in a large number of victims. One of the areas in West Java with the highest risk of landslide occurrence is Rancabali Ciwidey. In general, the morphology around the landslide location is steep hills, with the slope > 30° and the altitude between 1550 - 1865 m above sea level. Several indications of ground movements can be seen in the form of slumps and cracks on the village roads and tea plantation, as well as slanting trees and electricity poles. The ground movement monitoring in this area is necessary for disaster mitigation. Several methods that can be used to monitor the landslide are using Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and robotic total station. This research aims is monitoring the landslide using these methods. The methodology used in this research is by obtaining the scanning data using TLS C-10 and Robotic total station MS05 measurements to obtain the coordinates of monitoring point clouds and prism. The TLS software that we used are Cyclone 8.1 and Maptek I-Site. For robotic total station, the software that we used is MSP software. These method hopefully can be used for early warning system of landslide in Rancabali area.

  13. Particulate Matter Exposure in a Police Station Located near a Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available People living or working near roadways have experienced an increase in cardiovascular or respiratory diseases due to vehicle emissions. Very few studies have focused on the PM exposure of highway police officers, particularly for the number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP. This study evaluated exposure concentrations of particulate matter (PM in the Sinying police station near a highway located in Tainan, Taiwan, under different traffic volumes, traffic types, and shift times. We focused on periods when the wind blew from the highway toward the police station and when the wind speed was greater than or equal to 0.5 m/s. PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station and an upwind reference station were measured. Results indicate that PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station can be on average 1.13, 2.17, and 5.81 times more than the upwind reference station concentrations, respectively. The highest exposure level for PM2.5 and UFP was observed during the 12:00 PM–4:00 PM shift while the highest PAHs concentration was found in the 4:00 AM–8:00 AM shift. Thus, special attention needs to be given to protect police officers from exposure to high PM concentration.

  14. Particulate Matter Exposure in a Police Station Located near a Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Chin-Kai; Wang, Chia C; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Mei-Ru; Lin, Ming-Yeng

    2015-11-13

    People living or working near roadways have experienced an increase in cardiovascular or respiratory diseases due to vehicle emissions. Very few studies have focused on the PM exposure of highway police officers, particularly for the number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP). This study evaluated exposure concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in the Sinying police station near a highway located in Tainan, Taiwan, under different traffic volumes, traffic types, and shift times. We focused on periods when the wind blew from the highway toward the police station and when the wind speed was greater than or equal to 0.5 m/s. PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station and an upwind reference station were measured. Results indicate that PM2.5, UFP, and PM-PAHs concentrations in the police station can be on average 1.13, 2.17, and 5.81 times more than the upwind reference station concentrations, respectively. The highest exposure level for PM2.5 and UFP was observed during the 12:00 PM-4:00 PM shift while the highest PAHs concentration was found in the 4:00 AM-8:00 AM shift. Thus, special attention needs to be given to protect police officers from exposure to high PM concentration.

  15. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  16. US EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  17. 40 CFR 52.430 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.430 Section 52.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 the Delaware Department of... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2426 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2426 Section 52.2426 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.2426 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On November 23, 1994 Virginia's... Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.480 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.480 Section 52.480 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.480 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On January 14, 1994 the District... and implementation of a Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1080 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.1080 Section 52.1080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1080 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On March 24, 1994 Maryland's... Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required...

  1. The Demonstration of a Robotic External Leak Locator on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam; Rossetti, Dino; Bond, Tim; Johnson, Brien; Huang, Alvin; Deal, Alexandra; Fox, Katie; Heiser, Michael; Hartman, William; Mikatarian, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) and all currently conceivable future manned spacecraft are susceptible to mission impacts due to fluid/gas leaks to the exterior environment. For example, there is a well-known risk of ammonia leaks from the ISS External Thermal Control System loops and currently no method to locate them. It was, therefore, critical to develop a method for detecting and locating leaks to preserve vehicle health. The Robotic External Leak Locator (RELL) was developed and deployed to the ISS to provide this capability. An on-orbit validation and demonstration was successfully completed in December 2016 and leak locating operations occurred in February 2017. This paper discusses the results of those exercises including measurements of the environment around ISS, detection of the small ammonia leak and implementation of leak locating methodologies.

  2. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  3. Optimization of hydrogen stations in Florida using the Flow-Refueling Location Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuby, Michael; Kim, Jong-Geun [School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5302 (United States); Lines, Lee [Department of Environmental Studies, Rollins College, 1000 Holt Ave., Box 2753, Winter Park, FL 32789-4499 (United States); Schultz, Ronald; Xie, Zhixiao [Department of Geosciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Lim, Seow [Salt River Project, 1521 N. Project Drive, Tempe, AZ 85281-1298 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This paper develops and applies a model that locates hydrogen stations to refuel the maximum volume of vehicle flows. Inputs to the model include a road network with average speeds; the origin-destination flow volumes between each origin and destination; a maximum driving range between refueling stops; and the number of stations to build. The Flow-Refueling Location Model maximizes the flow volumes that can be refueled, measured either in number of trips or vehicle-miles traveled. Geographic Information Systems and heuristic algorithms are integrated in a spatial decision support system that researchers can use to develop data, enter assumptions, analyze scenarios, evaluate tradeoffs, and map results. For the Florida Hydrogen Initiative, we used this model to investigate strategies for rolling out an initial refueling infrastructure in Florida at two different scales of analysis: metropolitan Orlando and statewide. By analyzing a variety of scenarios at both scales of analysis, we identify a robust set of stations that perform well under a variety of assumptions, and develop a strategy for phasing in clustered and connecting stations in several stages or tiers. (author)

  4. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  5. Categorisation of air quality monitoring stations by evaluation of PM(10) variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, M A; Orza, J A G; Cabello, M; Cantón, L

    2015-08-15

    Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMNs) are composed by a number of stations, which are typically classified as urban, suburban or rural, and background, industrial or traffic, depending on the location and the influence of the immediate surroundings. These categories are not necessarily homogeneous and distinct from one another, regarding the levels of the monitored pollutants. A classification providing groups with these features is of interest for air quality management and research purposes, and therefore, other classification criteria should be explored. In this work, the variations of PM10 concentrations in 43 stations in the AQMN of the Basque Country in the period 2005-2012 have been studied to group them according to common characteristics. The characteristic variations in time are synthesised by the autocorrelation function (ACF), with both daily and hourly data, and by the average diurnal evolution pattern of the normalised concentrations on a seasonal basis (Evol-P). A methodology based on k-means clustering of these features is proposed. Each classification gives a different piece of information that has been phenomenologically related with specific dispersion and emission dynamics. The classification based on Evol-Ps is found to be the most influential one when comparing PM10 levels between groups. A combination of these categorisations provides 5 groups with significantly different levels of PM10, improving the discrimination of the conventional classification. Our results indicate that the time series of the pollutant concentrations contain enough information to provide an objective classification of the monitoring stations in an AQMN.

  6. Combining network and array waveform coherence for automatic location: examples from induced seismicity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sick, Benjamin; Joswig, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    Events from induced seismicity suffer from low signal-to-noise ratios and noise spikes due to the industrial setting. Low magnitude thresholds are needed for traffic light warning systems. Conventional automatic location methods rely on independent picking of first arrivals from seismic wave onsets at recordings of single stations. Picking is done separately and without feedback from the actual location algorithm. If the recording network is small or only few phases can be associated, single wrong associations can lead to large errors in hypocentre locations and magnitude. Event location by source scanning which was established in the last two decades can provide more robust results. This study investigates how source-scanning can be extended and improved by integrating information from seismic arrays, that is, waveform stacking and Fisher ratio. These array methods rely on the coherency of the raw filtered waveforms while traditional source scanning uses a characteristic function to obtain coherency from otherwise incoherent waveforms between distant stations. Short-term/long-term average (STA/LTA) serves as the characteristic function and single station vertical-component traces for P-phases and radial and transverse components for S-phases are used. For array stations, the STA/LTA of the stacked vertical seismogram which is furthermore weighted by the STA/LTA of the Fisher ratio, dependent on backazimuth and slowness, is utilized for P-phases. The new method is tested on two diverse data sets from induced seismicity monitoring. In the chosen examples, the extension by array-processing techniques can reduce mean hypocentre errors up to a factor of 2.9, resolve ambiguities and further restrain the location.

  7. An iterative matching and locating technique for borehole microseismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Meng, X.; Niu, F.; Tang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. The success of hydraulic fracturing monitoring relies on the detection and characterization (i.e., location and focal mechanism estimation) of a maximum number of induced microseismic events. All the events are important to quantify the stimulated reservior volume (SRV) and characterize the newly created fracture network. Detecting and locating low magnitude events, however, are notoriously difficult, particularly at a high noisy production environment. Here we propose an iterative matching and locating technique (iMLT) to obtain a maximum detection of small events and the best determination of their locations from continuous data recorded by a single azimuth downhole geophone array. As the downhole array is located in one azimuth, the regular M&L using the P-wave cross-correlation only is not able to resolve the location of a matched event relative to the template event. We thus introduce the polarization direction in the matching, which significantly improve the lateral resolution of the M&L method based on numerical simulations with synthetic data. Our synthetic tests further indicate that the inclusion of S-wave cross-correlation data can help better constrain the focal depth of the matched events. We apply this method to a dataset recorded during hydraulic fracturing treatment of a pilot horizontal well within the shale play in southwest China. Our approach yields a more than fourfold increase in the number of located events, compared with the original event catalog from traditional downhole processing.

  8. GIS based assessment of the spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations using pollutant emissions data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, G.; Cappelletti, A.; Ciucci, A.; Cremona, G.; Piersanti, A.; Vitali, L.; Ciancarella, L.

    2014-11-01

    Spatial representativeness of air quality monitoring stations is a critical parameter when choosing location of sites and assessing effects on population to long term exposure to air pollution. According to literature, the spatial representativeness of a monitoring site is related to the variability of pollutants concentrations around the site. As the spatial distribution of primary pollutants concentration is strongly correlated to the allocation of corresponding emissions, in this work a methodology is presented to preliminarily assess spatial representativeness of a monitoring site by analysing the spatial variation of emissions around it. An analysis of horizontal variability of several pollutants emissions was carried out by means of Geographic Information System using a neighbourhood statistic function; the rationale is that if the variability of emissions around a site is low, the spatial representativeness of this site is high consequently. The methodology was applied to detect spatial representativeness of selected Italian monitoring stations, located in Northern and Central Italy and classified as urban background or rural background. Spatialized emission data produced by the national air quality model MINNI, covering entire Italian territory at spatial resolution of 4 × 4 km2, were processed and analysed. The methodology has shown significant capability for quick detection of areas with highest emission variability. This approach could be useful to plan new monitoring networks and to approximately estimate horizontal spatial representativeness of existing monitoring sites. Major constraints arise from the limited spatial resolution of the analysis, controlled by the resolution of the emission input data, cell size of 4 × 4 km2, and from the applicability to primary pollutants only.

  9. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, Kansas Weather Stations, Published in 2005, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Kansas Adjutant General's Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as...

  10. Back azimuth constrained double-difference seismic location and tomography for downhole microseismic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukuan; Zhang, Haijiang; Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yinsheng; Liu, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new seismic tomography method, back azimuth constrained double-difference (DD) seismic tomography, which is suitable for downhole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing. The new method simultaneously locates microseismic events and determines three-dimensional (3D) Vp and Vs models for the fracturing zone using differential arrival times from pairs of events and event back azimuths in addition to absolute arrival times. Compared to the existing DD location and tomography method, our method incorporates back azimuth information to better constrain microseismic event locations in the case of poor spatial station coverage such as the linear downhole seismic array generally used for microseismic monitoring. By incorporating the relative arrival time and back azimuth information of events, the extended DD method can provide better relative event locations, and thus can better characterize the fracture distribution. In addition to microseismic locations, seismic velocity anomalies determined around the fracturing zone may also provide valuable information for fracture development. Due to the existence of fractures and fluids, the seismic velocity is expected to be lower in the fractured zone compared to the surrounding regions. Therefore the area of low seismic velocity anomaly may be used as a proxy for the stimulated reservoir volume. We have applied the new method to a downhole microseismic dataset from shale gas hydraulic fracturing. The microseismic events are more accurately relocated than the conventional grid search location method, and they are generally associated with low velocity anomalies.

  11. Automatised Data Quality Monitoring of the LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) is a silicon strip semiconductor detector operating at just 8mm distance to the LHC beams. Its 172,000 strips are read at a frequency of 1 MHz and processed by off-detector FPGAs followed by a PC cluster that reduces the event rate to about 10 kHz. During the second run of the LHC, which lasts from 2015 until 2018, the detector performance will undergo continued change due to radiation damage effects. This necessitates a detailed monitoring of the data quality to avoid adverse effects on the physics analysis performance. The VELO monitoring infrastructure has been re-designed compared to the first run of the LHC when it was based on manual checks. The new system is based around an automatic analysis framework, which monitors the performance of new data as well as long-term trends and flags issues whenever they arise. An unbiased subset of the detector data are processed about once per hour by monitoring algorithms. The new analysis framework then analyses the plots that are prod...

  12. A probabilistic framework for single-station location of seismicity on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Ceylan, S.; Euchner, F.; van Driel, M.; Khan, A.; Giardini, D.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Locating the source of seismic energy from a single three-component seismic station is associated with large uncertainties, originating from challenges in identifying seismic phases, as well as inevitable pick and model uncertainties. The challenge is even higher for planets such as Mars, where interior structure is a priori largely unknown. In this study, we address the single-station location problem by developing a probabilistic framework that combines location estimates from multiple algorithms to estimate the probability density function (PDF) for epicentral distance, back azimuth, and origin time. Each algorithm uses independent and complementary information in the seismic signals. Together, the algorithms allow locating seismicity ranging from local to teleseismic quakes. Distances and origin times of large regional and teleseismic events (M > 5.5) are estimated from observed and theoretical body- and multi-orbit surface-wave travel times. The latter are picked from the maxima in the waveform envelopes in various frequency bands. For smaller events at local and regional distances, only first arrival picks of body waves are used, possibly in combination with fundamental Rayleigh R1 waveform maxima where detectable; depth phases, such as pP or PmP, help constrain source depth and improve distance estimates. Back azimuth is determined from the polarization of the Rayleigh- and/or P-wave phases. When seismic signals are good enough for multiple approaches to be used, estimates from the various methods are combined through the product of their PDFs, resulting in an improved event location and reduced uncertainty range estimate compared to the results obtained from each algorithm independently. To verify our approach, we use both earthquake recordings from existing Earth stations and synthetic Martian seismograms. The Mars synthetics are generated with a full-waveform scheme (AxiSEM) using spherically-symmetric seismic velocity, density and attenuation models of

  13. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, Prince George's County Earth Networks Owned Weather Stations located on County Facilities, Published in 2005, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  14. International Remote Monitoring Project Embalse Nuclear Power Station, Argentina Embalse Remote Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sigfried L.; Glidewell, Donnie D.; Bonino, Anibal; Bosler, Gene; Mercer, David; Maxey, Curt; Vones, Jaromir; Martelle, Guy; Busse, James; Kadner, Steve; White, Mike; Rovere, Luis

    1999-07-21

    The Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear of Argentina (ARN), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ABACC, the US Department of Energy, and the US Support Program POTAS, cooperated in the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. This system was installed at the Embalse Nuclear Power Station last year to evaluate the feasibility of using radiation sensors in monitoring the transfer of spent fuel from the spent fuel pond to dry storage. The key element in this process is to maintain continuity of knowledge throughout the entire transfer process. This project evaluated the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguard efficiency. New technology has been developed to enhance the design of the system to include storage capability on board sensor platforms. This evaluation has led to design enhancements that will assure that no data loss will occur during loss of RF transmission of the sensors.

  15. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  16. Locating the timacum maius station on the roman road lissus-naissus-ratiaria: New archaeological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the exact location of two Timacum stations remains an open issue, the results of the latest archaeological investigations in the environs of Svrljig, southeast Serbia, seem to offer some corroborative evidence for the hypothesis proposed in our previous contribution that this might be the location of Roman Timacum Maius. A small-scale trial excavation was undertaken on the Roman site at Kalnica in the Niševac village area in July 2008. A trench 4 by 2m was opened in the zone of the site that had yielded plentiful fragments of building debris as well as small finds. A massive wall over 1m thick was found immediately beneath the surface. Built of bro­ken limestone and pebbles bound with lime mortar, it obviously was part of a larger structure. To the northeast of the wall was an area covered with fragmented roof tiles. The discovery of two ceramic tumuli embedded in the wall, indicating a wall-heating system so far unregistered on the representative Roman urban and settlement sites in Serbia, gives additional grounds to presume that this was a larger Roman settlement extending over an area of more than 5ha, possibly Timacum Maius, a station on the Roman road Lissus-Ratiaria-Naissus.

  17. Power system monitoring and source control of the Space Station Freedom DC power system testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Baez, Anastacio N.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a terrestrial electric utility which can purchase power from a neighboring utility, the Space Station Freedom (SSF) has strictly limited energy resources; as a result, source control, system monitoring, system protection, and load management are essential to the safe and efficient operation of the SSF Electric Power System (EPS). These functions are being evaluated in the DC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Testbed which NASA LeRC has developed at the Power System Facility (PSF) located in Cleveland, Ohio. The testbed is an ideal platform to develop, integrate, and verify power system monitoring and control algorithms. State Estimation (SE) is a monitoring tool used extensively in terrestrial electric utilities to ensure safe power system operation. It uses redundant system information to calculate the actual state of the EPS, to isolate faulty sensors, to determine source operating points, to verify faults detected by subsidiary controllers, and to identify high impedance faults. Source control and monitoring safeguard the power generation and storage subsystems and ensure that the power system operates within safe limits while satisfying user demands with minimal interruptions. System monitoring functions, in coordination with hardware implemented schemes, provide for a complete fault protection system. The objective of this paper is to overview the development and integration of the state estimator and the source control algorithms.

  18. GIS-Based Analysis of the Location of Filling Stations in Metropolitan Kano against the Physical Planning Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed the location of filling stations in Kano Metropolis against the physical planning standards set by Department of Petroleum Resource, DPR (2007 and Kano Urban Planning and Development Agency, KNUPDA (2013. Names and street addresses of the filling stations were obtained from the Department Petroleum Resource (DPR Kano Office. Global positioning System Garmin 76X GPS was used to capture the location of the filling station. The quickbird imagery, street map, and boundary map were obtained from the Kano State Ministry of Land and Physical planning. The data were imported to Arcmap environment of ArcGIS 10, integrated and georefrenced to the same coordinate system. All the analyses were performed in the Arcmap environment using spatial statistics, spatial analyst and proximity tools available in the software. The findings revealed that there 214 filling station located along the 43 roads in the study area, of which 69% are owned by independent marketers, 26% owned by Major Marketers and 5% owned by the NNPC. Most of the station satisfied the minimum requirement of 15 metre distance from the road (96%. Equally 98% of the filling stations met the minimum distance of 100 meter from the health care facilities. However many station had not meet the criteria of 400 meter minimum distance to other stations where located on same road side and when not separated by any road or street. The research finally concludes that regulatory agencies need to look into the issue and take appropriate measures.

  19. High precision mobile location framework and its service based on virtual reference station of GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Sun, Liangyu; Yao, Lianbi

    2008-10-01

    The wireless communication technology and space technology are synchronously developed in recent years, which bring up the development of location based service (LBS). At present, many location technology methods were developed. However, all these methods can only provide a relative poor location precision and depend on high cost. The technology of Virtual Reference Station (VRS) of GPS is then involved in this paper. One of the objective in this paper is aim to give the LBS position structure to improve the mobile location position when a mobile position instrument is connected with VRS network. The cheaper GPS built-in Personal Designer Aid (PDA) is then used to achieve a higher precision by using RTCM data from existing VRS network. In order to obtain a high precision position when using the low-cost GPS receiver as a rover, the infrusture of the mobile differential correction system is then put forward. According to network transportation of RTCM via internet protocol (NTRIP), the message is communicated through wireless network, such as GPRS, CDMA and so on. The rough coordinate information is sent to VRS control center continuously, and then the VRS correction information is replied to rover in the data format of RTCM3.1. So the position will be updated based on mathematic solution after the decoding of RTCM3.1 data. The thought of LBS position can improve the precision, and can speed the LBS.

  20. Gasoline Service Stations, Gas station locations generated from address locations, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Waupaca County Land Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gasoline Service Stations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2011. It is...

  1. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. An iterative inversion technique to improve single station event locations on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir; Ceylan, Savas; van Driel, Martin; Clinton, John; Böse, Maren; Euchner, Fabian; Giardini, Domenico; Garcia, Raphael F.; Lognonné, Philippe; Panning, Mark; Banerdt, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The InSight mission will deploy a single seismic station on Mars in November 2018. The main task of the Marsquake Service (MQS) within the project includes detecting, characterisation of seismicity and managing the marsquake catalogue. Together with the Mars Structural Service, we will use observed seismicity to improve our knowledge of the Martian structure, which in turn will be used to refine our catalogue. In preparation for the mission, we continually calibrate our single-station location algorithms, using a priori 1 and 3D structural models. Target synthetic waveforms are generated using AxiSEM/Instaseis and combined with realistic Martian noise. For the inversion, seismic phase travel times are computed for a wide range of plausible structural models. However, our knowledge on the interior structure of Mars is limited, which in turn affects our ability to locate events accurately. In this study, we present an iterative inversion method for computation of Martian structural models and the ensuing revision of event locations. We first locate seismic multiple events using manual identification of clearly observed seismic phases, including estimate of timing uncertainty. In the inversion for event distance, we use differential arrival times for a large suite of a priori initial models. These models are built considering a one-dimensional average crust and current estimates of bulk mantle chemistry and areotherm. Then, we invert for the interior structure employing the arrival times for the picked phases, and generate an updated suite of models. Predicted travel times from these updated models are subsequently used to revise the initial phase picks (relabeling mis-identified phases, selection of additional phases) and relocate the events. We repeat this procedure for each additional and new entry in the travel time database (modified or new phases and/or additional events) to improve event locations and radial models of Mars' interior. In order to test our

  3. A Camera and Multi-Sensor Automated Station Design for Polar Physical and Biological Systems Monitoring: AMIGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlander, J. A.; Ross, R.; Scambos, T.; Haran, T. M.; Bauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Automated Meteorology - Ice/Indigenous species - Geophysics Observation System (AMIGOS) consists of a set of measurement instruments and camera(s) controlled by a single-board computer with a simplified Linux operating system and an Iridium satellite modem supporting two-way communication. Primary features of the system relevant to polar operations are low power requirements, daily data uploading, reprogramming, tolerance for low temperatures, and various approaches for automatic resets and recovery from low power or cold shut-down. Instruments include a compact weather station, C/A or dual-frequency GPS, solar flux and reflectivity sensors, sonic snow gages, simplified radio-echo-sounder, and resistance thermometer string in the firn column. In the current state of development, there are two basic designs. One is intended for in situ observations of glacier conditions. The other design supports a high-resolution camera for monitoring biological or geophysical systems from short distances (100 m to 20 km). The stations have been successfully used in several locations for operational support, monitoring rapid ice changes in response to climate change or iceberg drift, and monitoring penguin colony activity. As of June, 2012, there are 9 AMIGOS systems installed, all on the Antarctic continent. The stations are a working prototype for a planned series of upgraded stations, currently termed 'Sentinels'. These stations would carry further instrumentation, communications, and processing capability to investigate ice - ocean interaction from ice tongue, ice shelf, or fjord coastline areas.

  4. New Passive Methodology for Power Cable Monitoring and Fault Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeug

    The utilization of power cables is increasing with the development of renewable energy and the maintenance replacement of old overhead power lines. Therefore, effective monitoring and accurate fault location for power cables are very important for the sake of a stable power supply. The recent technologies for power cable diagnosis and temperature monitoring system are described including their intrinsic limitations for cable health assessment. Power cable fault location methods are reviewed with two main categories: off-line and on-line data based methods. As a diagnostic and fault location approach, a new passive methodology is introduced. This methodology is based on analyzing the resonant frequencies of the transfer function between the input and output of the power cable system. The equivalent pi model is applied to the resonant frequency calculation for the selected underground power cable transmission system. The characteristics of the resonant frequencies are studied by analytical derivations and PSCAD simulations. It is found that the variation of load magnitudes and change of positive power factors (i.e., inductive loads) do not affect resonant frequencies significantly, but there is considerable movement of resonant frequencies under change of negative power factors (i.e., capacitive loads). Power cable fault conditions introduce new resonant frequencies in accordance with fault positions. Similar behaviors of the resonant frequencies are shown in a transformer (TR) connected power cable system with frequency shifts caused by the TR impedance. The resonant frequencies can be extracted by frequency analysis of power signals and the inherent noise in these signals plays a key role to measure the resonant frequencies. Window functions provide an effective tool for improving resonant frequency discernment. The frequency analysis is implemented on noise laden PSCAD simulation signals and it reveals identical resonant frequency characteristics with theoretical

  5. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  6. Picking vs Waveform based detection and location methods for induced seismicity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Boese, Maren; Scarabello, Luca; Diehl, Tobias; Weber, Bernd; Wiemer, Stefan; Clinton, John F.

    2017-04-01

    Microseismic monitoring is a common operation in various industrial activities related to geo-resouces, such as oil and gas and mining operations or geothermal energy exploitation. In microseismic monitoring we generally deal with large datasets from dense monitoring networks that require robust automated analysis procedures. The seismic sequences being monitored are often characterized by very many events with short inter-event times that can even provide overlapped seismic signatures. In these situations, traditional approaches that identify seismic events using dense seismic networks based on detections, phase identification and event association can fail, leading to missed detections and/or reduced location resolution. In recent years, to improve the quality of automated catalogues, various waveform-based methods for the detection and location of microseismicity have been proposed. These methods exploit the coherence of the waveforms recorded at different stations and do not require any automated picking procedure. Although this family of methods have been applied to different induced seismicity datasets, an extensive comparison with sophisticated pick-based detection and location methods is still lacking. We aim here to perform a systematic comparison in term of performance using the waveform-based method LOKI and the pick-based detection and location methods (SCAUTOLOC and SCANLOC) implemented within the SeisComP3 software package. SCANLOC is a new detection and location method specifically designed for seismic monitoring at local scale. Although recent applications have proved an extensive test with induced seismicity datasets have been not yet performed. This method is based on a cluster search algorithm to associate detections to one or many potential earthquake sources. On the other hand, SCAUTOLOC is more a "conventional" method and is the basic tool for seismic event detection and location in SeisComp3. This approach was specifically designed for

  7. Monitoring Weather Station Fire Rehabilitation Treatments: Hanford Reach National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Weather Station Fire (July, 2005) burned across 4,918 acres in the Saddle Mountain Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument, which included parts of the...

  8. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  9. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, MDTA Roadway weather station, weather stations, weather sensors, Roadway weather sensors, RWIS, MDTA weather sensors, Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It...

  10. Fuzzy cost-profit tradeoff model for locating a vehicle inspection station considering regional constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangdong TIAN; Hua KE; Xiaowei CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Facility location allocation (FLA) is one of the important issues in the logistics and transportation fields. In practice, since customer demands, allocations, and even locations of customers and facilities are usually changing, the FLA problem fea-tures uncertainty. To account for this uncertainty, some researchers have addressed the fuzzy profit and cost issues of FLA. However, a decision-maker needs to reach a specific profit, minimizing the cost to target customers. To handle this issue it is essential to propose an effective fuzzy cost-profit tradeoff approach of FLA. Moreover, some regional constraints can greatly influence FLA. By taking a vehicle inspection station as a typical automotive service enterprise example, and combined with the credibility measure of fuzzy set theory, this work presents new fuzzy cost-profit tradeoff FLA models with regional constraints. A hybrid algorithm integrating fuzzy simulation and genetic algorithms (GA) is proposed to solve the proposed models. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed models and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. 40 CFR 52.2035 - Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Stations (PAMS) Program. 52.2035 Section 52.2035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Pennsylvania § 52.2035 Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Program. On September 23, 1994... (PAMS) Program as a state implementation plan (SIP) revision, as required by section 182(c)(1) of...

  12. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  13. Predicting origins of passerines migrating through Canadian migration monitoring stations using stable-hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers: a new tool for bird conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson, Keith A.; Steve L. Van Wilgenburg; Dunn, Erica H.; Hussell, David J. T.; Taylor, Philip D; Douglas M. Collister

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (CMMN) consists of standardized observation and migration count stations located largely along Canada's southern border. A major purpose of CMMN is to detect population trends of migratory passerines that breed primarily in the boreal forest and are otherwise poorly monitored by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). A primary limitation of this approach to monitoring is that it is currently not clear which geographic regions of the boreal for...

  14. Design of sampling locations for river water quality monitoring considering seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar; Ghosh, N C

    2015-06-01

    The design of a water quality monitoring network (WQMN) is a complicated decision-making process because each sampling involves high installation, operational, and maintenance costs. Therefore, data with the highest information content should be collected. The effect of seasonal variation in point and diffuse pollution loadings on river water quality may have a significant impact on the optimal selection of sampling locations, but this possible effect has never been addressed in the evaluation and design of monitoring networks. The present study proposes a systematic approach for siting an optimal number and location of river water quality sampling stations based on seasonal or monsoonal variations in both point and diffuse pollution loadings. The proposed approach conceptualizes water quality monitoring as a two-stage process; the first stage of which is to consider all potential water quality sampling sites, selected based on the existing guidelines or frameworks, and the locations of both point and diffuse pollution sources. The monitoring at all sampling sites thus identified should be continued for an adequate period of time to account for the effect of the monsoon season. In the second stage, the monitoring network is then designed separately for monsoon and non-monsoon periods by optimizing the number and locations of sampling sites, using a modified Sanders approach. The impacts of human interventions on the design of the sampling net are quantified geospatially by estimating diffuse pollution loads and verified with land use map. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the Kali River basin in the western Uttar Pradesh state of India was selected as a study area. The final design suggests consequential pre- and post-monsoonal changes in the location and priority of water quality monitoring stations based on the seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loadings.

  15. Optical Multi-Gas Monitor Technology Demonstration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Johnson, Michael D.; Mudgett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs a suite of portable and permanently located gas monitors to insure crew health and safety. These sensors are tasked with functions ranging from fixed mass spectrometer based major constituents analysis to portable electrochemical sensor based combustion product monitoring. An all optical multigas sensor is being developed that can provide the specificity of a mass spectrometer with the portability of an electrochemical cell. The technology, developed under the Small Business Innovation Research program, allows for an architecture that is rugged, compact and low power. A four gas version called the Multi-Gas Monitor was launched to ISS in November 2013 aboard Soyuz and activated in February 2014. The portable instrument is comprised of a major constituents analyzer (water vapor, carbon dioxide, oxygen) and high dynamic range real-time ammonia sensor. All species are sensed inside the same enhanced path length optical cell with a separate vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) targeted at each species. The prototype is controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The optical and electronic approaches are designed for scalability and future versions could add three important acid gases and carbon monoxide combustion product gases to the four species already sensed. Results obtained to date from the technology demonstration on ISS are presented and discussed.

  16. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolás, J.F., E-mail: j.nicolas@umh.es [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Crespo, J.; Yubero, E.; Soler, R. [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution (LCA), Miguel Hernández University, Av. de la Universidad s/n, Edif. Alcudia, 03202 Elche (Spain); Carratalá, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Parque Tecnológico, C/Charles R. Darwin 14, E-46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25–1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm{sup − 3}, was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm{sup − 3}). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5–2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1 cm{sup − 3} at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of > 4.0 cm{sup − 3}, than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O{sub 3} levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3–17%) with respect to its mean

  17. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afeni

    using total station start with staffing and budget, in addition to systems design and ... different survey methods and equipment) have great influence in selection of .... If the point is not too high for a hydraulic water hose to reach, the prism can be .... decisions and design changes with supporting evidence (i.e. planned versus ...

  18. Monitoring of the Atmosphere on the International Space Station with the Air Quality Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Loh, Leslie J.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    During the early years of human spaceflight, short duration missions allowed for monitoring of the spacecraft environment to be performed via archival sampling, in which samples were returned to Earth for analysis. With the construction of the International Space Station (ISS) and the accompanying extended mission durations, the need for enhanced, real-time monitors became apparent. The Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA) operated on ISS for 7 years, where it assessed trace volatile organic compounds in the cabin air. The large and fixed-position VOA was eventually replaced with the smaller Air Quality Monitor (AQM). Since March 2013, the atmosphere of the U.S. Operating Segment (USOS) has been monitored in near real-time by a pair of AQMs. These devices consist of a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled with a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) and currently target detection list of 22 compounds. These targets are of importance to both crew health and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on ISS. Data is collected autonomously every 73 hours, though the units can be controlled remotely from mission control to collect data more frequently during contingency or troubleshooting operations. Due to a nominal three-year lifetime on-orbit, the initial units were replaced in February 2016. This paper will focus on the preparation and use of the AQMs over the past several years. A description of the technical aspects of the AQM will be followed by lessons learned from the deployment and operation of the first set of AQMs. These lessons were used to improve the already-excellent performance of the instruments prior to deployment of the replacement units. Data trending over the past several years of operation on ISS will also be discussed, including data obtained during a survey of the USOS modules. Finally, a description of AQM use for contingency and investigative studies will be presented.

  19. A Multicriteria Approach for the Optimal Location of Gasoline Stations Being Transformed as Self-Service in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Pen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Location selection significantly influences business success. In particular, location selection for the fuel stations is characterized by constraints on investment in facilities and by criteria that involve a series of social utilities. Recently, a leading fuel company in Taiwan initiated transforming its traditional gas stations into self-service. However, it is difficult to select an existing station to be transformed as self-service because there are many conflicting goals in the problem of location selection. In this paper, we apply a multicriteria approach, integrating analytic hierarchy process (AHP and multichoice goal programming (MCGP, to obtain an appropriate gas station from many alternative locations that best suit the preferences of decision-makers in the case company. This study incorporates the weights obtained from AHP to set multiple aspirations in MCGP for ranking each candidate location. The results show that, under multiple quantitative and qualitative factors in the selection process, our proposed model is more scientific and efficient than unaided methods in finding a suitable location within a shorter evaluation time.

  20. A comprehensive network of measuring stations to monitor climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, P. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Andreae, M. (Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)); Kabat, P. (Wageningen Univ. and Research Centre (Netherlands)); Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature have been rather stable at the time scale of millennia, although rather large variations have occurred during longer periods. The extensive use of fossil fuels and destruction of forests have recently increased the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Temperature and circulation of water on the globe are reacting to the increase in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. Mankind urgently needs knowledge on the present climate change and on its effects on living nature. We propose that a network of comprehensive measuring stations should be constructed, utilizing modern technology to provide documentation of the climate change and data for research related to it. To be able to cover spatial and temporal variations, a hierarchy of stations is needed. (orig.)

  1. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  2. OCEAN-BOTTOM BROADBAND SEISMIC STATIONS AS TOOLS TO IDENTIFY AND MONITOR SEISMIC HAZARD IN COASTAL ZONES (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean-bottom broadband seismic stations (OBSs) are installed at the interface of the solid earth and the ocean. As such, they are sensitive to the processes that originate in the solid earth (e.g., earthquakes), ocean (e.g., tsunamis), and even atmosphere (e.g., cyclones). Observations of ground motions at the OBSs can therefore be used to study and monitor processes that contribute to hazards in the coastal zones. These processes include earthquakes, underwater landslides, underwater volcanoes, and tsunamis. Numerous offshore faults are located too far from the shore for their background seismicity to be studied by land seismic stations alone, yet they are capable of generating large earthquakes that can threaten coastal communities. OBSs can record offshore seismicity that would be missed by relying only on the land stations. OBS data can also significantly improve locations and source mechanism determination for stronger offshore events that are observed on the land stations as they can significantly improve azimuthal coverage. As such, OBSs are essential for identifying seismic hazard from offshore faults. In addition, nearshore OBSs can improve studies of earthquakes on the land faults, in particular when the faults are located close to the ocean, resulting in limited azimuthal coverage provided by land stations alone. OBSs can also provide information about the offshore subsurface velocity structure, which can significantly affect the amount of shaking in the coastal regions. Velocity structure can be determined by compliance analysis that takes advantage of the seafloor deformation due to infragravity waves (long-period ocean surface waves). Reliable offshore velocity models are needed for modeling seismic wave propagation and for subsequent modeling of the amount of shaking expected in the coastal regions due to strong local and regional offshore earthquakes. We will present examples from the permanent ocean-bottom broadband seismic station MOBB located at

  3. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  4. Sewerage Pumping Stations, City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City of Brunswick., Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of unknown. City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City...

  5. Continuous wavelet transform analysis and modal location analysis acoustic emission source location for nuclear piping crack growth monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Shukri [Nondestructive Testing Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Holford, Karen M.; Pullin, Rhys [Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, CARDIFF CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-12

    Source location is an important feature of acoustic emission (AE) damage monitoring in nuclear piping. The ability to accurately locate sources can assist in source characterisation and early warning of failure. This paper describe the development of a novelAE source location technique termed 'Wavelet Transform analysis and Modal Location (WTML)' based on Lamb wave theory and time-frequency analysis that can be used for global monitoring of plate like steel structures. Source location was performed on a steel pipe of 1500 mm long and 220 mm outer diameter with nominal thickness of 5 mm under a planar location test setup using H-N sources. The accuracy of the new technique was compared with other AE source location methods such as the time of arrival (TOA) techniqueand DeltaTlocation. Theresults of the study show that the WTML method produces more accurate location resultscompared with TOA and triple point filtering location methods. The accuracy of the WTML approach is comparable with the deltaT location method but requires no initial acoustic calibration of the structure.

  6. Building a panel data set on fuel stations located in the Spanish regional areas of Madrid and Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Jacint; Ripollés, Jordi

    2016-06-01

    The data described in this article were collected daily over the period June 10, 2010, to November 25, 2012, from the website of the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. The database includes information about fuel stations regarding to their prices (both gross and net of taxes), brand, location (latitude and longitude), and postal code in the Spanish provinces of Madrid and Barcelona. Moreover, obtaining the postal codes has allowed us to select those stations that are operating within the metropolitan areas of Madrid and Barcelona. By considering those fuel stations that uninterruptedly provided prices during the entire period, the data can be especially useful to explore the dynamics of prices in fuel markets. This is the case of Balaguer and Ripollés (2016), "Asymmetric fuel price responses under heterogeneity" [1], who, taking into account the presence of the potential heterogeneity of the behaviour of fuel stations, used this statistical information to perform an analysis on asymmetric fuel price responses.

  7. Impacts on particles and ozone by transport processes recorded at urban and high-altitude monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Yubero, E; Soler, R; Carratalá, A; Mantilla, E

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle transport episodes on particle number concentration temporal trends at both urban and high-altitude (Aitana peak-1558 m a.s.l.) stations, a simultaneous sampling campaign from October 2011 to September 2012 was performed. The monitoring stations are located in southeastern Spain, close to the Mediterranean coast. The annual average value of particle concentration obtained in the larger accumulation mode (size range 0.25-1 μm) at the mountain site, 55.0 ± 3.0 cm(-3), was practically half that of the value obtained at the urban station (112.0 ± 4.0 cm(-3)). The largest difference between both stations was recorded during December 2011 and January 2012, when particles at the mountain station registered the lowest values. It was observed that during urban stagnant episodes, particle transport from urban sites to the mountain station could take place under specific atmospheric conditions. During these transports, the major particle transfer is produced in the 0.5-2 μm size range. The minimum difference between stations was recorded in summer, particularly in July 2012, which is most likely due to several particle transport events that affected only the mountain station. The particle concentration in the coarse mode was very similar at both monitoring sites, with the biggest difference being recorded during the summer months, 0.4 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the urban site and 0.9 ± 0.1cm(-3) at the Aitana peak in August 2012. Saharan dust outbreaks were the main factor responsible for these values during summer time. The regional station was affected more by these outbreaks, recording values of >4.0 cm(-3), than the urban site. This long-range particle transport from the Sahara desert also had an effect upon O3 levels measured at the mountain station. During periods affected by Saharan dust outbreaks, ozone levels underwent a significant decrease (3-17%) with respect to its mean value.

  8. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2012-01-01

    for electric vehicles on a traffic network with flow-based demand. The objective is to optimize the network performance, for example to maximize the flow covered by a prefixed number of stations, or to minimize the number of stations needed to cover traffic flows. Two mixed integer linear programming...... formulations are proposed to model the problem. These models are tested on real-life traffic data collected in Denmark. Computational results are presented....

  9. U.S. EPA OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS (ROCKY GAP, MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator (OWL): uses linear regression to fit a plane to the elevation of the water table in monitoring wells in each round of sampling. The slope of the plane fit to the water table is used to predict the direction and gradient of ground water flow. Along with ...

  10. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  11. Third harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on quiet days at Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Richharia

    2007-06-01

    The cosmic ray (CR) intensity data recorded in Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station have been investigated on quietest days (QD) for third harmonics of daily variation during solar cycles 21 and 22. It has been observed that in spite of abrupt change in the amplitude and phase of tri-diurnal anisotropy in CR intensity, the amplitude is quite significant throughout the period of investigation with larger amplitude during the years 1980 and 1985. Thus, tri-diurnal anisotropy clearly shows 11-year variation at the mid latitude neutron monitoring station.

  12. The Research and Implementation of Three Stages Traffic Stations Intelligent Monitor Systems Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-ying, Chen; Ting, Xiao; WangTao; Jin-yi, He

    This system used three stage intelligent traffic station subsystems to forecast the path on which vehicle will go. First stage subsystem can forecast road node which adjacented to traffic station. Second stage subsystem was designed for bigger area, for example city, the third stage subsystem was for the larger area between city. Second stage subsystem system used A* based on orientation to calculate shortest path, third stage subsystem calculated critical node of a large area. The system can compose dispersed monitor information, forecast vehicle path, dynamic analysis, hierarchical monitor .It played an important role in ITS.

  13. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  14. A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravallika. K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Observing individual locations with a capable untrusted server impose secrecy threats to the monitored individuals. In this paper we propose “A Novel Solitude Conserving Location Monitoring approach for Wireless Sensor networks”. We design two approaches to study nondescript locations in-network approaches, namely quality-aware and resource-aware approaches, that aims to enable the system to give high end quality location monitoring services for end users, while conserving personal location privacy. Both approaches are worked based on k-anonymity solitude (i.e.,an object is indistinguishable among k objects, to enable highly trusted sensor nodes to provide the collective location data of monitored objects for our system. Each collective location is in a form of a observed area X along with the number of monitored objects reside in X. The resource-aware approach objective to optimize the computational and communication value, while quality-aware approach aims to increase the reliability of the collective location data by reducing their observing areas. We use spatial histogram methodology to estimates the distribution of observing objects based on the gathered collective location data. We evaluated these two approaches through simulated experiments. The simulation results shows that these approaches gives high quality location observing services for end users and assure the location secrecy of the monitored objects.

  15. On the identification of representative in situ soil moisture monitoring stations for the validation of SMAP soil moisture products in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Mei Sun; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Monerris, Alessandra; Rüdiger, Christoph; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2016-06-01

    The high spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture complicates the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture products using in situ monitoring stations. Therefore, a standard methodology for selecting the most representative stations for the purpose of validating satellites and land surface models is essential. Based on temporal stability and geostatistical studies using long-term soil moisture records, intensive ground measurements and airborne soil moisture products, this study investigates the representativeness of soil moisture monitoring stations within the Yanco study area for the validation of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products at 3 km for radar, 9 km for radar-radiometer and 36 km for radiometer pixels. This resulted in the identification of a number of representative stations according to the different scales. Although the temporal stability method was found to be suitable for identifying representative stations, stations based on the mean relative difference (MRD) were not necessarily the most representative of the areal average. Moreover, those identified from standard deviation of the relative difference (SDRD) may be dry-biased. It was also found that in the presence of heterogeneous land use, stations should be weighted based on proportions of agricultural land. Airborne soil moisture products were also shown to provide useful a priori information for identifying representative locations. Finally, recommendations are made regarding the design of future networks for satellite validation, and specifically the most representative stations for the Yanco area.

  16. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  17. Development of a mobile and high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, M.; Haszpra, L.; Major, I.; Svingor, É.; Veres, M.

    2009-04-01

    measured at 2 m above the ground by the monitoring station. Air is pumped through a 9.5-mm-diameter plastic tube (PFA, Swagelok) to a CO2 analyser located in a container box. Container box (Containex) is 1.5 m wide, 1.2 m deep and 2.2 m high, designed as a mobile measuring room which is field deployable, only electric power is required. A 15 micron pore size stainless steel Tee-Type (Swagelok) particle filter is located at the inlet of the sampler tube. Diaphragm pump (KNF) is used to draw air continuously through the sampling tube from monitoring level at flow rate of ~ 2 L/min. After leaving the pump, the air at 5 psig overpressure enters a glass trap for liquid water that is cooled in a regular household refrigerator, to dry the air to a dew point of 3°-4°C. Liquid water is forced out through an orifice at the bottom of the trap. The air sample inlet tube and the standard gases (Linde Hungary) are connected to miniature solenoid valves (S Series, ASCO Numatics) in a manifold which are normally closed and controlled by the CO2 analyser, which selects which gas is sampled. The air leaving the manifold through its common outlet is further dried to a dew point of about -25°C by passage through a 360-cm-long Nafion drier (Permapure), so that the water vapour interference and dilution effect are rate of 300 cm3/min is maintained by a mass flow controller (Aalborg). The reference cell of the CO2 analyzer is continuously flushed with a compressed reference gas of 350 ppm CO2 in synthetic air (Messer Hungarogáz). The basic calibration cycle is 2 hours, consisting of a zero-point calibration and a span calibration. Each calibration is consisting of 2 min flushing and 20 sec signal integration. The usual change of the response function is below 0.2 ppm after 2 hours following a previous calibration. The analyser measures the CO2 mixing ratio in the sample gas in every 3 seconds. Output data are registered by a data logger developed for this application (Special Control Devices

  18. Geo-technical Instrumentation And Monitoring For Tuen Mun Station, West Railway, Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Geo-technical instrumentation and monitoring is very important for the construction of civil works in urban area, by which the affect or even damage to the existing building and underground utilities in the working site or vicinity caused by construction activities can be predicted. During the construction of Tuen Mun station, West Railway, Hong Kong, series of Geo-technical instruments were installed and monitored in time, and the monitoring data were transferred to the Geo-technical Monitoring System in the headquarter of the Employer promptly. Meanwhile, the alarming data were responded immediately and the modified construction methods have been adopted to avoid the damage to the building and underground utility in working site to ensure the smooth construction of the station.

  19. Intelligent Garbage Location Monitoring using Remote Server and Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sam Geo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid Waste Management is a serious global issue in the current world. An efficient waste management is a pre requisition for maintain a safe and green environment as there are increasing all kinds of waste disposal. In this paper a new approach is developed for a systematic development in managing solid waste. Garbage Location is identified by using the GPS device installed and the coordinates are send to the corresponding mobile with GPRS module. The prototype developed in this project can be further improved and used for commercial purpose

  20. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P risk of admission per 10 ug/m3 increment in PM10. Exposure to CO and PM10 increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

  1. Waveforms clustering and single-station location of microearthquake multiplets recorded in the northern Sicilian offshore region

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Mangano, Giorgio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Luzio, Dario

    2013-09-01

    In 2009 December, the OBSLab-INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) deployed an Ocean Bottom Seismometer with Hydrophone (OBS/H) near the epicentral area of the main shock of the Palermo seismic sequence of 2002. The monitoring activity had a total duration of about 8 months. During this experiment, the OBS/H recorded 247 very local microearthquakes, whose local magnitude is between -0.5 and 2.5 and TS - TP delay time between 0.2 and 5 s, almost all of which were undetected by the Italian National Seismic Network. This local microseismicity has been analysed using an innovative clustering technique that exploits the similarity between the waveforms generated by different events. The clustering technique implemented, based on hierarchical agglomerative algorithms, nearest neighbour technique and dendrogram representation, allowed us to identify nine distinct multiplets characterized by a high degree of similarity between the waveforms. The microevents were located through an improved single-station location (SSL) technique based on the polarization analysis of the 3C signals and on the estimation of the TS - TP time. In the new SSL technique, an unbiased covariance matrix was defined and a ray tracer-based determination of the epicentral distance and hypocentral depth was proposed. All the multiplets were generated by events with hypocentres that were very close to each other. However, not all the identified clusters are also clustered in the time-magnitude domain. It was also observed that some multiplets have clouds of hypocentres overlapping each other. These clusters, indistinguishable without the application of a waveforms clustering technique, show differences in the waveforms that must be attributed to differences in the focal mechanisms which generated the waveforms. The local seismic events recorded are typical of a seismicity generated by a volume characterized by a highly complex fracturing pattern and by an important role in the dynamics

  2. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  3. Numerical modeling and monitoring analysis of Heroísmo station, Metro do Porto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, P.; Sousa, T.; Silva, P.

    2007-01-01

    Metro do Porto is a major light rail infrastructure built in the city of Porto and surrounding municipalities. In Porto's downtown, classified by UNESCO as World Heritage, the metro was built underground. From a technical point of view, one of the most challenging underground metro stations due...... to the geomechanical unique heterogeneous characteristics of the granite rock mass in the Heroísmo station. This station was the first to be built. To better understand the behaviour and interaction of the structures with the surrounding rock masses numerical models were carried out. The geomechanical properties...... of the granite formations were given by the designer and also obtained through the software GEOPAT. The models' outputs were compared with the monitored results in order to validate the structural behaviour of the underground station....

  4. Real-time processing of interferograms for monitoring protein crystal growth on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.; Dupuis, N.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using microscopic interferometric techniques to monitor the growth of protein crystals on the Space Station is studied. Digital image processing techniques are used to develop a system for the real-time analysis of microscopic interferograms of nucleation sites during protein crystal growth. Features of the optical setup and the image processing system are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  5. Real-time processing of interferograms for monitoring protein crystal growth on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.; Dupuis, N.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using microscopic interferometric techniques to monitor the growth of protein crystals on the Space Station is studied. Digital image processing techniques are used to develop a system for the real-time analysis of microscopic interferograms of nucleation sites during protein crystal growth. Features of the optical setup and the image processing system are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  6. Parabolic stationing method application to intertidal shellfish (Sinonovacula constricta) and growing waters microbiological monitoring in Yueqing Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Liu, Huan; Xu, Dan; Gu, Beiqiao

    2017-03-15

    This study reported microbiological monitoring by parabolic stationing method for S. constricta and their growing waters, and application for the first time in Yueqing Bay, China. The results indicated that numbers of Escherichia coli and aerobic colony count in S. constricta flesh showed an approximate 'parabola' distribution across the whole shellfish bed. Numbers of faecal coliform in seawater samples were significantly higher in the top of the bay, and lower in the lower half of the bay, whilst higher located in the edge of the bay than the center in contrast to three sampling sites on the same latitude. Numbers of total bacterial count were not significantly correlated with faecal coliform in seawater samples. Finally, the shellfish production areas were classified based on three batches of E. coli monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene isomers emission from Shahreza gas stations in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Esmaelnejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of this study were to monitor the concentration of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX in the ambient air of the city of Shahreza gas stations and to identify the spreading distance of the pollutants from the fueling stations. Materials and Methods: Sampling was carried out from the air of 10 existing fuel stations, (2 compressed natural gas and 8 gasoline and diesel stations and points of 50, 150 and 250 m away from the stations during cold and warm seasons in 2013. Air samples were taken via active sampling process using activated carbon tubes, extracted by carbon disulfide and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionization detector. Results: The averages of all achieved BTEX concentrations were under/around the permitted guideline levels for occupational exposure. According to the ambient air guidelines, the benzene level was much higher than the suggested levels in all the stations. However, the average concentrations of toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene were not exceeded from the standards. The seasonal variation had no influence on the concentrations of BTEX. There was no significant difference between the pollutants concentrations at points 50, 150 and 250 m away from the stations. Conclusions: Fuel stations could be the main sources of volatile organic compounds emission in the city of Shahreza. The number and volume of refueling in the gas stations influence the emission rates. Therefore, it is suggested to take preventive actions such as repairing of pumps and tanks leak and installing vapor return systems at the time of fuel transferring.

  8. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m{sup 3}/h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10{sup -6} Bq/m{sup 3}. The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too 10 refs.

  9. Influence of the faces relative arrangement on the optimal reloading station location and analytical determination of its coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Slobodyanyuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology of the optimal rock mass run-of-mine (RoM stock point determination and research of the influence of faces spatial arrangement on this point. The research represents an overview of current researches, where algorithms of the Fermat-Torricelli-Steiner point are used in order to minimize the logistic processes. The methods of mathematical optimization and analytical geometry were applied. Formulae for the optimal point coordinates determination for a 4 faces were established using the latter methods. Mining technology with use of reloading stations is rather common at the deep iron ore pits. In most cases, when deciding on location of RoM stock, its high-altitude position in space of the pit is primarily taken into account. However, the location of the reloading station in a layout also has a significant influence on technical and economic parameters of open-pit mining operations. The traditional approach, which considers a point of the center of gravity as an optimal point for RoM stock location, does not guarantee the minimum haulage. In mathematics, the Fermat-Torricelli point that provides a minimum distance to the vertices of the triangle is known. It is shown that the minimum haulage is provided when the point of RoM stock location and Fermat-Torricelli point coincide. In terms of open pit mining operations, the development of a method that will determine an optimal point of RoM stock location for a working area with respect to the known coordinates of distinguished points on the basis of new weight factors is of particular practical importance. A two-stage solution to the problem of determining the rational point of RoM stock location (with a minimal transport work for any number of faces is proposed. Such optimal point for RoM stock location reduces the transport work by 10–20 %.

  10. Sequential Optimal Monitoring Network Design using Iterative Kriging for Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, O.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Identification of unknown groundwater pollution source characteristics, in terms of location, magnitude and activity duration is important for designing an effective pollution remediation strategy. Precise source characterization also becomes very important to ascertain liability, and to recover the cost of remediation from parties responsible for the groundwater pollution. Due to the uncertainties in accurately predicting the aquifer response to source flux injection, generally encountered sparsity of concentration observation data in the field, and the non uniqueness in the aquifer response to the subjected hydraulic and chemical stresses, groundwater pollution source characterization remains a challenging task. A scientifically designed pollutant concentration monitoring network becomes imperative for accurate pollutant source characterization. The efficiency of the unknown source locations identification process is largely determined by locations of monitoring wells where the pollutant concentration is observed. The proposed method combines spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and Simulated Annealing as optimization algorithm to find the optimum locations for monitoring wells. Initially, the observed concentration data at few sparsely and arbitrarily distributed wells are used to interpolate the concentration data for the aquifer study area. The concentration information is passed to the optimization algorithm (decision model) as concentration gradient which in turn finds the optimum locations for implementing the next sequence of monitoring wells. Concentration measurement data from these designed monitoring wells and already implemented monitoring network are iteratively used as feedback information for potential groundwater pollution source locations identification. The potential applicability of the developed methodology is demonstrated for an illustrative study area.

  11. TYPES, USES, AND LOCATIONS OF REAL-TIME BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN EUROPE AND THE US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many dffferent types of real-time biological monitoring (fish behavior and current, daphnid dynamic and toximeter, clam monitors, algae, and luminescent bacteria) have been used in several countries (Germany, Netherlands, France, England( and many locations in Europe. Only a few ...

  12. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at Estonian monitoring stations 1994-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treier, K.; Pajuste, K.; Frey, J.

    Monthly and annual means of main anions (SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl -) and summed base cations (Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, Na +) in bulk precipitation were studied at 10 stations during an 8-year monitoring period. The data showed statistically significant decreasing trends in most cases. Average declines of mean annual volume-weighted concentrations for both anions and cations were about two-fold. Despite the decrease, the loads of S and cations are still relatively high in Estonia (about 4-14 kg S ha -1 and 0.6-1.2 keq ha -1, respectively) compared with the loads in Finland and Sweden. Estimated linear decline trends followed the same pattern as annually combusted oil shale from Estonian power plants and emissions of SO 2 and fly ash. Recent trends in chemical composition of bulk precipitation at the monitoring stations reflected economic changes in Estonia as well as transboundary fluxes from neighbouring countries.

  13. US8,994,532 "Data Center Equipment Location and Monitoring System"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A data center equipment location system includes both hardware and software to provide for location, monitoring, security and identification of servers and other equipment in equipment racks. The system provides a wired alternative to the wireless RFID tag system by using electronic ID tags...

  14. 40 CFR 141.605 - Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... location recommendations. 141.605 Section 141.605 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... System Evaluations § 141.605 Subpart V compliance monitoring location recommendations. (a) Your IDSE... the criteria in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section. (b) You must select the number...

  15. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight cal...

  16. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  17. The role of Environmental Health System air quality monitors in Space Station Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Wilson, Steve; Perlot, Susan; James, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health System's air-quality monitoring strategy and instrumentation. A two-tier system has been developed, consisting of first-alert instruments that warn the crew of airborne contamination and a volatile organic analyzer that can identify volatile organic contaminants in near-real time. The strategy for air quality monitoring on SSF is designed to provide early detection so that the contamination can be confined to one module and so that crew health and safety can be protected throughout the contingency event. The use of air-quality monitors in fixed and portable modes will be presented as a means of following the progress of decontamination efforts and ensuring acceptable air quality in a module after an incident. The technology of each instrument will be reviewed briefly; the main focus of this paper, however, will be the use of air-quality monitors before, during, and after contingency incidents.

  18. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  19. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  20. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  1. A mathematical model for the municipal solid waste location-routing problem with intermediate transfer stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Asefi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste management is one of the challenging issues in mega cities due to various interrelated factors such as operational costs and environmental concerns. Cost as one of the most significant constraints of municipal solid waste management can be effectively economized by efficient planning approaches. Considering diverse waste types in an integrated municipal solid waste system, a mathematical model of the location-routing problem is formulated and solved in this study in order to minimize the total cost of transportation and facility establishment.

  2. First Ingv Cnt GPS Permanent Stations for Monitoring Crustal Deformation in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, A.; Anzidei, M.; Casula, G.; Pietrantonio, G.; Riguzzi, F.; Serpelloni, E.

    2004-12-01

    The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in 1999 started to set up a first set of new continuosly operating GPS stations. The aims are to detect the geodinamic pattern at regional scale in the mediterranean area and densify the existing CGPS network belonging to ASI and to support the not permanent networks. Six stations (MAOO INGP RSTO INGR VVLO MTTM) are located in central appennine belt and one (GIBI) in northern Sicily. Geodetic pillars are located in the outcropping geological units and across tha main seismogenic sources of historical and recent eathquakes. Different monuments was planned, depending on local lithology, with 3D self centering system for precise antenna set up designed at INGV Daily 24 hours DAT and RINEX data at 30 sec sampling rate are locally collected by Trimble Reference Station (www.trimble.com) and transferred by telephone line to a server located at INGV. Data are stored in specific directory and compressed by Hatanaka procedures. Data transfer, storage and compression are controlled by automated tasks implemented on Windows operative system. Data are daily quality checked by TEQC software (UNAVCO) and processed with Bernese 4.0 software, producing daily and weekly coordinate solution in sinex format and velocity and strain field solution in sinex format.

  3. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, e911 Towers layer contain weather tower information, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Edwards County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is...

  4. Predicting origins of passerines migrating through Canadian migration monitoring stations using stable-hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers: a new tool for bird conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Hobson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Migration Monitoring Network (CMMN consists of standardized observation and migration count stations located largely along Canada's southern border. A major purpose of CMMN is to detect population trends of migratory passerines that breed primarily in the boreal forest and are otherwise poorly monitored by the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS. A primary limitation of this approach to monitoring is that it is currently not clear which geographic regions of the boreal forest are represented by the trends generated for each bird species at each station or group of stations. Such information on "catchment areas" for CMMN will greatly enhance their value in contributing to understanding causes of population trends, as well as facilitating joint trend analysis for stations with similar catchments. It is now well established that naturally occurring concentrations of deuterium in feathers grown in North America can provide information on their approximate geographic origins, especially latitude. We used stable hydrogen isotope analyses of feathers (δ²Hf from 15 species intercepted at 22 CMMN stations to assign approximate origins to populations moving through stations or groups of stations. We further constrained the potential catchment areas using prior information on potential longitudinal origins based upon bird migration trajectories predicted from band recovery data and known breeding distributions. We detected several cases of differences in catchment area of species passing through sites, and between seasons within species. We discuss the importance of our findings, and future directions for using this approach to assist conservation of migratory birds at continental scales.

  5. Improving the monitoring of quantitative conditions of peacetime fuel stocks at pumping stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša M. Ilić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper has solved the problem of optimizing the existing inefficient and irrational system of the quantitative monitoring of the situation in peacetime fuel supplies at the pumping stations in the Army of Serbia. A study of existing organizational forms, military pumping stations as well as civilian ones, was carried out. Based on the completion of the survey by competent persons in the military, the methods of expert evaluation and the obtained quantitative indicator of the tested models, a multicriteria optimization was performed in order to select the optimal model. The optimization of the existing models, in terms of efficiency and economy, would be the rationalization and modernization - automation of military capacity and greater reliance on automated civilian pumping stations. Introduction Within the framework of the undergoing reform of the Serbian Army and in order to reduce the total costs, it is necessary to optimize the existing supply system that is technologically outdated, inefficient and uneconomic. The problem of research in this paper is reduced to the selection of an optimal model of the quantitative monitoring of the state of peacetime stocks of fuel at the pumping stations in the Serbian Army, in order to ensure economical operation and efficient monitoring of available and issued quantities, aiming at better decision making and management in the supply system as well as at achieving faster system response, with greater reliance on government logistics. Organization of work and monitoring the fuel quantitative status at pumping stations The existing system of monitoring the quantitative state of fuel pumping stations in the Army of Serbia has the following disadvantages: getting unreliable data, due to outdated equipment for fuel handling and measuring equipment, and manual collection of data; creation of unauthorized shortages (due to subjective human error or deception; inadequate engagement of respective material and

  6. The meteorological monitoring system for the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianic, Allan V.

    1994-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) are involved in many weather-sensitive operations. Manned and unmanned vehicle launches, which occur several times each year, are obvious example of operations whose success and safety are dependent upon favorable meteorological conditions. Other operations involving NASA, Air Force, and contractor personnel, including daily operations to maintain facilities, refurbish launch structures, prepare vehicles for launch, and handle hazardous materials, are less publicized but are no less weather-sensitive. The Meteorological Monitoring System (MMS) is a computer network which acquires, processes, disseminates, and monitors near real-time and forecast meteorological information to assist operational personnel and weather forecasters with the task of minimizing the risk to personnel, materials, and the surrounding population. CLIPS has been integrated into the MMS to provide quality control analysis and data monitoring. This paper describes aspects of the MMS relevant to CLIPS including requirements, actual implementation details, and results of performance testing.

  7. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  8. High frequent total station measurements for the monitoring of bridge vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhart, Werner; Ehrhart, Matthias; Grick, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Robotic total stations (RTS) are frequently used for the measurement of temperature induced bridge deformations or during load testing of bridges. In experimental setups, total stations have also been used for the measurement of dynamic bridge deformations. However, with standard configurations the measurement rate is not constant and on average an update rate of 7-10Hz can be achieved. This is not sufficient for the vibration monitoring of bridges considering their natural frequencies which are also in the same range. In this paper, we present different approaches to overcome these problems. In the first two approaches we demonstrate how the measurement rate to prisms can be increased to 20Hz to determine vertical deformations of bridges. Critical aspects like the measurement resolution of the automated target tracking and the correct sequence of steering commands are discussed. In another approach we demonstrate how vertical bridge vibrations can be measured using an image assisted total station (IATS) and corresponding processing techniques. The advantage of image-based methods is that structural features of a bridge like bolts can be used as targets. Therefore, no expensive prisms have to be mounted and access to the bridge is not required. All approaches are verified by laboratory investigations and their suitability is proven in a field experiment on a 74m long footbridge. In this field experiment the natural frequencies derived from the total station measurements are compared to the results of accelerometer measurements.

  9. Long-Range Geo-Monitoring Using Image Assisted Total Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas; Huber, Ben; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Paar, Gerhard

    2014-09-01

    Image Assisted Total Stations (IATS) unify geodetic precision of total stations with areal coverage of images. The concept of using two IATS devices for high-resolution, long-range stereo survey of georisk areas has been investigated in the EU-FP7 project DE-MONTES (www.de-montes.eu). The paper presents the used methodology and compares the main features with other terrestrial geodetic geo-monitoring methods. The theoretically achievable accuracy of the measurement systemis derived and verified by ground truth data of a distant clay pit slope and simulated deformations. It is shown that the stereo IATS concept is able to obtain higher precision in the determination of 3D deformations than other systems of comparable sensor establishment effort.

  10. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  11. Locating the Polar Cap Boundary of Postnoon Sector from Observations of 630.0 nm Auroral Emission at Zhongshan Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We studied the ground observations of 630. 0 nm auroral emission at Zhongshan Station to de-termine the polar cap boundary with the latitudinal profile of emission intensity. The open-closed field lineboundary is assumed to lie at the boundary between polar rain and plasma sheet precipitation. We assumethat nonprecipitation-dependent sources of 630. 0 nm emission cause a spatially uniform luminosity in thepolar cap and that auroral zone luminosity is also spatially uniform. Therefore we determine the locationof the polar cap boundary of postnoon sector from the auroral emission data each time by finding the bestfit of the observations to a step function in latitude and we produce a time series of the location of the polarcap boundary. The average error of the practice in the paper is less than 0. 8 degree.

  12. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  13. Simultaneous monitoring of total gaseous mercury at four urban monitoring stations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Brown, Richard J. C.; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul; Jung, Kweon; Park, Chan-Goo; Kim, Ik-Soo

    2013-10-01

    The monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations together with other trace gases and meteorological parameters was made at hourly intervals over 2-year period (1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011) at four urban monitoring sites: Guro-gu (G), Nowon-gu (N), Songpa-gu (S), and Yongsan-gu (Y) in Seoul, Korea. The mean concentrations of TGM at these sites were found to span the range of 3.28 (Y) to 3.47 ng m- 3 (N). Inspection of the seasonal patterns indicates that the maximum concentrations (ng m- 3) occur at different times of year across the four sites: winter at N (3.67 ± 1.77), fall at S (3.64 ± 1.12), summer at G (3.61 ± 1.51), and spring at Y (3.40 ± 1.26). The long-term trend in Hg concentrations, when also considering data sets from previous studies, suggests modest reductions in concentrations at all four sites, from 2.89 to 4.49 ng m- 3 in 2004 and from 2.49 to 3.42 ng m- 3 in 2011.

  14. Vapor Online Monitor Model of Vapor Power Station Based on UML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We presents a vapor online monitor system model of vapor power station developed by visual tool rational rose2000. Use cases such as on line instrument (onlineinstr), control, query, report, real database (realdb) and alarm are generated according to the system requirements. Use case view and class view of the system are formed at the same time. As for all the UML models of the system, this paper focuses the discussion on the class view, the component diagram of the control class and the sequence diagram of the query class. Corresponding C++ codes are produced and finally transferred into the spot running software.

  15. The physical principles of the combined ELF/VLF method for single-station global location of lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtak, V.; Price, C.; Williams, E.

    Single -station electromagnetic methods for global lightning location are based on specific features of ELF wave propagation. First, ELF waves propagate with an extremely low attenuation not exceeding 1.5 dB/Mm up to 100 Hz. For this reason, the propagation has a resonant character (the Schumann resonance phenomena) imparting a unique pattern to the spectrum of a lightning waveform depending on the parent lightning's location relative to the given observer. The wave impedance technique realized by Kemp and Jones (1971) and widely adopted afterwards eliminates any need for the frequency dependence of the spectral density of the source's current moment for the location purpose. At the same time, an adequate single-mode propagation model can be applied for recovering this dependence and providing additional information about the source. As the only shortcoming of ELF location procedure, considerable error in estimates of the arrival directions of lightning waveforms was revealed by means of the satellite (OTD) identification of parent lightning events. These azimuthal deviations result in global location accuracies of 1-2 Mm (Boccippio et al, 1998) hardly acceptable in many geophysical problems. Price et al. (2002) found similar azimuthal errors in the ELF technique by means of the ground-truth (NLDN) identification of sprite-producing thunderstorms in Colorado when observing atmospherics in the Negev Desert, Israel. The location accuracy had been essentially improved - to better than 0.2 Mm on this 11 Mm path - by combining ELF distance estimates with VLF direction finding. Theoretical considerations show that this improvement is to be explained by a distinction between the ELF and VLF refraction effects at the day-night boundary of the Earth- ionosphere waveguide. While the difference between the day-time and night-time values of the phase velocity in the ELF range reaches 15%, it does not exceed 1% in the VLF range, with a corresponding diminishment of azimuthal

  16. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Charles T. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals...

  17. A New Method to Plan the Capacity and Location of Battery Swapping Station for Electric Vehicle Considering Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to electric vehicle (EV charging mode, battery swapping mode can realize concentrated and orderly charging. Therefore battery swapping stations (BSS can participate in the demand side management (DSM as an integrated form. In this context, a new method to plan the capacity and location of BSS for EV, considering DSM, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, based on the original charging power of BSS with the rule of “First-In First-Out”, a bi-level optimal configuration model of BSS, in which net profit of BSS is maximized in the upper model and operating cost of Distribution Company is minimized in the lower model, is developed to decide the rated power, number of batteries, contract pricing and dispatched power of BSS for DSM. Then, the optimal locating model of BSS with the objective of minimizing network loss is built. A mesh adaptive direct search algorithm with YALMIP toolbox is applied to optimize the bi-level model. Simulation calculation was carried on IEEE-33 nodes distribution system and the results show that participating in DSM can improve the economic benefits of both BSS and distribution network and promote the consumption of distributed generation, verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    being made to locate and retain the services of a replacement vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) but these efforts have been fruitless due to the demand for these resources in the tremendous recovery effort being made in the Gulf area. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The seafloor monitoring station/observatory is funded approximately equally by three federal Agencies: Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of the Interior (DOI), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), an agency of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Subcontractors with FY03 funding fulfilled their technical reporting requirements in the previous report (41628R10). Only unresolved matching funds issues remain and will be addressed in the report of the University of Mississippi's Office of Research and Sponsored Programs.

  19. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  20. Ionospheric delay gradient monitoring for GBAS by GPS stations near Suvarnabhumi airport, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungraengwajiake, Sarawoot; Supnithi, Pornchai; Saito, Susumu; Siansawasdi, Nattapong; Saekow, Apitep

    2015-10-01

    Ground-based augmentation system (GBAS) is an important augmentation system that provides the differential corrections and integrity information from the reference stations to the aircrafts for precision approach and landing. It is known that the nonuniform ionospheric characteristics called "ionospheric delay gradient" can cause the errors in differential corrections degrading the accuracy and safety level if they are undetected by the reference stations. Since the characteristics of the ionosphere are different for each region, the ionospheric delay gradient observations in equatorial and low-latitude regions are necessary for developing the suitable ionospheric threat models. The purpose of this work is to analyze the ionospheric delay gradients observed by three GPS stations near Suvarnabhumi airport in Bangkok, Thailand, which is located in the low-latitude region. The ionospheric irregularities in this region are mainly caused by the plasma bubble, which usually occurs after sunset. The GPS data with plasma bubble occurrence during the September equinox 2011 and 2012 are therefore analyzed. In addition, the data analysis procedure utilizing the rate of total electron content change index for this region is proposed. The results show that the ionospheric delay gradients observed in the west-east direction appear higher than the south-north direction, varying from 28 to 178 mm/km during plasma bubble occurrences.

  1. Variability in rainfall at monitoring stations and derivation of a long-term rainfall intensity record in the Grand Canyon Region, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Joshua; Sankey, Joel B.

    2016-04-11

    In this study, we examine rainfall datasets of varying temporal length, resolution, and spatial distribution to characterize rainfall depth, intensity, and seasonality for monitoring stations along the Colorado River within Marble and Grand Canyons. We identify maximum separation distances between stations at which rainfall measurements might be most useful for inferring rainfall characteristics at other locations. We demonstrate a method for applying relations between daily rainfall depth and intensity, from short-term high-resolution data to lower-resolution longer-term data, to synthesize a long-term record of daily rainfall intensity from 1950–2012. We consider the implications of our spatio-temporal characterization of rainfall for understanding local landscape change in sedimentary deposits and archaeological sites, and for better characterizing past and present rainfall and its potential role in overland flow erosion within the canyons. We find that rainfall measured at stations within the river corridor is spatially correlated at separation distances of tens of kilometers, and is not correlated at the large elevation differences that separate stations along the Colorado River from stations above the canyon rim. These results provide guidance for reasonable separation distances at which rainfall measurements at stations within the Grand Canyon region might be used to infer rainfall at other nearby locations along the river. Like other rugged landscapes, spatial variability between rainfall measured at monitoring stations appears to be influenced by canyon and rim physiography and elevation, with preliminary results suggesting the highest elevation landform in the region, the Kaibab Plateau, may function as an important orographic influence. Stations at specific locations within the canyons and along the river, such as in southern (lower) Marble Canyon and eastern (upper) Grand Canyon, appear to have strong potential to receive high-intensity rainfall that

  2. Fire Stations, Fire Station point locations in Iredell County, NC, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as 'Fire...

  3. Waste Transfer Stations, Waste Transfer Station point locations within Iredell County, NC, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Waste Transfer Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described...

  4. Fire Stations, Fire Station Locations for La Crosse County, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, LaCrosse County Zoning Planning & Land Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Stations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2002. It is described...

  5. Police Stations, Police Station Address Locations, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Jefferson County Land Information Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Stations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described...

  6. Fire Stations, Fire Station Address Locations, Published in 2006, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Jefferson County Land Information Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Stations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described...

  7. Locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems using embedded optimization and simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi-Azghadi, Seyyed Nasser; Kerachian, Reza

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for optimally locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems in order to identify an unknown pollution source using monitoring data. The methodology is comprised of two different single and multi-objective optimization models, a Monte Carlo analysis, MODFLOW, MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models and a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM). The single-objective optimization model, which uses the results of the Monte Carlo analysis and maximizes the reliability of contamination detection, provides the initial location of monitoring wells. The objective functions of the multi-objective optimization model are minimizing the monitoring cost, i.e. the number of monitoring wells, maximizing the reliability of contamination detection and maximizing the probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. The PSVMs are calibrated and verified using the results of the single-objective optimization model and the Monte Carlo analysis. Then, the PSVMs are linked with the multi-objective optimization model, which maximizes both the reliability of contamination detection and probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. To evaluate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methodology, it is applied to Tehran Refinery in Iran.

  8. A stochastic method for optimal location of groundwater monitoring sites at aquifer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, E.; Passarella, G.

    2009-04-01

    With the growth of public environmental awareness and the improvement in national and EU legislation regarding the environment, monitoring assumed great importance in the frame of all managerial activities related to territories. In particular, recently, a number of public environmental agencies have invested great resources in planning and operating improvements on existing monitoring networks within their regions. In this framework, and, at the light of the Water Framework Directive, the optimal monitoring of the qualitative and quantitative state of groundwater becomes a priority, particularly, when severe economic constraints must be imposed and the territory to be monitored is quite wide. There are a lot of reasons justifying the optimal extension of a monitoring network. In fact, a modest coverage of the monitored area often makes impossible to provide the manager with a sufficient knowledge for decision-making processes. In general, monitoring networks are characterized by a scarce number of existing wells, irregularly spread over the considered area. This is a typical case of optimization and it may be solved seeking among existing, but unused, wells, all and only those able to make the monitoring network coverage, the most uniform among any arrangement. Using existing wells as new monitoring sites, allows one to drastically reduce the needed budget. In this paper, a four step method, based on simulated annealing, has been implemented with the aim of identifying scarcely monitored zones within the groundwater system boundaries. The steps are the following: I. Define aquifer boundaries, number and location of the existing monitoring sites and number and location of candidate new monitoring sites. Any constraint about the network size, and wells' location and characteristics need also to be identified at this step; II. Carry out stochastic simulations producing a large number of possible realizations of the improved monitoring network and choose the transient

  9. Research and Practice on the Crustal Deformation Mobile Monitoring Network Layout in the Hydropower Station Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Hong; Liu Tianhai; Zhang Jincheng; Zhang Chengqiang; Yu Haisheng; Sun Baicheng; Yang Huaining; Du Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    According to the construction project of the crustal deformation mobile monitoring network in the cascade hydropower stations built in the lower reaches of Jinsha River,this paper analyzes the design ideas and layout principles of crustal deformation mobile monitoring used in the monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.This paper introduces three types of monitoring networks used in the Xiluodu reservoir and Xiangjiaba reservoir,as well as the work already undertaken,in order to provide a kind of reference for the reiated engineering construction and comprehensive monitoring of reservoir induced earthquakes.

  10. Expansion of Microbial Monitoring Capabilities on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Oubre, Cherie; Castro, Victoria; Flint, Stephanie; Melendez, Orlando; Ott, C. Mark; Roman, Monsi

    2017-01-01

    Microbial monitoring is one of the tools that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses on the International Space Station (ISS) to help maintain crew health and safety. In combination with regular housekeeping and disinfection when needed, microbial monitoring provides important information to the crew about the quality of the environment. Rotation of astronauts, equipment, and cargo on the ISS can affect the microbial load in the air, surfaces, and water. The current ISS microbial monitoring methods are focused on culture-based enumeration during flight and require a significant amount of crew time as well as long incubation periods of up to 5 days there by proliferating potential pathogens. In addition, the samples require return to Earth for complete identification of the microorganisms cultivated. Although the current approach assess the quality of the ISS environment, molecular technology offers faster turn-around of information particularly beneficial in an off-nominal situation. In 2011, subject matter experts from industry and academia recommended implementation of molecular-based technologies such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for evaluation to replace current, culture-based technologies. The RAZOR EX (BioFire Defense, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT) a ruggedized, compact, COTS (commercial off the shelf) qPCR instrument was tested, evaluated and selected in the 2 X 2015 JSC rapid flight hardware demonstration initiative as part of the Water Monitoring Suite. RAZOR EX was launched to ISS on SpaceX-9 in July 2016 to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the hardware by testing various concentrations of DNA in microgravity compared to ground controls. Flight testing was completed between September 2016 and March 2017. Data presented will detail the hardware performance of flight testing results compared to ground controls. Future goals include additional operational ground-based testing and assay development to

  11. GULF OF MEXICO SEAFLOOR STABILITY AND GAS HYDRATE MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Robin C. Buchannon

    2004-11-01

    The gas hydrates research Consortium (HRC), established and administered at the University if Mississippi's Center for Marine Research and Environmental Technology (CMRET) has been active on many fronts in FY 03. Extension of the original contract through March 2004, has allowed completion of many projects that were incomplete at the end of the original project period due, primarily, to severe weather and difficulties in rescheduling test cruises. The primary objective of the Consortium, to design and emplace a remote sea floor station for the monitoring of gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005 remains intact. However, the possibility of levering HRC research off of the Joint Industries Program (JIP) became a possibility that has demanded reevaluation of some of the fundamental assumptions of the station format. These provisions are discussed in Appendix A. Landmark achievements of FY03 include: (1) Continuation of Consortium development with new researchers and additional areas of research contribution being incorporated into the project. During this period, NOAA's National Undersea Research Program's (NURP) National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST) became a Consortium funding partner, joining DOE and Minerals Management Service (MMS); (2) Very successful annual and semiannual meetings in Oxford Mississippi in February and September, 2003; (3) Collection of piston cores from MC798 in support of the effort to evaluate the site for possible monitoring station installation; (4) Completion of the site evaluation effort including reports of all localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico where hydrates have been documented or are strongly suspected to exist on the sea floor or in the shallow subsurface; (5) Collection and preliminary evaluation of vent gases and core samples of hydrate from sites in Green Canyon and Mississippi Canyon, northern Gulf of Mexico; (6) Monitoring of gas activity on the sea floor, acoustically

  12. Bacterial monitoring with adhesive sheet in the international space station-"Kibo", the Japanese experiment module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Tomoaki; Hieda, Hatsuki; Ishihara, Rie; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological monitoring is important to assure microbiological safety, especially in long-duration space habitation. We have been continuously monitoring the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the International Space Station (ISS)-"Kibo" module to accumulate knowledge on microbes in the ISS. In this study, we used a new sampling device, a microbe-collecting adhesive sheet developed in our laboratory. This adhesive sheet has high operability, needs no water for sampling, and is easy to transport and store. We first validated the adhesive sheet as a sampling device to be used in a space habitat with regard to the stability of the bacterial number on the sheet during prolonged storage of up to 12 months. Bacterial abundance on the surfaces in Kibo was then determined and was lower than on the surfaces in our laboratory (10(5) cells [cm(2)](-1)), except for the return air grill, and the bacteria detected in Kibo were human skin microflora. From these aspects of microbial abundance and their phylogenetic affiliation, we concluded that Kibo has been microbiologically well maintained; however, microbial abundance may increase with the prolonged stay of astronauts. To ensure crew safety and understand bacterial dynamics in space habitation environments, continuous bacterial monitoring in Kibo is required.

  13. The JPL Electronic Nose: Monitoring Air in the US Lab on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Manatt, K. S.; Gluck, S.; Shevade, A. V.; Kisor, A. K.; Zhou, H.; Lara, L. M.; Homer, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose with a sensor array of 32 conductometric sensors has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor breathing air in spacecraft habitat. The Third Generation ENose is designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 - 30 oC, relative humidity from 25 - 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. The monitoring targets are anomalous events such as leaks and spills of solvents, coolants or other fluids. The JPL ENose operated as a technology demonstration for seven months in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny during 2008-2009. Analysis of ENose monitoring data shows that there was regular, periodic rise and fall of humidity and occasional releases of Freon 218 (perfluoropropane), formaldehyde, methanol and ethanol. There were also several events of unknown origin, half of them from the same source. Each event lasted from 20 to 100 minutes, consistent with the air replacement time in the US Lab.

  14. Single-station and single-event marsquake location and inversion for structure using synthetic Martian waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A.; van Driel, M.; Böse, M.; Giardini, D.; Ceylan, S.; Yan, J.; Clinton, J.; Euchner, F.; Lognonné, P.; Murdoch, N.; Mimoun, D.; Panning, M.; Knapmeyer, M.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2016-09-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming InSight mission, which is expected to deploy a single seismic station on the Martian surface in November 2018, we describe a methodology that enables locating marsquakes and obtaining information on the interior structure of Mars. The method works sequentially and is illustrated using single representative 3-component seismograms from two separate events: a relatively large teleseismic event (Mw5.1) and a small-to-moderate-sized regional event (Mw3.8). Location and origin time of the event is determined probabilistically from observations of Rayleigh waves and body-wave arrivals. From the recording of surface waves, averaged fundamental-mode group velocity dispersion data can be extracted and, in combination with body-wave arrival picks, inverted for crust and mantle structure. In the absence of Martian seismic data, we performed full waveform computations using a spectral element method (AxiSEM) to compute seismograms down to a period of 1 s. The model (radial profiles of density, P- and S-wave-speed, and attenuation) used for this purpose is constructed on the basis of an average Martian mantle composition and model areotherm using thermodynamic principles, mineral physics data, and viscoelastic modeling. Noise was added to the synthetic seismic data using an up-to-date noise model that considers a whole series of possible noise sources generated in instrument and lander, including wind-, thermal-, and pressure-induced effects and electromagnetic noise. The examples studied here, which are based on the assumption of spherical symmetry, show that we are able to determine epicentral distance and origin time to accuracies of ∼ 0.5-1° and ± 3-6 s, respectively. For the events and the particular noise level chosen, information on Rayleigh-wave group velocity dispersion in the period range ∼ 14-48 s (Mw5.1) and ∼ 14-34 s (Mw3.8) could be determined. Stochastic inversion of dispersion data in combination with body-wave travel time

  15. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  16. 0-1 integer linear programming model for location selection of fire station: A case study in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Susila

    2016-04-01

    In this research, the minimization of the fire station model is constructed. The maximum time data required by the firefighter is used to construct the minimization model of the fire station in Padang. The model is used to determine the minimum number of the available fire station in Padang town. By using Matlab 2013a, the solution of the model can be found based on the Branch and Bound method. It denotes that the fire station must be built in Lubuk Begalung and Kuranji sub-districts.

  17. New idea of geomagnetic monitoring through ENA detection from the International Space Station: ENAMISS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Anna; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Orsini, Stefano; Rubini, Alda; Evangelista, Yuri; Mura, Alessandro; Rispoli, Rosanna; Vertolli, Nello; Carrubba, Elisa; Donati, Alessandro; Di Lellis, Andrea Maria; Plainaki, Christina; Lazzarotto, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) in the Earth's environment has been proven to be a successful technique able to provide detailed information on the ring current plasma population at energies below 100 keV. Indeed, the existing space weather databases usually include a good coverage of Sun and solar wind monitoring. The global imaging of the Earth's magnetosphere/ ionosphere is usually obtained by the high-latitudes monitoring of aurorae, ground magnetic field variations and high-latitude radio emissions. The equatorial magnetic field variations on ground, from which the geomagnetic indices like Dst, Sym-H and Asym-H are derived, include the effects of all current systems (i.e. ring current, Chapman -Ferraro current, tails currents, etc...) providing a kind of global information. Nevertheless, the specific information related to the ring current cannot be easily derived from such indices. Only occasional local plasma data are available by orbiting spacecraft. ENA detection is the only way to globally view the ring current populations. Up-to-now this technique has been used mainly from dedicated high altitude polar orbiting spacecraft, which do not allow a continuous and systematic monitoring, and a discrimination of the particle latitude distribution. The Energetic Neutral Atoms Monitor on the International space Station (ENAMISS) project intends to develop an ENA imager and install it on the ISS for continuous monitoring of the spatially distributed ring current plasma population. ISS is the ideal platform to perform continuous ENA monitoring since its particular low altitude and medium/low latitude orbit allows wide-field ENA images of various magnetospheric regions. The calibrated ENA data, the deconvolved ion distributions and ad-hoc ENA-based new geomagnetic indices will be freely distributed to the space weather community. Furthermore, new services based on plasma circulation models, spacecraft surface charging models and radiation dose models

  18. Development of ICT for Leaching Monitoring in Taiwan Agricultural LTER Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankuang Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the groundwater subsidy from different cropping systems, leaching monitoring in Taiwan started in 2008 and implemented agricultural long-term ecological research (LTER stations. Initially, leaching data was received by lysimeters, and then collected manually by laborers in the field twice per month. The cost of data collection and transmission is high, real-time monitoring is not possible, and maintenance of instruments is inefficient. In this study, the goal is to develop a data transmission path. ICT (Information and Communication Technology with different data transmission schemes was applied to improve the efficiency and immediacy of data transfer from the field to the databases in labs. Between 2010 and 2017, four versions of ICT have been developed and applied in LTER stations. WiFi, 2.5G (General Packet Radio Service, GPRS, 3G/4G network transmission, and Arduino cores are applied in different ICT versions. The first version of data transmission used data loggers, developed by the original factory, with a lower cost of renovation of instruments. However, complicated transmission paths, diverse instruments, poor weather resistance, and lack of wireless functionality are the limitations of the first version. Those limitations had been overcome by the second and third versions by using 2.5G (GPRS and 3G/4G network transmission, respectively. Nevertheless, these versions are limited to the processes of data compression and encryption transmission which were developed by the system vendors. In addition, data can only be collected through the webpage provided by the vendors, instead of being received directly from the database using SQL (Structured Query Language. This is inappropriate for advanced data treatment, organization, and analysis. Finally, the fourth version of data transmission has been developed using Arduino. This system allows redesigning of the data loggers and transmission instrument with more feasibility and

  19. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-03-26

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program.

  20. Urban Automobile Detection Mode and Detection Station Location Optimization%城市机动车检测站检验模式及布局优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 王光超; 马寿峰

    2013-01-01

    The paper put forward a comprehensive vehicle detection mode,which integrates of vehicle security detection,vehicle comprehensive performance detection and vehicle emission detection.Then an automobile detection station layout optimization model is built based on bi-level programming,where the upper level programs to minimize the traffic impact on certain monitored areas (e.g.CBD) by changing location decisions,while the lower level tries to minimized vehicle owner inspection cost with consideration of owner choice behavior.A numerical example is presented to validate the model with the data of Tianjin City,testing results show a great potential to decrease the current location numbers,and improve the integrity of the detection stations in general.The Proposed model also demonstrates some implications to other network optimization researches.%随着经济发展和城市机动车保有量的增加,城市机动车检测服务需求日益增多.本文对我国现有机动车检验模式进行分析,提出基于安全检测、综合检测和环保检测三位一体的综合检验模式.在此基础上,本文集中考虑了机动车检测站布局优化及检测能力扩充问题,综合分析了用户的两种车检服务需求和实际选择行为并作为下层规划约束,以及机动车检测对城市交通特别是特定关注区域(如中心城区)的交通影响作为上层规划目标,建立了双层规划模型.并结合天津市的相关数据验证了模型的有效性,新的布局给出了检测站的保留和能力扩充建议,能大大减少城市实际所需的检测站的数量,提高检测站集成程度.同时本文提出的理论模型对其他如物流场站网络的优化问题也有一定的启示意义.

  1. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  2. Continuous Gravity Monitoring in South America with Superconducting and Absolute Gravimeters: More than 12 years time series at station TIGO/Concepcion (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Hase, Hayo; Armin, Böer; Andreas, Güntner; Rongjiang, Wang

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) of BKG, the superconducting gravimeter SG 038 was set up in December 2002 at station Concepcion / Chile to record temporal gravity variations with highest precision. Since May 2006 the time series was supported by weekly observations with the absolute gravimeter FG5-227, proving the large seasonal variations of up to 30 μGal and establishing a gravity reference station in South America. With the move of the whole observatory to the new location near to La Plata / Argentina the series was terminated. Results of almost continuously monitoring gravity variations for more than 12 years are presented. Seasonal variations are interpreted with respect of global and local water storage changes and the impact of the 8.8 Maule Earthquake in February 2010 is discussed.

  3. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-06-07

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  4. [Mathematical simulation support to the dosimetric monitoring on the Russian segment of the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrikas, V G

    2014-01-01

    To ensure radiation safety of cosmonauts, it is necessary not only to predict, but also to reconstruct absorbed dose dynamics with the knowledge of how long cosmonauts stay in specific space vehicle compartments with different shielding properties and lacking equipment for dosimetric monitoring. In this situation, calculating is one and only way to make a correct estimate of radiation exposure of cosmonaut's organism as a whole (tissue-average dose) and of separate systems and organs. The paper addresses the issues of mathematical simulation of epy radiation environment of standard dosimetric instruments in the Russian segments of the International Space Station (ISS RS). Results of comparing the simulation and experimental data for the complement of dosimeters including ionization chamber-based radiometer R-16, DB8 dosimeters composed of semiconductor detectors, and Pille dosimeters composed of thermoluminescent detectors evidence that the current methods of simulation in support of the ISS RS radiation monitoring provide a sufficiently good agreement between the calculated and experimental data.

  5. Air Pollution Monitoring and Control System for Subway Stations Using Environmental Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Sik Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Seoul uses more energy than any other area in South Korea due to its high population density. It also has high emissions of air pollutants. Since an individual usually spends most of his/her working hours indoors, the ambient air quality refers to indoor air quality. In particular, PM10 concentration in the underground areas should be monitored to preserve the health of commuters in the subway system. Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation measure several air pollutants regularly. In this study, the accuracy of an instrument for PM measurement using the light scattering method was improved with the help of a linear regression analysis technique to continuously measure the PM10 concentrations in subway stations. In addition, an air quality monitoring system based on environmental sensors was implemented to display and record the data of PM10, CO2, temperature, and humidity. Through experimental studies, we found that ventilation fans could improve air quality and decrease PM10 concentrations in the tunnels effectively by increasing the air flow rate.

  6. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  7. Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6) Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    An atomic oxygen fluence monitor was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment-6 (MISSE-6). The monitor was designed to measure the accumulation of atomic oxygen fluence with time as it impinged upon the ram surface of the MISSE 6B Passive Experiment Container (PEC). This was an active experiment for which data was to be stored on a battery-powered data logger for post-flight retrieval and analysis. The atomic oxygen fluence measurement was accomplished by allowing atomic oxygen to erode two opposing wedges of pyrolytic graphite that partially covered a photodiode. As the wedges of pyrolytic graphite erode, the area of the photodiode that is illuminated by the Sun increases. The short circuit current, which is proportional to the area of illumination, was to be measured and recorded as a function of time. The short circuit current from a different photodiode, which was oriented in the same direction and had an unobstructed view of the Sun, was also to be recorded as a reference current. The ratio of the two separate recorded currents should bear a linear relationship with the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence and be independent of the intensity of solar illumination. Ground hyperthermal atomic oxygen exposure facilities were used to evaluate the linearity of the ratio of short circuit current to the atomic oxygen fluence. In flight, the current measurement circuitry failed to operate properly, thus the overall atomic oxygen mission fluence could only be estimated based on the physical erosion of the pyrolytic graphite wedges. The atomic oxygen fluence was calculated based on the knowledge of the space atomic oxygen erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite measured from samples on the MISSE 2. The atomic oxygen fluence monitor, the expected result and comparison of mission atomic oxygen fluence based on the erosion of the pyrolytic graphite and Kapton H atomic oxygen fluence witness samples are presented in this paper.

  8. Performance Measurement of Location Enabled e-Government Processes: A Use Case on Traffic Safety Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2016-12-01

    The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperable Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC DG DIGIT), aims to enhance the interactions between governments, businesses and citizens by embedding location information into e-Government processes. The challenge remains to find scientific sound and at the same time practicable approaches to estimate or measure the impact of location enablement of e-Government processes on the performance of the processes. A method has been defined to estimate process performance in terms of variables describing the efficiency, effectiveness, as well as the quality of the output of the work processes. A series of use cases have been identified, corresponding to existing e-Government work processes in which location information could bring added value. In a first step, the processes are described by means of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) to better understand the process steps, the actors involved, the spatial data flows, as well as the required input and the generated output. In a second step the processes are assessed in terms of the (sub-optimal) use of location information and the potential enhancement of the process by better integrating location information and services. The process performance is measured ex ante (before using location enabled e-Government services) and ex-post (after the integration of such services) in order to estimate and measure the impact of location information. The paper describes the method for performance measurement and highlights how the method is applied to one use case, i.e. the process of traffic safety monitoring. The use case is analysed and assessed in terms of location enablement and its potential impact on process performance. The results of applying the methodology on the use case revealed that performance is highly impacted by factors such as the way location information is collected, managed and shared throughout the

  9. Soluting to Non-solution and Ambiguous Location of Four Stations by Increasing Station%四站无解及模糊问题的增站处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小明; 王贞杰; 张涛

    2012-01-01

    针对无源时差定位系统中存在系统误差和偶然误差而产生的定位模糊和无解的问题,在研究以伪逆法作为求解方法的四站定位基础上,依据不同布站形式其定位结果不同的事实,采用增加一个测量站的方法进行求解定位.对5个接收站接收到的目标信息时间差,采用主站循环的方式分别进行解算,对解算结果进行相关性分析、模糊值剔除,并对小于5个的正确解算值进行融合处理,最终得到目标的位置信息.通过对真实数据加上随机误差进行仿真试验验证,结果表明,该方法能够解决四站无解及定位模糊问题,同时提高了对目标辐射源的定位精度,并十分适用于工程实现.%According to the problem of ambiguous location and non-solution caused by system error and accidental error in the passive TDOA position system,a method of adding a receiving station has been adopted to locate target based on the study to the four-station location system which the pseudo-inveree method is adopted as the solving method and the fart that different station distribution have different results.Five stations are chosen and grouped by the main station cycle to get the measurement set of results with the target TO A of the five receiving stations.Correlation analysis and ambiguity value rejection to the measurement has been done.The final target location information has got by fusion process with less than five correct values.It is verified by simulation experiment which shows that the method can solve the problem of non-solution and ambiguous location with four stations and improve the positioning accuracy and is very suited for engineering on real data with random error.

  10. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS, a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009–2011 and the DOSIS 3D (2012–ongoing experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195–270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a the variation in solar activity and (b the changes in ISS altitude.

  11. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther; Burmeister, Sönke; Labrenz, Johannes; Bilski, Pawel; Horwacik, Tomasz; Twardak, Anna; Hajek, Michael; Fugger, Manfred; Hofstätter, Christina; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Szabo, Julianna; Stradi, Andrea; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Brabcova, Katerina Pachnerova; Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa; Van Hoey, Olivier; Schoonjans, Werner; Parisi, Alessio; Gaza, Ramona; Semones, Edward; Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Benton, Eric R.; Doull, Brandon A.; Uchihori, Yukio; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Boehme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009-2011) and the DOSIS 3D (2012-ongoing) experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195-270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a) the variation in solar activity and (b) the changes in ISS altitude.

  12. First Field Experience of On-line Partial Discharge Monitoring of MV Cable Systems with location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wielen, P.; Steennis, F.

    2009-06-15

    A new measuring system is presented for the on-line monitoring and location of partial discharges (PDs) in medium-voltage power cables. The system uses two inductive sensors, each at one cable end. The measuring system is called PD-OL, which stands for PD detection Online with Location. A pulse injection system is used for the time synchronization of the data intake at both cable ends and for the on-line calibration. PD data is send via internet to the KEMA Control Center for interpretation and final presentation, made visible on a secured website for the network owners. This paper discusses the basics of PD-OL and a number of measurement results.

  13. Site location optimization of regional air quality monitoring network in China: methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Liu, Panwei; Zhong, Liuju; Lai, Senchao

    2011-11-01

    Regional air quality monitoring networks (RAQMN) are urgently needed in China due to increasing regional air pollution in city clusters, arising from rapid economic development in recent decades. This paper proposes a methodological framework for site location optimization in designing a RAQMN adapting to air quality management practice in China. The framework utilizes synthetic assessment concentrations developed from simulated data from a regional air quality model in order to simplify the optimal process and to reduce costs. On the basis of analyzing various constraints such as cost and budget, terrain conditions, administrative district, population density and spatial coverage, the framework takes the maximum approximate degree as an optimization objective to achieve site location optimization of a RAQMN. An expert judgment approach was incorporated into the framework to help adjust initial optimization results in order to make the network more practical and representative. A case study was used to demonstrate the application of the framework, indicating that it is feasible to conduct site optimization for a RAQMN design in China. The effects of different combinations of primary and secondary pollutants on site location optimization were investigated. It is suggested that the network design considering both primary and secondary pollutants could better represent regional pollution characteristics and more extensively reflect temporal and spatial variations of regional air quality. The work shown in this study can be used as a reference to guide site location optimization of a RAQMN design in China or other regions of the world.

  14. Forested floristic quality index: An assessment tool for forested wetland habitats using the quality and quantity of woody vegetation at Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Cretini, Kari F.

    2017-02-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority of Louisiana and the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act, developed the Forested Floristic Quality Index (FFQI) for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The FFQI will help evaluate forested wetland sites on a continuum from severely degraded to healthy and will assist in defining areas where forested wetland restoration can be successful by projecting the trajectories of change. At each CRMS forested wetland site there are stations for quantifying the overstory, understory, and herbaceous vegetation layers. Rapidly responding overstory canopy cover and herbaceous layer composition are measured annually, while gradually changing overstory basal area and species composition are collected on a 3-year cycle.A CRMS analytical team has tailored these data into an index much like the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) currently used for herbaceous marsh and for the herbaceous layer of the swamp vegetation. The core of the FFQI uses basal area by species to assess the quality and quantity of the overstory at each of three stations within each CRMS forested wetland site. Trees that are considered by experts to be higher quality swamp species like Taxodium distichum (bald cypress) and Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo) are scored higher than tree species like Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) and Salix nigra (black willow) that are indicators of recent disturbance. This base FFQI is further enhanced by the percent canopy cover in the overstory and the presence of indicator species at the forest floor. This systemic approach attempts to differentiate between locations with similar basal areas that are on different ecosystem trajectories. Because of these varying states of habitat degradation, paired use of the FQI and the FFQI is useful to interpret the vegetative data in transitional locations. There is often an inverse relation between the health of the

  15. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  16. Sequential optimal monitoring network design and iterative spatial estimation of pollutant concentration for identification of unknown groundwater pollution source locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2013-07-01

    One of the difficulties in accurate characterization of unknown groundwater pollution sources is the uncertainty regarding the number and the location of such sources. Only when the number of source locations is estimated with some degree of certainty that the characterization of the sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration can be meaningful. A fairly good knowledge of source locations can substantially decrease the degree of nonuniqueness in the set of possible aquifer responses to subjected geochemical stresses. A methodology is developed to use a sequence of dedicated monitoring network design and implementation and to screen and identify the possible source locations. The proposed methodology utilizes a combination of spatial interpolation of concentration measurements and simulated annealing as optimization algorithm for optimal design of the monitoring network. These monitoring networks are to be designed and implemented sequentially. The sequential design is based on iterative pollutant concentration measurement information from the sequentially designed monitoring networks. The optimal monitoring network design utilizes concentration gradient information from the monitoring network at previous iteration to define the objective function. The capability of the feedback information based iterative methodology is shown to be effective in estimating the source locations when no such information is initially available. This unknown pollution source locations identification methodology should be very useful as a screening model for subsequent accurate estimation of the unknown pollution sources in terms of location, magnitude, and activity duration.

  17. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The present climatic characteristics of Mars favor the presence of extense permafrost areas in this lonely planet. Therefore environmental parameters that are included in Martian Rover missions are also used for monitoring thermal soil surface evolution in order to study the permafrost active layer thickness and the energy balance in the soil-atmosphere boundary limit layer. The REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station) is an environmental station designed by the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB- Spain) with the collaboration of national and international partners (CRISA/EADS, UPC and FMI), which is part of the payload of the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) NASA mission to Mars (http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/overview/). This mission is expected to be launched in the final months of 2009, and mainly consists of a Rover, with a complete set of scientific instruments; the Rover will carry the biggest, most advanced suite of instruments for scientific studies ever sent to the Martian surface. Five sensors compose the REMS instrument: ground (GT-REMS) and air temperatures, wind speed and direction, pressure, humidity and ultraviolet radiation (UV-REMS). A simplified setup of the REMS was deployed on Antarctica in the surroundings of the Spanish Antarctic Stations on Livingston and Deception Islands (Maritime Antarctica), where the permafrost distribution is well-known. The aim of the experiment was to check REMS's sensors response against hard environmental conditions and calibrates their measures with standard Antarctic devices. The experimental apparatuses included some standard meteorological and thermopiles sensors corresponding to the REMS. All the sensors are mounted in a 1.8 m mast and include a Pt100 air temperature sensor with shield solar protection on the mast top, a Kipp and Zonnen CNR1 net radiometer for measuring infrared (5-50 μm) and short wave solar (305-2800 nm) radiation at 1.5 m high, GT-REMS sensor and its amplification box at 0.7 m high and finally

  18. Evaluation of the Air Quality Monitor's Performance on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Ballard, Ken; Durham, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    The Air Quality Monitor (AQM) was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) as an experiment to evaluate its potential to replace the aging Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), which ceased operations in August 2009. The AQM (Figure 1) is a small gas chromatography/differential mobility spectrometer (GC/DMS) manufactured by Sionex. Data was presented at last year s ISIMS conference that detailed the preparation of the AQM for flight, including instrument calibration. Furthermore, initial AQM data was compared to VOA results from simultaneous runs of the two instruments. Although comparison with VOA data provided a measure of confidence in the AQM performance, it is the comparison with results from simultaneously acquired air samples (grab sample containers-GSCs) that will define the success (or failure) of the AQM performance. This paper will update the progress in the AQM investigation by comparing AQM data to results from the analyses of GSC samples, returned from ISS. Additionally, a couple of example will illustrate the AQM s ability to detect disruptions in the spacecraft s air quality. Discussion will also focus upon a few unexpected issues that have arisen and how these will be a addressed in the final operational unit now being built.

  19. An Online Monitoring and Fault Location Methodology for Underground Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sudarshan

    With the growing importance of underground power systems and the need for greater reliability of the power supply, cable monitoring and accurate fault location detection has become an increasingly important issue. The presence of inherent random fluctuations in power system signals can be used to extract valuable information about the condition of system equipment. One such component is the power cable, which is the primary focus of this research. This thesis investigates a unique methodology that allows online monitoring of an underground power cable. The methodology analyzes conventional power signals in the frequency domain to monitor the condition of a power cable. First, the proposed approach is analyzed theoretically with the help of mathematical computations. Frequency domain analysis techniques are then used to compute the power spectral density (PSD) of the system signals. The importance of inherent noise in the system, a key requirement of this methodology, is also explained. The behavior of resonant frequencies, which are unique to every system, are then analyzed under different system conditions with the help of mathematical expressions. Another important aspect of this methodology is its ability to accurately estimate cable fault location. The process is online and hence does not require the system to be disconnected from the grid. A single line to ground fault case is considered and the trend followed by the resonant frequencies for different fault positions is observed. The approach is initially explained using theoretical calculations followed by simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The validity of this technique is proved by comparing the results obtained from theory and simulation to actual measurement data.

  20. GIS在雷达站选址中的应用%Application of GIS in the Location Selection of Radar Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦清嫄; 王龙波

    2012-01-01

    论述了利用GIS(地理信息系统)技术进行航空雷达站选址的步骤和方法,并介绍利用ArcGIS 9.3空间分析功能协助某空管中心进行航空雷达站选址的体会和经验.%The paper discusses the steps and methods to select radar station location by using GIS technology and introduces the experiences of aviation management and controlling center in location selection through the spatial analysis of ArcGIS 9. 3.

  1. The assessment of external photon dose rate in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. An intercomparison of different monitoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Lauterbach, U.

    1993-01-01

    to a nuclear power station. The responses of each of these detectors to the natural radiation and to the radiation from the power station are given. Estimations by three of the dose rate instruments of the air kerma from all the radiation components are intercompared with the results from three different types...... of thermoluminescence dosemeter. The results clearly demonstrate that accurate estimations of doses in the environment arising from a nuclear facility can only be obtained if the responses of the detectors used to the different radiation components at that location are accurately evaluated. By correcting the measured...

  2. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T

    2009-02-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals to create a sampling frame, superimpose a tessellation and draw a sample. We present a case study that illustrates the technique and compares results to those from other methods using data from Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota. Our method compares favorably with results from a popular plot selection method, Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified Design, and offers several additional advantages, including ease of implementation, intuitive appeal, and the ability to maintain spatial balance by adding new plots in the event of an inaccessible plot encountered in the field.

  3. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) Vegetation Volume Index: An assessment tool for marsh habitat focused on the three-dimensional structure at CRMS vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh A.; Hundy, Laura C.; McGinnis, Tommy E.

    2015-12-04

    A Vegetation Volume (VV) variable and Vegetation Volume Index (VVI) have been developed for the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS). The VV is a measure of the amount of three-dimensional vegetative structure present at each CRMS site and is based on vegetation data collected annually. The VV uses 10 stations per CRMS site to quantify four vegetation layers: carpet, herbaceous, shrub, and tree. For each layer an overall live vegetation percent cover and height are collected to create a layer volume; the individual layer volumes are then summed to generate a site vegetation volume profile. The VV uses the two-dimensional area of live vegetative cover (in square meters) multiplied by the height (in meters) of each layer to produce a volume (in cubic meters) for each layer present in a 2-meter by 2-meter station. These layers are additive, yielding a total volume for each of the 10 herbaceous vegetation stations and an overall CRMS marsh site average.

  4. The effect of locations of central metro stations on real estate values. A case study of Thessaloniki, Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi Xifilidou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost all of the most populated cities in the world have invested heavily on high capacity urban public transit systems. Apart from the direct economic benefits –travel time reduction, environmental benefits, some indirect benefits are the increase in real estate values (residential and commercial, improved accessibility and possible land use changes towards the development of an area. This study investigates the impact of the future central metro stations of Thessaloniki on real estate values. Real estate values can increase up to 11,3% at a distance shorter than 50 m and gradually decrease up to -14% for a distance greater than 500 m. A hedonic analysis is presented so as to determine the influence of metro stations to 52 commercial properties. The results of the investigation indicate that the changes in market are not necessarily connected or totally attributed to the construction of the metro stations. Instead interesting results show that in some cases common belief about the impact of urban public transit systems can be slightly different.

  5. Numerical modeling and monitoring analysis of Heroísmo station, Metro do Porto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, P.; Sousa, T.; Silva, P.

    2007-01-01

    to the geomechanical unique heterogeneous characteristics of the granite rock mass in the Heroísmo station. This station was the first to be built. To better understand the behaviour and interaction of the structures with the surrounding rock masses numerical models were carried out. The geomechanical properties...

  6. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  7. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  8. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The

  9. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The

  10. Method of TDOA multi-station passive location based on weighted matrix%基于加权矩阵的TDOA多站无源定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常啸鸣; 张晓林; 张强

    2011-01-01

    Passive location technology has been applied broadly these years.Taylor expansion method was commonly used by the traditional multi-station passive location system.A new method of time difference of arrival(TDOA) passive location with multi-station based on weighted matrix was presented.When the stable carrier being included in a target's emission signal,the noise characteristics equations was analyzed using the conventional time-domain correlation method after the carrier was tracked.The model was constructed with the weighted matrix of the distance difference observations among a number of stations,thus the high accuracy location being obtained by employing the weighted matrix.From the simulation,it can be proved that under the same condition,the position results using presented method are more accurate than the traditional Taylor expansion method,improved by about 30% in best cases.This method is an effective method for multi-station passive location,particularly for mobile observation stations.%无源定位技术有着广阔的应用前景,传统的多站无源定位通常使用泰勒展开法对目标进行定位求解,在此基础上一种基于加权矩阵的多站到达时间差测量法被提出.当被测目标发射信号中存在稳定载波情况下,以各站点的载波跟踪环路为切入点,分析了采用常规时域相关法对载波跟踪时的环路噪声特性方程,利用此方程对多个观测站间的距离差观测量加权矩阵进行建模,再利用此加权矩阵对定位方程进行改进,最终得到高精度的目标位置解.通过仿真实验可以证明:在同等条件下该方法比传统泰勒展开法的定位精度有所提高,最好可提高精度约30%.该方法是一种适用于多站无源定位的有效方法,尤其适用于移动观测站点情况.

  11. Industry leading satellite based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) positioning and monitoring solutions with real-time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Real-Time CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station Networks) today are typically GNSS networks for positioning and monitoring purposes. Real-Time networks can consist of a few stations for a local network up to nation- or continental wide networks with several hundred CORS stations. Such networks use wide area modeling of GNSS error sources including ionospheric, tropospheric and satellite orbit correction parameters to produce highest precision and efficiency method of positioning using GNSS. In 1998 Trimble Navigation Ltd. introduced a method of surveying with a non-physical or computed base station, called VRS (Virtual Reference Station). It is the most widely supported method of producing a network solution for precise carrier phase positioning in the industry. Surveying historically required one base as the fixed point of reference, and one or multiple rovers using that point of reference to compute their location by processing a vector result, either in real-time or in a postprocessed sense. Real-time survey is often referred to as RTK, short for real-time kinematic, and as the name suggests the results are in real time and you can move. The power of VRS is in the ability to compute a real-time wide-area solution to the factors that cause single base methods to degrade with distance. Namely, ionospheric and tropospheric modeling, and satellite orbit corrections. This is achieved by the reference network of CORS. A wide scattering of CORS across a state, typically 50-70km in mid-latitudes, creates a ground based sampling which significantly reduces the distance dependent errors that accumulate in the single base-rover relationship described early. Furthermore, GNSS networks can be used for real-time monitoring purposes at various distance range. Trimble Integrity Manager software provides a suite of motion engines designed to detect and quantify any movement in a range of scales from slow, creeping movement like subsidence, through sudden events such as

  12. Geophysical techniques to aquifer locating and monitoring for industrial zones in North Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Nguyen; Duan, Nguyen; Thanh, Le; Hida, Noboru

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical methods were applied for hydrogeological targets in many countries including Vietnam. This paper presents results of using complex geophysical techniques as well as 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), vertical electrical sounding (VES), very low frequency (VLF), and seismic refraction for geological structure investigation for locating the aquifers and assessing the hydrogeological conditions for groundwater potential in industrial zones of North Hanoi, Vietnam. The locations of two aquifers are determined by their depth and thickness on the basis of resistivity and seismic velocity values which were proved by stratifications of three boreholes to 40-60 m of depth on the study area. There are connections from surface water to shallow aquifer by hydraulic windows, as follows from VLF data. The deeper aquifer can be considered as a potential groundwater supply, but the water level is descending in time, as shown by hydrological monitoring. However, with careful use and by reducing sources of pollution, groundwater can continue to be an important natural resource for future.

  13. Cost-effective monitoring of land subsidence in developing countries using semipermanent GPS stations: a test study over Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyongki; Okeowo, Modurodoluwa A.; Basnayake, Senaka; Jayasinghe, Susantha

    2017-04-01

    We present a cost-effective method for monitoring land subsidence in developing countries using measurements from semipermanent global positioning system (GPS) stations and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations. The cost of maintaining a network of permanent GPS stations to monitor subsidence in developing countries might be implausible due to the high cost of maintenance. Hence, semipermanent GPS stations could be an alternative method, which densifies a GPS network with relatively inexpensive costs. We used three statistical methods to estimate the subsidence. We investigated the optimum time intervals for semipermanent GPS measurements based on the similarities of subsidence magnitudes and curve patterns with the permanent GPS measurements. In addition, we assessed the open source GPS processing tools based on the data quality of different session durations. Among the three models, the smoothing spline model showed the best estimation of subsidence. Among the different time interval data, 10- or 30-day time interval data were optimum for semipermanent GPS stations. Finally, we compared the GPS results to the InSAR-derived subsidence result, and both methods show that the northwestern Houston area subsides by about 1.5 to 2.0 cm/year. We anticipate that our method can be applied to other cities experiencing subsidence in developing countries.

  14. Selecting optimal monitoring site locations for peak ambient particulate material concentrations using the MM5-CAMx4 numerical modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew; Titov, Mikhail; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2011-01-15

    Installation of temporary or long term monitoring sites is expensive, so it is important to rationally identify potential locations that will achieve the requirements of regional air quality management strategies. A simple, but effective, numerical approach to selecting ambient particulate matter (PM) monitoring site locations has therefore been developed using the MM5-CAMx4 air pollution dispersion modelling system. A new method, 'site efficiency,' was developed to assess the ability of any monitoring site to provide peak ambient air pollution concentrations that are representative of the urban area. 'Site efficiency' varies from 0 to 100%, with the latter representing the most representative site location for monitoring peak PM concentrations. Four heavy pollution episodes in Christchurch (New Zealand) during winter 2005, representing 4 different aerosol dispersion patterns, were used to develop and test this site assessment technique. Evaluation of the efficiency of monitoring sites was undertaken for night and morning aerosol peaks for 4 different particulate material (PM) spatial patterns. The results demonstrate that the existing long term monitoring site at Coles Place is quite well located, with a site efficiency value of 57.8%. A temporary ambient PM monitoring site (operating during winter 2006) showed a lower ability to capture night and morning peak aerosol concentrations. Evaluation of multiple site locations used during an extensive field campaign in Christchurch (New Zealand) in 2000 indicated that the maximum efficiency achieved by any site in the city would be 60-65%, while the efficiency of a virtual background site is calculated to be about 7%. This method of assessing the appropriateness of any potential monitoring site can be used to optimize monitoring site locations for any air pollution measurement programme.

  15. Inflight Microbial Monitoring - An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Roman, Monsi; Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms including potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The potential to introduce new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Current microbial monitoring methods require enrichment of microorganisms and a 48-hour incubation time resulting in an increase in microbial load, detecting a limited number of unidentified microorganisms. An expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted.

  16. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  17. Wireless Location Method for Mobile Station Based on Alamouti Coding%基于Alamouti编码的移动台无线定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈驰宇; 解培中; 李汀

    2016-01-01

    基于移动台位置的服务已经广泛融入人们的生活。目前基站定位主要作为GPS定位的补充,然而在低信噪比环境下,基站定位方法受信道影响具有较大定位误差。为了充分利用LTE系统中基站发送端多天线特点,提升定位精度,文中提出了一种基于Alamouti空时编码技术的OFDM-MIMO系统的移动台定位方案。首先给出了通用的无线定位系统模型及定位算法,其次研究了Alamouti编码译码过程及其对无线定位系统性能的影响,最后通过仿真,与传统OFDM系统定位方案进行性能对比。结果表明,较传统定位方案,基于Alamouti编码的移动台无线定位方法可以在低信噪比环境下显著降低定位参考信号误码率,提升定位系统性能。%The service based on mobile station location has been widely integrated into people’ s lives. At present,the base station location is mainly used as a supplement to the GPS position,but in the low SNR environment,the base station location method has a large positio-ning error. In order to make full use of the multi antenna characteristics of base station in LTE system and improve the positioning accura-cy,a mobile station positioning scheme with Alamouti space time encoding technology on OFDM-MIMO system is proposed in this pa-per. It first gives a general model of wireless positioning system and positioning algorithm,followed by the study of the Alamouti deco-ding process and its impact on the wireless positioning system performance,finally through simulation,this scheme is compared with the traditional OFDM system positioning scheme on performance. The results show that compared with the traditional positioning scheme,the mobile station based on Alamouti encoding can significantly reduce the bit error rate and improve the performance of the positioning sys-tem in low SNR environment.

  18. Total suspended solids concentrations and yields for water-quality monitoring stations in Gwinnett County, Georgia, 1996-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a water-quality monitoring program during late 1996 to collect comprehensive, consistent, high-quality data for use by watershed managers. As of 2009, continuous streamflow and water-quality data as well as discrete water-quality samples were being collected for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. This report provides statistical summaries of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations for 730 stormflow and 710 base-flow water-quality samples collected between 1996 and 2009 for 14 watershed monitoring stations in Gwinnett County. Annual yields of TSS were estimated for each of the 14 watersheds using methods described in previous studies. TSS yield was estimated using linear, ordinary least-squares regression of TSS and explanatory variables of discharge, turbidity, season, date, and flow condition. The error of prediction for estimated yields ranged from 1 to 42 percent for the stations in this report; however, the actual overall uncertainty of the estimated yields cannot be less than that of the observed yields (± 15 to 20 percent). These watershed yields provide a basis for evaluation of how watershed characteristics, climate, and watershed management practices affect suspended sediment yield.

  19. Assessing the validity of station location assumptions made in the calculation of the geomagnetic disturbance index, Dst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the assumptions made in the calculation of the Dst index with regard to longitude sampling, hemisphere bias, and latitude correction are explored. The insights gained from this study will allow operational users to better understand the local implications of the Dst index and will lead to future index formulations that are more physically motivated. We recompute the index using 12 longitudinally spaced low-latitude stations, including the traditional 4 (in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan, and Hermanus), and compare it to the standard United States Geological Survey definitive Dst. We look at the hemisphere balance by comparing stations at equal geomagnetic latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We further separate the 12-station time series into two hemispheric indices and find that there are measurable differences in the traditional Dst formulation due to the undersampling of the Southern Hemisphere in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere. To analyze the effect of latitude correction, we plot latitudinal variation in a disturbance observed during the year 2005 using two separate longitudinal observatory chains. We separate these by activity level and find that while the traditional cosine form fits the latitudinal distributions well for low levels of activity, at higher levels of disturbance the cosine form does not fit the observed variation. This suggests that the traditional latitude scaling is insufficient during active times. The effect of the Northern Hemisphere bias and the inadequate latitude scaling is such that the standard correction underestimates the true disturbance by 10–30 nT for storms of main phase magnitude deviation greater than 150 nT in the traditional Dst index.

  20. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  1. Active layer monitoring at CALM-S site near J.G.Mendel Station, James Ross Island, eastern Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Kňažková, Michaela; Nývlt, Daniel; Láska, Kamil; Mueller, Carsten W; Ondruch, Jakub

    2017-12-01

    The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring - South (CALM-S) site was established in February 2014 on James Ross Island as the first CALM-S site in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula region. The site, located near Johann Gregor Mendel Station, is labelled CALM-S JGM. The grid area is gently sloped (<3°) and has an elevation of between 8 and 11ma.s.l. The lithology of the site consists of the muddy sediments of Holocene marine terrace and clayey-sandy Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, which significantly affect the texture, moisture content, and physical parameters of the ground within the grid. Our objective was to study seasonal and interannual variability of the active layer depth and thermal regime at the CALM-S site, and at two ground temperature measurement profiles, AWS-JGM and AWS-CALM, located in the grid. The mean air temperature in the period March 2013 to February 2016 reached -7.2°C. The mean ground temperature decreased with depth from -5.3°C to -5.4°C at 5cm, to -5.5°C to -5.9°C at 200cm. Active layer thickness was significantly higher at AWS-CALM and ranged between 86cm (2014/15) and 87cm (2015/16), while at AWS-JGM it reached only 51cm (2013/14) to 65cm (2015/16). The mean probed active layer depth increased from 66.4cm in 2013/14 to 78.0cm in 2014/15. Large differences were observed when comparing the minimum (51cm to 59cm) and maximum (100cm to 113cm) probed depths. The distribution of the active layer depth and differences in the thermal regime of the uppermost layer of permafrost at CALM-S JGM clearly show the effect of different lithological properties on the two lithologically distinct parts of the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rescue System with Health Condition Monitoring Together with Location and Attitude Monitoring as Well as the Other Data Acquired with Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rescue system with health condition monitoring together with location and attitude monitoring as well as the other data acquired with mobile devices is proposed. Backup system for location estimation is also proposed. On behalf of GPS receivers and WiFi beacon receivers, ZigBee is used as a backup system. Attitude can be monitored with acceleration-meters equipped in the commercially available smart phones and i-phones. Also, the number of steps and calorie consumptions can be monitored with the commercially available smart phones and i-phones. By using these body attached sensors, health condition of the persons who need a help for rescue when the emergency situations can be monitored and used for rescue planning and triage. Overall system configuration is proposed together with the detailed system descriptions with some of the experimental data.

  3. Radar Configuration Research of Double Station Cross Location%双站交叉定位雷达布站方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴民; 李国君; 李健; 曲长文

    2011-01-01

    Passive radar doesn't radiate any electromagnetic energy, which can safe itself efficiently. Double station cross location belonging to passive location technology has been widely used in military region. The article examines the theory of double station cross location. And then the relations between location error and radar configuration is studied when the radar angle and base line precision are given. The maths model of location error and radar configuration is proposed. The simulation results present the principle of location error and radar configuration. It is valuable to analyze the radar configuration in theory and application.%无源定位雷达系统本身不辐射电磁信号,因此能够有效地保护己方的安全.双站交叉定位技术是一种准实时的无源定位技术,在军事领域应用非常广泛.首先研究了双站交叉定位的定位原理,分析了在雷达测角精度、基线测量精度一定的情况下定位误差与雷达布站的关系.给出了定位误差与雷达布站的数学模型,对不同条件下的定位误差进行了仿真,在分析仿真结果的基础上,得到了定位误差与雷达布站的基本规律,为雷达布站问题提供了理论参考,具有一定的工程应用价值.

  4. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  5. Acoustic monitoring of laboratory faults: locating the origin of unstable slip events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkolis, Evangelos; Niemeijer, André; Spiers, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Over the past several decades, much work has been done on studying the frictional properties of fault gouges at earthquake nucleation velocities. In addition, post-experiment microstructural analyses have been performed in an attempt to link microphysical mechanisms to the observed mechanical data. However, all observations are necessarily post-mortem and it is thus difficult to directly link transients to microstructural characteristics. We are developing an acoustic monitoring system to be used in sliding experiments using a ring shear apparatus. The goal is to locate acoustic emission sources in sheared granular assemblages and link them to processes that act on microstructures responsible for the frictional stability of the simulated fault gouge. The results will be used to develop and constrain microphysical models that explain the relation of these processes to empirical friction laws, such as rate- and state-dependent friction. The acoustic monitoring setup is comprised of an array of 16 piezo-electric sensors installed on the top and bottom sides of an annular sample, at 45 degree intervals. Acoustic emissions associated with slip events can be recorded at sampling rates of up to 50 MHz, in triggered mode. Initial experiments on 0.1 to 0.2 mm and 0.4 to 0.5 mm diameter glass beads, at 1 to 5 MPa normal stress and 1 to 30 um/s load point velocity, have been conducted to estimate the sensitivity of the sensor array. Preliminary results reveal that the intensity of the audible signal is not necessarily proportional to the magnitude of the associated stress drop for constant loading conditions, and that acoustic emissions precede slip events by a small amount of time, in the order of a few milliseconds. Currently, our efforts are focused on developing a suitable source location algorithm with the aim to identify differences in the mode of (unstable) sliding for different types of materials. This will help to identify the micromechanical mechanisms operating

  6. Geodetic monitoring (TLS of a steel transport trestle bridge located in an active mining exploitation site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation causes, in general, irregular vertical and horizontal shifts in the superficial layer of the rock mass. In the case of construction objects seated on this layer, a deformation of the object’s foundation can be observed. This leads to additional loads and deformations. Identification of surface geometry changes in construction objects located within the premises of underground mining exploitation areas is an important task as far as safety of mining sites is concerned. Surveys targeting shifts and deformations in engineering objects preformed with the use of classic methods are of a selective nature and do not provide the full image of the phenomenon being the subject of the observation. This paper presents possibilities of terrestrial laser scanning technology application in the monitoring of engineering objects that allows for a complete spatial documentation of an object subjected to the influence of an active mining exploitation. This paper describes an observation of a 100 m section of a steel transport trestle bridge located on the premises of hard coal mine Lubelski Węgiel “Bogdanka” S.A. carried out in 2015. Measurements were carried out using a Z+F Imager 5010C scanner at an interval of 3.5 months. Changes in the structure’s geometry were determined by comparing the point clouds recorded during the two measurement periods. The results of the analyses showed shifts in the trestle bridge towards the exploited coal wall accompanied by object deformation. The obtained results indicate the possibility of of terrestrial laser scanning application in studying the aftereffects of underground mining exploitation on surface engineering objects.

  7. Source spectra, moment, and energy for recent eastern mediterranean earthquakes: calibration of international monitoring system stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayeda, K M; Hofstetter, A; Rodgers, A J; Walter, W R

    2000-07-26

    In the past several years there have been several large (M{sub w} > 7.0) earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean region (Gulf of Aqaba, Racha, Adana, etc.), many of which have had aftershock deployments by local seismological organizations. In addition to providing ground truth data (GT << 5 km) that is used in regional location calibration and validation, the waveform data can be used to aid in calibrating regional magnitudes, seismic discriminants, and velocity structure. For small regional events (m{sub b} << 4.5), a stable, accurate magnitude is essential in the development of realistic detection threshold curves, proper magnitude and distance amplitude correction processing, formation of an M{sub s}:m{sub b} discriminant, and accurate yield determination of clandestine nuclear explosions. Our approach provides a stable source spectra from which M{sub w} and m{sub b} can be obtained without regional magnitude biases. Once calibration corrections are obtained for earthquakes, the coda-derived source spectra exhibit strong depth-dependent spectral peaking when the same corrections are applied to explosions at the Nevada Test Site (Mayeda and Walter, 1996), chemical explosions in the recent ''Depth of Burial'' experiment in Kazahkstan (Myers et al., 1999), and the recent nuclear test in India. For events in the western U.S. we found that total seismic energy, E, scales as M{sub o}{sup 0.25} resulting in more radiated energy than would be expected under the assumptions of constant stress-drop scaling. Preliminary results for events in the Middle East region also show this behavior, which appears to be the result of intermediate spectra fall-off (f{sup 1.5}) for frequencies ranging between {approx}0.1 and 0.8 Hz for the larger events. We developed a Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) coda processing command that reads in an ASCII flat file that contains calibration information specific for a station and surrounding region, then outputs a coda

  8. The Development of Talents in Environmental Monitoring Station%论环境监测人才发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国强

    2012-01-01

    从环境监测特性出发,论述了环境监测站人才结构三要素,即知识结构、能力结构和层级结构,讨论了制约人才发展的有关问题,提出了促进人才发展的建议,即规划先行、“五保”、“八忌”,强调以环境监测学为指导加强监测科研,培养环境监测和管理综合性人才,强调专业技术人才和技术管理人才协调发展.%According to the characteristics of environmental monitoring, three factors of talent structure in Environmental Monitoring Station have been described, that is, knowledge structure, capability structure and classic structure. This article also discusses issues related to talent development constraints and giving proposals to promote the development of talents, including first planning, five "Protection" and eight "Prohibition" for the talents training. Monitoring research was strengthened based on the enviicnmenial monitoring science, and the comprehensive taients with the abilily of environmental quality monitoring, pollutant source monitoring and management of monitoring quality should be trained. The coordination development of professional technical talents and technical management talents has also been proposed at the same time.

  9. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the Vertex Locator and Top Pair Production in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Henry; Hutchcroft, David

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton-proton collider at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN). The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the LHC. It is designed for the detection of $b\\bar{b}$ pairs produced in proton-proton collisions and to make precision measurements of $B$-mesons. The trigger level identification of $B$-mesons is provided by the Vertex Locator (VELO), which is the primary tracking detector of the experiment. Due to its proximity to the interaction point, the VELO is exposed to high levels of radiation damage. A new method of monitoring the damage is to perform current-voltage (IV) scans and to compare the results of these scans to laboratory tests on sample sensors. A method to perform the first $t\\bar{t}$ production measurement in the $\\eta>2$ range at the LHC, using a dilepton+$b$-jet channel, is also presented. A fiducial cross-section is obtained of $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{fid}}= 24.3^{+14.6}_{-9.7}\\mathrm{(stat.)}\\pm 6.9\\mathrm{(syst.)} \\pm 0.9 \\mathrm{(lum...

  10. Understanding Abiotic Triggers For Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lakes Using a Long Term In-situ Monitoring Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anne; Hondzo, Miki; Salomon, Christine; Missaghi, Shahram; Guala, Michele

    2016-11-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are ubiquitous ecological and public health hazards. HAB are made up of potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacteria. The occurrences of toxic HAB are unpredictable and highly spatially/temporary variable in freshwater ecosystems. To study the abiotic triggers for toxic HAB, a research station has been deployed in a eutrophic lake from June-October 2016. This station provides hourly water quality profiles and meteorological (every 5 minutes) monitoring with real time access. Water quality monitoring is performed by an autonomously traversed sonde that provides chemical, physical and biological measurements; including phycocyanin, a light-absorbing pigment distinct to cyanobacteria. The research station is a sentinel for HAB accumulation, prompting focused HAB analysis, including: phytoplankton and toxin composition/concentration, and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates. We will discuss how mixing conditions, temperature stratification, light intensity, surface wind magnitude and energy dissipation mediate a)HAB formation/composition b)toxicity and c)cyanobacteria stratification.The results will help illuminate abiotic processes that trigger HAB accumulation/toxicity, which can direct timely toxic HAB prediction and prevention efforts.

  11. A Spatiotemporal Location Model for Locating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations%考虑时空间限制的电动汽车充电站布局模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小慧; 刘锴; 左志

    2012-01-01

    The conventional and popular alternative-fuel stations locating models that based on the the space dis- tribution of traffic demand have already managed to minimize total demand-weighted travel distance or to maxi- mize capturing, as well as to satisfy multiple purposes. While for the case of locating Elective Vehicles (EV) charging stations, the minimum requested charging time for EVs introduces a new factor for consideration, time constraints. The decision behaviors such as when and where to charge, and how to deal with the queuing prob- lem due to the simultaneous recharging capacity limitation are realized to have great impact on EV stations loca- tion optimization, therefore all those factors should be considered carefully for modeling. Based on the related research of refueling behaviors and refueling demands, this paper developed a new dynamic model, named as the Spatio-temporal Location Model, with dual purposes of achieving minimum waiting time and maximum ser- vice accessibility for a given number of EV charging stations. A micro simulation method has been employed on a 25-node network to figure out the optimal locations, and results of the model mentioned above are compared with the results of the traditional flow-capturing location model. Results suggest that time constraints do have great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model improves the optimization results by discarding some unreasonable hypotheses on charging behaviors and giving more attention to the time con- straints that exist in the real world.%基于能源需求空间分布的既有新型燃料供应站布局模型解决了需求点与供应站之间的总距离最小、供应站服务客流最大、以及基于此两类目标的多目标优化问题。然而电动汽车充电时间较长的特性对充电站的空间布局问题提出了时间因素的限制。本文提出了充电站空间布局优化应该考虑充电的行为决策问题,即:何时需

  12. Meteorological and hydrographic monitoring data collected at Dauphin Island Station in Alabama from 1999-11-06 to 2001-03-01 (NODC Accession 0122658)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and hydrographic data were collected from a monitoring station on Dauphin Island from Nov 1999 to Feb 2001. Variables measured include air...

  13. The use of total susceptibility in the analysis of long term PM10 (PM2.5) collected at Hungarian air quality monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Emö; Domján, Ádám; Lautner, Péter; Szentmarjay, Tibor; Uram, János

    2013-04-01

    Air monitoring stations in Hungary are operated by Environmental, Nature Conservancy and Water Pollution Inspectorates, according to the CEN/TC 264 European Union standards. PM10 samples are collected on a 24-hour basis, for two weeks in February, in May, in August and in November. About 720m3 air is pumped through quartz filters daily. Mass measurements and toxic metal analysis (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) are made on each filter (Whatmann DHA-80 PAH, 150 mm diameter) by the inspectorates. We have carried out low field magnetic susceptibility measurements using a KLY-2 instrument on all PM10 samples collected at 9 stations from 2009 on (a total of more than 2000 filters). One station, located far from direct sources, monitors background pollution. Here PM2.5 was also collected in two-week runs, seven times during the period of 2009-2012 and made available for the non-destructive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Due to the rather weak magnetic signal, the susceptibility of each PM-10 sample was computed from 10, that of each PM2.5 sample from 20 measurements. Corrections were made for the susceptibility of the sample holder, for the unpolluted filter (provided with each of the two-week runs), and for the plastic bag containing the samples. The susceptibilities of the PM10 samples were analyzed from different aspects, like the degree of magnetic pollution at different stations, daily and seasonal variations of the total and mass susceptibilities compared to the mass of the pollutants and in relation to the concentrations of the toxic elements. As expected, the lowest total and mass susceptibilities characterize the background station (pollution arrives mostly from distant sources, Vienna, Bratislava or even the Sudeten), while the highest values were measured for an industrial town with heavy traffic. At the background station the mass of the PM10 and PM2.5, respectively for the same period are quite similar, while the magnetic susceptibilities are usually higher in the

  14. Electric Vehicle Public Charging Stations Location Optimal Planning%电动汽车公共充电站布局的最优规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊虎; 向铁元; 祝勇刚; 宋旭东; 陈浩; 陈红坤

    2012-01-01

    电动汽车未来大规模发展需要众多公共充电站服务,公共充电站应根据电动汽车分布进行合理布局。给出电动汽车分布的预测方法,采用基于排队论的充电机配置方法,提出公共充电站布局最优规划的数学模型。采用与充电站布局有相似数学特点的Voronoi图划分充电站服务区域,服务区内电动汽车考虑快充随机性,采用排队论M/M/s模型,以电动汽车排队等候时间为标准确定充电站规模。为解决Voronoi图全局寻优的困难,与具备全局随机寻优能力的改进粒子群优化算法结合,提出了最优规划的联合求解流程。算例分析验证了规划方法和算法的有效性和实用性。%Taking into account the need of electric vehicles(EVs)of many public charging stations with their rapid growth in the future,public charging stations should be located according to the distribution of EVs.The method of predicting the distribution of EVs is given,and the charger configuration method based on the queuing theory is provided.A mathematical model for charging station location optimal planning is presented.The Voronoi diagram with many mathematical properties similar to EV charging stations is used to divide service areas.By considering the randomness of fast charging,the queuing time of EVs in the service areas calculated by the queuing theory M/M/s model is used to determine the scale of charging stations.To solve the Voronoi diagram global optimization problem,the Voronoi diagram is combined with the improved particle swarm optimization(PSO)algorithm,which has global stochastic optimization ability,and forms a joint solving process of the optimal planning model.Finally,the example analysis verifies the effectiveness and practicality of the planning method.

  15. Three-year monitoring of stable isotopes of precipitation at Concordia Station, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenni, Barbara; Scarchilli, Claudio; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Ciardini, Virginia; Dreossi, Giuliano; Grigioni, Paolo; Bonazza, Mattia; Cagnati, Anselmo; Karlicek, Daniele; Risi, Camille; Udisti, Roberto; Valt, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Past temperature reconstructions from Antarctic ice cores require a good quantification and understanding of the relationship between snow isotopic composition and 2 m air or inversion (condensation) temperature. Here, we focus on the French-Italian Concordia Station, central East Antarctic plateau, where the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice cores were drilled. We provide a multi-year record of daily precipitation types identified from crystal morphologies, daily precipitation amounts and isotopic composition. Our sampling period (2008-2010) encompasses a warmer year (2009, +1.2 °C with respect to 2 m air temperature long-term average 1996-2010), with larger total precipitation and snowfall amounts (14 and 76 % above sampling period average, respectively), and a colder and drier year (2010, -1.8 °C, 4 % below long-term and sampling period averages, respectively) with larger diamond dust amounts (49 % above sampling period average). Relationships between local meteorological data and precipitation isotopic composition are investigated at daily, monthly and inter-annual scale, and for the different types of precipitation. Water stable isotopes are more closely related to 2 m air temperature than to inversion temperature at all timescales (e.g. R2 = 0.63 and 0.44, respectively for daily values). The slope of the temporal relationship between daily δ18O and 2 m air temperature is approximately 2 times smaller (0.49 ‰ °C-1) than the average Antarctic spatial (0.8 ‰ °C-1) relationship initially used for the interpretation of EPICA Dome C records. In accordance with results from precipitation monitoring at Vostok and Dome F, deuterium excess is anti-correlated with δ18O at daily and monthly scales, reaching maximum values in winter. Hoar frost precipitation samples have a specific fingerprint with more depleted δ18O (about 5 ‰ below average) and higher deuterium excess (about 8 ‰ above average) values than other precipitation

  16. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  17. Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jason G; Jerrett, Michael; Meng, Ying-Ying; Pickett, Melissa; Ritz, Beate

    2015-02-15

    Epidemiological studies investigating relationships between environmental exposures from air pollution and health typically use residential addresses as a single point for exposure, while environmental exposures in transit, at work, school or other locations are largely ignored. Personal exposure monitors measure individuals' exposures over time; however, current personal monitors are intrusive and cannot be operated at a large scale over an extended period of time (e.g., for a continuous three months) and can be very costly. In addition, spatial locations typically cannot be identified when only personal monitors are used. In this paper, we piloted a study that applied momentary location tracking services supplied by smart phones to identify an individual's location in space-time for three consecutive months (April 28 to July 28, 2013) using available Wi-Fi networks. Individual exposures in space-time to the traffic-related pollutants Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) were estimated by superimposing an annual mean NOX concentration surface modeled using the Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling technique. Individual's exposures were assigned to stationary (including home, work and other stationary locations) and in-transit (including commute and other travel) locations. For the individual, whose home/work addresses were known and the commute route was fixed, it was found that 95.3% of the time, the individual could be accurately identified in space-time. The ambient concentration estimated at the home location was 21.01 ppb. When indoor/outdoor infiltration, indoor sources of air pollution and time spent outdoors were taken into consideration, the individual's cumulative exposures were 28.59 ppb and 96.49 ppb, assuming a respective indoor/outdoor ratio of 1.33 and 5.00. Integrating momentary location tracking services with fixed-site field monitoring, plus indoor-outdoor air exchange calibration, makes exposure assessment of a very large population over an extended time period

  18. Sunlight and Solar Cells: Teaching Digital Design and Communication through the Development of a Simple Monitoring Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2010-01-01

    A method is described for building a cost effective digital circuit capable of monitoring the solar radiation incident upon a remote solar cell. The circuit is built in two sections, the first, digitises the analogue voltage produced by the solar cell at a remote location and transmits the received signal to the second receiver circuit which…

  19. Sunlight and Solar Cells: Teaching Digital Design and Communication through the Development of a Simple Monitoring Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2010-01-01

    A method is described for building a cost effective digital circuit capable of monitoring the solar radiation incident upon a remote solar cell. The circuit is built in two sections, the first, digitises the analogue voltage produced by the solar cell at a remote location and transmits the received signal to the second receiver circuit which…

  20. Environmental Monitoring, Air Quality - MO 2011 Facility Air Locations - Missouri Emmissions Inventory System (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set includes locations from the Missouri Emissions Inventory System (MOEIS) database. Locational data was obtained using a variety of methods including but...

  1. CO monitoring strategy. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Swaluw, E.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; Van Pul, A.

    2012-02-15

    In the current Dutch monitoring network (LML) there are 21 locations where concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) are being measured. However, according to European legislation, at the current measured concentrations of CO, measurements are no longer required. In order to keep track of trends in the levels of CO-concentration in the Netherlands, RIVM proposes to continue measurement of CO-monitoring at a limited number of stations. This work has been performed for the account of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment in order to update the monitoring strategy of CO. It is recommended to continue measuring CO at the three different types of monitoring stations, i.e. rural background station, urban background station and traffic station. The urban background and traffic monitoring station should ideally be located in the same city such that the contribution of traffic to CO in a city can be accurately determined.

  2. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO{sub 2} dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO{sub 2} concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  3. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January–May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  4. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities. Equilibr

  5. Atmospheric measurements of CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs in rural and remote locations of the United States in the year 2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleverly, D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States); Winters, D. [Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Ferrario, J.; Dupuy, A.; Byrne, C. [Environmental Chemistry Lab., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); Riggs, K.; Hartford, P.; Joseph, D.; Wisbith, T. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to address three primary objectives: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in remote areas of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range and transboundary transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the United States. Figure 1 shows the locations of NDAMN sites. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through December 19991, and calendar year 2000. The year 1999 measurement at the 9 rural stations indicated an annual mean TEQ{sub DF}-WHO{sub 98} air concentration of about 11.3 fg m{sup -3}. In the year 2000, the mean of 18 rural stations and 8 remote areas were 14.6 fg m{sup -3} and 2.0 fg m{sup -3}, respectively. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. We are reporting the air monitoring results of NDAMN for calendar year 2001 at both rural and remote sites in the U.S. The rural sites are indicated as circles and remote sites are indicted as squares on Figure 1.

  6. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian Research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, a- and g-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar as observed for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. The POP levels determined in Troll air were compared with 1 concentrations found in earlier measurement campaigns at other Antarctic research stations from the past 18 yr. Except for HCB for which similar concentration distributions were observed in all sampling campaigns, concentrations in the recent Troll samples were lower than in samples collected during the early 1990s. These concentration reductions are obviously a direct consequence of international regulations restricting the usage of POP-like chemicals on a worldwide scale.

  7. Application of Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring under the CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Designing and Implementing Terrestrial Monitoring to Establish the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as a Flagship Arctic Environmental Monitoring Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, D.; Kehler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) is scheduled for completion in July 2017 and is the northern science component of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR). A mandated goal for POLAR is to establish the adjacent Experimental and Reference Area (ERA) as an Arctic Flagship monitoring site that will track change in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Situated in the community of Cambridge Bay, CHARS provides the opportunity to draw on the Indigenous Knowledge of local residents to help design and conduct the monitoring, and to operate 12 months a year. Monitoring at CHARS will be linked to networks nationally and internationally, and is being designed so that change in key indicators can be understood in terms of drivers and processes, modeled and scaled up regionally, and used to predict important changes in critical indicators. As a partner in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP), the monitoring design for terrestrial ecosystems follows approaches outlined by the CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group, who have listed key monitoring questions and identified a list of important Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). To link drivers to FECs we are proposing a multi-scaled approach: 1) an Intensive Monitoring Area to establish replicated monitoring plots that track change in snow depth and condition, active layer depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil solution chemistry that are spatially and temporally linked to changes in microbiological activity, CO2/CH4 net ecosystem flux, vegetation relative frequency, species composition, growth and foliar nutrient concentration, arthropod abundance, lemming abundance and health, and shorebird/songbird abundance and productivity. 2) These intensive observations are supported by watershed scale measures that will monitor, during the growing season, lemming winter nest abundance, songbird, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting, and other observations; in the winter we will

  8. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  9. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  11. Advanced monitoring of water systems using in situ measurement stations: data validation and fault detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, Janelcy; Tik, Sovanna; Copp, John; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    In situ continuous monitoring at high frequency is used to collect water quality information about water bodies. However, it is crucial that the collected data be evaluated and validated for the appropriate interpretation of the data so as to ensure that the monitoring programme is effective. Software tools for data quality assessment with a practical orientation are proposed. As water quality data often contain redundant information, multivariate methods can be used to detect correlations, pertinent information among variables and to identify multiple sensor faults. While principal component analysis can be used to reduce the dimensionality of the original variable data set, monitoring of some statistical metrics and their violation of confidence limits can be used to detect faulty or abnormal data and can help the user apply corrective action(s). The developed algorithms are illustrated with automated monitoring systems installed in an urban river and at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant.

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  13. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  14. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  15. 多等级电动汽车充电站的选址与算法%Location and algorithm of multi-level electric vehicle charging stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国亮; 李波; 王运发

    2011-01-01

    作为电动汽车运营所必须的基础配套服务设施,充电站的建设位置与规模对推广电动汽车有着重要的意义。提出了一个多等级电动汽车充电站的选址与求解算法,考虑电动汽车用户分布的特性,基于目标规划思想,建立了使得充电站初始建设成本及用户充电总成本最小化的多等级充电站选址模型。为求解该模型,发展了一个改进的禁忌搜索算法。针对其中表示站址等级和相关用户分配的两个决策变量,设计了禁忌编码和初始解构建相结合的新颖设计方案,并采用2-opt邻域搜索策略,可同时确定出充电站的建址位置、建设的等级及各个需求点的分配。最后通过仿真算例表明,该算法具有很好的站址寻优能力及收敛性能,验证了本文提出的模型的有效性。%The charging station is part of the crucial infrastructure of the electric vehicle,and the location and scale of the charging stations are significant for the development of the electric vehicle industry.A location and solving algorithm of multi-level electric vehicle charging stations was proposed.Concerning the user' distributions,based on the objective program thought,the multi-level electric site model was developed to minimize the initial construction cost and the total users' charging service cost.An improved tabu search algorithm was presented to solve the model.The new combination of tabu coding and the generating of initial solutions were designed to characterize the two decision variables of the multi-level sites and the allocation to the users,using the strategy of 2-opt search neighbor,locating sites,station levels and the allocation of the demand points to the stations were simultaneously determined.Finally,a numerical example demonstrated that the algorithm had better global searching performance and convergence property and the proposed model was also effective.

  16. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.

  17. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  18. The Application and Transform Action of Carriage Environmental Air Monitoring Station%车厢式移动空气监测站的改造及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晖; 陈煜

    2012-01-01

    车厢式移动空气监测站是一种将空气自动站改造为车厢形式,通过与皮卡车组装,实现其流动监测的功能,是适应于中小城市运用于大气流动监测的技术。文中介绍了车厢式移动空气监测站的改造细节和应用特点。%The carriage environmental air monitoring station is a concept that transforms the pick-up truck to be an air monitoring station to fulfill its mobile function.This technology is especially suitable for mobile monitoring of air quality in medium and small cities.The dissertation introduced to the readers the transform action details and the application features of Carriage Environmental Air Monitoring Station.

  19. Design of cold chain logistics remote monitoring system based on ZigBee and GPS location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xiaoping; Shao, Heling

    2017-03-01

    This paper designed a remote monitoring system based on Bee Zig wireless sensor network and GPS positioning, according to the characteristics of cold chain logistics. The system consisted of the ZigBee network, gateway and monitoring center. ZigBee network temperature acquisition modules and GPS positioning acquisition module were responsible for data collection, and then send the data to the host computer through the GPRS network and Internet to realize remote monitoring of vehicle with functions of login permissions, temperature display, latitude and longitude display, historical data, real-time alarm and so on. Experiments showed that the system is stable, reliable and effective to realize the real-time remote monitoring of the vehicle in the process of cold chain transport.

  20. Evaluation of available analytical techniques for monitoring the quality of space station potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    To assure the quality of potable water (PW) on the Space Station (SS) a number of chemical and physical tests must be conducted routinely. After reviewing the requirements for potable water, both direct and indirect analytical methods are evaluated that could make the required tests and improvements compatible with the Space Station operation. A variety of suggestions are made to improve the analytical techniques for SS operation. The most important recommendations are: (1) the silver/silver chloride electrode (SB) method of removing I sub 2/I (-) biocide from the water, since it may interfere with analytical procedures for PW and also its end uses; (2) the orbital reactor (OR) method of carrying out chemistry and electrochemistry in microgravity by using a disk shaped reactor on an orbital table to impart artificial G force to the contents, allowing solution mixing and separation of gases and liquids; and (3) a simple ultra low volume highly sensitive electrochemical/conductivity detector for use with a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus. It is also recommended, since several different conductivity and resistance measurements are made during the analysis of PW, that the bipolar pulse measuring circuit be used in all these applications for maximum compatibility and redundancy of equipment.

  1. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.W. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1996-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Operational Air Quality Monitor for Water Testing Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Limero, Thomas F.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Minton, John M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernandez, Facundo M.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time environmental monitoring on ISS is necessary to provide data in a timely fashion and to help ensure astronaut health. Current real-time water TOC monitoring provides high-quality trending information, but compound-specific data is needed. The combination of ETV with the AQM showed that compounds of interest could be liberated from water and analyzed in the same manner as air sampling. Calibration of the AQM using water samples allowed for the quantitative analysis of ISS archival samples. Some calibration issues remain, but the excellent accuracy of DMSD indicates that ETV holds promise for as a sample introduction method for water analysis in spaceflight.

  3. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  4. Gulf Watch Alaska Nearshore Component: Monitoring Site Locations from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe site locations for...

  5. Rapid selection of a representative monitoring location of soil water content for irrigation scheduling using surface moisture-density gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Ibrahim; Janat, Mussadak; Makhlouf, Mohsen; Hamdan, Altayeb

    2016-10-01

    Establishing a representative monitoring location of soil water content is important for agricultural water management. One of the challenges is to develop a field protocol for determining such a location with minimum costs. In this paper, we use the concept of time stability in soil water content to examine whether using a short term monitoring period is sufficient to identify a representative site of soil water content and, therefore, irrigation scheduling. Surface moisture-density gauge was used as a means for measuring soil water content. Variations of soil water content in space and time were studied using geostatistical tools. Measuring soil water content was made at 30 locations as nodes of a 6×8 m grid, six times during the growing season. A representative location for average soil water content estimation was allocated at the beginning of a season, and thereafter it was validated. Results indicated that the spatial pattern of soil water content was strongly temporally stable, explained by the relationship between soil water content and fine soil texture. Two field surveys of soil water content, conducted before and after the 1st irrigation, could be sufficient to allocate a representative location of soil water content, and for adequate irrigation scheduling of the whole field. Surface moisture-density gauge was found to be efficient for characterising time stability of soil water content under irrigated field conditions.

  6. Relationship between total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Speciated NMHCs by Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station (PAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Ou Yang, C.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Total NMHC observations were made in some of the EPA air quality stations (AQS) across Taiwan, along with measurements of ozone, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10. This network is also complimented by another eight-station network, called photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), to provide hourly observations of 56 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, the relationship of the total NMHC and PAMS NMHC observations for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites were cross-examined. It was found that both the hourly mixing ratios and variations of the summed PAMS NMHC values were in excellent agreement with the total NMHC data, with the summed PAMS NMHC observations accounted for at least 80% of the total NMHC observations. However, when looking into the VOC emission database, the PAMS NMHC emissions only contributed 58% of the total NMHC emissions. This then leads to about 30% difference in the traditionally observed NMHCs and estimated emissions. The three-dimensional Eulerian air quality model (PAMS-AQM) was used to simulate both the total NMHC and individual PAMS NMHCs, which showed that the sum of the simulated PAMS NMHCs agreed well with the observed PAMS values. However, the modeled total VOC values were significantly higher than the observed total NMHC values, and such findings were consistent among all four stations. This and the above findings combine to suggest that the customarily labeled "total NMHC" reported by almost all air quality stations are underestimates by about 30%. This underestimate is rather uncertain for two reasons: One, both total NMHC and PAMS speciated NMHC measurements underestimate VOC levels in ambient air. Since both types of measurements use the same method of flame ionization detection, it is less sensitive to oxygen containing VOCs (OVOCs), e.g., aldehydes, esters, ketones, ether, acids, etc. than other VOCs. In contrast, the PAMS measurements only target 56 PAMS NMHCs although more directly, and OVOCs also are

  7. 考虑服务容量的充电站选址问题%Problem of Locating Electric Vehicle Refueling Stations with Service Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振森; 杨臖

    2015-01-01

    针对电动汽车充电站的选址问题,在现有的选址模型的基础上加入充电站服务容量的因素,并将服务容量延伸为充电站充电桩的数量和用电配额两方面,建立了一个新的充电站选址的整数规划模型。该模型的目的是在满足各个地点的电动汽车对电量需求的前提下,最小化充电站建设总成本。接着,将模型应用到湖北省高速公路网电动汽车充电站建设规划的案例中去,通过对模型的求解来对该地区的充电站的选取与规模的大小进行分析,给出湖北省高速公路网充电站建设规划的解决方案。最后,针对车辆的最大行驶范围和安全电量水平两个参数来对模型进行了敏感度分析,发现行驶范围和安全电量水平是影响充电站建设的重要因素。%This paper studied the problem of locating electric vehicle refueling stations.Based on the existing models,we purposed a new model using an integer programming method which took service capacity of refueling stations in to consideration.The aim is to simultaneously serve intercity and intra-city travel and minimize the construction cost while satisfying demand of electric power from refueling stations.The model divided the service capacity into two parts:the number of charging point and the maximum electricity available.A numerical example using freeway network in Hubei province of China was given.We analyzed the result and drew conclusion about the characteristic of station selected.Some sensitivity analysis about this model was showed.Two factors are mainly considered:the maximum range and the safety electric quantity remained of EV,and the results under different conditions.The result showed that two factors had a great effect on the number of stations and the construction cost.Based on the non-inferior solutions,decision makers can thus better formulate viable station-deployment plans.

  8. Operation and maintenance of thermal power stations best practices and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    This book illustrates operation and maintenance practices/guidelines for economic generation and managing health of a thermal power generator beyond its regulatory life. The book provides knowledge for professionals managing power station operations, through its unique approach to chemical analysis of water, steam, oil etc. to identify malfunctioning/defects in equipment/systems much before the physical manifestation of the problem. The book also contains a detailed procedure for conducting performance evaluation tests on different equipment, and for analyzing test results for predicting maintenance requirements, which has lent a new dimension to power systems operation and maintenance practices. A number of real life case studies also enrich the book. This book will prove particularly useful to power systems operations professionals in the developing economies, and also to researchers and students involved in studying power systems operations and control. .

  9. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    To harmonise the measurement of environmental dose rates from photon radiation within the EU countries. an EU sponsored intercomparison of environmental dose rate meters used for early warning of nuclear accidents was performed in June 1999. The intercomparison was organised by the EURADOS......, Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany) and the Riso National Laboratory (Denmark). This paper describes the free-field irradiation facilities at Rise and some details of the field intercomparison experiments performed at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station during 3rd and 4th...... June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...

  10. LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, George W.; Brunton, Adam N.; Bannister, Nigel P.; Pearson, James F.; Ward, Martin; Stevenson, Tim J.; Watson, D. J.; Warwick, Bob; Whitehead, S.; O'Brian, Paul; White, Nicholas; Jahoda, Keith; Black, Kevin; Hunter, Stanley D.; Deines-Jones, Phil; Priedhorsky, William C.; Brumby, Steven P.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Vestrand, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Irving, Thomas H.; Price, Steve; Eckersley, Steve; Renouf, Ian; Smith, Mark; Parmar, Arvind N.; McHardy, I. M.; Uttley, P.; Lawrence, A.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design of Lobster-ISS, an X-ray imaging all-sky monitor (ASM) to be flown as an attached payload on the International Space Station. Lobster-ISS is the subject of an ESA Phase-A study which will begin in December 2001. With an instantaneous field of view 162 x 22.5 degrees, Lobster-ISS will map almost the complete sky every 90 minute ISS orbit, generating a confusion-limited catalogue of ~250,000 sources every 2 months. Lobster-ISS will use focusing microchannel plate optics and imaging gas proportional micro-well detectors; work is currently underway to improve the MCP optics and to develop proportional counter windows with enhanced transmission and negligible rates of gas leakage, thus improving instrument throughput and reducing mass. Lobster-ISS provides an order of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity of X-ray ASMs, and will, for the first time, provide continuous monitoring of the sky in the soft X-ray region (0.1-3.5 keV). Lobster-ISS provides long term monitoring of all classes of variable X-ray source, and an essential alert facility, with rapid detection of transient X-ray sources such as Gamma-Ray Burst afterglows being relayed to contemporary pointed X-ray observatories. The mission, with a nominal lifetime of 3 years, is scheduled for launch on the Shuttle c.2009.

  11. Microseismic Monitoring and 3D Finite Element Analysis of the Right Bank Slope, Dagangshan Hydropower Station, during Reservoir Impounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingzong; Tang, Chun'an; Li, Lianchong; Lv, Pengfei; Liu, Hongyuan

    2017-07-01

    The right bank slope of Dagangshan hydropower station in China has complex geological conditions and is subjected to high in situ stress. Notably, microseismic activities in the right bank slope occurred during reservoir impounding. This paper describes the microseismic monitoring technology, and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis is used to explore the microseismic activities and damage mechanisms in the right bank slope during reservoir impounding. Based on data obtained from microseismic monitoring, a progressive microseismic damage model is proposed and implemented for 3D finite element analysis. The safety factor for the right bank slope after reservoir impoundment obtained from the 3D finite element analysis, which included the effects of progressive microseismic damage, was 1.10, indicating that the slope is stable. The microseismic monitoring system is able to capture the slope disturbance during reservoir impounding in real time and is a powerful tool for qualitatively assessing changes in slope stability over time. The proposed progressive microseismic damage model adequately simulates the changes in the slope during the impoundment process and provides a valuable tool for evaluating slope stability.

  12. 基于双天线单元的单站无源定位技术%Single Station Passive Location Technology Based on Two-antenna Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦修全; 国辛纯

    2014-01-01

    T raditional single station passive location algorithm based on phase difference rate of change uses the direction and phase-difference rate of change as the observation quantity to estab-lish observation equation ,and calculates the target position by means of location filtering algorithm recursion .Due to the effects of receiver channel amplitude/phase errors and platform attitude error of direction finding system ,it is difficult to realize high-accuracy direction finding ,w hich will effect the localization precision and convergence speed .Because the direction and phase-difference rate of change parameters are got through independent antenna array measurement ,this paper brings for-ward to get rid of direction finding antenna array ,uses two antenna units to extract phase-differ-ence rate of change ,and estimate the target location only by taking phase difference rate of change as the observation quantity .The location algorithm can reduce the number of system hardware effi-ciently and simplify the location operation course as well as improve the location operation speed .%传统相位差变化率单站无源定位技术是以方位和相位差变化率为观测量,建立观测方程,通过定位滤波算法递推计算出目标位置,由于测向系统受接收机通道幅相不一致性、平台自身姿态误差影响,较难实现高精度测向,从而影响定位精度和收敛时间,由于方位和相位差变化率参数分别通过独立天线阵测量得到,提出去掉测向天线阵,利用2个天线单元提取相位差变化率,仅利用相位差变化率为观测量,实现目标位置估计。该定位算法可有效减少系统硬件,简化定位运算过程,提高定位运算速度。

  13. VIBRATION SENSOR FOR HEALTH MONITORING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES IN POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibration monitoring in high power electric machines, such as generators and transformers, presents some difficulties due to the insulation and EM immunity requirements .However, the negative influence of the electromagnetic interference (EMI can be a real problem when electrical signals are used to detect and transmitphysical parameters in noisy environments such as electric power generator plants with high levels of EMI. Such problems can be solved using optical fiber sensors, which allow in situ measurements and remote control without electrical wires. The present paper describes a novel fiber optic vibration sensor for health monitoring of electrical machines, which utilizes relatively simple technologies and offers moderate costs. The sensor is optimized for detection of mechanical vibrations in the frequency range 20-100 Hz. Design details and experimental results are reported.

  14. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    a simulation of a radioactive plume passing over the monitors during a certain time was made using a specially designed source set up in the field that was able to vary the air kerma rate from low activity Cs-137 sources additional to the natural air kerma rate. It is demonstrated that a typical environmental...... radiation detector can distinguish an increase of the ambient air kerma rate of less than 3%....

  16. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  17. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  18. Wireless Sensor Network for Wearable Physiological Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Pandian; K. P. Safeer; Pragati Gupta; D. T. Shakunthala; B. S. Sundersheshu; V. C. Padaki

    2008-01-01

    Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acqui...

  19. Automated delineation and characterization of watersheds for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations active in 2010 in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Gonzales, Sophia L.; Maltby, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, developed computer scripts and applications to automate the delineation of watershed boundaries and compute watershed characteristics for more than 3,000 surface-water-quality monitoring stations in Texas that were active during 2010. Microsoft Visual Basic applications were developed using ArcGIS ArcObjects to format the source input data required to delineate watershed boundaries. Several automated scripts and tools were developed or used to calculate watershed characteristics using Python, Microsoft Visual Basic, and the RivEX tool. Automated methods were augmented by the use of manual methods, including those done using ArcMap software. Watershed boundaries delineated for the monitoring stations are limited to the extent of the Subbasin boundaries in the USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset, which may not include the total watershed boundary from the monitoring station to the headwaters.

  20. Validation of road traffic urban emission inventories by means of concentration data measured at air quality monitoring stations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellios, Giorgos; Van Aalst, Roel; Samaras, Zissis

    A method has been developed to validate inventories of urban emissions from road transport using air quality measurements. To this aim atmospheric concentration data for CO, NO x and PM 10 measured at urban traffic stations in five European countries, retrieved from the European Air Quality Information System AirBase, have been analysed. Traffic emission ratios as derived from this analysis were compared to estimates of emission ratios as provided by a suitable emissions model (TRENDS). The comparison shows a fair agreement for the CO over NO x ratio on a country level, suggesting that the measured concentrations indeed dominantly originate from traffic-related emissions. On the other hand, the NO x over PM 10 and PM 10 over CO emission ratios estimated by TRENDS are over- and underestimated, respectively, as compared to the respective average measured ratio. These discrepancies may be attributed to the fact that modelled PM 10 emissions do not account for particles originating from non-exhaust sources. Modelled ratios have confirmed the observed weekday and year dependence of the ratios. A sensitivity analysis on the CO over NO x ratio has shown that small changes in the share of mileage allocated to urban driving by different vehicle categories result in significant changes in the emission ratio. Appropriate re-allocations of the urban shares, especially for diesel vehicles, enabled the calibration of the TRENDS model against air quality data collected at various monitoring sites in different countries. In order to further improve the consistency of the method, more information on ambient air PM 2.5 mass concentrations needs to be collected from the monitoring stations and PM 10 emission factors from primary non-exhaust sources (including gasoline-fuelled vehicles) need to be incorporated into TRENDS.

  1. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the

  2. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  3. Monitoring atmospheric nitrous oxide background concentrations at Zhongshan Station, east Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenjuan; Bian, Lingen; Wang, Can; Zhu, Renbin; Zheng, Xiangdong; Ding, Minghu

    2016-09-01

    At present, continuous observation data for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations are still lacking, especially in east Antarctica. In this paper, nitrous oxide background concentrations were measured at Zhongshan Station (69°22'25″S, 76°22'14″E), east Antarctica during the period of 2008-2012, and their interannual and seasonal characteristics were analyzed and discussed. The mean N2O concentration was 321.9nL/L with the range of 320.5-324.8nL/L during the five years, and it has been increasing at a rate of 0.29% year(-1). Atmospheric N2O concentrations showed a strong seasonal fluctuation during these five years. The concentrations appeared to follow a downtrend from spring to autumn, and then increased in winter. Generally the highest concentrations occurred in spring. This trend was very similar to that observed at other global observation sites. The overall N2O concentration at the selected global sites showed an increasing annual trend, and the mean N2O concentration in the Northern Hemisphere was slightly higher than that in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result could be representative of atmospheric N2O background levels at the global scale. This study provided valuable data for atmospheric N2O concentrations in east Antarctica, which is important to study on the relationships between N2O emissions and climate change.

  4. Application of an Artificial Intelligence Method for Velocity Calibration and Events Location in Microseismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Chen, X.

    2013-12-01

    Good quality hydraulic fracture maps are heavily dependent upon the best possible velocity structure. Particle Swarm Optimization inversion scheme, an artificial intelligence technique for velocity calibration and events location could serve as a viable option, able to produce high quality data. Using perforation data to recalibrate the 1D isotropic velocity model derived from dipole sonic logs (or even without them), we are able to get the initial velocity model used for consequential events location. Velocity parameters can be inverted, as well as the thickness of the layer, through an iterative procedure. Performing inversion without integrating available data is unlikely to produce reliable results; especially if there are only one perforation shot and a single poor-layer-covered array along with low signal/noise ratio signal. The inversion method was validated via simulations and compared to the Fast Simulated Annealing approach and the Conjugate Gradient method. Further velocity model refinement can be accomplished while calculating events location during the iterative procedure minimizing the residuals from both sides. This artificial intelligence technique also displays promising application to the joint inversion of large-scale seismic activities data.

  5. Monitoring of manufacturing processes in the automotive industry using indoor location system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, LM; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Mazăre, AG; Anghel, D.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for locating the operators, equipment and parts using radio communications systems. Specifically there will be radio transceiver arranged in a network of active and passive radio receivers placed on personnel, equipment or parts. Based on a radio triangulation method, it is determined the location of the all resources and parts involved in manufacturing process. The transceivers communicate with each other via “routers” - also components of the network. Such a structure may extend over large distances even in indoor spaces where there are obstacles (walls between rooms). The location is done by determining the power of transmission signal for at least three end points. The receiver position is then transmitted over the network through routers, to a central server where all positions of the resources are centralized. Our solution is a non-invasive and low cost method for determining resource position in the factory. The system can be used for both resource planning production for current process more efficient and for further analysis of the movement of resources during previous processes with possible adjustments to the workspace and re-planning of resources for future processes.

  6. ANITA: The European Technology Demonstrator for Trace Gas Monitoring in the International Space Station Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gijsbert; Mosebach, Herbert; Honne, Atle

    2005-12-01

    The accumulation of toxic or otherwise harmful trace gases in a spacecraft cabin is a very serious concern in terms of health and safety of the crew. Much progress has been made in developing techniques for monitoring the air quality on board and in near-real-time. The technique developed in Europe has reached the state of an in-flight technology demonstrator. ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) Spectrometry. ANITA is calibrated to identify and quantify quasi online more than 30 contaminants at low ppm (part per million) or sub-ppm detection limits.ANITA is a European Space Agency (ESA) - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) cooperative programme.ANITA will be launched with Jules Verne, the maiden flight of the Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV) currently scheduled for June 2007.

  7. Influence of Passive Location System Station on Target Location Precision%无源时差定位布站形式对定位精度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金凤; 韩焱; 王黎明

    2009-01-01

    用时差法对空中机动目标进行定位,地面至少需要四个基站工作,而地面基站的布站形式对定位精度有很大的影响.通过计算机对时差定位的三种基本布站形式进行分析和仿真,得出了目标定位精度与布站方式的关系,即在相同的测量条件下达到最优的测量结果.通过建立时差定位模型,分析影响定位精度的各因素,得出了不同布站情况下的几何精度因子图,为无源时差定位系统的布站提供理论指导.%Using TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) position system locate 3-D moving target, it needs at least four stations- The layout of passive position system influences positioning precision directly. With the help of computer, three basic layouts are discussed, the connection of position precision and layout is educed. The model of target positioning system using TDOA is discussed, some factors which influence positioning precision are analyzed and some graphs of GDOP (Geometrical Dilution of Precision) are presented, which can give some theoretical instructions to the layout of passive location system.

  8. Analysis of data from sensitive U.S. monitoring stations for the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegalski, S R; Bowyer, T W; Eslinger, P W; Friese, J A; Greenwood, L R; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoffman, I; Keillor, M; Miley, H S; Moring, M

    2012-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 9.0 magnitude undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan and subsequent tsunami waves triggered a major nuclear event at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. At the time of the event, units 1, 2, and 3 were operating and units 4, 5, and 6 were in a shutdown condition for maintenance. Loss of cooling capacity to the plants along with structural damage caused by the earthquake and tsunami resulted in a breach of the nuclear fuel integrity and release of radioactive fission products to the environment. Fission products started to arrive in the United States via atmospheric transport on March 15, 2011 and peaked by March 23, 2011. Atmospheric activity concentrations of (131)I reached levels of 3.0×10(-2) Bqm(-3) in Melbourne, FL. The noble gas (133)Xe reached atmospheric activity concentrations in Ashland, KS of 17 Bqm(-3). While these levels are not health concerns, they were well above the detection capability of the radionuclide monitoring systems within the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  9. Fisheries research and monitoring activities of the Lake Erie Biological Station, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer Scarbro, Betsy L.; Edwards, W.H.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Rogers, M. R.; Schoonyan, A. L.; Stewart, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS) successfully completed large vessel surveys in all three of Lake Erie’s basins. Lake Erie Biological Station’s primary vessel surveys included the Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and East Harbor Fish Community Assessment as well as contributing to the cooperative multi-agency Central Basin Hydroacoustics Assessment, the Eastern Basin Coldwater Community Assessment, and Lower Trophic Level Assessment (see Forage and Coldwater Task Group reports). In 2015, LEBS also initiated a Lake Erie Central Basin Trawling survey in response to the need for forage fish data from Management Unit 3 (as defined by the Yellow Perch Task Group). Results from these surveys contribute to Lake Erie Committee Fish Community Goals and Objectives. Our 2015 vessel operations were initiated in early April and continued into late November. During this time, crews of the R/V Muskie and R/V Bowfin deployed 121 bottom trawls covering 83.2 ha of lake-bottom and catching 105,600 fish totaling 4,065 kg during four separate trawl surveys in the western and central basins of Lake Erie. We deployed and lifted 9.5 km of gillnet, which caught an additional 805 fish, 100 (337 kg) of which were the native coldwater predators Lake Trout, Burbot, and Lake Whitefish (these data are reported in the 2016 Coldwater Task Group report). We also conducted 317 km of hydroacoustic survey transects (reported in the 2016 Forage Task Group report), collected 114 lower trophic (i.e. zooplankton and benthos) samples, and obtained 216 water quality observations (e.g., temperature profiles, and water samples). The LEBS also assisted CLC member agencies with the maintenance and expansion of GLATOS throughout all three Lake Erie sub-basins. Within the following report sections, we describe results from three trawl surveys – the spring and autumn Western Basin Forage Fish Assessment and the East Harbor Forage Fish Assessment – and

  10. Robust real-time unusual event detection using multiple fixed-location monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Amit; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Reinitz, Daviv

    2008-03-01

    We present a novel algorithm for detection of certain types of unusual events. The algorithm is based on multiple local monitors which collect low-level statistics. Each local monitor produces an alert if its current measurement is unusual, and these alerts are integrated to a final decision regarding the existence of an unusual event. Our algorithm satisfies a set of requirements that are critical for successful deployment of any large-scale surveillance system. In particular it requires a minimal setup (taking only a few minutes) and is fully automatic afterwards. Since it is not based on objects' tracks, it is robust and works well in crowded scenes where tracking-based algorithms are likely to fail. The algorithm is effective as soon as sufficient low-level observations representing the routine activity have been collected, which usually happens after a few minutes. Our algorithm runs in realtime. It was tested on a variety of real-life crowded scenes. A ground-truth was extracted for these scenes, with respect to which detection and false-alarm rates are reported.

  11. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING ON SURFACE SETTLEMENT IN SAND AND GRAVEL STRATA CAUSED BY SUBWAY STATION CONSTRUCTION APPLYING PIPE-ROOF PRE-CONSTRUCTION METHOD (PPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  12. Stress Changes and Deformation Monitoring of Longwall Coal Pillars Located in Weak Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kuang, Tiejun; Liu, Jinrong

    2016-08-01

    Coal pillar stability is strongly influenced by the site-specific geological and geotechnical conditions. Many geological structures such as faults, joints, or rock intrusions can be detrimental to mining operations. In order to evaluate the performance of coal pillars under weak roof degraded by igneous rock intrusion, stress and deformation monitoring was conducted in the affected tailgate areas of Nos. 8208 and 8210 longwalls in Tashan coal mine, Shanxi Province, China. The measurements in the 8208 longwall tailgate showed that the mining-induced stresses in 38-m-wide coal chain pillars under the overburden depth of 300-500 m started to increase at about 100 m ahead of the 8208 longwall working face and reached its peak level at approximately 50 m ahead of the longwall face. The peak stress of 9.16 MPa occurred at the depth of 8-9 m into the pillar from the tailgate side wall. In comparison, disturbance of the headgate block pillar area was negligible, indicating the difference of abutment pressure distribution between the tailgate and headgate sites where the adjacent unmined longwall block carried most of the overburden load. However, when the longwall face passed the headgate monitoring site by 360-379 m, the pillar stress increased to a peak value of 21.4 MPa at the pillar depth of 13 m from the gob side mainly due to stress redistribution in the chain pillar. In contrast to the headgate, at the tailgate side, the adjacent goaf was the dominant triggering factor for high stress concentrations in the chain pillar. Convergence measurements in the tailgate during longwall mining further indicated the evolution characteristics of coal pillar deformation, clearly showing that the gateroad deformation is mainly induced by the longwall extraction it serves. When predicting the future pillar loads from the monitored data, two stress peaks appeared across the 38-m-wide tailgate coal pillar, which are separated by the lower stress area within the pillar center. This

  13. Development of a Portable Oxygen Monitoring System for Operations in the International Space Station Airlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2009-01-01

    NASA is currently engaged in an activity to facilitate effective operations on the International Space Station (ISS) after the Space Shuttle retires. Currently, the Space Shuttle delivers crew and cargo to and from ISS. The Space Shuttle provides the only large scale method of hardware return from ISS to the ground. Hardware that needs to be periodically repaired, refurbished, or recalibrated must come back from ISS on the Shuttle. One example of NASA flight hardware that is used on ISS and refurbished on the ground is the Compound Specific Analyzer for Oxygen (CSA-O2). The CSA-O2 is an electrochemical sensor that is used on orbit for about 12 months (depending on Shuttle launch schedules), then returned to the ground for sensor replacement. The shuttle is scheduled to retire in 2010, and the ISS is scheduled to operate until 2016. NASA needs a hand held sensor that measures oxygen in the ISS environment and has a 5-10 year service life. After conducting a survey of oxygen sensor systems, NASA selected a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer (TDLAS) as the method of measurement that best addresses the needs for ISS. These systems are compact, meet ISS accuracy requirements, and because they use spectroscopic techniques, the sensors are not consumed or altered after making a measurement. TDLAS systems have service life ratings of 5-10 years, based on the lifetime of the laser. NASA is engaged in modifying a commercially available sensor, the Vaisala OMT 355, for the ISS application. The Vaisala OMT 355 requires three significant modifications to meet ISS needs. The commercial sensor uses a wall mount power supply, and the ISS sensor needs to use a rechargeable battery as its source of power. The commercial sensor has a pressure correction setpoint: the sensor can be adjusted to operate at reduced pressure conditions, but the sensor does not self correct dynamically and automatically. The ISS sensor needs to operate in the airlock, and make accurate

  14. Characterization of a gamma spectrometry monitor LaBr{sub 3} automatic stations for environmental monitoring; Caracterizacion de un monitor de espectrometria gamma de LaBr{sub 3} para las estaciones automaticas de vigilancia ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, A.; Salvador-Castineria, P.; Roig, M.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.; Padro, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Institut de Techniques Energetiques (INTE) of the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) is collaborating with the German Radiation Protection (BfS) in order to characterize LaBr{sub 3} detector developed by the BfS for future installation of monitoring networks automatic. This paper presents the results obtained with the monitor installed on the roof of the premises of INTE South Campus located in Barcelona and Monte Carlo simulations that complement its characterization.

  15. Winds measured by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) during Curiosity's Bagnold Dunes Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire E.; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Navarro Lopez, Sara; Marin Jimenez, Mercedes; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Richardson, Mark I.

    2016-10-01

    Curiosity's damaged wind sensor has trouble measuring winds coming from behind the rover, due to the loss of its side-pointing boom during landing. During the Bagnold Dunes Campaign, however, the rover was turned to permit measurements of winds from missing directions, capturing upslope/downslope day-night flow on the slopes of Aeolis Mons and blocking of wind in the lee of a dune.The rover's heading is generally determined by the drive direction and often varies little over many tens of sols. Good wind measurements are made when the wind comes from the hemisphere to the front of the rover, but there are sometimes long periods during which winds from certain directions (i.e., at certain times of sol) are largely missed. Since rover turns are often precluded by rover safety and other operational constraints, it is usually not possible to turn to measure such winds properly.During the Bagnold Dunes Campaign, wind measurements were prioritized to provide context for aeolian dune studies. Rover headings were optimized for three wind investigations covering a period of about 90 sols. The first investigation characterized the wind field on approach to the dunes, with the rover turned to face two unusual headings for several sols each and monitoring focused on the 'missing' winds / times of sol. This confirmed the expected primary wind pattern of daytime roughly upslope winds (from ~NW/N) and nighttime downslope winds (from ~S/SE) on the slopes of Aeolis Mons, with significant sol-to-sol variability in e.g. the timing of the reversals. Comparison with the previous year suggests an increasingly upslope-downslope pattern as Curiosity approached the slope.The second investigation studied changes to the wind pattern in the lee of the Namib Dune. This revealed the blocking of northerly winds by the large dune, leaving primarily a westerly component to the daytime winds with weaker wind speeds.The third investigation characterized the wind field at the side of Namib Dune. The

  16. Study of the Cherokee Nuclear Station: projected impacts, monitoring plan, and mitigation options for Cherokee County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Scharre, P.; Pressman, B.

    1979-07-01

    This report inventories Cherokee County's capabilities and CNS project characteristics, projects expected impacts from the interaction of the two defines four options for Cherokee County decision makers, and presents a range of possible mitigation and monitoring plans for dealing with the problems identified. The four options and general implementation guidelines for each are presented after reviewing pertinent features of other mitigation and monitoring plans. The four options include (1) no action, (2) preventing impacts by preventing growth, (3) selective growth in designated areas as services can be supplied, and (4) maximum growth designed to attract as many in-movers as possible through a major program of capital investiments in public and private services. With the exception of the no action option, all plans deal with impacts according to some strategy determined by how the County wishes to manage growth. Solutions for impact problems depend on which growth strategy is selected and what additional resources are secured during the impact period. A monitoring program deals with the problems of data and projections uncertainty, while direct action is proposed to deal with the institutional problems of delay of the needed access road, timeing and location problems from the tax base mismatch, and lack of local planning capability.

  17. Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Pandey

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations.

  18. Study on the Monitoring Capability of the Seismic Network at the Dagangshan Hydropower Station%大岗山水电站地震台网的地震监测能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晟; 康昊天

    2014-01-01

    Located at the northern section of the NS-trending seismic tectonic zone at the border between Sichuan and Yunnan,the reservoir of the Dagangshan hydropower station is at the intersection of three seismic belts,Xianshuihe, Longmenshan,and Anninghe,which present a complex geological environment.The earthquake seismic network at the Dagangshan hydropower station is a dedicated small diameter minor earthquake monitoring network for hydro-power station projects and consists of eight stationary monitoring sites located across the Luding county of Ganzi and the Shimian county of Yaan,Sichuan province.The monitoring sites are located at both sides of the Dadu river,a-round the dam,at the main reservoir area,and at the fault zones,in accordance with the identified key fault zones to monitor reservoir induced earthquakes,increase the precision of locating seismic events,and decrease the lower limit of seismic magnitudes detectable in the area.The theoretical minimum monitoring capability of the designed seismic network in the focused monitoring area is M L 0.5.Based on the velocity records,the displacements recorded by the W-A short period seismometer are emulated,and then the max.P-P and the corresponding period on the displacement waveform emulated are substituted into the formula for near earthquake magnitude to calculate the earthquake mag-nitude.For validation of the background noise of earth motion,the PSD per hour at each station and the RMS values in the range of 1~20 Hz are calculated based on the noise data randomly selected from the background noise of earth motion recorded in a 48-hr interval at the Dagangshan earthquake monitoring network and the mean RMS value is taken as the average background noise of earth motion.Taking the ratio of the maximum magnitude of the S wave to the background noise as the minimum lower limit for seismic velocity detection by the system,the calibration func-tion value R (Δ)is calculated using the earthquake magnitude formula

  19. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  20. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  1. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  2. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  3. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  4. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 - and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  5. Water Quality Signal of Animal Agriculture at USGS Monitoring Stations is Related to Animal Confinement and/or Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Alexander, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    US animal agriculture has undergone major structural changes over the past two decades, with the total number of livestock producers declining dramatically and the average size of the remaining operations increasing substantially. The result has been a pronounced trend towards greater spatial concentration and confinement of livestock. The change raises important questions about the water quality effects of animal agriculture in regions where livestock waste production has become more intensive but recovery, handling, and application of animal wastes to cropland more systematized. In previous research, we developed three separate national-level SPARROW models of surface water contaminants (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria). Based on USGS monitoring and ancillary data from more than 400 US stream and river basins, the models include point and nonpoint sources of contaminants, land-to-water transport factors, and in-stream loss processes; parameter estimation is by non-linear regression. In this study we report on a pattern in the statistical results for the three models: The source coefficients (quantity of contaminant delivered to streams per unit of contaminant input) for unconfined animals are consistently larger and more statistically significant than those for confined animals. The implicit meaning is that something associated with waste management on large farms and/or animal confinement (e.g. retention period, recovery of manure for application to crops and subsequent crop uptake, and/or better waste treatment) reduces the average water quality signal of this scale of animal agriculture (per unit of manure input) to barely detectable at downstream monitoring stations, while the water quality signal from unconfined animal agriculture is more clear. The county-level data for confined and unconfined manure inputs (defined primarily by farm size) are from the USDA, and are spatially distributed in the model GIS by 1-km land use data

  6. Microorganisms in confined habitats: Microbial monitoring and control of intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room, product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms, or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g. microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  7. Integrating Real-time Bridge Scouring Monitoring System with Mobile Location-Based Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Bin Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhoons and torrential rains not only erode river beds and coasts and damage river-crossing structures, but also affect the geomorphology and topography of rivers and coasts. Additionally, typhoons and torrential rains cause debris flows and flooding in metropolitan areas and threaten the safety of people’s lives and properties. Disaster prevention and reduction of damage caused by typhoons and torrential rains have always been a crucial task of government agencies. Bridges in Taiwan are generally old and have insufficient shock resistance; some bridge foundations are also severely eroded and exposed. Because of global climate changes in recent years, rainfall has become comparatively heavy and rapid. Furthermore, the soil in mountain areas has softened because of factors such as earthquakes or human developments. Debris rushes down with rain every time a torrential rain strikes, significantly impacting the safety of bridges downstream. Although government bridge management units have made budget plans to progressively renovate dangerous old bridges, these bridges are still being use for traffic and transportation. These dangerous old bridges pose a serious threat to the safety of people when an earthquake, typhoon, or flood occurs. During typhoons and floods, increased water levels and changes of the scouring depths have dramatic effects on the safety of bridges. The bridge maintenance unit currently uses the water level and water flow conditions as references when determining whether to close a bridge; however, this is not a good permanent solution. A bridge scour monitoring and warning system that is stable, reliable, and operates normally under flood attacks is required for on-site installation and verification. In recent years, the applied technologies of smart phones have expanded beyond entertainment and communication. Mobile communications are used to transmit relevant information to bridge maintenance and management units and road

  8. Environmental monitoring and fuzzy synthetic evaluation of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing in 2001-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunping; LI Guoxue; LUO Yiming; LI Yanfu; HUANG Jian

    2008-01-01

    Transfer station (TS) is an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. To provide information for the incorporation of waste facilities within the current integrated waste management system, the authors measured the existing environmental quality at five MSW TSs,. Discharged wastewater, air, and noise were monitored and assayed at the five TSs in Beijing in 2001--2006 during rainy seasons (RSs) and dry seasons (DSs). Except Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the analytical results of total suspended particles (TSPs), odor, noise, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solid (SS), and fecal coliform concentrations were all degree-varied higher than the criteria limit in China. Using fuzzy mathematics, the environmental quality of MSW TSs in Beijing were classified into five categories, with levels of certainty of belonging to different categories and evaluations. The result indicated that: the whole environmental quality of Datun TS, Majialou TS, and Xiaowuji TS, in Beijing, were bad during 2001--2006 RSs and DSs. Except in 2002, the entire environmental quality of the Wuluju TS during 2001--2006 RSs was poor. Only in the DSs of 2002 and 2003 was the whole environmental quality of the Wuluju TS good. The whole environmental quality of the Yamenkou TS during 2001--2006 DSs was bad, which was lower than that of 2001--2006 DSs.

  9. The meteorology of Gale Crater as determined from Rover Environmental Monitoring Station observations and numerical modeling. Part II: Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Pla-Garcia, Jorge; Kahre, Melinda; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Marín, Mercedes; Navarro, Sara; Torres, Josefina; Vasavada, Ashwin

    2016-12-01

    Numerical modeling results from the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System are used to interpret the landed meteorological data from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In order to characterize seasonal changes throughout the Martian year, simulations are conducted at Ls 0, 90, 180 and 270. Two additional simulations at Ls 225 and 315 are explored to better understand the unique meteorological setting centered on Ls 270. The synergistic combination of model and observations reveals a complex meteorological environment within the crater. Seasonal planetary circulations, the thermal tide, slope flows along the topographic dichotomy, mesoscale waves, slope flows along the crater slopes and Mt. Sharp, and turbulent motions all interact in nonlinear ways to produce the observed weather. Ls 270 is shown to be an anomalous season when air within and outside the crater is well mixed by strong, flushing northerly flow and large amplitude, breaking mountain waves. At other seasons, the air in the crater is more isolated from the surrounding environment. The potential impact of the partially isolated crater air mass on the dust, water, noncondensable and methane cycles is also considered. In contrast to previous studies, the large amplitude diurnal pressure signal is attributed primarily to necessary hydrostatic adjustments associated with topography of different elevations, with contributions of less than 25% to the diurnal amplitude from the crater circulation itself. The crater circulation is shown to induce a suppressed boundary layer.

  10. Inversion Approach to Validate Mercury Emissions Based on Background Air Monitoring at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian; Henne, Stephan; Obrist, Daniel; Steinbacher, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    The reduction of emissions of mercury is a declared aim of the Minamata Convention, a UN treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects of mercury. To assess the effectiveness of the convention in the future, better constraints about the current mercury emissions is a premise. In our study, we applied a top-down approach to quantify mercury emissions on the basis of atmospheric mercury measurements conducted at the remote high altitude monitoring station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. We established the source-receptor relationships and by the means of atmospheric inversion we were able to quantify spatially resolved European emissions of 89 ± 14 t/a for elemental mercury. Our European emission estimate is 17% higher than the bottom-up emission inventory, which is within stated uncertainties. However, some regions with unexpectedly high emissions were identified. Stationary combustion, in particular in coal-fired power plants, is found to be the main responsible sector for increased emission estimates. Our top-down approach, based on measurements, provides an independent constraint on mercury emissions, helps to improve and refine reported emission inventories, and can serve for continued assessment of future changes in emissions independent from bottom-up inventories.

  11. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Erik; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Santesteban, Daniel; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities. PMID:27589751

  12. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Aguirre

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities.

  13. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Erik; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Santesteban, Daniel; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-08-30

    The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities.

  14. Review on Location Optimization of Recharging Stations for Electric Vehicles%电动汽车充电站布局优化方法研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴; 孙小慧; 左志

    2015-01-01

    From the view points of optimization objects , constraints and feasibility of optimization schemes ,the advantages and disadvantages of two mainstream models ,point‐based demand models and path‐based demand models ,based on two types of basic models ,P‐Mmedian Model and Flowing Capturing Location Model ,were compared and analyzed .The following improvement and extending models were elaborated .The multi‐objective optimization models and the dynamic modeling frame‐work were further explored .The location of recharging stations for Electric Vehicles (EVs) has some unique influence factors and some special requirements on both the decision uncertainties due to shor‐ter driving range and longer charging time and the continuity optimization issues in a long‐term con‐struction .Research focuses and directions in near future are proposed by considering the limitation of existing studies .%从优化目标、限制条件和优化方案的适用性等角度着重比较分析了从P‐M edian模型和截流选址模型3个基础模型发展而来的两类主流模型———点需求模型和路径流量需求模型的优点和缺点,详细阐述了各类模型的改进和延伸,进一步探索了多目标优化模型以及动态布局优化模型和方法。充电站布局具有独特的影响因素,需同时考虑电动汽车续驶里程短、充电时间长等特性引起的不确定性决策问题,以及长期建设过程中连续性优化等问题。结合传统布局优化研究的不足,提出了未来充电站布局的研究趋势和方向。

  15. Innovation in monitoring: The U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, flow-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Jon; Ruhl, Cathy; Work, Paul

    2016-01-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed the first gage to measure the flow of water into California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the Sacramento River in the late 1800s. Today, a network of 35 hydro-acoustic meters measure flow throughout the delta. This region is a critical part of California’s freshwater supply and conveyance system. With the data provided by this flow-station network—sampled every 15 minutes and updated to the web every hour—state and federal water managers make daily decisions about how much freshwater can be pumped for human use, at which locations, and when. Fish and wildlife scientists, working with water managers, also use this information to protect fish species affected by pumping and loss of habitat. The data are also used to help determine the success or failure of efforts to restore ecosystem processes in what has been called the “most managed and highly altered” watershed in the country.

  16. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  17. Architectural Issues of a Location-Aware System Applied in Fruit Fly E-Monitoring and Spraying Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsiligiridis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we describe an e-monitoring location-aware system, based on a real-time Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN, integrated with a semi-automatic trapping and insect counting, based on existing traps, able to acquire and transmit data to a remote server, and a Decision Support System (DSS that will perform the final optimization of the control treatments. In spite the tremendous technological advances in recent years, WSNs cannot meet all the requirements of ubiquitous intelligent environment mainly because scalar data such as temperature, air humidity, air pressure, etc., are not able to detect all environmental events, like insect detection. For this reasons the efforts are concentrated on the design issues of a WMSN platform, able to collect and integrate multimedia data from the field. Further, a flexible architecture needs to be adopted for integration of a WMSN to the cloud for multimedia sensor data collection and sharing using Web services.

  18. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  19. Analysis of solar radiation and other variables for the evaluation of locations of thermo solar power stations; Analisis de radiacion solar y otras vairables para la evaluacion de emplazamientos de centrales termosolares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, I.; Miranda, M. T.; Rojas, S.; Bolinaga, B.; Tierra, C.; Pico, J. del

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of various measuring weather stations located in future CCP thermal plants, showing the different systems they are equipped with, among others, pyrheliometer, pyrano meter, anemometers, thermo-hygrometer and data transmission system. Some results of solar radiation and other climate variables obtained in these stations are presented and analyzed in relation to existing data in the area, taking into account different external parameters that can influence the direct radiation obtained and, therefore, the future operation of the thermal plant. (Author)

  20. 电动汽车充电站规划布局与选址方案的优化方法%An Optimization Approach for the Layout and Location of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少云; 冯亮; 刘洪; 王龙

    2012-01-01

    With consideration of the interests of both charging station operators and users, an optimization model for electric vehicle charging station planning which is based on the minimum cost of the whole society is presented. An optimization method for locating and sizing of charging stations is proposed with the consideration of the road network, the traffic flow and the users' loss on the way to the charging station. The traffic flow of each intersection node is used to represent the road network traffic. The weights are used to reflect the impact of traffic density on the charging station service area. The users' minimum loss on the way to the charging station is chosen as the objective function for locating the charging station. And the weighted Voronoi diagram is used to partition the service areas of charging stations. Finally, the optimal scheme of charging stations is selected to minimize the cost of the whole society. The example proves that the methods and models proposed in this paper are feasible and reasonable for the charging station optimization planning in the city area.%在兼顾充电站运营者和电动汽车用户双方利益的前提下,提出了一种基于全社会成本最小化的充电站规划布局的优选模型.在充分考虑路网结构、车流信息和用户路程损耗等影响因素的情况下,提出了充电站选址定容的优化方法.该方法以路口节点的交通流量来表示路网中的车流情况,以权重来反映车流密度对充电站服务范围的影响,以用户在充电路程中的损耗成本最小为目标进行选址,并利用加权Voronoi图来实现充电站服务范围的自动划分.最后,以全社会成本最小为目标从多种规划方案中选择最优方案作为规划区充电站最终的规划方案.算例表明,所提出的方法和模型对于城市区域电动汽车充电站的优化规划具有一定的可行性和合理性.

  1. Hydrological Information by Sampling Station within the Great Plains Region of the Bureau of Reclamation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation operates a network of automated hydrologic and meteorologic monitoring stations (Hydromet) located throughout the Great Plains Region. The...

  2. 对空气质量实时发布站点的监控研究%Study on Monitoring of Air Quality Real-time Publishing Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴成磊; 黄祖照; 刘叶新; 邝俊侠

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the working practice of real-time publishing of Guangzhou environmental monito-ring central station,it studied on monitoring of publishing station in the aspects of data consistency,abnormal da-ta,data quality,etc.Based on real-time communication technology and cloud technology,the network information platform was established and the work of recognizing anomalies of real-time publishing station and responding without delay was done well.The reliability and effective rate of real-time publishing data were improved and the stability of real-time publishing station was guaranteed.%结合广州市环境监测中心站空气质量实时发布工作的实践,开展对发布站点的监控研究。在数据一致性、异常数据和数据质量等方面对发布站点实施监控,并使用实时通讯技术和云技术,建立网络化信息平台,有效识别发布站点的异常问题并及时响应,提高了实时发布数据的可靠性和有效率,保障了发布站点的稳定运行。

  3. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  4. 换流站内冷水中铝离子的监测%The monitor of Aluminum ion in cooling water of converter stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田兴旺; 张蓬鹤; 吴巍; 乐文静

    2012-01-01

    All of the inside cooling water dispose system of DC project in converter stations exist the problem of serious canker and aggradation, according to a mass of analyzing, the scale formation of aluminum ion is serious, in order to prevent in time, it needs online monitoring. This paper mainly introduce the method about monitoring of Aluminum ion in cooling water of converter stations.%各换流站直流工程内冷水处理系统均存在严重的腐蚀和沉积问题,经多方面分析,铝离子结垢比较严重,需要通过在线监测来进行及时预防.本文主要介绍内冷水中铝离子的在线监测方法.

  5. Fake Base Station Recognition and Locating Technology Research%伪基站系统侦测识别及定位方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周之童; 夏子焱; 邢佳帅; 李珍妮

    2014-01-01

    Fake base station as the latest high-tech crime method due to its high mobility and camouflage, makes the introduction of pseudo base station technology widely circulated in the underground market in China, the ministry of public security special operation are many times back through the source tracking method of pseudo base station, and it is dififcult to directly get the current. This paper, based on the principle of pseudo base station based on this study a comprehensive detect recognition and positioning method of pseudo base station system.%伪基站作为最新的高科技犯罪手段由于其高移动性与伪装性,使得伪基站技术一经引进我国就在地下市场广为流传,而公安部多次专项行动均是通过追源头捣窝点的方法对伪基站进行打击,很难直接抓到现行。文章根据伪基站的原理研究了一种综合的伪基站系统侦测识别以及定位方法。

  6. Automatic trace metal monitoring station use for early warning and short term events in polluted rivers: application to streams loaded by mining tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Iftekhar, Shafia; Billon, Gabriel; Mikkelsen, Oyvind; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2010-10-06

    An automatic trace metal monitoring station (ATMS) system was implemented to study seasonal and short time changes in selected metal concentrations in two river courses influenced by mine drainage. High frequency monitoring over periods of months revealed daily variations of zinc, iron and copper, and also proved the use of ATMS as an early warning system in such polluted environments. Complementary measurements with ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry), ionic chromatography, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations also gave some new insights into the geochemical behaviour of the metals in these two rivers.

  7. Design for Monitoring Aging Protective of Safety Shell in Nclear Power Stations%核电站安全壳老化防护监测的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞; 周宇; 殷静华; 黄熊荣; 周在杞

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the aging protection of the safety shell in nuclear power stations, which is related not only to the security operation of the nuclear power station, but also is the most important part of the aging management of nuclear power station constructs/builds. There may be difficulties for th6 preventive maintenance and in-service monitoring after the completion of construction, if there are no available quantitative technical measures of monitoring and diagnosis. In considering the preventive maintenance program of the nuclear power plant building aging, the measurability or accessibility of the protection monitoring during construction of the safety shell should be concerned. So it is extremely essential to conduct the research, design and implementation.%核电站安全壳老化防护不仅关系到核电站的安全运营,同时也是核电站建/筑构物老化管理最重要的组成部分。目前的在役监测只是定性的。在考虑核电站老化预防性维修方案时,应重点关注安全壳建设过程中防护监测的可检性或可达性,并为此加以研究设计和实施是十分必要的。

  8. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Technology Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie M.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Flint, Stephanie; Pollack, Lawrence P.; Roman, Monserrate C.

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR (trademark) EX, a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) instrument, is a portable, ruggedized unit that was designed for the Department of Defense (DoD) with its reagent chemistries traceable to a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract beginning in 2002. The PCR instrument's primary function post 9/11 was to enable frontline soldiers and first responders to detect biological threat agents and bioterrorism activities in remote locations to include field environments. With its success for DoD, the instrument has also been employed by other governmental agencies including Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The RAZOR (Trademark) EX underwent stringent testing by the vendor, as well as through the DoD, and was certified in 2005. In addition, the RAZOR (trademark) EX passed DHS security sponsored Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays (SPADA) rigorous evaluation in 2011. The identification and quantitation of microbial pathogens is necessary both on the ground as well as during spaceflight to maintain the health of astronauts and to prevent biofouling of equipment. Currently, culture-based monitoring technology has been adequate for short-term spaceflight missions but may not be robust enough to meet the requirements for long-duration missions. During a NASA-sponsored workshop in 2011, it was determined that the more traditional culture-based method should be replaced or supplemented with more robust technologies. NASA scientists began investigating innovative molecular technologies for future space exploration and as a result, PCR was recommended. Shortly after, NASA sponsored market research in 2012 to identify and review current, commercial, cutting edge PCR technologies for potential applicability to spaceflight operations. Scientists identified and extensively evaluated three candidate technologies with the potential to function in microgravity. After a thorough voice-of-the-customer trade study and extensive functional and

  9. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  10. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    OCDS) ................................................... 077 BIRJAND 408090 8612 (OCDS) ............................................. ( 381 BUSHEHR...ALL HOURS # 2 1 0 1 0 # 0 # 1 # 1 1 CACECR-IB 080 OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMM ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID...082. L@ OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SIJ44ARY STATION: BIRJAND , IRAN STATION #: 408090 ICAO ID: OIMB LOCATION: 32054’N, 59016’E ELEVATION (FEET): 4823 LST

  11. Time prediction of an onset of shallow landslides based on the monitoring of the groundwater level and the surface displacement at different locations on a sandy model slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Location of monitoring of the deformation and the groundwater level in a slope is important for time-prediction of an onset of shallow landslides based on the monitoring. The analysis of the monitored data of the surface displacement and the groundwater level at different locations in sandy model slope under artificial rainfall was conducted in this study. The monitored data showed that the surface displacement increased with the increase of the groundwater level significantly. Then the analysis of the monitored data revealed that the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level can be modified as hyperbolic curve. The surface displacement grew larger and maximum groundwater level was smaller at farther location from the toe of the slope. Time-prediction of an onset of a landslide based on the monitored data at different location on the slope was proposed as following procedures. (1) To make a regression equation for the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level based on the monitored data at any time before the failure, (2) To make a regression equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level based on the same data with (1), and (3) To incorporate the equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level into that between the surface displacement and the groundwater level to derive the time - the surface displacement relation. (4) To derive the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity from the equation for the time - the surface displacement relation. The equation for the time - the surface displacement and the equation for the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity could simulate the actual phenomena of the slope well based on the monitored data at any location on the model slope.

  12. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  13. Renovation of the Computer Monitoring System in Zhaoshandu Hydropower Station%赵山渡水力发电厂计算机监控系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑峰

    2015-01-01

    Since the computer monitoring devices in Zhaoshandu Hydropower Station are of a serious ageing situation with a high malfunction risk, a renovation work is carried out on the structure, hardware and software configurations, and functions of the monitoring system.Practice shows that the computer monitoring system after the renovation is now of a satisfactory operational performance.%鉴于赵山渡水力发电厂计算机监控系统设备老化,运行故障率高等问题,对监控系统的结构、硬软件配置、功能等进行了改造,结果表明,改造后的监控系统达到了设计要求,运行效果良好。

  14. Role of Indian remote sensing imaging satellites for the Antarctic monitoring and mapping: a case study around Indian Antarctic research stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprasad, P.; Mehra, Raghav; Chawla, Saket; Rajak, D. Ram; Oza, Sandip R.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic research station's existence largely depend on the supply of fuel, food and other commodities through Antarctic Scientific Expedition using ship voyage. Safer Ship Navigation demands high resolution satellite monitoring of the ice conditions which varies from 30 km to 200 km from the Antarctic coast of Research stations. During the last couple of years Indian Satellites play a major role in safer ship navigation in sea ice regions of the Arctic and the Antarctic. Specifically Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctica (ISEA) through National Centre for Antarctic and Oceanic Research (NCAOR) is one of the beneficiaries for safer ship navigation using information derived from Indian Satellite data. Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation (SAC-ISRO) is providing Sea Ice Advisories for the safer optimum entry and exit for the expedition ship at two of the Research stations Bharati and Maitri. Two of the Indian Satellites namely Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) and ResourceSAT-2 (RS-2) are the two major workhorses of ISRO for monitoring and mapping of the Antarctic terrain. The present study demonstrate the utilisation potential of these satellite images for various Polar Science Applications. Mosaic of the Antarctic Terrain was generated from RISAT-1 CRS data. The preliminary results of the mosaic from CRS- circular polarisation data is presented. Demonstration of the study is extended for other applications such as change detection studies, safer ship navigation and extreme events of Antarctica. The use of multi resolution multi sensor data is also shown in the study.

  15. To Establish Evaluation System for Location Selection of Electric Vehicle Charging and Swapping Station%电动汽车充(换)电站选址评价体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁加妍; 潘莹; 张娥

    2014-01-01

    The problem of location selection of electric vehicle charging and swapping station is important to promote the development of electric vehicle industry.The paper introduces six principles and key factors such as social,data,economy,environmental and others that will influences location selection of electric vehicle charging and swapping station.We select the extent of coverage,economic costs,distribution of resources and service capabilities as basic index,and use AHP and FCE as the evaluation method.Through the establishment of evaluation system,we can understand the key factors of location selection of electric vehicle charging and swapping station,thereby break the bottleneck of the electric vehicle industry development.Also we should further analysis and evaluate the layout of location selection of existing and planned electric vehicle charging and swapping station scientifically.This will also give technical guidance and reference for the location selec-tion of electric vehicle charging and swapping station.%电动汽车充(换)电站的选址问题,是推进电动汽车产业化发展的一个重要问题。介绍了电动汽车充(换)电站选址的六大原则和影响选址的社会、数据、经济、环境及其他可能影响的关键因素,并且选取覆盖程度、经济成本、资源配置、服务能力作为一级指标,利用层次分析法和模糊综合评价法进行评价和分析。通过建立电动汽车充(换)电站选址评价体系,可以了解充(换)电站选址的关键因素,从而破解制约电动汽车产业化发展的瓶颈问题,并对现有及规划充(换)电站的站址布局,进行深入分析和科学评价,同时也为电动汽车大规模产业化发展下的充(换)电站的选址,进行技术指导和借鉴。

  16. Natural Radioactivity Accumulated in the Arctic from Long-range Atmospheric Transport - Observations in Canadian Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Weihua [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In the environment, the main sources of naturally occurring radionuclides come from radionuclides in the uranium decay series. Activity concentrations of uranium decay series radionuclides may vary considerably from place to place depending on the geological characteristics at the location. Their releases to the atmosphere are mainly through radon ({sup 222}Rn), a radioactive noble gas occurring naturally as an indirect decay product of uranium in soils and rocks. Due to the abundance of uranium, radon continuously emanates from continental land masses. With radon as the main source of naturally occurring radioactivity in the environment, one would think that the Arctic should be an area of low background radiation, because a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by glaciers and permafrost, and radon emanation rate has been reported to be negligible from those glacier and permafrost areas. However, available data have shown the opposite. The elevated level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the Arctic is due to natural sources outside of the Arctic, mainly through long-range atmospheric transport of radon and radon progeny. In some cases, natural radioactivity can accumulate to relatively high levels and become a health concern or a limiting factor of country food consumption. By definition, contaminants are undesirable substances which can cause harm to the environment, the biota, and humans. We can call these naturally accumulating radiological burdens to the Arctic 'natural contaminants' to distinguish them from the traditional meaning of contamination, the 'artificial contaminants' which are attributable to industrial or man-made sources. This paper reviews information available in the literature, analyses long-term atmospheric monitoring data in the Canadian high Arctic, sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites, and provides discussion on research needed to address questions, such as how heavily the Arctic has been impacted by the

  17. Fire Stations, Fire station locations within Sedgwick County. Cover is derived from Emergency Facilities (scEfac) cover. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attributes include station number, address, mailing city, type and name., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Stations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Fire station...

  18. On-line Monitoring System for Vapor Recovery in Oil Filling Station%加油站油气回收在线监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟振振; 吴锋棒; 张卫华

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet GB20952-2007 requirements and ensure vapor recovery in oil filling station, an on-line monitoring system for vapor recovery was developed. The test results from an oil filling station prove the system advantages of space saving, low cost and easy installation.%开发了加油站油气回收在线监测系统,实现了对加油站油气回收系统的在线监测,满足GB20952-2007的要求.该系统经过在模拟加油站的实验测试,已安装在中国石化北京某加油站试运行,运行效果良好,并具有占用空间小、成本低和施工安装方便的优点.

  19. Design of Computer Monitoring and Protection System for Gaotankou Pump Station%高潭口泵站计算机监控保护系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰芳

    2011-01-01

    简述高潭口泵站的概况及计算机监控保护设计的主要原则,给出了系统的总体设计方案,并以主机保护为例着重介绍了泵站微机保护系统特点。该保护系统设计安全、可靠、方便、实用。%This paper briefly presents Gaotankou Pump Station and its major design principle on computer monitoring and protection system, gives overall design scheme of the system, and introduces the characterization of the micro computer protection system in pump station by taking mainframe protection as an example. The protection systems designed are safety, reliable, convenient and practical.

  20. 水质自动监测站综合防雷技术研究%Research on Integrated Lightning Protection Technology of Automatic Water Quality Monitoring Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊希彬; 于淼; 梁铁军

    2011-01-01

    基于建筑物雷击风险评估方法,得出本地可能遭受到的雷击形式和雷电破坏电子设备途径.以鸭绿江丹东江桥水质自动监测站综合防雷系统工程设计与施工为基础,对水质自动监测站外部、内部综合防雷技术体系进行阐述,通过现代防雷技术方法,有效降低监测设备因雷击而产生的故障率、最大限度预防和减少雷击所发生的人身伤亡和国家财产损失.%According to the method of building lightning risk assessment, ways of local lightning and means that lightning damages to electronic devices are obtained. Based on the design and construction of integrated lightning protection system of Yalu River automatic water quality monitoring stations in Dandong, external and internal integrated lightning protection system of automatic water quality monitoring stations is illustrated. Through methods of modern lightning protection technology, the failure rate generated from monitoring equipment stuck by lightning can be effectively reduced, the body injuries, deaths and the loss of state property led by lightning can be maximally prevented and reduced.

  1. Assessing environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in Portugal: An approach for the selection of the Portuguese monitoring stations in line with Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2016-02-01

    In line with the Directive 2013/39/EU the most representative surface waters, regarding pharmaceuticals contamination, were selected based on a Portuguese nationwide monitoring exercise. To meet this purpose, and given that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as the major point sources of pharmaceuticals environmental contamination, the occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment (ERA) of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, belonging to several therapeutic classes were assessed in 15 WWTPs (influents (WWIs) and effluents (WWEs)), from five different regions during one year (4 sampling campaigns). Results showed that all samples were contaminated with at least 1, and up to 8 from the 11 targeted pharmaceuticals. The highest concentrations observed were 150 and 33 μg L(-1) for WWI and WWE, respectively. Regarding temporal and spacial influence, winter, Alentejo, Algarve and Center regions presented higher mass loads. The ERA posed by 7 of the selected pharmaceuticals presented a risk quotient higher than 1 to the three trophic levels. Our findings highlighted that the rivers Mondego, Tagus, Ave, Trancão, Fervença and Xarrama should be selected as surface water monitoring stations. This study gives a good overview on pharmaceuticals contamination in WWTPs and its impact on surface waters in Portugal. Thus, a more integrative approach to rank and prioritize pharmaceuticals, based on an integrated assessment of ERA and exposure of surface water, was provided to support the future selection of the 6 most representative monitoring stations in Portugal, as required by the above mentioned directive.

  2. Application of Operation Monitoring System in Longxi Hydropower Station%龙溪水电站运行监控系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安春爱; 金清江

    2013-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the structure and function of computer monitoring system in Longxi Hydropower Station;it analyzes advantages and shortcomings of this system and pointed out the problems that should be noted during hydropower station computer monitoring system design , manufacture and use , thereby providing reference for new power plant computer monitoring system design and construction as well as old power plant technological transformation .%  本文简要介绍了龙溪水电站计算机监控系统的结构和功能,分析了其优点和存在的不足,指出了水电站计算机监控系统的设计、制造和使用中应注意的问题,旨在为新建电站计算机监控系统的设计、建设和老电厂技术改造方面提供借鉴。

  3. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  4. Comprehensive Retrieval of Spatio-temporal Variations in Atmospheric Radionuclides just after the Fukushima Accident by Analyzing Filter-tapes of Operational Air Pollution Monitoring Stations in Eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2016-04-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FD1NPS) accident on March 11, 2011, many datasets have been available of deposition density of radionuclides in soils in eastern Japan. By contrast, no time-series data of atmospheric radionuclides has been measured in the Fukushima prefecture (FP), although very limited data is available in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPS. As a result, atmospheric transport models simulating the atmospheric concentrations and surface deposition of radionuclides have large uncertainty, as well as the estimate of release rate of source terms and of internal exposure from inhalation. One year after the accident, we collected the used filter-tapes installed in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitors with beta-ray attenuation method operated by local governments in the air pollution monitoring network of eastern Japan. The SPM monitoring stations are mostly located in the urban and/or industrial area to measure the hourly mass concentration of SPM less than 10 μm in diameter for health effect due to atmospheric aerosols. By measuring radionuclides in SPM on the filter-tapes, we retrieved hourly atmospheric Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations during March 12-23, 2011, when atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments were seriously suffered in most of eastern Japan. Until now, we measured hourly radiocesium at around 100 SPM sites in the southern Tohoku region (ST) including the FP and in the TMA. By analysing the dataset, about 10 plumes/polluted air masses with Cs-137 concentrations higher than 10 Bq m-3 were found, and some plumes were newly detected in this study. And the spatio-temporal distributions of atmospheric Cs-137 were clearly shown for all the plumes. The east coast area of the FP where the FD1NPS was located in the centre was attacked several times by the plumes, and suffered the highest time-integrated Cs-137 concentration during the period among the ST and TMA

  5. 一种GNSS监测站选址模糊综合评价方法%A Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation Method for Address Choosing of GNSS Monitoring Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 马煦; 李春霞

    2015-01-01

    全球导航卫星系统( GNSS)监测站位置布设直接影响导航系统的服务质量,因此监测站选址在GNSS系统建设过程中尤为重要。从视场、电磁干扰、多路径干扰、精度因子( DOP)值、电离层格网可用度、气象环境地质条件、政治军事安全、工作环境等因素对影响监测站选址进行了全面分析,并提出了一种“硬判决-软判决冶相结合的模糊综合评价监测站选址方法。“北斗冶卫星导航系统( BDS)监测站选址评估实例表明,该方法达到了监测站选址高效、精确的评估效果。%The deployment of Global Navigation Satellite System( GNSS) monitoring station would directly impact the service quality,so it is an important part in construction of GNSS. Based on the full analysis of the factors influencing the address choosing of monitoring station,such as visual field,electromagnetic inter-ference,multi-path interference,dilution of precision(DOP),ionosphere availability,meteorology environ-ment and geological condition,politics and military safety,working environment,a fuzzy synthetic evaluation method of “hard decision- soft decision” for the address choosing is put forward. The example of evalua-tion of address choosing of Beidou Satellite Navigation System( BDS) monitoring station shows this method can provide high-efficiency and accurate evaluation result for address choosing of monitoring station.

  6. Application of computer monitoring system in sugar mill power station%计算机监控技术在糖厂热电站的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘耀明; 农志民

    2013-01-01

      In this paper, TAS9000 computer monitoring system’s technical characters were introduced, including system construction, equipments and its’ main functions. And application effect of this system in sugar mill power station was introduced.%  从系统构成、系统设备、系统主要功能等方面介绍了 TAS9000计算机监控系统的技术特点及糖厂发电站计算机监控系统的具体应用。

  7. Police Stations, Law Enforcement Locations in Rhode Island. Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are publicly funded and employ at least one full-time or part-time sworn officer with ge, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Police Stations dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as 'Law...

  8. Optimal Selection of Number and Location of Meteo-Hydrological Monitoring Networks on Vu Gia – Thu Bon River Basin using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Hong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological data play a particularly important role in hydrologic research because the climate and weather of an area exert a profound influence on most hydrologic processes. Meanwhile, hydrological data are critical for performing a range of purposes, including water resources assessment, impacts of climate change and flood forecasting and warning. It can be said that the prevention of disasters caused by floods and droughts would be impossible without rational forecasting technology based on an understanding of the rainfall-runoff phenomenon and statistical analysis of past hydrological data, which cannot be achieved without meteo-hydrological observations. The lack of adequate meteo-hydrological data affects the ability to model, predict and plan for catastrophic events such as floods and droughts which have obvious negative impacts on public health and socio-economic aspects. The accurate estimation of the spatial distribution of meteorological and hydrological parameters requires a dense network of instruments, which entails large installation and operational costs. It is thus necessary to optimize the number and location of meteo-hydrological stations. This paper presents a GIS-based approach to establishing an optimal meteo-hydrological station network on Vu Gia- Thu Bon river basin for developing an up-to-date real time flood warning system. Based on statistical analysis of the annual rainfall total data at 9 existing gauges in the study area from 1980 to 2013, it showed that the error of the existing network was about 7.47%. Considering 9 rain gauges as a standard representative of rainfall over the region, if the error decreases from 7.47% to 5%, the number of additional rain gauges should be 20. For adequate and economical network design, these additional rain gauges were spatially distributed between the different isohyetals after considering the relative distances between rain gauges, their accessibility, personnel required for

  9. Discussion on computer monitoring system of hydropower station%水电站计算机监控系统改造技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹坤

    2015-01-01

    this paper introduces the present situation of the hydropower station computer monitoring system,characteristics and development trend,the paper mainly discusses the old power plant monitoring system upgrade scheme selection,key technology,system structure,the main problems should be paid attention to in the project.%介绍了水电站计算机监控系统的现状、特点及发展趋势,重点探讨老电厂监控系统升级改造的方案选择、技术重点、体系结构、工程实施中所应注意的主要问题.

  10. Application of Computer Monitoring System in Zhanghewan Hydropower Station%计算机监控系统在张河湾水电站的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭瑞双

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure configuration and function characteristics of computer monitoring system of Zhanghewan hydropower station.The system realizes real-time monitoring,control,protection,regulation and data collection on the production proce%论述了张河湾水电站计算机监控系统的结构配置和功能特点。该系统实现了对张河湾水电站生产过程的实时监测、控制、保护、调节、数据采集,以及运行参数自动记录等功能,实现了电站"无人值班"或"少人值守"的运行管理模式。

  11. Gulf Watch Alaska nearshore component: Monitoring site locations from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Heather A.; Kloecker, Kim; Bodkin, James L.; Dean, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    These data are part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, nearshore monitoring component. Specifically, these data describe site locations for rocky intertidal, mussel sampling, soft sediment bivalve sampling, and eelgrass bed sampling in the northern Gulf of Alaska within the GWA program. The dataset consists of two comma separated files exported from a Microsoft Excel workbook. The data consists of 1. rocky intertidal, mussel sampling, and soft sediment site location information, and 2. eelgrass bed locations. Sampling will be conducted in Katmai National Park and Preserve (KATM), Kenai Fjords National Park (KEFJ), Prince William Sound (PWS) and to a lesser extent on the Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (LACL). Sites from a related project that provides similar data from Kachemak Bay (KBAY) are included here.

  12. In-Flight Water Quality Monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS): Measuring Biocide Concentrations with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The colorimetric water quality monitoring kit (CWQMK) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) on STS-128/17A and was initially deployed in September 2009. The kit was flown as a station development test objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the acceptability of colorimetric solid phase extraction (CSPE) technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. During the SDTO experiment, water samples from the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA), the U.S. potable water dispenser (PWD), and the Russian system for dispensing ground-supplied water (SVO-ZV) were collected and analyzed with the CWQMK. Samples from the U.S. segment of the ISS were analyzed for molecular iodine, which is the biocide added to water in the WPA. Samples from the SVOZV system were analyzed for ionic silver, the biocide used on the Russian segment of the ISS. In all, thirteen in-flight analysis sessions were completed as part of the SDTO experiment. This paper provides an overview of the experiment and reports the results obtained with the CWQMK. The forward plan for certifying the CWQMK as operational hardware and expanding the capabilities of the kit are also discussed.

  13. 基于单片机的地震台站远程监控%Remote monitor and control system for seismic station based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军; 李冬圣; 毛国良; 常亮

    2012-01-01

    针对当前地震台站的特点,提出一种基于TCP/IP通信的远程监控系统,介绍该装置的设计与实现方法,给出系统构成图、主要硬件电路及程序代码.通过样机试制与反复试验,该系统可以完成对地震台站设备工作环境的监测并能远程对数采等设备实现断电和重启等操作,可以为地震专业设备的可靠运行和及时维护提供保障和依据.%In allusion to the characteristic of the seismic station, this paper proposes a remote monitor and control system based on the TCP/IP communication protocol, and introduces the design and implementation of the system. It gives out system structure diagram, main hardware circuit and program code. It has been proved that this system can monitor the status of seismic-station working environment and can reset the seismic data processing system etc. remotely through trial-produce model machine and repeated testing. This system can guarantee the seismic-equipments reliable running and gives a good reference for the maintenance by continuous improvement.

  14. Description of real-time Ada software implementation of a power system monitor for the Space Station Freedom PMAD DC testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kimberly; Mackin, Michael; Wright, Theodore

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the Ada language software developed to perform the electrical power system monitoring functions for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC testbed. The results of the effort to implement this monitor are presented. The PMAD DC testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used in Space Station Freedom. The power is controlled by smart switches known as power control components (or switchgear). The power control components are currently coordinated by five Compaq 386/20e computers connected through an 802.4 local area network. The power system monitor algorithm comprises several functions, including periodic data acquisition, data smoothing, system performance analysis, and status reporting. Data are collected from the switchgear sensors every 100 ms, then passed through a 2-Hz digital filter. System performance analysis includes power interruption and overcurrent detection. The system monitor required a hardware timer interrupt to activate the data acquisition function. The execution time of the code was optimized by using an assembly language routine. The routine allows direct vectoring of the processor to Ada language procedures that perform periodic control activities.

  15. Development of a new aerosol monitoring system and its application in Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity measurement at the CTBT radionuclide station in Sidney of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weihua, E-mail: weihua.zhang@hc-sc.gc.ca [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Bean, Marc; Benotto, Mike; Cheung, Jeff; Ungar, Kurt; Ahier, Brian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    A high volume aerosol sampler ('Grey Owl') has been designed and developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable sampler to provide daily aerosol monitoring samples that can be used as reference samples for radiological studies. It has been developed to provide a constant air flow rate at low pressure drops ({approx}3 kPa for a day sampling) with variations of less than {+-}1% of the full scale flow rate. Its energy consumption is only about 1.5 kW for a filter sampling over 22,000 standard cubic meter of air. It has been demonstrated in this Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity monitoring study at Sidney station, B.C. that the sampler is robust and reliable. The results provided by the new monitoring system have been used to support decision-making in Canada during an emergency response. - Highlights: > A new high volume aerosol sampler ('Grey Owl') has been developed in this study. > It operates at low pressure drops with low energy consumption. > The variation of air flow rate is less than {+-}1% of the full scale. > Fukushima accident nuclide monitoring at Sidney shows that it is robust and reliable.

  16. Groundwater Monitoring Strategy for Nuclear Power Station of American Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Its Implications%美国核电厂地下水监控技术路线及借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃春丽; 徐月平; 陈超峰; 上官志洪

    2014-01-01

    In this paper ,NRC’ s groundwater monitoring strategy for nuclear power station is summarized . This strategy combines model development with site monitoring and has been well validated ,Meanwhile ,cur-rent situation of groundwater monitoring at nuclear power station in our country is schematically reported in or-der to provide references to establish and perfect groundwater monitoring at China ’s nuclear power stations .%介绍了美国核管理委员会对核电厂的地下水监控技术路线。该技术路线将数学模型与现场监测相结合,并得到良好的实践验证。简要分析了我国核电厂地下水监控的现状。

  17. 电网行波故障定位信息主站系统的组网应用%Traveling wave fault locating information master station application in EHV networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭劲; 游鑫

    2011-01-01

    Through summarizing the existing problems of transmission lines fault search and fault locating application in Guiyang EHV company, according to the demand of practical application, a set of the traveling wave fault locating information master station was estab- lished. The system took the jurisdiction transmission lines of Guiyang EHV company as supervised object,rock the dispatch of unified connection substation and the operation maintenance department of transmission lines as service object,obtain directly from related station data, increasing the efficiency of transmission lines fault search and the level of operation and maintenance.%通过总结超高压公司贵阳局在输电线路故障查找和故障定位系统应用中存在的问题,根据现场实际应用需求,实施建立一套电网行波故障定位信息主站系统。该系统以超高压贵阳局所管辖线路为监测对象,以调度统一联系的变电站和输电线路运行维护部门为服务对象,直接从电力数据网获取相关站点数据,从而有效提高输电线路故障查找效率和运行维护水平。

  18. Location M odel for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Commuting Behavior%基于通勤行为的电动汽车充电站选址模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志; 王涛; 潘晓锋; 刘锴

    2016-01-01

    An Electric Vehicle (EV ) charging station location model based on commuting behavior is presented in this study ,considering both the distribution of the remaining fuel range of EVs and travelers'degree of range anxiety .Solution algorithm is also given and model validation is conducted through a numerical road network .Result shows that the calculated setting nodes of charging stations are relatively concentrated ,that is ,the model has a virtue of strong stability .The model can effectively avoid the failure of return trip case in spite of increasing the network total travel time .Travelers'range anxiety de‐gree has significant effects on charging station location and the network total travel time .%提出一种基于通勤行为的电动汽车充电站选址模型,该模型考虑了电动汽车初始电量的分布和出行者的里程焦虑程度。同时还给出了模型求解算法,并通过算例路网验证了模型的有效性。研究结果表明,由模型求得充电站设置节点较为集中,即该模型有较强的稳定性;基于往返出行链的电动汽车充电站选址模型虽然会增大路网总出行时间,但是可以有效避免返程出行失败的情况;出行者的里程焦虑程度对充电站选址影响较大,且对路网总出行时间存在明显的影响。

  19. 一种适用于NLOS环境的LTE终端迭代定位算法%Iterative location algorithm for LTE mobile station under NLOS environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Long; GAO Ze-hua; GAO Feng

    2014-01-01

    NLOS error is one of the important factors affecting LTE terminals’ location accuracy. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposed an iterative location algorithm to reduce the NLOS error. It introduced the error coefficients to reconstruct measure%NLOS(non line of sight,非视距)误差是影响LTE终端定位精度主要因素之一,针对这一问题,提出了一种减小该误差的迭代定位算法,通过引入误差系数重构OTDOA(observed time difference of arrival,到达时间观测差)测量值,采用迭代计算获取一组最优误差系数来改善NLOS误差的影响。该算法不需要信道环境的先验信息,且可通过分层细化减小计算量。仿真结果表明,该算法能有效地减小NLOS环境下的定位误差。

  20. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  1. HYDRATE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES THAT BOTH SUPPORT AND DERIVE FROM THE MONITORING STATION/SEA-FLOOR OBSERVATORY, MISSISSIPPI CANYON 118, NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station

  2. Development of a new aerosol monitoring system and its application in Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity measurement at the CTBT radionuclide station in Sidney of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Bean, Marc; Benotto, Mike; Cheung, Jeff; Ungar, Kurt; Ahier, Brian

    2011-12-01

    A high volume aerosol sampler ("Grey Owl") has been designed and developed at the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable sampler to provide daily aerosol monitoring samples that can be used as reference samples for radiological studies. It has been developed to provide a constant air flow rate at low pressure drops (∼3 kPa for a day sampling) with variations of less than ±1% of the full scale flow rate. Its energy consumption is only about 1.5 kW for a filter sampling over 22,000 standard cubic meter of air. It has been demonstrated in this Fukushima nuclear accident related aerosol radioactivity monitoring study at Sidney station, B.C. that the sampler is robust and reliable. The results provided by the new monitoring system have been used to support decision-making in Canada during an emergency response.

  3. On-line Monitoring Syste m for Oil Vapor Recovery in Filling Station%加油站油气回收在线监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振中; 金帼; 吴锋棒; 王洁

    2014-01-01

    为保证油气回收过程中的各项指标满足国家标准的要求,部分加油站应用电子式气液比调节设备和油气回收在线监测系统。在实际应用过程中,二者在功能原理上有较多的相似性,结合二者的功能特点,设计了兼具调节和监测功能的油气回收在线监控系统,能有效降低加油站的一次投资成本,提高气液比调节的长期稳定性。%In order to control VOC emission in the oil vapor recovery,some filling stations employ both gas liquid ratio regulating equipment and on-line monitoring system.Considering their similarity in working princi-ple and functional characteristics,an on-line monitoring system which boasting of regulation and monitoring functions for the oil vapor recovery was designed to effectively reduce the cost and improve gas liquid ratio for long time.

  4. Adaptive Power Control of Hydropower Station Computer Monitoring System%水电厂监控系统适应式功率调节控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹桂丽; 魏加富; 王辉斌

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the fact that, nowadays closed-loop power adjustment in most hydropower stations are realized by computer monitoring systems, this paper describes common modes of parameter regulation in monitoring system. And it also describes the necessity and feasibility of adaptive power adjustment control in computer monitoring system and the way of achieving it.%文章针对目前水电厂功率调节主要是在计算机监控系统中实现闭环调节的现状,描述了监控系统功率调节参数设置的常用模式,论述了计算机监控系统适应式功率调节控制的必要性和可行性,阐明了监控系统功率调节适应式控制技术的实现方法。

  5. Joint TDOA Location Method Based on Spectrum Monitoring Data%基于频谱监测数据的联合时差定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓东; 孙瑞; 何国勇

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the position of Electromagnetic Spectrum monitoring net emission source and the characteris-tics of TDOA,the flow of Joint TDOA location is introduced. The Chan algorithm,the joint Chan-Taylor algorithm and the improvement on location by particle filter are analyzed and simulated. After comparing the results of simulation,a joint location method based on spec-trum monitoring data,combining Chan-Taylor algorithm and particle filtering,is put forward. This joint location method can utilize effec-tively monitoring data from nodes in electromagnetic spectrum net,improving the location precision against target signals.%在分析电磁频谱监测网辐射源定位需求和现有时差定位算法特点的基础上,介绍了联合时差定位流程。对Chan算法定位、Chan算法与 Taylo级数展开相结合的联合定位及粒子滤波对定位的改善情况进行了分析和仿真,并对仿真结果进行了比较。提出了一种基于频谱监测数据、采用 Chan-Taylor算法和粒子滤波的联合定位方法,可有效利用电磁频谱监测网络各节点的监测定位数据,提高对目标信号的定位精度。

  6. Magnetospheric effects of cosmic rays. 1. Long-term changes in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdevskii, B. B.; Abunin, A. A.; Kobelev, P. G.; Gushchina, R. T.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Yanke, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    Vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are obtained for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors via trajectory calculations for each year of the period from 1950 to 2020. Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are found from the model of the Earth's main field International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for 1950-2015, and the forecast until 2020 is provided. In addition, the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the same period are obtained by Tsyganenko model T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) with the average annual values of the Kp-index. In each case, the penumbra is taken into account in the approximation of the flat and power spectra of variations of cosmic rays. The calculation results show an overall decrease in geomagnetic cutoff rigidities, which is associated with the overall decrease and restructuring of the geomagnetic field during the reporting period, at almost all points.

  7. 高坝洲水电厂计算机监控系统改造%Renovation of Computer Monitor System in Gaobazhou Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小兵; 张志猛

    2013-01-01

    The design , structure , configuration and function of renovation project of computer monitor system in Gaoba-zhou Hydropower Station , as well as the differences between original and later systems , the installation and debugging are introduced .It is expected to provide reference to similar project .%介绍高坝洲水电厂计算机监控系统改造工程的设计、结构、配置、功能,与原系统的差异以及安装调试,以期对其他水电厂监控系统的改造项目具有一定的借鉴意义。

  8. 基于Zigbee的工厂空压站监控系统设计%Zigbee-based factory air compressor station monitor and control system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚仲敏; 李魁杰; 张裕; 潘飞

    2014-01-01

    To solve the problems of current electrical control system of air compressor station, this paper presents a zigbee-based air compressor station monitor and control system. The air compressors effective management is the foundation of the whole control system, as the control of all electrical actuators, inverters and motors is achieved through PLC. The system uses the pressure sensors and flow sensors to collect data from the air compressor network, by means of the Zigbee technology to transmit data, and apply Labview control software for the monitor and control center host computer. Meanwhile, the joints of ZigBee have low power consumption and high flexibility, easy for networking and maintenance.%针对目前的空压站电气控制系统存在的问题,提出了一种基于无线传感网的空压站监控系统。空压机组的有效管理是整个控制系统的基础,通过PLC实现对电气各执行器、变频器、电机等进行控制;利用压力传感器、流量传感器采集空压管网数据,并应用ZigBee技术进行数据传输;采用Labview设计监控中心上位机控制软件;同时ZigBee节点的低功耗和灵活性的特点,方便组网和维护。

  9. 电动汽车充电站智能监控管理系统设计%Design of Intelligent Monitoring and Management System for Charging Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冬青; 赵洪蕊; 王迎迎

    2011-01-01

    为提高电动汽车充电站的智能化和信息管理水平,运用计算机技术、控制技术、通讯技术设计了电动汽车充电站智能监控管理系统;在进行需求分析的基础上,设计了系统的总体结构,提出了基于CAN和RS - 485双层通信网络的充电机监控网络;然后,进行了系统的硬件设计和软件设计,硬件设计采用模块化设计,软件设计包括充电机控制器软件、通讯协议转换软件等;最后采用VB6.0、Acess2007和ADO技术完成了充电站数据库的规划、充电机监控和信息管理等环节的设计;该系统可靠性高、通信速度快,为充电安全提供了技术保障,有着广泛的应用前景.%It designs a intelligent monitoring and management system with the method of computer, control, communication techniques for electric vehicle charging station to improve intelligence and information management of the charging station. The design of the overall structure is given on the basis of requirement analysis, that is charging monitoring system based on CAN -BUS and RS-485 double-decker communication network as well as smoke monitoring system to make further safety; Then the design of hardware and software are introduced, the former employ modular design and the latter includes software process of charger controller, transformation of RS - 485 to CAN, CAN and RS - 485 communication and so on. At last, the plan of the database, management interface of charger and smoke monitoring and information management are achieved with the technology of VB6. 0, Acess2007and ADO. Its high reliability and high communication provide technical support for the safety of charging, make it applied widely.

  10. Research on Optimization Model for Operation of Shunting Engines in Location-Operation Passenger Station%定位式作业客运站调机运用优化模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红霞; 倪少权; 陈钉均

    2015-01-01

    分析定位式作业客运站调机应遵循的条件和目标,建立定位式作业客运站调机运用优化的多目标、非线性、混合0-1规划模型,对车站各系统间协调作业这一定性问题进行定量化描述.根据模型特点,基于分层序列法思想,将模型分解为成组作业方案优化、调机作业顺序优化、调机作业时间优化3个子模型,建立定位式作业客运站调机运用优化多层决策模型.针对多层决策模型的特点,设计定位式客运站调机作业计划的多层蚁群优化算法.%Based on the detailed analysis of the conditions and objectives of the shunting engines used in location-operation mode in passenger station,the multi-objective nonlinear 0-1 mixed optimization model for the opera-tion of the shunting engines was established to describe the coordinated operation between subsystems of pas-senger station quantitatively.Based on the characteristics of the model and hierarchical sequence method,the model was decomposed into three sub-models,which are separate optimization group operation program,order and time for switching service,whereby the multi-layer decision-making model for the optimization of the oper-ation of shunting engines in location-operation mode was established.In response to the characteristics of the multi-layer decision-making model,a multi-layer ant colony optimization algorithm was desiged for the switc-hing service plan in location-operation mode passenger station.

  11. Inflight Microbial Monitoring- An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Roman, Monsi; Hummerick, Mary E.; Smith, David J.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that potentially destructive microorganisms and human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The likelihood of introducing new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Microorganisms introduced to the ISS are readily transferred between crew and subsystems (i.e. ECLSS, environmental control and life support systems). Current microbial characterization methods require enrichment of microorganisms and at least a 48-hour incubation time. This increases the microbial load while detecting only a limited number of the total microorganisms. The culture based method detects approximately 1-10% of the total organisms present and provides no identification. To identify and enumerate ISS microbes requires that samples be returned to Earth for complete analysis. Therefore, a more expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted. The RAZOR EX, a ruggedized, commercial off the shelf, real-time PCR field instrument was tested for its ability to detect microorganisms at low concentrations within one hour. Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected at low levels using real-time DNA amplification. Total heterotrophic counts could also be detected using a 16S gene marker that can identify up to 98% of all bacteria. To reflect viable cells found in the samples, RNA was also detectable using a modified, single-step reverse transcription reaction.

  12. Inflight Microbial Monitoring-An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Roman, Monsi; Hummerick, Mary E.; Smith, David J.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that microorganisms and potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The potential to introduce new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Previous research has shown that microorganisms introduced to the ISS are readily transferred between crew and subsystems and back (i.e. ECLSS, environmental control and life support systems). Current microbial characterization methods require enrichment of microorganisms and a 48-hour incubation time. This increases the microbial load while detecting a limited number of microorganisms. The culture based method detects approximately 1-10% of the total organisms present and provides no identification, To identify and enumerate ISS samples requires that samples to be returned to Earth for complete analysis. Therefore, a more expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted. The RAZOR EX, a ruggedized, commercial off the shelf, real-time PCR field instrument was tested for its ability to detect microorganism at low concentrations within one hour. Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected at low levels using real-time DNA amplification. Total heterotrophic counts could also be detected using a 16S gene marker that can identify up to 98% of all bacteria. To reflect viable cells found in the samples, RNA was also detectable using a modified, single-step reverse transcription reaction.

  13. Microbiological monitoring in two areas with different levels of conservation in the mangroves of an Ecological Station, Vitoria, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Oliveira Barbirato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are classified as permanent preservation areas and regarded as natural nurseries. However, they have suffered several anthropogenic stresses, resulting in their decline. In the light of that, comes the importance of researching their environmental characteristics and revealing possible factors that have led to the degradation of this important ecosystem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of different areas in the mangroves of Ilha do Lameirão Ecological Station through microbiological analyzes of sediment and interstitial water along ten (10 sites, distributed in two areas with different conservation levels (Canal dos Escravos (CE and Maria Ortiz (MO between 2010 and 2012. The microbiological analyzes revealed that MO region, in all seasons of the year, achieved total coliform and thermo-tolerant coliform values above those permitted by the CONAMA Resolution 357/05, fitting the Class 2 conservation standard. The presence of high levels of total and thermo-tolerant coliforms in MO is a strong indicator of impacts originated from the human population and, consequently, the decline of the mangrove itself and the health of human communities surrounding that area.

  14. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Matthew C; Alberici, Rosana M; Keelor, Joel D; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C; Wallace, William T; Gazda, Daniel B; Limero, Thomas F; Symonds, Josh M; Orlando, Thomas M; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Matthew C.; Alberici, Rosana M.; Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Zambrzycki, Stephen C.; Wallace, William T.; Gazda, Daniel B.; Limero, Thomas F.; Symonds, Josh M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Macatangay, Ariel; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-07-01

    Low molecular weight polar organics are commonly observed in spacecraft environments. Increasing concentrations of one or more of these contaminants can negatively impact Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems and/or the health of crew members, posing potential risks to the success of manned space missions. Ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MS) is finding effective use as part of the analytical methodologies being tested for next-generation space module environmental analysis. However, ambient ionization methods employing atmospheric plasmas typically require relatively high operation voltages and power, thus limiting their applicability in combination with fieldable mass spectrometers. In this work, we investigate the use of a low power microplasma device in the microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) configuration for the analysis of polar organics encountered in space missions. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure with molybdenum foil disc electrodes and a mica insulator was used to form a 300 μm diameter plasma discharge cavity. We demonstrate the application of these MIM microplasmas as part of a versatile miniature ion source for the analysis of typical volatile contaminants found in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, highlighting their advantages as low cost and simple analytical devices.

  16. Development of elements of the condition monitoring system of turbo generators of thermal power stations and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumenko, A. I.; Kostyukov, V. N.; Kuz'minykh, N. Yu.; Boichenko, S. N.; Timin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    The rationale is given for the improvement of the regulatory framework for the use of shaft sensors for the in-service condition monitoring of turbo generators and the development of control systems of shaft surfacing and misalignments of supports. A modern concept and a set of methods are proposed for the condition monitoring of the "shaft line-thrust bearing oil film-turbo generator supports" system elements based on the domestic COMPACS® technology. The system raw data are design, technology, installation, and operating parameters of the turbo generator as well as measured parameters of the absolute vibration of supports and mechanical quantities, relative displacements and relative vibration of the rotor teeth in accordance with GOST R 55263-2012. The precalculated shaft line assembly line in the cold state, the nominal parameters of rotor teeth positions on the dynamic equilibrium curve, the static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film of thrust bearings, and the shaft line stiffness matrix of unit support displacements have been introduced into the system. Using the COMPACS-T system, it is planned to measure positions and oscillations of rotor teeth, to count corresponding static and dynamic characteristics of the oil film, and the static and dynamic loads in the supports in real time. Using the obtained data, the system must determine the misalignments of supports and corrective alignments of rotors of coupling halves, voltages in rotor teeth, welds, and bolts of the coupling halves, and provide automatic conclusion if condition monitoring parameters correspond to standard values. A part of the methodological support for the proposed system is presented, including methods for determining static reactions of supports under load, the method for determining shaft line stiffness matrices, and the method for solving the inverse problem, i.e., the determination of the misalignments of the supports by measurements of rotor teeth relative positions in bearing

  17. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each.

  18. Microseismic monitoring of soft-rock landslide: contribution of a 3D velocity model for the location of seismic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriane, Provost; Jean-Philippe, Malet; Cécile, Doubre; Julien, Gance; Alessia, Maggi; Agnès, Helmstetter

    2015-04-01

    Characterizing the micro-seismic activity of landslides is an important parameter for a better understanding of the physical processes controlling landslide behaviour. However, the location of the seismic sources on landslides is a challenging task mostly because of (a) the recording system geometry, (b) the lack of clear P-wave arrivals and clear wave differentiation, (c) the heterogeneous velocities of the ground. The objective of this work is therefore to test whether the integration of a 3D velocity model in probabilistic seismic source location codes improves the quality of the determination especially in depth. We studied the clay-rich landslide of Super-Sauze (French Alps). Most of the seismic events (rockfalls, slidequakes, tremors...) are generated in the upper part of the landslide near the main scarp. The seismic recording system is composed of two antennas with four vertical seismometers each located on the east and west sides of the seismically active part of the landslide. A refraction seismic campaign was conducted in August 2014 and a 3D P-wave model has been estimated using the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm. The shots of the seismic campaign are used as calibration shots to test the performance of the different location methods and to further update the 3D velocity model. Natural seismic events are detected with a semi-automatic technique using a frequency threshold. The first arrivals are picked using a kurtosis-based method and compared to the manual picking. Several location methods were finally tested. We compared a non-linear probabilistic method coupled with the 3D P-wave model and a beam-forming method inverted for an apparent velocity. We found that the Quasi-Newton tomography inversion algorithm provides results coherent with the original underlaying topography. The velocity ranges from 500 m.s-1 at the surface to 3000 m.s-1 in the bedrock. For the majority of the calibration shots, the use of a 3D velocity model

  19. [Monitoring Atmospheric CO2 and delta(13)C (CO2) Background Levels at Shangdianzi Station in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-ju; Zhou, Ling-xi; Liu, Li-xin; Zhang, Gen

    2016-04-15

    The study presented time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from flask sampling at SDZ regional station in Beijing during 2007 and 2013, together with delta(13)CO2) values during 2009 and 2013. The "representative data" of CO2 and delta(13)C (CO2) were selected from the complete data for further analysis. Annual CO2 concentrations increased from 385.6 x 10(-6) in 2007 to 398.1 x 10(-6) in 2013, with an average growth rate of 2.0 x 10(-6) a(-1), while the delta(13)C values decreased from -8.38% per hundred in 2009 to -8.52% per hundred in 2013, with a mean growth rate of -0.03% per hundred x a(-1). The absolute increase of CO2 from 2007 to 2008 reached the lowest level during 2007 and 2013, possibly due to relatively less carbon emissions during the 2008 Olympic Games period. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of atmospheric CO2 and delta(13)C seasonal variations were 23. 9 x 10 -6 and 1. 03%o, respectively. The isotopic signatures of CO2 sources/sinks were also discussed in this study. The delta8 value for heating season I (Jan. 01-Mar. 14) was -21.30% per hundred, while -25.39% per hundred for heating season 11 (Nov. 15-Dec.31) , and for vegetative season (Mar. 15-Nov. 14) the delta(bio) value was estimated to be -21.28% per hundred, likely suggesting the significant impact of fossil fuel and corn straw combustions during winter heating season and biological activities during vegetative season.

  20. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  1. Research on the AHM Model for Location Selection of Railway Passenger Station%基于改进AHM模型的铁路客运站选址研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗霞; 廖勇

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:为了对客运站的选址做出合理的决策,建立了5个评价指标:与城市规划的契合、与城市交通的衔接、与客流的适应性、与既有枢纽的协调和客运站建设成本.引入改进的AHM(属性层次模型)模型对方案进行比选.研究结论:(1)通过选用0.1-0.9标度法直接获得属性判断矩阵,并且给出了定量指标属性判断矩阵的获得方法,对AHM进行了补充,使得AHM适用于定性与定量相结合的多属性决策.(2)AHM具有计算量小、操作简单、适用性强等特点,适用于铁路客运站的选址决策.%Research purposes: In order to obtain reasonable decisions making of location selection of railway passenger station, five criterions are established of degree assorting with urban planning, connection with urban traffic, adaptability to passenger flow, coordination with existing junction and cost of construction. AHM based on attribute measure is introduced into this paper for alternative selection.Research conclusions; (1) AHM is reinforced after measure of 0. 1 -0. 9 is introduced and quantitative criterion is calculated to achieve attribute judgment matrix. (2) AHM takes on characteristic of simple operation, strong adaptability, less calculation and is very suitable for location selection of railway passenger station.

  2. Remote sensing monitoring of thermal discharge in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station based on HJ-1 infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Yin, Shoujing; Wu, Chuanqing; Ma, Wandong; Hou, Haiqian; Xu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the method of monitoring coastal areas affected by thermal discharge of nuclear plant by using remote sensing techniques was introduced. The proposed approach was demonstrated in Daya Bay nuclear plant based on HJ-B IRS data. A single channel water temperature inversion algorithm was detailed, considering the satellite zenith angle and water vapor. Moreover the reference background temperature was obtained using the average environmental temperature method. In the case study of Daya Bay nuclear plant, the spatial distribution of thermal pollution was analyzed by taking into account the influence of tidal, wind and so on. According to the findings of this study, the speed and direction of the ebb tide, is not conducive to the diffusion of thermal discharge of DNNP. The vertically thermal diffusion was limited by the shallow water depth near the outlet.

  3. Smart Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel - Integrated Structural Health Monitoring System to Meet Space Exploration and International Space Station Mission Assurance Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Nichols, Charles; Waller, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no integrated NDE methods for baselining and monitoring defect levels in fleet for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) or related fracture critical composites, or for performing life-cycle maintenance inspections either in a traditional remove-and-inspect mode or in a more modern in situ inspection structural health monitoring (SHM) mode. Implicit in SHM and autonomous inspection is the existence of quantitative accept-reject criteria. To be effective, these criteria must correlate with levels of damage known to cause composite failure. Furthermore, implicit in SHM is the existence of effective remote sensing hardware and automated techniques and algorithms for interpretation of SHM data. SHM of facture critical composite structures, especially high pressure COPVs, is critical to the success of nearly every future NASA space exploration program as well as life extension of the International Space Station. It has been clearly stated that future NASA missions may not be successful without SHM [1]. Otherwise, crews will be busy addressing subsystem health issues and not focusing on the real NASA mission

  4. Research on Integrated Lightning Defending Technology of Air Automatic Monitoring Station%空气自动监测站综合防雷技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁铁军

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses lightning form and its damage to electronic equipment, discusses internal and external integrated lightning defending technology on the basis of integrated lightning defending system of air automatic monitoring station of DanDong Bearing Corporation Ltd. The system is useful to decrease failure rate of monitoring equipment and hurt of person.%基于建筑物雷击风险评估方法,得出本地可能遭受到的雷击形式和雷电破坏电子设备途径。以丹东轴承有限公司空气自动监测站综合防雷系统工程设计与施工为基础,对空气自动监测站外部、内部综合防雷技术体系进行阐述,通过现代防雷技术方法,有效降低监测设备因雷击而产生的故障率、最大限度预防和减少雷击所发生的人身伤亡和国家财产损失。

  5. Locating Microseismic Events Using Fat-Ray Double-Difference Tomography for Monitoring CO2 Injection at the Aneth EOR Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Huang, L.; Rutledge, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    During CO2 injection, the increase in pore pressure and volume may change stress distribution in the field, and induce microseismic events as brittle failure on small faults or fractures. An accurate location of these induced microseismic events can help understand the migration of CO2 and stress evolution in the reservoir. A geophone string spanning 800-1700 m in depth was cemented into a monitoring well at the Aneth oil field in Utah in 2007 for monitoring CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The monitoring continued till 2010. A total of 24 geophone levels recorded induced microseismic events, including 18 levels of three-component geophones and six vertical-component levels spaced 106.7 m (350 ft) apart to take full advantage of the entire array aperture. We apply a fat-ray double-difference tomography method to microseismic data acquired at the Aneth EOR field. We obtain high-precision locations of microseismic events and improve the velocity structure simultaneously. We demonstrate the improvements by comparing our results with those obtained using the conventional double-difference tomography.

  6. Research into The Cross Location in Airborne Single-station Fixed Target Direction-finding%机载单站固定目标测向交叉定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明辉; 方青; 任清安

    2012-01-01

    机载平台对地面固定目标定位是电子侦察中的一项重要任务。针对机载平台的特点,提出了一种机载单站对地面固定目标的纯方位交叉定位算法,通过测量地面辐射源信号的方位角,结合机载平台的位置与航向信息,建立三维球面弧线计算模型求解目标的地理经纬度,给出了快速计算目标方位斜率的方法,通过多次融合定位提高定位精度。仿真实验中采用卫星工具开发包(STK)仿真软件生成机载平台的位置数据和目标的方位角数据,分析了多次融合定位的收敛情况及不同测向精度下的定位性能,最后给出了一些工程实践性的建议,具有一定的参考意义。%It is an important task in the electronic reconnaissance that the airborne platform locates the ground fixed target.Aiming at the characteristics of airborne platform,this paper puts forward a cross location algorithm that the airborne single-station locates the ground fixed target based on azimuth only,by measuring the azimuth angles of ground radiation source signal,establishes the 3D spherical pitch arc calculation model to find the solution of geographical latitude and longitude of target combining with the position and course information of airborne platform,presents the method to calculate the azimuth slope of target rapidly,improves the locating precision through multi-fusion location,uses satelite took kit(STK) simulation software to generate the position data of airborne platform and azimuth data of target in the simulation experiment,analyzes the convergence of multi-fusion location and the locating performance at different direction finding precision,finally gives some suggestions with engineering practicality,which has definite reference meaning.

  7. Digital elevation models for landslide evolution monitoring: application on two areas located in the Reno River Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mora

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available GPS, digital photogrammetry and laser scanning techniques have been applied and compared in the frame of the studies of two complex landslides located in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy. The three approaches, characterized by different accuracies, applicability and costs, have demonstrated to be efficient tools to define Digital Elevation Models computed in the same reference system and able to provide data on the landslide motion. The results described in the paper indicate the present low level of landslide activity in recent years. Reliability, costs and execution times of the applied surveying methods are shown and discussed in this paper.

  8. Service-life monitoring of heat-exposed pipe lines. Pt. 2. Application in the power station; Lebensdauerueberwachung von warmgehenden Rohrleitungen. T. 2. Anwendung im Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, K.; Purper, H.; Rohler, K.; Bietenbeck, F.; Fischer, B.

    1994-12-31

    The authors point out that the testing stage has produced positive verification of the module developed for time-dependent additional forces to be included in service-life monitoring. There is a trend suggesting that additional moments obtaining in the pipeline system of the Mainz-Wiesbaden power station do not result in a significant consumption of service-life time so that the planned monitoring procedures (TRD 508) will suffice for the plant obviating the need for any additional or even premature measures to be adopted. This is indicated both by the measurement values of the service-life monitoring system and by the strains measured by HT-DMS. However, no statement can be made yet whether, the reverse assumption may be true i.e. to postpone schedulled maintenance measures to a point of time after the TRD limit (e{sub w} + e{sub z} = 60%) will have been reached due to the fact that the exhaustion of service life time will have progressed less than laid down in design calculations as a result of less operating loads. (orig.) [Deutsch] Insgesamt kann festgestellt werden, dass der entwickelte Modul zur Beruecksichtigung von zeitabhaengigen Zusatzkraeften im Rahmen dieser Testphase erfolgreich verifiziert werden konnte. Erste vorsichtige Bewertungen lassen als Tendenz erkennen, dass zusaetzliche Momente im Rohrlietungssystem des Kraftwerkes Mainz-Wiesbaden keinen signifikanten Lebensdauerverbrauch bewirken, so dass in der Anlage neben den planmaessigen Ueberwachungsprozeduren (TRD 508) keine weiteren oder gar vorzeitige Massnahmen ergriffen werden muessen. Dies resultiert sowohl aus den Messwerten des Lebensdauerueberwachungssystems als auch aus den durch die HT-DMS gemessenen Dehnungen. Ob allerdings im Umkehrschluss geplante Wartungsmassnahmen nach Erreichen der TRD-Grenze: e{sub w} + e{sub z} = 60% erst zu einem spaeteren Zeitpunkt durchgefuehrt werden koennen, weil die Zeitstanderschoepfung infolge geringerer Betriebsbelastungen weniger fortgeschritten ist als

  9. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbon data from a monitoring station affected by oil and gas development in the Eagle Ford shale, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar W. Schade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Within the last decade, unconventional oil and gas exploration in the US has become a new source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. Although a geographically dispersed source, field measurements in and downwind of a number of shale basins demonstrate the impact exploration activities have on ambient levels of hydrocarbons. Due to concerns related to ozone production, regulatory agencies are adding monitoring stations to better understand the potential influence of emissions from areas with increased oil and gas related activities. The Eagle Ford shale in south Texas is a rapidly developing shale play producing both oil and natural gas, providing 10% and 5% of US domestic oil and gas production, respectively, in 2013. We analyzed the first year of measurements from a newly established monitoring site at its central north edge. The data reveal median ethane mixing ratios—used as a marker for oil and gas exploration related emissions—at five times its typical clean air background. Ethane mixing ratios above ten times the background occurred regularly. Saturated hydrocarbons with likely origin in oil and gas exploration explain half of the data set’s variability. They dominate OH radical reactivity at levels both similar to other shale areas and similar to Houston’s ship channel area a decade ago. Air advecting slowly across the shale area from east-southeast and southwest directions shows the most elevated hydrocarbon concentrations, and evidence is presented linking elevated alkene abundances to flaring in the shale area. A case study is presented linking high emissions from an upwind facility to hydrocarbon plumes observed at the monitor.

  10. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  11. Station Climatic Summaries, Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    265 MEXICO - Acapulco 768056 8403 ................................ 267 Campeche 766950 8403................271 Chetumal 767500...0 0 1 # # I I # or I OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 1CAO ID: NILC LOCATION: 18030’N, 88*18’W...0 0 0 0 0 0 # ALL HOURS I # # 1 # # # # # # 1 1 ]% OPERATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA SUMMARY SUPPLEMENT STATION: CHETUMAL , MEXICO STATIONS #: 767500 ICAO ID

  12. 城市电动汽车充电站两步优化选址方法%Optimal Location of Urban Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Using a Two-Step Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚静; 郭艳东; 李天天

    2013-01-01

    针对城市电动汽车充电站选址特点,提出了一种两步优化选址方法:①在分析路段充电需求的基础上,利用免疫算法在规划区域大范围搜索寻优,获取候选的待建充电站路段;②对于待建路段上韵候选站址,考虑地理、配电网等因素,利用模糊层次分析法对影响因素进行量化,经综合评定后最终确定充电站的最优选址.%Considering the characteristics of site location for urban electric vehicle (EV) charging stations,a two-step locating method is proposed in this paper.In the first step,based on the analysis of the charging demand for various road sections,the planning area is searched by using immune algorithm to find out the candidate sections.In the second step,the comparison between the candidate sites in different candidate sections is performed by taking account of factors such as geographical feature and distribution networks,which are quantified by virtue of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.Through comprehensive evaluation the optimal sites can thus be determined.

  13. 2004 Hypoxia Watch Bottom CTD Station Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hypoxia Watch project provides near-real-time, web-based maps of dissolved oxygen near the sea floor over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf during a...

  14. 2002 Hypoxia Watch Bottom CTD Station Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hypoxia Watch project provides near-real-time, web-based maps of dissolved oxygen near the sea floor over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf during a...

  15. 2003 Hypoxia Watch Bottom CTD Station Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hypoxia Watch project provides near-real-time, web-based maps of dissolved oxygen near the sea floor over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf during a...

  16. 2006 Hypoxia Watch Bottom CTD Station Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hypoxia Watch project provides near-real-time, web-based maps of dissolved oxygen near the sea floor over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf during a...

  17. 2007 Hypoxia Watch Bottom CTD Station Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hypoxia Watch project provides near-real-time, web-based maps of dissolved oxygen near the sea floor over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf during a...

  18. 2005 Hypoxia Watch Bottom CTD Station Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hypoxia Watch project provides near-real-time, web-based maps of dissolved oxygen near the sea floor over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf during a...

  19. 2001 Hypoxia Watch Bottom CTD Station Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Hypoxia Watch project provides near-real-time, web-based maps of dissolved oxygen near the sea floor over the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf during a...

  20. The Investigation of Hourly,Daily and Seasonal Changes of Duzce Air Quality Monitoring Station 2014 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Bolu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate data of air quality in the year 2004 in Duzce by days, hours and seasons. Method: In this study, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter levels, wind speed and wind direction values of Duzce city center obtained from the web page of Ministry of Envoriment and Planning between 1 January -31 December 2014 were studied. Data were examined by on the time of hours, days, days of the week, months and seasons. Results: Annual average PM10 was 106,42+/-102 and #956;g/m3 , SO2 concentration was 6,15+/-5,39 and #956;g/m3. Winter PM10 and SO2 measurements were significantly higher than summer season. Wind speed in the summer season had a higher average than the winter season. Highest average PM10 was at November 189,4 +/- 171,8 and #956;g/m3. The lowest PM10 was at June 58,0+/-24,5 and #956;g/m3. The highest average wind speed was at June, the lowest average wind speed is at December. PM10 and SO2 measurements were positively correlated with wind direction, shows a negative correlation with wind speed. The highest PM10 measurements in the summer season were on Thursdays, in the winter season on Wednesdays. The lowest PM10 measurements both in two seasons were on Sundays. Average PM10 was significantly higher on weekdays than weekends. The highest PM10 value of 146,6 +/- 131,3 and #956;g/m3 was measured at 23.00. The lowest PM10 value of 73,8+/-55,9 and #956;g/m3 was measured at 15.00. Conclusion: There is air pollution in Duzce both in the summer and winter. Continuous monitoring of the emissions of existing establishments in the industrial pollution control should be provided. The high PM10 measurements in the evening may be due to traffic during the day and fuel use for heating purposes. Widespread use of natural gas and creating socially conscious individual measures can be effective in reducing air pollution. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 387-393

  1. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  2. Application Research on Risk Management Standard in Environmental Monitoring Station%风险管理标准在环境监测站的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹骞; 陈宏观; 顾晓霞; 杨浩波; 臧雯雯

    2015-01-01

    以应急监测为例,介绍了环境监测站实施风险管理的基本思路。提出通过明确环境信息、建立风险准则、开展风险评估、实施风险应对等过程,开展系统性的风险管理,实现对各种风险的有效防范和控制。建议建立相应的组织机构和兼职的风险管理队伍,及时监督和检查风险管理流程运行状况,并在管理体系中加入风险管理要素,确保风险应对计划有效执行,实现持续改进。%This paper introduces the basic framework of risk management implementation in the environmen-tal monitoring station by the example of emergency monitoring.Various kinds of risks will effectively be preven-ted and controlled by the implementation of environmental information definition,rule of risk establishment,risk assessment,risk coping and systemic risk management.To ensure the effective implementation and continuous improvement of risk response plan,the paper proposes the establishment of corresponding organization and part-time risk management team who can supervise and check the running status of the risk management process time-ly and join the management system in risk management elements.

  3. The New Very Broadband Seismic Station TROLL, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Schweitzer, Johannes; Pirli, Myrto; Roth, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Troll is the name of the Norwegian permanent research station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The research base is located inside the continent, at an elevation of about 1300 m and at a distance of about 230 km from the shelf ice border. In the first week of February 2012, a new very broadband seismic station was installed at TROLL. Contrary to many other seismic stations inside the Antarctic continent, the new seismic sensor could be installed on bedrock (migmatite), on a hill at about 300 m distance from the main buildings of the Troll research base. A bedrock installation has the advantage that seismic signals are not disturbed by multiples due to the thick Antarctic ice sheet. The equipment consists of a Streckeisen STS-2.5 broadband sensor and a Quanterra Q330HR 26 bit digitizer. All data are transferred in real time via a satellite link to NORSAR for analysis and further distribution. During the first year, the new seismic station and corresponding data transmission has been running very stably. Initial analysis of the station's event detection capability shows that the performance is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the best performing three-component stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). We will present examples of diurnal and seasonal variations in the background noise level of the station, the observed global, regional and local seismicity, and the very exciting monitoring capabilities of icebergs drifting along the coast of Dronning Maud Land.

  4. Construction of the Monitoring Station for Epidemic Diseases and Bird Monitoring in South Anhui%皖南疫源疫病监测站的建设与鸟类监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵融

    2015-01-01

    根据皖南鸟类的分布和活动规律,合理布局建设皖南鸟类监测站,对皖南山区鸟类疫源疫病进行监测,构建长效防控预警机制,为有效保护濒危珍稀鸟类、保护物种多样性、防止野生鸟类疫源疫病向畜禽及人类传播蔓延、维护地方生态安全做出应有的贡献.%The South Anhui bird monitoring station should be rationally laid out and constructed according to the distribution and activity regularities of birds in South Anhui to monitor bird epidemic diseases in mountainous areas of South Anhui and establish the long-term control and early warning mechanism, making contributions to effectively protecting endangered and rare birds and biodiversity, protecting spread of wild bird epidemic diseases to livestock, poultry and humans and maintaining the local ecological security.

  5. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  6. Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baborowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

  7. Development and Certification of Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) Experiment # 15012-U, "Near RealTime Water Quality Monitoring Demonstration for ISS Biocides Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Shcultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D,; Lipert, Robert J.; Limardo, Jose G.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and engineers from the Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group are working with researchers at the University of Utah and Iowa State University to develop and certify an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE). The kit will be launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment and evaluated on the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine inflight water quality monitoring. Iodine and silver, the biocides used in the US and Russian on-orbit water systems, will serve as test analytes for the technology evaluation. This manuscript provides an overview of the CSPE SDTO experiment and details the development and certification of the experimental water quality monitoring kit. Initial results from reagent and standard solution stability testing and environmental testing performed on the kit hardware are also reported.

  8. Development and Certification of Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) Experiment # 15012-U, "Near RealTime Water Quality Monitoring Demonstration for ISS Biocides Using Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Shcultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D,; Lipert, Robert J.; Limardo, Jose G.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2009-01-01

    Scientists and engineers from the Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group are working with researchers at the University of Utah and Iowa State University to develop and certify an experimental water quality monitoring kit based on Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE). The kit will be launched as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) experiment and evaluated on the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the acceptability of CSPE technology for routine inflight water quality monitoring. Iodine and silver, the biocides used in the US and Russian on-orbit water systems, will serve as test analytes for the technology evaluation. This manuscript provides an overview of the CSPE SDTO experiment and details the development and certification of the experimental water quality monitoring kit. Initial results from reagent and standard solution stability testing and environmental testing performed on the kit hardware are also reported.

  9. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  10. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Sheng Tang

    Full Text Available To prevent surgical site infection (SSI, the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH, and carbon dioxide (CO2, suspended particulate matter (PM, and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18% and traumatic surgery room (8%. The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  11. Air Quality Monitoring of the Post-Operative Recovery Room and Locations Surrounding Operating Theaters in a Medical Center in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23573296

  12. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  13. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect heat...

  14. [Analysis of the importance of cosmonaut's location and orientation onboard the International space station to levels of visceral irradiation during traverse of the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, S G; Benghin, V V

    2015-01-01

    Parametric analysis of absorbed radiation dose to the cosmonaut working in the Service module (SM) of the International space station (ISS) was made with allowance for anisotropy of the radiation field of the South Atlantic Anomaly. Calculation data show that in weakly shielded SM compartments the radiation dose to poorly shielded viscera may depend essentially on cosmonaut's location and orientation relative to the ISS shell. Difference of the lens absorbed dose can be as high as 5 times depending on orientation of the cosmonaut and the ISS. The effect is less pronounced on the deep seated hematopoietic system; however, it may increase up to 2.5 times during the extravehicular activities. When the cosmonaut is outside on the ISS SM side presented eastward, the absorbed dose can be affected noticeably by remoteness from the SM. At a distance less than 1.5 meters away from the SM east side in the course of ascending circuits, the calculated lens dose is approximately half as compared with the situation when the cosmonaut is not shielded by the ISS material.

  15. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  16. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  17. CNGS muon monitoring: Why do we need both muon detector stations at the start-up of the CNGS neutrino beam ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, A E; Falaleev, V P; Ferrari, A; Grant, A; Guglielmi, A M; Meddahi, M; Pietropaolo, F; Sala, P; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2002-01-01

    The CNGS design has been approved with two muon detector stations, separated by 67 metres of rock. During the recent discussions on cost reduction, it has been suggested that a possible saving would be to postpone equipping the second muon detector station. The importance of the second array of muon detectors, in particular at the start-up of CNGS, is being described in this note. It is argued that both muon detector stations must be operational from the beginning of CNGS operation.

  18. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - BACTERIA_MONITORING_EPA_IN: Bacteria Monitoring Stations and Data Summaries in Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS 3 (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1:45,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BACTERIA_MONITORING_EPA_IN is a point shapefile developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and edited by Bernardin, Lochmueller and Associates. Joinable tables must...

  19. 基于VPN网络技术的无人值守换热站监控系统%Unmanned Heat Exchanger Station Monitoring System Based on VPN Network Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩松林

    2011-01-01

    随着计算机技术和通讯技术发展和应用,企业信息化已经成为企业实现可持续发展和提高市场竞争力的重要保障。介绍了基于VPN的无人值守换热站监控系统的组成、功能及实现方法。数据监控中心上位机采用组态王软件和远程站点PLC通过VPN专网相连接,组成一个封闭的无人值守站监控系统。基于VPN网络的无人值守换热站监控系统体现了信息化在城市供热行业中的应用。%With the computer technology and communication technology development and application of information technology has become a business enterprise to achieve sustainable development and improve market competitiveness is an important guarantee.Describes the VPN-based unmanned station monitoring system heat exchanger composition, function and implementation.Data Monitoring Center PC with remote sites,and Configuration software PLC connected through the VPN special network, form a closed unmanned station monitoring system.VPN-based network monitoring system unattended heat exchange station in the city reflects the information in the application of the heating industry.

  20. Communication and Control Mode in Xiluodu Hydropower Station between Computer Monitoring System and GIS System%溪洛渡水电站监控系统与GIS通信控制模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峙允; 瞿卫华; 何宏江; 刘绍新

    2013-01-01

    溪洛渡水电站计算机监控系统与GIS开关站之间一改水电站常见的现地控制单元模式,借助新的GIS智能监控系统平台,在设计阶段确定采用计算机监控系统与GIS智能监控系统直接通信模式,成为电站GIS开关站控制的重要环节.采用了高冗余多通道的连接方式,在工厂试验中优化程序算法和设计,创新通信控制方式,开辟了巨型水电站GIS开关站控制新领域.%The control mode between computer monitoring system and GIS system in Xiluodu Hydropower Station is different from other power stations as they usually adopt common local control unit mode,in which,the computer monitoring system and GIS intelligent monitoring system are directly communicated by using GIS intelligent monitoring system platform.The control mode is designed as a high-redundancy and multi-channel connection type and its algorithm and design are optimized in manufacturing factory.The innovated control mode opens up a new area for the GIS control of giant hydropower stations.

  1. Vital Sign and Location/Attitude Monitoring with Sensor Networks for the Proposed Rescue System for Disabled and Elderly Persons Who Need a Help in Evacuation from Disaster Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Method and system for vital sign (Body temperature, blood pressure, bless, Heart beat pulse rate, and consciousness and location/attitude monitoring with sensor network for the proposed rescue system for disabled and elderly persons who need a help in evacuation from disaster areas is proposed. Experimental results show that all of vital signs as well as location and attitude of the disabled and elderly persons are monitored with the proposed sensor networks.

  2. 基于无线传感器网络的河流自动监测站设计%Design of River Auto-monitoring Station Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 王福豹; 段渭军

    2011-01-01

    河流作为水资源的重要组成部分对日常生活、经济发展有着重要影响.因此建立完备的监测系统,提高河流监测效率对生产、生活都有着重要意义.针对现有河流监测系统自动监测站存在的监测范围小、灵活性差的问题,提出基于无线传感器网络的河流自动监测站.通过利用无线传感器网络节点部署容易、无线自组织网络的特点,扩充自动监测站,扩大监测范围,提高监测密度.%As an important parr of the water resource, rivers have a significant influence on daily life and economic development.Therefore, the establishment of a monitoring system and improvement of the monitoring efficiency are of great significance.The river auto-monitoring station based on wireless sensor network is proposed, whice can overcome the weakness of original system like small monitoring scope and poor flexibility.The wireless sensor network can expand the monitoring range of the station and improve the monitoring density by wireless sensor nodes deployed in proper places.

  3. An Approach Using Gas Monitoring to Find the Residual TCE Location in the Unsaturated Zone of Woosan Industrial Complex (WIC), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y.; Lee, S.; Yang, J.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    An area accommodating various industrial facilities has fairly high probability of groundwater contamination with multiple chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform (CF). Source tracing of chlorinated solvents in the unsaturated zone is an essential procedure for the management and remediation of contaminated area. From the previous study on seasonal variations in hydrological stresses and spatial variations in geologic conditions on a TCE plume, the existence of residual DNAPLs at or above the water table has proved. Since TCE is one of the frequently detected VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in groundwater, residual TCE can be detected by gas monitoring. Therefore, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in the gas phase TCE contaminant at an industrial complex in Wonju, Korea, were used to find the residual TCE locations. As pilot tests, TCE gas samples collected in the unsaturated zone at 4 different wells were analyzed using SPME (Solid Phase MicroExtraction) fiber and Gas Chromatography (GC). The results indicated that detecting TCE in gas phase was successful from these wells and TCE analysis on gas samples, collected from the unsaturated zone, will be useful for source area characterization. However, some values were too high to doubt the accuracy of the current method, which needs a preliminary lab test with known concentrations. The modified experiment setups using packer at different depths are in process to find residual TCE locations in the unsaturated zone. Meanwhile, several PVD (polyethylene-membrane Passive Vapor Diffusion) samplers were placed under water table to detect VOCs by equilibrium between air in the vial and VOCs in pore water.

  4. Three-year monitoring of atmospheric PCBs and PBDEs at the Chinese Great Wall Station, West Antarctica: Levels, chiral signature, environmental behaviors and source implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Fubin; Fu, Jianjie; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Dou; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Hao, Yanfen; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-02-01

    A three-year monitoring campaign (Jan 2011-2014) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was conducted using a high-volume air sampler at the Chinese Great Wall Station in King George Island, West Antarctica. The results showed that the Σ20PCB and Σ27PBDE concentrations (gas + particle) were 5.87-72.7 pg m-3 and 0.60-16.1 pg m-3, respectively. The lighter congeners especially PCB-11 (a non-Aroclor congener) dominated Σ20PCBs, while BDE-209 made a significant contribution to Σ27PBDEs apart from the lighter congeners (e.g., BDE-28 and -17). The chiral signature indicated nonracemic residues of chiral PCBs in the samples, suggesting potential influence of the secondary source, i.e. air-seawater exchange, on the atropisomer composition of chiral PCBs in air. Lighter PCBs (excluding PCB-11) showed significant temperature dependence in 2011 and 2012, reflecting the influence of revolatilization emission from the local surface. However, the shallow slopes of the regression lines for gaseous concentrations of POPs against reciprocal temperature (1/T) suggested long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) as an important pathway for both PCBs and PBDEs into the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, correlations and ratios between different signature congeners deriving from the technical formulations indicated a local source of Deca-BDE and photodegradation of higher brominated BDEs. The gas/particle partitioning of POPs was also evaluated and the newly developed steady-state-based model generally showed a better performance than the equilibrium-state-based model. However, the former still underestimated the partitioning of most PCBs (log KOA <11) in particle phase, implying that further optimization is necessary when using it for those compounds with lower log KOA.

  5. 47 CFR 74.1237 - Antenna location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.1237 Section 74.1237... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1237 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new station to be... at which there is available a suitable signal from the primary station. The transmitting...

  6. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  7. 汾河二库水电站计算机监控系统设计%Design of the Computer Monitoring System of the Hydropower Station of the Second Fenhe Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳向波; 李瑞

    2012-01-01

    主要介绍了汾河二库水电站计算机监控系统的体系结构、功能设计、软硬件配置等方面的设计特点,可为中小型水电站计算机监控系统设计提供技术参考。%The paper mainly introduces the designing characteristics of the system architecture, function design and hardware and software configurations of the computer monitoring system of the hydropower station of the Second Fenhe Reservoir, which may provide technical references for the designing of the monitoring system of small and mediu-sized hydropower stations.

  8. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the frame of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station (ISS) is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European Columbus module the experiment “Dose Distribution Inside the ISS” (DOSIS), under the project and science lead of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The DOSIS experiment consists of a combination of “Passive Detector Packages” (PDP) distributed at eleven locations inside Columbus for the measurement of the spatial variation of the radiation field and two active Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTELs) with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) in a dedicated nomex pouch mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) for the measurement of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. The DOSIS experiment suite measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 2009 to June 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the follow up DOSIS 3D experiment. The hardware for DOSIS 3D was launched with Soyuz 30S to the ISS on May 15th 2012. The PDPs are replaced with each even number Soyuz flight starting with Soyuz 30S. Data from the active detectors is transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated once a month for this action. The presentation will give an overview of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D experiment and focus on the results from the passive radiation detectors from the DOSIS 3D experiment

  9. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...

  10. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  11. 空间站泄漏监测报警方案设想——绝压法%Assumption on Leak Monitoring and Alarming for Space Station --Absolute Pressure Leak Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    回天力; 刘刚; 高静; 贾东永; 杨纯; 孙国辉

    2012-01-01

    介绍了各国空间站泄漏监测技术的背景及绝压法泄漏监测的原理,在分析空间站舱体内、外环境的基础上提出了空间站泄漏监测报警模式,及通过测量舱内氮分压进行泄漏监测的技术方案,提出了"反应时间占用率"的概念并以此作为评判监测报警效果的依据,最终对比得出氮分压间接监测法可作为有航天员值守期间空间站的泄漏监测与报警方案。%The background of space station leak monitoring technology and the principle of absolute pressure leak detection are introduced. Based on the analysis of internal and external environment of space station cabin, the monitoring and alarming mode for leak detection is proposed, and the technical scheme of leak monitoring by measuring the partial pressure of nitrogen in the cabin is also introduced. The concept of "Occupation Ratio of Response Time" is put for- ward and taken as a basis for judging the effect of monitoring and alarming. It is concluded that the indirect monitoring method by measuring the partial pressure of nitrogen can be used as a leak monitoring and alarming method when the space station is tended by astronauts.

  12. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  13. Analysis and design on control mode of reforming station computer monitoring system of hydroelectric power%水电厂计算机监控系统改造的控制模式分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚; 胡丽娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced how to complete the upgrade of hydroelectric power station computer monitoring system while meeting the requirements of production and equipment control in power grid scheduling and set control center.%介绍了如何在保证满足电网调度集控中心的生产、设备控制要求同时完成水电厂计算机监控系统升级改造。

  14. Hollysys LK PLC Applied in Computer Monitor System of Drainage Pump Station%和利时LKPLC在排涝泵站计算机监控系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石连东; 王卫; 张开尔; 迟晓晖

    2011-01-01

    介绍基于和利时公司LK系列大型冗余PLC的排涝泵站计算机监控系统。该系统为冗余CPU配置、电源配置、以太网及总线配置。%Computer monitor system of drainage pump station based on Hollysys LK series of large redundant PLC is introduced. This this system is redundant of CPU, power and bus configuration.

  15. 东江—深圳供水工程太圆泵站计算机监控系统%The computer monitoring and controlling system of Taiyuan pumping station of Dongjiang—Shenzhen Water supply project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐叶琴; 张宇; 粟海; 郭华

    2001-01-01

    结合开发太园泵站计算机监控系统工程实例,系统地研究了泵站计算机监控系统的网络结构\\,功能及主要特征.%The network structure, function and main feature of the computer monitoring and controlling system of Taiyuan Pumping Station are discused and has been applyed to the project successfully.

  16. 星地光通信的天气可用性与地面站选址研究%Satellite-to-ground optical communication's usability with different weathers and ground station location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓峰; 赵尚弘; 李勇军; 王翔; 李瑞欣

    2012-01-01

    The attenuation of satellite-to-ground optical link in fog, rain, snow and cloud is calculated with empirical formulas. The result of simulation shows the longer the length of the light wave, the smaller the attenuation of the laser in the fog; the attenuation in the snow is 10 -100 times higher than that in the rain; when the optical depth of cloud is 4. 7, the laser attenuation is higher than 20 dB. Considering the geographic distribution, meteorological features and cloud cover statistics, it is suggested that the Tarim basin, the desert of western Inner Mongolia and the northwestern part of Loess Plateau in northwest of China should be favorable for satellite-to-ground optical communication ground station location.%利用经验公式计算了星地光链路在雾、雨、雪、云天气中的衰减,仿真结果表明:波长越长,雾对激光的衰减越小;雪对激光的衰减量高于雨对激光衰减量1~2个数量级;当光学厚度达到4.7时,云层对激光的衰减已达到20 dB以上.综合考虑我国的地理分布和气候特点以及云层覆盖情况,建议我国星地光通信地面站选址可以考虑西北地区的塔里木盆地-内蒙古西部戈壁沙漠-黄土高原西北部一带.

  17. 白水峪水电厂计算机监控系统及相关设备升级改造%Upgrade and Renovation of Computer Monitoring System and Devices in Baishuiyu Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2014-01-01

    The upgrade and renovation work of computer monitoring system and devices in Baishuiyu Hydropower Station is introduced , including the renovation on connection and communication of new operated devices , which greatly im-proves the operational reliability of the monitoring system and devices .%通过对计算机监控系统升级改造,以及对新投产各类设备的接入和通信的改造,充分发挥了监控系统的效能,大大改善了监控系统及相关设备的运行可靠性。

  18. Defining of the 2-D surface of the anomaly stressed magnetic hierarchical object located in the layered blocked geological medium using the data of acoustic and electromagnetic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    Geological medium is an open system which is influenced by outer and inner factors that can lead it to an unstable state. Such non stability usually occurred locally in zones, which we name as dynamically active elements. They can be indicators of potential catastrophic events. These zones differ from the surrounding geological medium by their structural forms, which are often of hierarchical type. The process of their activization can be researched with use of wave fields monitoring. For that purpose we had earlier developed algorithms of modeling wave field propagation through the local objects with hierarchical structure. This paper concerns a new approach for interpretation of the distribution of wave fields for determining of the contours of these local hierarchical objects. In this work we consider an algorithm for constructing of two equations of theoretical inverse problem for 2D linear polarized transverse elastic wave and transverse electromagnetic field by excitation of the N-layered elastic and conductive medium with hierarchic elastic, anomaly stressed and magnetic inclusion located in the ν-th layer with the density and conductivity equal to the density and conductivity of the layer. An iteration process of solving the inverse problem for the case of certain configurations of hierarchical 2-D inclusions of k-th rank is elaborated. When interpreting the results of the monitoring it is needed to use the data of such systems that are configured to study the hierarchical structure of the medium. Findings. From the theory it is obviously that for such complicated medium each wave field contains its own information about the inner structure of the hierarchical inclusion. Therefore it is needed to interpret the monitoring data for each wave field apart, and not mixes the data base. Practical value/implications. These results will be the base for constructing new systems of monitoring observations of dynamical geological systems. Especially it is needed to

  19. 观音岩水电站计算机监控系统结构与分析%Structure and Analysis of Computer Monitoring Control System of the Guanyinyan Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩

    2016-01-01

    文中详细阐述了观音岩水电站计算机监控系统的设计原则、系统结构、功能和组网特点.随着计算机技术和网络技术的快速发展,水电厂计算机监控系统也经历了跨越式的革新换代,结合观音岩水电站计算机监控系统的特点,进一步说明水电站采用自动化控制对提高水电站的安全、经济运行的优越性.%The design principle, system structure, function and networking features of the computer monitoring system of the hydropower station were described in detail.With the rapid development of computer technology and network technology, the hydropower plant computer monitoring system has also experienced a leap forward of the reform.According to the characteristics of the computer monitoring system of the hydropower station, the safety and economical operation of using automation control in hydropower station were further explained.

  20. Hydrometry's classical and Innovative methods and tools comparison for Stara river flows at Agios Germanos monitoring station in north-west Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filintas, Agathos, , Dr; Hatzigiannakis, Evagellos, , Dr; Arampatzis, George, , Dr; Ilias, Andreas; Panagopoulos, Andreas, , Dr; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study is a thorough comparison of hydrometry's conventional and innovative methods-tools for river flow monitoring. A case study was conducted in Stara river at Agios Germanos monitoring station (northwest Greece), in order to investigate possible deviations between conventional and innovative methods-tools on river flow velocity and discharge. For this study, two flowmeters were used, which manufac-tured in 2013 (OTT Messtechnik Gmbh, 2013), as follows: a) A conventional propeller flow velocity meter (OTT-Model C2) which is a me-chanical current flow meter with a certification of calibration BARGO, operated with a rod and a relocating device, along with a digital measuring device including an elec-tronic flow calculator, data logger and real time control display unit. The flowmeter has a measurement velocity range 0.025-4.000 m/s. b) An innovative electromagnetic flowmeter (OTT-Model MF pro) which it is con-sisted of a compact and light-weight sensor and a robust handheld unit. Both system components are designed to be attached to conventional wading rods. The electromag-netic flowmeter uses Faraday's Law of electromagnetic induction to measure the process flow. When an electrically conductive fluid flows along the meter, an electrode voltage is induced between a pair of electrodes placed at right angles to the direction of mag-netic field. The electrode voltage is directly proportional to the average fluid velocity. The electromagnetic flowmeter was operated with a rod and relocating device, along with a digital measuring device with various logging and graphical capabilities and vari-ous methods of velocity measurement (ISO/USGS standards). The flowmeter has a measurement velocity range 0.000-6.000 m/s. The river flow data were averaged over a pair measurement of 60+60 seconds and the measured river water flow velocity, depths and widths of the segments were used for the estimation of cross-section's mean flow velocity in each measured

  1. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  2. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  3. Design and Realization of Intelligent Monitoring System for Photovoltaic Grid-connected Power Station%光伏并网电站智能监控系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶琴瑜; 胡天友; 秦文

    2012-01-01

    针对目前光伏并网电站监控系统自动化程度较低、监控技术较落后的状况,提出了一种新型光伏并网电站智能监控系统设计方案.在深入研究DSP技术、现场总线技术及软件编程技术的基础上,详细阐述了系统的软硬件设计.该系统通过DSP控制内部A/D进行采样,并与装载有监控软件和CAN总线的PC机进行通信,实现光伏电站运行参数的采集、控制和显示,从而实时监测电站的运行状况.试验表明,该系统取得了良好的效果.%In accordance with the current situation of the monitoring system for photovoltaic grid-connected power stations, I. e. , low level in automation and backward monitoring techniques, the design scheme for a new type of intelligent monitoring system is proposed. On the basis of in-depth research on technologies of DSP, field buses and software programming, the design of hardware and software of this system are described in detail. In the system, by adopting DSP, the internal A/D sampling is controlled, and communication between system and PC that is loaded with the monitoring software and CAN fieldbus is done, and the acquisition, control and display of the operational parameters of the PV power station are implemented; thus the operational status of the station can be monitored in real time. The experiment verifies that the system offers good effects.

  4. Ecosystem monitoring of radiocesium redistribution dynamics in a forested catchment in Fukushima after the nuclear power station accident in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohte, N.; Endo, I.; Ohashi, M.; Murakami, M.; Oda, T.; Hotta, N.; Yamanishi, R.; Sugiyama, Y.; Tanoi, K.; Kobayashi, N. I.; Ishii, N.

    2016-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) in March 2011 emitted 1.2 × 1016 Bq of cesium-137 (137Cs) into the surrounding environment. Radioactive substances, including 137Cs, were deposited onto forested areas in the northeastern region of Japan. To clarify the mechanisms of dispersion and export of 137Cs, within and from a forest ecosystem, we have conducted intensive field observations on hydrological processes and the 137Cs movement and storage in a forested headwater catchment in an area 50 km from F1NNS. Two major pathways of 137Cs transport were focused: 1) through the hydrological processes with dissolved and particulate or colloidal forms, and 2) by dispersion through the food web in the forest-stream ecological continuum. The 137Cs concentrations of stream waters were monitored. Various aquatic and terrestrial organisms were periodically sampled to measure their 137Cs concentrations. The results indicate that the major form of exported 137Cs is via suspended solid in the streamflow. Thus, high flows generated by a storm event accelerated strongly the transportation of 137Cs from the forested catchments. Estimation of 137Cs export from the forested catchments requires precise evaluation of the high water flow during storm events. On the other hand, dissolved form, especially mineral ion form of 137Cs were dominant in througfall and stemflow. Because the biggest pool of 137Cs in the forested ecosystem was the accumulated litters and detritus on the forest floor, 137Cs dispersion through food web was quicker through the detritus food chain than through the grazing food chain. 137Cs concentration of leaves (1.1k Bq/kg), barks (4.4-22.5 kBq/kg) woods (0.1-0.6 kBq/kg) and litters (1.3 kBq/kg) of a dominant deciduous tree (Quercus serrata) suggested that internal cyccling of 137Cs have aready occurred between surface soils including litter layer and plants.

  5. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  6. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  7. Research on Online Monitoring Scheme of SF6 of GIS Equipment in Cuijiaying Hydropower Station%崔家营水电站GIS设备SF6气体在线监测方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔晓军; 王小峰

    2016-01-01

    随着SF6气体绝缘的断路器、隔离开关及各种形式的气体绝缘组合电器设备(GIS)在发电站和变电站的普及应用,对SF6气体状态监测的可靠性和稳定性日益受到业内的关注,而智能电网建设和环境保护组织也对SF6气体的状态监测提出了更高的要求。崔家营水电站作为湖北省电网直接调度电站,为应对电网建设的要求,在本站GIS的SF6气体在线监测方面进行了有益的探索和尝试。%With insulating gas SF6 gas insulated circuit breaker, isolating switch, and various forms of switchgear (GIS) in the popularization and application of power station and substation, the reliability and stability of SF6 gas state monitoring has been of concern to the industry, and smart grid construction and environmental protection organization also condition monitoring of SF6 gas is proposed higher requirements. Cuijiaying Hydropower Station in Hubei Province as the grid direct dispatching station, for coping with power grid construction requirements, made a beneficial exploration and attempt to the GIS SF6 gas on-line monitoring in this station.

  8. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during February 2016 (NCEI Accession 0145743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  9. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during April 2016 (NCEI Accession 0151726)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  10. Oceanographic Station Data from bottle casts in the South Pacific Ocean and other locations from the CARLOS PORTE from 27 November 1980 to 18 December 1982 (NODC Accession 8500242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data were collected from bottle casts in the South Pacific Ocean from the CARLOS PORTE. Data were collected from 27 November 1980 to 18...

  11. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during February 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  12. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during March 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  13. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during May 2016 (NCEI Accession 0154389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  14. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0148078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  15. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during April 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  16. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during May 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138488)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  17. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during December 2015 (NCEI Accession 0141105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  18. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during March 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  19. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during July 2016 (NCEI Accession 0156405)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  20. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during January 2015 (NCEI Accession 0137088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  1. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during April 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  2. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during May 2016 (NCEI Accession 0154390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  3. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during February 2016 (NCEI Accession 0145802)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  4. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during January 2016 (NCEI Accession 0144289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  5. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during June 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  6. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during June 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  7. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during January 2016 (NCEI Accession 0144286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  8. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during December 2015 (NCEI Accession 0141107)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  9. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during June 2016 (NCEI Accession 0155978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  10. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during September 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138948)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  11. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during August 2016 (NCEI Accession 0156626)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  12. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during April 2016 (NCEI Accession 0151734)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  13. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during November 2015 (NCEI Accession 0139553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  14. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during October 2015 (NCEI Accession 0139156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  15. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during May 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  16. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during June 2016 (NCEI Accession 0155984)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  17. Near-real-time surface ocean velocities derived from HF radar stations located along coastal waters of Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii and western US during January 2015 (NCEI Accession 0129913)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains near-real-time ocean surface velocities, also known as total vector velocities, derived from HF radar stations. The velocities are...

  18. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during February 2015 (NCEI Accession 0137265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  19. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during July 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138671)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...

  20. Surface ocean velocities obtained by HF radar from stations located along coastal waters of Antarctica, Hawaii, North Slope Alaska, Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands, eastern US/Gulf of Mexico and western US during August 2015 (NCEI Accession 0138776)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The archival package contains ocean surface radial velocities collected from High frequency (HF) radar stations. NDBC, which with SIO assembles data from the IOOS HF...