WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring regulation screening

  1. Upgrade Of The ESRF Fluorescent Screen Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidt, K

    2003-01-01

    The ESRF injector system contains 23 Fluorescent Screen monitors: 4 in the TL-1 transferline (200 MeV), 8 in the Booster, and 11 in the TL-2 transferline (6 GeV). They are based on Chromium doped Alumina screens that are pneumatically inserted at 45o angle in the beam path with an optical system, at 90o angle, collecting and focusing the emitted light onto a low-cost CCD camera with standard 75Ω video output. Serving mainly alignment purposes in the past 10 years, the present upgrade aims at a 200 μm fwhm resolution for beam-size and profile measurements. The particularity of the Alumina screen not in vacuum but in atmosphere will be explained. Details of the mechanics, the optic system and a cost-efficient way of light flux adjustment will be given. The analysis of the factors determining the ultimate spatial resolution will show that it is dominated by the screen characteristics. Results obtained with different screen material will be presented.

  2. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance

  3. Radiation levels from computer monitor screens within Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of possible presence of soft X-ray levels from Computer Screens at distances of 0.5m and 1.0m was carried out within Benue State University, Makurdi, using ten different monitor models. Radiation measurement was carried out using a portable digital radiation meter, INSPECTOR 06250 (SE international Inc.

  4. Regulation and practice of X-ray screening in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvet, E.; Weill, C.; Lefaure, C.

    1987-01-01

    Trends in radiological mass screening practice in France over the last few years have been two-ways. On one side, the use of radiological diagnosis, the use of which is generally controversial, has continued as in the case of radiological mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. However, new practices in the field of radiological screening have developed. Thus the diagnostic usefulness of mammography for cancer of the breast and X-raying the hip for the screening of congenital hip dysplasia, are subject to a wide degree of consensus among specialists, although no regulations have been drawn up in the field. Thus, on the one hand, a large number of items equipment and specialists are available for an activity which may be considered as obsolete (screening for tuberculosis) and, on the other hand, a medical practice is developing with limited equipment. Reorganization may be usefully considered (screening for congenital hip dysplasia, screening for cancer of the breast). This presentation examines radiological screening in France from two points of view: regulation and practice

  5. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  6. Metagenomic screening for aromatic compound-responsive transcriptional regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Uchiyama

    Full Text Available We applied a metagenomics approach to screen for transcriptional regulators that sense aromatic compounds. The library was constructed by cloning environmental DNA fragments into a promoter-less vector containing green fluorescence protein. Fluorescence-based screening was then performed in the presence of various aromatic compounds. A total of 12 clones were isolated that fluoresced in response to salicylate, 3-methyl catechol, 4-chlorocatechol and chlorohydroquinone. Sequence analysis revealed at least 1 putative transcriptional regulator, excluding 1 clone (CHLO8F. Deletion analysis identified compound-specific transcriptional regulators; namely, 8 LysR-types, 2 two-component-types and 1 AraC-type. Of these, 9 representative clones were selected and their reaction specificities to 18 aromatic compounds were investigated. Overall, our transcriptional regulators were functionally diverse in terms of both specificity and induction rates. LysR- and AraC- type regulators had relatively narrow specificities with high induction rates (5-50 fold, whereas two-component-types had wide specificities with low induction rates (3 fold. Numerous transcriptional regulators have been deposited in sequence databases, but their functions remain largely unknown. Thus, our results add valuable information regarding the sequence-function relationship of transcriptional regulators.

  7. MNAtoolbox: A Monitored Natural Attenuation Site Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, David J.; Brady, Patrick V.; Brady, Warren D.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Spalding, Brian P.; Waters, Robert D.; Zhang, Pengchu

    1999-07-12

    Screening of sites for the potential application and reliance upon monitored natural attenuation (MNA) can be done using MNAtoolbox, a web-based tool for estimating extent of biodegradation, chemical transformation, and dilution. MNAtoolbox uses site-specific input data, where available (default parameters are taken from the literature), to roughly quantify the nature and extent of attenuation at a particular site. Use of MNAtoolbox provides 3 important elements of site evaluation: (1) Identifies likely attenuation pathways, (2) Clearly identifies sites where MNA is inappropriate, and (3) Evaluates data requirements for subsequent reliance on MNA as a sole or partial corrective action.

  8. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force

  9. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  10. Screening of French groundwater for regulated and emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Ollivier, Patrick; Togola, Anne; Baran, Nicole; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-15

    Nationwide screening of 411 emerging contaminants and other regulated compounds, including parent molecules and transformation products (TPs) having various uses and origins, was done at 494 groundwater sites throughout France during two sampling campaigns in the Spring and the Fall of 2011. One hundred and eighty substances (44% of the targeted compounds) were quantified in at least one sampling point. These included pharmaceuticals, industrial products, pesticides, their transformation products and other emerging compounds. Fifty-five compounds were quantified in more than 1% of the samples. Both regulated and emerging compounds were found. Among the unregulated compounds, acetaminophen, carbamazepine, perfluorinated compounds, dioxins/furans, tolyltriazole, bisphenol A, triazine transformation products, and caffeine were quantified in more than 10% of the samples analyzed. Concentrations exceeding the threshold of toxicological concern of 0.1 μg/L were found for tolyltriazole, bisphenol A and some of the triazine transformation products (DEDIA). These new results should help the water resource managers and environmental regulators develop sound policies regarding the occurrence and distribution of regulated and emerging contaminants in groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Practice and regulations of radiological mass screening in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indovina, P.L.; Romagnoli, S.; Paganini Fioratti, M.

    1987-01-01

    The law setting up the National Health Service in Italy came into force in 1978. This law attributes many public health responsibilities to local government bodies, and these have also power to issue decrees and circulars with regulatory effect. It therefore proved difficult to obtain a complete picture of the regulations in the short time available. However, those laws, decrees and circulars have been traced which impose radiological examinations on individual members of the population as a condition of their carrying out particular activities in work or study. The statistical data on the total number of persons subjected to such examinations each year have been supplied by the Central Institute of Statistics (ISTAT). In some cases it has not been possible to trace any up-to-date statistics. We have understood the term 'mass radiological screening' in a rather wide sense, not as solely mass examination prescribed on the basis of specific regulations. It is for this reason that we have included in the analyses the scoliosis examinations advised by the authorities concerned in only some areas of Italy. For the same reason radiological examination of the dental apparatus has also been taken into consideration, since it is widespread among the population even though there are no regulations on the subject

  12. Prenatale screening infectieziekten en erytrocytenimmunisatie (PSIE) : proces monitor 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Schönbeck, Y.; Hirschberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Belangrijkste resultaten Prenatale Screening en erytrocytenimmunisatie over 2013. De Prenatale Screening Infectieziekten en Erytocytenimmuni-satie (PSIE) is een landelijk bevolkingsonderzoek waarbij een zwangere vrouw in het eerste verloskundige consult een bloedonderzoek aangeboden krijgt. Het

  13. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document

  14. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to ''complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, ''for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs hor-ellipsis'' as well as a recommendation of ''the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume

  15. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  16. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  17. Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers - regulation and practice in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerekes, A.; Kocsy, G.; Pellet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Decree of Ministry of Health for the enforcement of the Act on Atomic Energy has put special emphasis on the regulation of monitoring for internal exposure in Hungary. The necessarily general prescription of the Decree 'In case of the possibility or suspicion of incorporating open radioactive substances the affected employee shall be subjected to internal contamination monitoring. The obligation of the internal monitoring shall be determined by the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the National Public Health and Medical Officer's Service' called for a guidance to assist the work of the competent authority. The guide was elaborated on the basis of the IAEA Safety Guide No. RS-G-1.2. According to the Safety Guide the decision factor shall first be determined for the potential radionuclides and practice applied. For routine monitoring the required frequency, method and MDA values, moreover for special monitoring the method and MDA values were derived for over 40 radionuclides considering the following two basic assumptions: the activity remaining in or excreted from the body could be determined by the given measurement method, the possible underestimation of intake shall be less than a factor of three within the monitoring interval. The following prescription of the Decree 'The laboratory performing the monitoring of internal exposure shall be accredited' has raised a conflict in practice. To solve the problem the Guide suggests a two-step monitoring process: a screening measurement for the possible internal contamination performed by the Radiation Protection Service of the workplace by any equipment used in daily practice for investigation of patients, radiation protection purposes, etc., if the result of screening indicates an internal contamination the radiation worker shall be monitored by an accredited laboratory. As an ISO Standard in process has several assumptions differing from the IAEA Safety Guide, e.g. the limitation of 'maximum potential

  18. Glance strategies for using an in-vehicle touch-screen monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    In this study, subjects in a driving simulator followed a lead vehicle that continuously changed speed : while they also performed a secondary task on a touch-screen monitor that could be located at various : positions within the simulator. Subjects ...

  19. Regulations and practices for systematic radiological screening within countries of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.

    1987-01-01

    The presentation of the situation concerning the various types of mass radiological screening within the countries of the European community is a brief description of the following: - the status of public regulations, - recommendations issued by medical authorities in various countries, - the actual practices of the medical profession, whether governed or not by the aforementioned regulations and official recommendations. Regulations, recommendations and/or systematic mass radiological screening practices concern mainly three diseases: - tuberculosis, - cancer of the breast, - congenital dislocation of the hip

  20. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications.

  1. Regulation E 69-14. Monitoring requirements for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 'Regulations for the State Evaluation and Registration of Medical Equipment' force (Hereinafter Rules) set forth in Chapter VII, Articles 79 and 86, the monitoring activity as one of the programs necessary for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical monitoring equipment. In the years 2008 and 2011 were approved and implemented by the Center for State Control of Medical Equipment (CCEEM) Regulations and -1.1 ER and ER-1 that support and regulatory requirements 'Control and monitoring of pacemakers and implantable defibrillators' and 'Assessment, recording and control after market surgical silicone implants,' which are specific to these products and have provided a useful result for the performance of the activity. Given the number and diversity of high-risk medical devices as implantable or sustain human life that are brought into our National Health System (SNS), a regulation establishing control over the behavior becomes necessary safety and effectiveness of this equipment during use, which provide inputs to risk management. The objective of this regulation is to establish the regulatory requirements for tracking medical equipment introduced in the NHS. The provisions of this Regulation is aimed at health institutions, to CECMED as manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and importers of medical equipment.

  2. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for equipment and operation of a radiation monitoring facility around a nuclear power generating facility. Subsidies are provided to the prefectures concerned for equipment, etc. required in radiation monitoring, pre-service radiation monitoring and in-service radiation monitoring conducted by a prefecture. The contents are as follows: terms of subsidy allocations, the sum of subsidy allocations, applications for subsidies, decisions on the allocation of subsidies, withdrawal of applications, conditions of the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for disposal of the properties, payment of the subsidy, accounting of the subsidy operations, and a record on the subsidy. (Kubozono, M.)

  3. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for equipment and operation of a radiation monitoring facility around a nuclear power generating facility. Subsidies are provided to the prefectures concerned for equipment, etc. required in radiation monitoring, pre-service radiation monitoring and in-service radiation monitoring conducted by a prefecture. The contents are as follows: terms of subsidy allocations, the sum of subsidy allocations, applications for subsidies, decisions on the allocation of subsidies, withdrawal of applications, conditions of the allocations, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, limitations for disposal of the properties, payment of the subsidy, accounting of the subsidy operations, and a record on the subsidy. (Mori, K.)

  4. Practice and regulations of radiological chest screening in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.; Hjardemaal, O.

    1987-01-01

    Mass chest screening by means of photofluorography was initiated in Denmark in the first years after World War II. The number of persons examined yearly increased continually to a maximum of 900.000 (a fourth of the whole population) in 1972. At this time efforts were made to reduce mass chest screening to small specific risk groups in the population, resulting in a gradual reduction until 1983 when mass chest screening was totally abolished. The technical provisions for photofluorographic X-ray equipment and for X-ray rooms as well as the provisions for the inspection of the installations are stated. Finally results of surveys regarding exposure measurements on photofluorografic equipment are shown and a maximum permissible level of the exposure measured at the entrance plane of the equipment is recommended. (author)

  5. A yeast screening system for simultaneously monitoring multiple genetic endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, M.L.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Mutation, recombination, and mitochondrial deficiencies have been proposed to have roles in the carcinogenic process. The authors describe a diploid strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of detecting this wide spectrum of genetic changes. The markers used for monitoring these events have been especially well characterized genetically. Ultraviolet light was chosen as a model carcinogenic agent to test this system. In addition to highly significant increases in the frequencies of each genetic change, increases in the absolute numbers of each change indicated induction and not selective survival. The relative amounts of each type of genetic change varied with dose. The wide spectrum of endpoints monitored in the XD83 yeast system may allow the detection of certain carcinogens and other genetically toxic agents which have escaped detection in more limited systems. Since only one strain is required to simultaneously monitor these genetic changes, this assay system should facilitate comparisons of the induced changes and be more efficient than using multiple strains to monitor the same endpoints. (Auth.)

  6. Genome-Wide RNAi Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes and Regulation of Human Trace Element Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Hasan, Nesrin M.; Zhang, Yan; Seravalli, Javier; Lin, Jie; Avanesov, Andrei; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are essential for human metabolism and dysregulation of their homeostasis is associated with numerous disorders. Here we characterize mechanisms that regulate trace elements in human cells by designing and performing a genome-wide high-throughput siRNA/ionomics screen, and examining top hits in cellular and biochemical assays. The screen reveals high stability of the ionomes, especially the zinc ionome, and yields known regulators and novel candidates. We further uncover fundam...

  7. Monitoring the Implementation of State Regulation of National Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubarieva Iryna O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to improve the methodological tools for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. The approaches to defining the essence of the concept of “national economic security” are generalized. Assessment of the level of national economic security is a key element in monitoring the implementation of state regulation in this area. Recommendations for improving the methodology for assessing national economic security, the calculation algorithm of which includes four interrelated components (economic, political, social, spiritual one, suggests using analysis methods (correlation and cluster analysis, and taxonomy, which allows to determine the level and disproportion of development, can serve as a basis for monitoring the implementation of state regulation of national economic security. Such an approach to assessing national economic security makes it possible to determine the place (rank that a country occupies in a totality of countries, the dynamics of changing ranks over a certain period of time, to identify problem components, and monitor the effectiveness of state regulation of the national economic security. It the course of the research it was determined that the economic sphere is the main problem component of ensuring the security of Ukraine’s economy. The analysis made it possible to identify the most problematic partial indicators in the economic sphere of Ukraine: economic globalization, uneven economic development, level of infrastructure, level of financial market development, level of economic instability, macroeconomic stability. These indicators have a stable negative dynamics and a downward trend, which requires an immediate intervention of state bodies to ensure the national economic security.

  8. Radioactivity on the surfaces of computer monitors and television screens due to progeny palatal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nady, A.; Morsy, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Computer monitors and television screens can collect radon progeny. Radon decay forming meta-stable progeny, namely, Po-218, Po-214, and Po-210, which are found mostly in positively, charged aerosol particles. These particles are attract by the large negative field of a video display terminals (VDT) leading to buildup of radioactivity on the VDT screen. The charged aerosol particles might drift in the electric field between the VDT and the operator and be accelerated into the operator's face. The aim of this work is to measure these phenomena set of ultra-sensitive TASTRAK detectors used to measure the plate out of positively charged radioactive radon progeny. The track detectors were fixed on the outer monitor screen. For an occupational computer worker spending 200 days per year for 6 hours a day. It was found that the mean dose equivalent was 1.77 mSv, 0.25 mSv/year for normal CRT and LCD monitors respectively

  9. Breast cancer screening programmes: the development of a monitoring and evaluation system.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, N. E.; Williams, D. R.; Khaw, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    It is important that the introduction of breast screening is closely monitored. The anticipated effect on breast cancer mortality will take 10 years or more fully to emerge, and will only occur if a succession of more short-term end points are met. Data from the Swedish two-county randomised trial provide targets that should be achieved, following a logical progression of compliance with the initial invitation, prevalence and stage distribution at the prevalence screen, the rate of interval c...

  10. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement business of radiation monitoring facilities; pre-research business of radiation monitoring; radiation monitoring business; place of enterprise; and expected time of beginning of the use. The Director General of Science and Technology Agency delivers subsidies to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities are or are expected to be established, or their neighboring prefectures. Subsidies are paid for each place of enterprise to support all or a part of expenses necessary for arrangement, pre-research or radiation monitoring business. Limits of subsidies for a place of enterprise in a prefecture are 155.6 million yen for a term for arrangement business, 16 million yen for each fiscal year for pre-research and 16 million yen for each fiscal year for radiation monitoring. An application for subsidies shall be filed by a prefecture to the Director General with the business program and gists of nuclear power generating facilities according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the Director General shall examine it and notify without delay to the applicant the decision of delivery and its conditions in writing, when such settlement is made. Terms and conditions of delivery and reports, etc. are prescribed respectively. (Okada, K.)

  11. Self-Monitoring of Self-Regulation during Math Homework Behaviour Using Standardized Diaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bernhard; Perels, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at enhancing math learning and general self-regulation by supporting daily self-regulated learning during math homework. The authors use standardized diaries as a self-monitoring tool to support self-regulatory behaviour. Following the theory of self-monitoring, frequent self-monitoring of self-regulation will lead to an…

  12. Breast cancer screening programmes: the development of a monitoring and evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, N E; Williams, D R; Khaw, K T

    1989-06-01

    It is important that the introduction of breast screening is closely monitored. The anticipated effect on breast cancer mortality will take 10 years or more fully to emerge, and will only occur if a succession of more short-term end points are met. Data from the Swedish two-county randomised trial provide targets that should be achieved, following a logical progression of compliance with the initial invitation, prevalence and stage distribution at the prevalence screen, the rate of interval cancers after the initial screen, the pick-up rate and stage distribution at later screening tests, the rate of interval cancers after later tests, the absolute rate of advanced cancer and finally the breast cancer mortality rate. For evaluation purposes, historical data on stage at diagnosis is desirable; it is suggested that tumour size is probably the most relevant variable available in most cases.

  13. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  14. Screening of seaweeds in the East China Sea as potential bio-monitors of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaoru; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Holmer, Marianne; Li, Ke; Wu, Jiaping; Lin, Fang; Yu, Yan; Xu, Jiang; Zhou, Chaosheng; Huang, Zhixing; Xiao, Xi

    2018-03-30

    Seaweeds are good bio-monitors of heavy metal pollution and have been included in European coastal monitoring programs. However, data for seaweed species in China are scarce or missing. In this study, we explored the potential of seaweeds as bio-monitor by screening the natural occurring seaweeds in the "Kingdom of seaweed and shellfish" at Dongtou Islands, the East China Sea. Totally, 12 seaweed species were collected from six sites, with richness following the sequence of Rhodophyta > Phaeophyta > Chlorophyta. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, As) in the seaweeds was determined, and the bioaccumulation coefficient was calculated. A combination of four seaweeds, Pachydictyon coriaceum, Gelidium divaricatum, Sargassum thunbergii, and Pterocladiella capillacea, were proposed as bio-monitors due to their high bioaccumulation capabilities of specific heavy metals in the East China Sea and hence hinted the importance of using seaweed community for monitoring of pollution rather than single species. Our results provide first-hand data for the selection of bio-monitor species for heavy metals in the East China Sea and contribute to selection of cosmopolitan bio-monitor communities over geographical large area, which will benefit the establishment of monitoring programs for coastal heavy metal contamination.

  15. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochard, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    Proceedings of the seminar ''Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community'' organized by the Commission of the European Community in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, France, from 3 to 4 December 1985. Part I presents rapporteurs' papers which summarize the salient points concerning: the status of regulations and practices in the different countries, mass chest screening, mammography screening and infants' hip dysplasia screening. Part II presents all the technical papers contributed by the participants. The overall conclusions of the seminar pointed up the importance of assessing the effectiveness of screening or prevention practices more systematically. Although some aspects of the problems associated with radiological mass screening were only qualitatively addressed, the papers presented did explain why the use of certain medical practices must be justified. It is hoped that these proceedings will be useful to national experts and bodies in the planning of future public health programmes which, in the light of current practices, will have to take account of the medical, economic and social dimension of mass screening.

  16. Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borns, D.J.; Brady, P.V.; Brady, W.D.; Krupka, K.M.; Spalding, B.P.; Waters, R.D.; Zhang, P.

    1999-03-01

    Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites briefly outlines the biological and geochemical origins of natural attenuation, the tendency for natural processes in soils to mitigate contaminant transport and availability, and the means for relying on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of contaminated soils and groundwaters. This report contains a step-by-step guide for (1) screening contaminated soils and groundwaters on the basis of their potential for remediation by natural attenuation and (2) implementing MNA consistent with EPA OSWER Directive 9200.4-17. The screening and implementation procedures are set up as a web-based tool (http://www.sandia.gov/eesector/gs/gc/na/mnahome.html) to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) site environmental managers and their staff and contractors to adhere to EPA guidelines for implementing MNA. This document is intended to support the Decision Maker's Framework Guide and Monitoring Guide both to be issued from DOE EM-40. Further technical advances may cause some of the approach outlined in this document to change over time.

  17. Improvement of screen regulation by means of the pyrgeometer; Verbetering van de schermregeling met de pyrgeometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bij de Vaate, J. [DLV Plant, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The radiation meter (pyrgeometer) measures energy loss as a result of radiation, and can thus contribute to energy management by influencing the screen control. In this project measurements and the benefits of the screen control are monitored over a longer period at six growers [Dutch] De uitstralingsmeter (pyrgeometer) meet energieverlies door uitstraling, en kan daardoor een bijdrage leveren aan het energiebeheer door invloed op de schermregeling. In dit project is bij een zestal telers over een langere periode gekeken naar de meting en de mogelijke voordelen in de regeling.

  18. A large-scale RNA interference screen identifies genes that regulate autophagy at different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Virbasius, Ching-Man; He, Bin; Zhang, Liqing; Varmark, Hanne; Green, Michael R; Sheng, Zhi

    2018-02-12

    Dysregulated autophagy is central to the pathogenesis and therapeutic development of cancer. However, how autophagy is regulated in cancer is not well understood and genes that modulate cancer autophagy are not fully defined. To gain more insights into autophagy regulation in cancer, we performed a large-scale RNA interference screen in K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia cells using monodansylcadaverine staining, an autophagy-detecting approach equivalent to immunoblotting of the autophagy marker LC3B or fluorescence microscopy of GFP-LC3B. By coupling monodansylcadaverine staining with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we successfully isolated autophagic K562 cells where we identified 336 short hairpin RNAs. After candidate validation using Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometry, LC3B immunoblotting, and quantitative RT-PCR, 82 genes were identified as autophagy-regulating genes. 20 genes have been reported previously and the remaining 62 candidates are novel autophagy mediators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most candidate genes were involved in molecular pathways regulating autophagy, rather than directly participating in the autophagy process. Further autophagy flux assays revealed that 57 autophagy-regulating genes suppressed autophagy initiation, whereas 21 candidates promoted autophagy maturation. Our RNA interference screen identifies identified genes that regulate autophagy at different stages, which helps decode autophagy regulation in cancer and offers novel avenues to develop autophagy-related therapies for cancer.

  19. A UK guide to intake fish-screening regulations, policy and best practice with particular reference to hydroelectric power schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnpenny, A W.H.; Struthers, G; Hanson, P

    1998-07-01

    A review of fish screening regulations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland is presented, and a summary of findings on screening legislation is given. The views of hydroelectric scheme developers, owners and operators are considered, and recommendations including the development of a risk assessment procedure are discussed. Fish screening technology, bypasses and other escape routes, and common fault in screen design and operation are examined, and guidance to Best Practice is given. (UK)

  20. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid screening and live-cell monitoring: application to nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S K; Sacksteder, Colette A; Weber, Thomas J; Riley, Brian J; Addleman, R Shane; Harrer, Bruce J; Peterman, John W

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge to realize the full potential of nanotechnology for therapeutic and diagnostic applications is to understand and evaluate how live cells interact with an external stimulus, such as a nanosized particle, and the toxicity and broad risk associated with these stimuli. It is difficult to capture the complexity and dynamics of these interactions by following omics-based approaches exclusively, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to provide noninvasive live-cell monitoring of cellular responses to potentially toxic nanosized particles or other stimuli. This alternative approach provides the ability to carry out rapid toxicity screenings and nondisruptive monitoring of live-cell cultures. We review the technical basis of the approach, the instrument configuration and interface with the biological media, the various effects that impact the data, subsequent data analysis and toxicity, and present some preliminary results on live-cell monitoring.

  1. An automated high throughput screening-compatible assay to identify regulators of stem cell neural differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Laura; Magnani, Dario; De Falco, Sandro; Filosa, Stefania; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Patriarca, Eduardo J; De Cesare, Dario

    2012-03-01

    The use of Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) holds considerable promise both for drug discovery programs and the treatment of degenerative disorders in regenerative medicine approaches. Nevertheless, the successful use of ESCs is still limited by the lack of efficient control of ESC self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. In this context, the possibility to modulate ESC biological properties and to obtain homogenous populations of correctly specified cells will help developing physiologically relevant screens, designed for the identification of stem cell modulators. Here, we developed a high throughput screening-suitable ESC neural differentiation assay by exploiting the Cell(maker) robotic platform and demonstrated that neural progenies can be generated from ESCs in complete automation, with high standards of accuracy and reliability. Moreover, we performed a pilot screening providing proof of concept that this assay allows the identification of regulators of ESC neural differentiation in full automation.

  2. Quality improvement project in cervical cancer screening: practical measures for monitoring laboratory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Jussi; Geagea, Antoine; Nieminen, Pekka; Anttila, Ahti

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project in a cervical cancer screening programme in Helsinki in order to see if detection of precancerous lesions could be influenced by external (participation rate) and internal (laboratory praxis) quality measures. In order to increase the participation rate, a second personal invitation to Pap-test was mailed to nonparticipants of the first call. In order to improve the quality of screening, the cytotechnicians monitored their performance longitudinally by recording the number of slides reviewed per day, the pick-up rate of abnormal smears, the report of the consulting cytopathologist, and the number of histologically verified lesions detected from the cases that they had screened. Regular sessions were held to compare the histological findings with the cytological findings of all cases referred for colposcopy. No pressure was applied on the cytotechnicians to ensure that they felt comfortable with their daily workload. A total of 110 000 smears were screened for cervical cancer at the Helsinki City Hospital during 1996-99. Initially, the overall participation rate increased from 62% to 71%. The number of histologically confirmed precancerous lesions (CIN 1-3) more than doubled and their detection rate increased from 0.32% to 0.72%. Continuous education and feedback from daily work performance were important, yet rather inexpensive means in increasing laboratory performance. Additional measures are needed to further increase the participation rate. Impact of the quality measures on cancer incidence needs to be assessed later on.

  3. An AICD-based functional screen to identify APP metabolism regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeremy C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD is the regulated intramembraneous proteolysis of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP, to generate the β-amyloid (Aβ peptide and the APP intracellular domain (AICD. Aβ is the major component of amyloid plaques and AICD displays transcriptional activation properties. We have taken advantage of AICD transactivation properties to develop a genetic screen to identify regulators of APP metabolism. This screen relies on an APP-Gal4 fusion protein, which upon normal proteolysis, produces AICD-Gal4. Production of AICD-Gal4 induces Gal4-UAS driven luciferase expression. Therefore, when regulators of APP metabolism are modulated, luciferase expression is altered. Results To validate this experimental approach we modulated α-, β-, and γ-secretase levels and activities. Changes in AICD-Gal4 levels as measured by Western blot analysis were strongly and significantly correlated to the observed changes in AICD-Gal4 mediated luciferase activity. To determine if a known regulator of APP trafficking/maturation and Presenilin1 endoproteolysis could be detected using the AICD-Gal4 mediated luciferase assay, we knocked-down Ubiquilin 1 and observed decreased luciferase activity. We confirmed that Ubiquilin 1 modulated AICD-Gal4 levels by Western blot analysis and also observed that Ubiquilin 1 modulated total APP levels, the ratio of mature to immature APP, as well as PS1 endoproteolysis. Conclusion Taken together, we have shown that this screen can identify known APP metabolism regulators that control proteolysis, intracellular trafficking, maturation and levels of APP and its proteolytic products. We demonstrate for the first time that Ubiquilin 1 regulates APP metabolism in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y.

  4. High-Throughput Screening to Identify Regulators of Meiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Yona

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis and gamete formation are processes that are essential for sexual reproduction in all eukaryotic organisms. Multiple intracellular and extracellular signals feed into pathways that converge on transcription factors that induce the expression of meiosis-specific genes. Once triggered the meiosis-specific gene expression program proceeds in a cascade that drives progress through the events of meiosis and gamete formation. Meiosis-specific gene expression is tightly controlled by a balance of positive and negative regulatory factors that respond to a plethora of signaling pathways. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an outstanding model for the dissection of gametogenesis owing to the sophisticated genetic manipulations that can be performed with the cells. It is possible to use a variety selection and screening methods to identify genes and their functions. High-throughput screening technology has been developed to allow an array of all viable yeast gene deletion mutants to be screened for phenotypes and for regulators of gene expression. This chapter describes a protocol that has been used to screen a library of homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains to identify regulators of the meiosis-specific IME1 gene.

  5. [Remote sensing monitoring and screening for urban black and odorous water body: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhu, Li; Cao, Hong Ye

    2017-10-01

    Continuous improvement of urban water environment and overall control of black and odorous water body are not merely national strategic needs with the action plan for prevention and treatment of water pollution, but also the hot issues attracting the attention of people. Most previous researches concentrated on the study of cause, evaluation and treatment measures of this phenomenon, and there are few researches on the monitoring using remote sensing, which is often a strain to meet the national needs of operational monitoring. This paper mainly summarized the urgent research problems, mainly including the identification and classification standard, research on the key technologies, and the frame of remote sensing screening systems for the urban black and odorous water body. The main key technologies were concluded too, including the high spatial resolution image preprocessing and extraction technique for black and odorous water body, the extraction of water information in city zones, the classification of the black and odorous water, and the identification and classification technique based on satellite-sky-ground remote sensing. This paper summarized the research progress and put forward research ideas of monitoring and screening urban black and odorous water body via high spatial resolution remote sensing technology, which would be beneficial to having an overall grasp of spatial distribution and improvement progress of black and odorous water body, and provide strong technical support for controlling urban black and odorous water body.

  6. Using stable isotopes to monitor forms of sulfur during desulfurization processes: A quick screening method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.; Kruse, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method using stable isotope ratio analysis to monitor the reactivity of sulfur forms in coal during thermal and chemical desulfurization processes has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The method is based upon the fact that a significant difference exists in some coals between the 34S/32S ratios of the pyritic and organic sulfur. A screening method for determining the suitability of coal samples for use in isotope ratio analysis is described. Making these special coals available from coal sample programs would assist research groups in sorting out the complex sulfur chemistry which accompanies thermal and chemical processing of high sulfur coals. ?? 1987.

  7. A Drosophila Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Regulators of Steroid Hormone Production and Developmental Timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas Danielsen, E.; E. Møller, Morten; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones control important developmental processes and are linked to many diseases. To systematically identify genes and pathways required for steroid production, we performed a Drosophila genome-wide in vivo RNAi screen and identified 1,906 genes with potential roles in steroidogenesis...... and developmental timing. Here, we use our screen as a resource to identify mechanisms regulating intracellular levels of cholesterol, a substrate for steroidogenesis. We identify a conserved fatty acid elongase that underlies a mechanism that adjusts cholesterol trafficking and steroidogenesis with nutrition...... and developmental programs. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an autophagosomal cholesterol mobilization mechanism and show that activation of this system rescues Niemann-Pick type C1 deficiency that causes a disorder characterized by cholesterol accumulation. These cholesterol-trafficking mechanisms...

  8. A functional genomics screen in planarians reveals regulators of whole-brain regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Galbraith, Rachel H; Brubacher, John L; Newmark, Phillip A

    2016-01-01

    Planarians regenerate all body parts after injury, including the central nervous system (CNS). We capitalized on this distinctive trait and completed a gene expression-guided functional screen to identify factors that regulate diverse aspects of neural regeneration in Schmidtea mediterranea. Our screen revealed molecules that influence neural cell fates, support the formation of a major connective hub, and promote reestablishment of chemosensory behavior. We also identified genes that encode signaling molecules with roles in head regeneration, including some that are produced in a previously uncharacterized parenchymal population of cells. Finally, we explored genes downregulated during planarian regeneration and characterized, for the first time, glial cells in the planarian CNS that respond to injury by repressing several transcripts. Collectively, our studies revealed diverse molecules and cell types that underlie an animal’s ability to regenerate its brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17002.001 PMID:27612384

  9. Genome-Wide RNAi Ionomics Screen Reveals New Genes and Regulation of Human Trace Element Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Hasan, Nesrin M.; Zhang, Yan; Seravalli, Javier; Lin, Jie; Avanesov, Andrei; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are essential for human metabolism and dysregulation of their homeostasis is associated with numerous disorders. Here we characterize mechanisms that regulate trace elements in human cells by designing and performing a genome-wide high-throughput siRNA/ionomics screen, and examining top hits in cellular and biochemical assays. The screen reveals high stability of the ionomes, especially the zinc ionome, and yields known regulators and novel candidates. We further uncover fundamental differences in the regulation of different trace elements. Specifically, selenium levels are controlled through the selenocysteine machinery and expression of abundant selenoproteins; copper balance is affected by lipid metabolism and requires machinery involved in protein trafficking and posttranslational modifications; and the iron levels are influenced by iron import and expression of the iron/heme-containing enzymes. Our approach can be applied to a variety of disease models and/or nutritional conditions, and the generated dataset opens new directions for studies of human trace element metabolism. PMID:24522796

  10. Screening, monitoring, and educating patients with diabetes in an independent community pharmacy in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, F J; Monsanto, H A

    2001-03-01

    Increase the awareness about the importance of Diabetes mellitus (DM) management and assess the educational and monitoring needs of patients visiting a community pharmacy in Puerto Rico. A community service activity focusing on DM was held in a community pharmacy. The educational and monitoring needs of the participants were assessed using a questionnaire. Glucose tests were conducted in the pharmacy by medical technologists. Educational activities consisted of presentations and printed materials. Two-thirds of the fasting people had blood glucose levels higher than 140 mg/dl. Seventy-nine percent of the patients with diabetes were not aware of the glycosilated hemoglobin test. Most of the patients were interested in learning more about how to manage their condition. A greater understanding is needed among patients with DM that blood glucose control decreases diabetes related complications. Community pharmacists are in an excellent position to collaborate with other health professionals in screening, monitoring and educating patients with DM to prevent long-term complications.

  11. The Role of Metamotivational Monitoring in Motivation Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, David B.; Scholer, Abigail A.

    2018-01-01

    This article builds on existing models of motivation regulation in order to examine how students identify and address motivational deficits (e.g., not enough motivation or not the right type of motivation). Integrating perspectives from the achievement motivation, metacognition, and emotion regulation literatures, we propose that metamotivational…

  12. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper execution of budgets of subsidies and the enforcement ordinance for this law, and to carry out these provisions. This rule is applied to the grant of subsidies for the expenses of installing and operating radiation monitoring equipment in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities, redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring, radiation monitoring works, place of business and expected date of beginning operation, etc. The Director General of the Science and Technology Agency delivers subsidies to appropriate for all or a part of expenses required for the redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring and radiation monitoring works. Subsidies are given to those prefectures, where atomic power generating facilities are established or expected to be established, or the prefectures in their neighborhood, and to each place of business as a unit. The term of grant is stipulated for each of these places of business. The amount of subsidies for one place of business ranges from 224.4 million yen for the whole period to 20 million yen for each fiscal year according to the kinds of business. Prefectures which intend to request the grant of subsidies shall file to the Director General specified application attaching operation plans and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities. The decision and the conditions of delivery, the reports on operation and business results, etc. are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  13. Screen-printed electrodes for environmental monitoring of heavy metal ions: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John; González García, María Begoña; Hernández Santos, David; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Ribotti, Alberto; Magni, Paolo; McCaul, Margaret; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, zinc and copper are among the most important pollutants because of their non-biodegradability and toxicity above certain thresholds. Here, we review methods for sensing heavy metal ions (HMI) in water samples using screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) as transducers. The review (with 107 refs.) starts with an introduction into the topic, and this is followed by sections on (a) mercury-coated SPEs, (b) bismuth-coated SPEs, (c) gold-coated SPEs (d) chemically modified and non-modified carbon SPEs, (e) enzyme inhibition-based SPEs, and (f) an overview of commercially available electrochemical portable heavy metal analyzers. The review reveals the significance of SPEs in terms of decentralized and of in situ analysis of heavy metal ions in environmental monitoring. (author)

  14. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  15. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, S.; Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , HCN, and NH 3 ). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined

  16. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J. [INP-Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Strämke, M.; Strämke, S. [ELTRO GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Ring 3, 52499 Baesweiler (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  17. RNAi-Mediated Reverse Genetic Screen Identified Drosophila Chaperones Regulating Eye and Neuromuscular Junction Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Raut

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of toxic proteins in neurons has been linked with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, which in many cases are characterized by altered neuronal function and synapse loss. Molecular chaperones help protein folding and the resolubilization of unfolded proteins, thereby reducing the protein aggregation stress. While most of the chaperones are expressed in neurons, their functional relevance remains largely unknown. Here, using bioinformatics analysis, we identified 95 Drosophila chaperones and classified them into seven different classes. Ubiquitous actin5C-Gal4-mediated RNAi knockdown revealed that ∼50% of the chaperones are essential in Drosophila. Knocking down these genes in eyes revealed that ∼30% of the essential chaperones are crucial for eye development. Using neuron-specific knockdown, immunocytochemistry, and robust behavioral assays, we identified a new set of chaperones that play critical roles in the regulation of Drosophila NMJ structural organization. Together, our data present the first classification and comprehensive analysis of Drosophila chaperones. Our screen identified a new set of chaperones that regulate eye and NMJ morphogenesis. The outcome of the screen reported here provides a useful resource for further elucidating the role of individual chaperones in Drosophila eye morphogenesis and synaptic development.

  18. A genome-wide RNAi screen identifies regulators of cholesterol-modified hedgehog secretion in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Aikin

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh proteins are secreted molecules that function as organizers in animal development. In addition to being palmitoylated, Hh is the only metazoan protein known to possess a covalently-linked cholesterol moiety. The absence of either modification severely disrupts the organization of numerous tissues during development. It is currently not known how lipid-modified Hh is secreted and released from producing cells. We have performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells to identify regulators of Hh secretion. We found that cholesterol-modified Hh secretion is strongly dependent on coat protein complex I (COPI but not COPII vesicles, suggesting that cholesterol modification alters the movement of Hh through the early secretory pathway. We provide evidence that both proteolysis and cholesterol modification are necessary for the efficient trafficking of Hh through the ER and Golgi. Finally, we identified several putative regulators of protein secretion and demonstrate a role for some of these genes in Hh and Wingless (Wg morphogen secretion in vivo. These data open new perspectives for studying how morphogen secretion is regulated, as well as provide insight into regulation of lipid-modified protein secretion.

  19. Genome-wide RNAi Screen Identifies Networks Involved in Intestinal Stem Cell Regulation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankun Zeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult animals and maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs in both Drosophila and mammals. To comprehensively identify genes and pathways that regulate ISC fates, we performed a genome-wide transgenic RNAi screen in adult Drosophila intestine and identified 405 genes that regulate ISC maintenance and lineage-specific differentiation. By integrating these genes into publicly available interaction databases, we further developed functional networks that regulate ISC self-renewal, ISC proliferation, ISC maintenance of diploid status, ISC survival, ISC-to-enterocyte (EC lineage differentiation, and ISC-to-enteroendocrine (EE lineage differentiation. By comparing regulators among ISCs, female germline stem cells, and neural stem cells, we found that factors related to basic stem cell cellular processes are commonly required in all stem cells, and stem-cell-specific, niche-related signals are required only in the unique stem cell type. Our findings provide valuable insights into stem cell maintenance and lineage-specific differentiation.

  20. In vivo RNAi screen reveals neddylation genes as novel regulators of Hedgehog signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling is highly conserved in all metazoan animals and plays critical roles in many developmental processes. Dysregulation of the Hh signaling cascade has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer. Although key components of the Hh pathway have been identified, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the regulation of individual Hh signaling molecules. Here, we report the identification of novel regulators of the Hh pathway, obtained from an in vivo RNA interference (RNAi screen in Drosophila. By selectively targeting critical genes functioning in post-translational modification systems utilizing ubiquitin (Ub and Ub-like proteins, we identify two novel genes (dUba3 and dUbc12 that negatively regulate Hh signaling activity. We provide in vivo and in vitro evidence illustrating that dUba3 and dUbc12 are essential components of the neddylation pathway; they function in an enzyme cascade to conjugate the ubiquitin-like NEDD8 modifier to Cullin proteins. Neddylation activates the Cullin-containing ubiquitin ligase complex, which in turn promotes the degradation of Cubitus interruptus (Ci, the downstream transcription factor of the Hh pathway. Our study reveals a conserved molecular mechanism of the neddylation pathway in Drosophila and sheds light on the complex post-translational regulations in Hh signaling.

  1. Diabetic retinopathy screening: can the viewing monitor influence the reading and grading outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, D S W; Tay-Kearney, M L; Vignarajan, J; Kanagasingam, Y

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of different viewing monitors for image reading and grading of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Single-centre, experimental case series-evaluation of reading devices for DR screening. A total of 100 sets of three-field (optic disc, macula, and temporal views) colour retinal still images (50 normal and 50 with DR) captured by FF 450 plus (Carl Zeiss) were interpreted on 27-inch iMac, 15-inch MacBook Pro, and 9.7-inch iPad. All images were interpreted by a retinal specialist and a medical officer. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of 15-inch MacBook Pro and 9.7-inch iPad in detection of DR signs and grades with reference to the reading outcomes obtained using a 27-inch iMac reading monitor. In detection of any grade of DR, the 15-inch MacBook Pro had sensitivity and specificity of 96% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.1-99.3) and 96% (95% CI: 85.1-99.3), respectively, for retinal specialist and 91.5% (95% CI: 78.7-97.2) and 94.3% (95% CI: 83.3-98.5), respectively, for medical officer, whereas for 9.7-inch iPad, they were 91.8% (95% CI: 79.5-97.4) and 94.1% (95% CI: 82.8-98.5), respectively, for retinal specialist and 91.3% (95% CI: 78.3-97.1) and 92.6% (95% CI: 81.3-97.6), respectively, for medical officer. The 15-inch MacBook Pro and 9.7-inch iPad had excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting DR and hence, both screen sizes can be utilized to effectively interpret colour retinal still images for DR remotely in a routine, mobile or tele-ophthalmology setting. Future studies could explore the use of more economical devices with smaller viewing resolutions to reduce cost implementation of DR screening services.

  2. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  3. Cloning-free regulated monitoring of reporter and gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirkaya Omer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of the promoters, their regulatory elements, and their variations in the human genome remain unknown. Reporter gene technology for transcriptional activity is a widely used tool for the study of promoter structure, gene regulation, and signaling pathways. Construction of transcriptional reporter vectors, including use of cis-acting sequences, requires cloning and time-demanding manipulations, particularly with introduced mutations. Results In this report, we describe a cloning-free strategy to generate transcriptionally-controllable linear reporter constructs. This approach was applied in common transcriptional models of inflammatory response and the interferon system. In addition, it was used to delineate minimal transcriptional activity of selected ribosomal protein promoters. The approach was tested for conversion of genes into TetO-inducible/repressible expression cassettes. Conclusion The simple introduction and tuning of any transcriptional control in the linear DNA product renders promoter activation and regulated gene studies simple and versatile.

  4. A genome scale RNAi screen identifies GLI1 as a novel gene regulating vorinostat sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, K J; Newbold, A; Gould, C M; Luu, J; Trapani, J A; Matthews, G M; Simpson, K J; Johnstone, R W

    2016-07-01

    Vorinostat is an FDA-approved histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that has proven clinical success in some patients; however, it remains unclear why certain patients remain unresponsive to this agent and other HDACis. Constitutive STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) activation, overexpression of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins and loss of HR23B have been identified as potential biomarkers of HDACi resistance; however, none have yet been used to aid the clinical utility of HDACi. Herein, we aimed to further elucidate vorinostat-resistance mechanisms through a functional genomics screen to identify novel genes that when knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) sensitized cells to vorinostat-induced apoptosis. A synthetic lethal functional screen using a whole-genome protein-coding RNAi library was used to identify genes that when knocked down cooperated with vorinostat to induce tumor cell apoptosis in otherwise resistant cells. Through iterative screening, we identified 10 vorinostat-resistance candidate genes that sensitized specifically to vorinostat. One of these vorinostat-resistance genes was GLI1, an oncogene not previously known to regulate the activity of HDACi. Treatment of vorinostat-resistant cells with the GLI1 small-molecule inhibitor, GANT61, phenocopied the effect of GLI1 knockdown. The mechanism by which GLI1 loss of function sensitized tumor cells to vorinostat-induced apoptosis is at least in part through interactions with vorinostat to alter gene expression in a manner that favored apoptosis. Upon GLI1 knockdown and vorinostat treatment, BCL2L1 expression was repressed and overexpression of BCL2L1 inhibited GLI1-knockdown-mediated vorinostat sensitization. Taken together, we present the identification and characterization of GLI1 as a new HDACi resistance gene, providing a strong rationale for development of GLI1 inhibitors for clinical use in combination with HDACi therapy.

  5. Identification and screening of active components from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. in regulating autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan-Ming; An, Dong-Qing; Guo, Long-Long; Yang, Ning-Hui; Zhang, Hua

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the flavonoid constituents of a traditional Chinese medical plant Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and screened the active components in regulating autophagy.Normal rat kidney (NRK) cells transfected with green fluorescent protein- microtubule-associated protein 1 light Chain 3(GFP-LC3) were treated with Z. clinopodioides flavonoids and its chemical compositions. After 4 h of treatment, the auto-phagy spot aggregation in NRK cells was photographed and observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The following 10 flavonoid components of Z. clinopodioides were identified: baicalein(1), quercetin(2), hyperoside(3), quercetin3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside(4), apigenin(5), kaempferol(6), chrysin(7), diosimin(8), linarin(9) and rutin(10). Among these flavonoids, chrysin, apigenin and quercetin were identified as the active principles in activating autophagy. This research may provide a reference for further developing and utilizing Z. clinopodioides.

  6. Integrative screening approach identifies regulators of polyploidization and targets for acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiang; Goldenson, Benjamin; Silver, Serena J.; Schenone, Monica; Dancik, Vladimir; Huang, Zan; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Lewis, Timothy; An, W. Frank; Li, Xiaoyu; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Thiollier, Clarisse; Diebold, Lauren; Gilles, Laure; Vokes, Martha S.; Moore, Christopher B.; Bliss-Moreau, Meghan; VerPlank, Lynn; Tolliday, Nicola J.; Mishra, Rama; Vemula, Sasidhar; Shi, Jianjian; Wei, Lei; Kapur, Reuben; Lopez, Cécile K.; Gerby, Bastien; Ballerini, Paola; Pflumio, Francoise; Gilliland, D. Gary; Goldberg, Liat; Birger, Yehudit; Izraeli, Shai; Gamis, Alan S.; Smith, Franklin O.; Woods, William G.; Taub, Jeffrey; Scherer, Christina A.; Bradner, James; Goh, Boon-Cher; Mercher, Thomas; Carpenter, Anne E.; Gould, Robert J.; Clemons, Paul A.; Carr, Steven A.; Root, David E.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Stern, Andrew M.; Crispino, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The mechanism by which cells decide to skip mitosis to become polyploid is largely undefined. Here we used a high-content image-based screen to identify small-molecule probes that induce polyploidization of megakaryocytic leukemia cells and serve as perturbagens to help understand this process. We found that dimethylfasudil (diMF, H-1152P) selectively increased polyploidization, mature cell-surface marker expression, and apoptosis of malignant megakaryocytes. A broadly applicable, highly integrated target identification approach employing proteomic and shRNA screening revealed that a major target of diMF is Aurora A kinase (AURKA), which has not been studied extensively in megakaryocytes. Moreover, we discovered that MLN8237 (Alisertib), a selective inhibitor of AURKA, induced polyploidization and expression of mature megakaryocyte markers in AMKL blasts and displayed potent anti-AMKL activity in vivo. This research provides the rationale to support clinical trials of MLN8237 and other inducers of polyploidization in AMKL. Finally, we have identified five networks of kinases that regulate the switch to polyploidy. PMID:22863010

  7. A screening model for depleted uranium testing using environmental radiation monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunfrund, F.L.; Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    Information from an ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium test areas at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) was used to update the required environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) plan. Data to be collected for the ERM can also be used to evaluate the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to terrestrial reptiles and mammals in the affected areas. We developed a spreadsheet-based screening model that incorporates the ERM data and associated uncertainties. The purpose of the model is to provide a conservative estimate of radiological exposure of terrestrial, biota to DU using the ERM data. The uncertainty in the estimate is also predicted so that the variation in the radiological exposure can be used in assessing potential adverse effects from DU testing. Toxicological effects are evaluated as well as radiological effects in the same program using the same data. Our presentation shows an example data set, model calculations, and the report of expected radiation dose rates and probable kidney burdens of select mammals and reptiles. The model can also be used in an inverse mode to calculate the soil concentration required to give either a radiological dose that would produce a potential adverse effect such as fatal cancer or a toxicological dose that would result in nephrotoxic effects in mammals

  8. Compliance monitoring system using screen printing technology based on conductive ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kenji; Kawakami, Junko; Aoki, Sorama; Hamada, Kouji; Sato, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We developed a compliance monitoring system that electrically detects which drug among the multiple prescribed drugs a patient has taken and the date of drug-taking by a patient to prevent the patient from missing doses and taking drugs incorrectly at home. A conductive pattern is screen printed using conductive ink (silver paste) on the surface of a calendar-type pill organizer containing medications for as long as 1 week (4 times per day × 7 days, 28 doses) to create a sensor for detecting the opening of a pill organizer. Whenever the patient opens the pill organizer and removes a dose of the drug (pill), information about which of the 28 locations is opened and the date of opening are recorded in nonvolatile memory. This system is applicable to patients who take multiple drugs, for whom recording of drug-taking behavior is reportedly difficult. Specific benefits are that the user needs no additional manipulation to use the system: the user can take the drug from the pill organizer according to usual procedures.

  9. Portable electrochemical system using screen-printed electrodes for monitoring corrosion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squissato, André L; Silva, Weberson P; Del Claro, Augusto T S; Rocha, Diego P; Dornellas, Rafael M; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a portable electrochemical system for the continuous monitoring of corrosion inhibitors in a wide range of matrices including ethanol, seawater and mineral oil following simple dilution of the samples. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the sensing of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,5-thiadiazole (DMCT), an important corrosion inhibitor. Disposable screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) associated with a portable batch-injection cell are proposed for the amperometric determination of DMCT following sample dilution with electrolyte (95% v/v ethanol + 5% v/v 0.1molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution). This electrolyte was compatible with all samples and the organic-resistant SPGE could be used continuously for more than 200 injections (100µL injected at 193µLs -1 ) free from effects of adsorption of DMCT, which have a great affinity for metallic surfaces, and dissolution of the other reported SPGE inks which has hampered prior research efforts. Fast (180h -1 ) and precise responses (RSD < 3% n = 10) with a detection limit of 0.3µmolL -1 was obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method was attested through recovery tests (93-106%) and the reasonable agreement of results of DMCT concentrations in samples analyzed by both proposed and spectrophotometric (comparative) methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of energy windowing algorithms for effective cargo screening with radiation portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevener, Ryne; Yim, Man-Sung; Baird, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are distributed across the globe in an effort to decrease the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Many current generation RPMs utilizes large polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillators. These detectors are low cost and reliable but have very poor energy resolution. The lack of spectroscopic detail available from PVT spectra has restricted these systems primarily to performing simple gross counting measurements in the past. A common approach to extend the capability of PVT detectors beyond simple “gross-gamma” use is to apply a technique known as energy windowing (EW) to perform rough nuclide identification with limited spectral information. An approach to creating EW algorithms was developed in this work utilizing a specific set of calibration sources and modified EW equations; this algorithm provided a degree of increased identification capability. A simulated real-time emulation of the algorithm utilizing actual port-of-entry RPM data supplied by ORNL provided an extensive proving ground for the algorithm. This algorithm is able to identify four potential threat nuclides and the major NORM source with a high degree of accuracy. High-energy masking, a major detriment of EW algorithms, is reduced by the algorithm's design. - Highlights: • Gross counting algorithms do not produce detailed screenings. • Energy windowing algorithms enhance nuclide identification capability. • Proper use of EW algorithm can identify multiple threat nuclides. • Utilizing specific set of calibration sources is important for nuclide identification

  11. Identification of GPR65, a novel regulator of matrix metalloproteinases using high through-put screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Junwei [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Deng, Weiwei [Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Zhong, Qi [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Yue, Changli [Department of Pathology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Wang, Pingzhang, E-mail: wangpzh@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health (China); Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Huang, Zhigang, E-mail: enthuangzhigang@sohu.com [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •A novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors was defined. •GPR65 was identified to induce the MMP3 expression. •GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. •AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. •GPR65 overexpression can accelerate the invision of A549 cells. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in nearly all cancers. To study novel regulatory factors of MMP expression in head and neck cancer (HNC), we screened a total of 636 candidate genes encoding putative human transmembrane proteins using MMP promoter reporter in a dual luciferase assay system. Three genes GPR65, AXL and TNFRSF10B dramatically activated the induction of MMP3 expression. The induction of MMP expression by GPR65 was further confirmed in A549 and/or FaDu cells. GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. The AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. Moreover, the A549 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus of GPR65 showed accelerated cell invasion. In conclusion, we validate that GPR65 is vital regulatory genes upstream of MMP3, and define a novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors.

  12. Identification of GPR65, a novel regulator of matrix metalloproteinases using high through-put screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Junwei; Deng, Weiwei; Zhong, Qi; Yue, Changli; Wang, Pingzhang; Huang, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors was defined. •GPR65 was identified to induce the MMP3 expression. •GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. •AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. •GPR65 overexpression can accelerate the invision of A549 cells. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in nearly all cancers. To study novel regulatory factors of MMP expression in head and neck cancer (HNC), we screened a total of 636 candidate genes encoding putative human transmembrane proteins using MMP promoter reporter in a dual luciferase assay system. Three genes GPR65, AXL and TNFRSF10B dramatically activated the induction of MMP3 expression. The induction of MMP expression by GPR65 was further confirmed in A549 and/or FaDu cells. GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. The AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. Moreover, the A549 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus of GPR65 showed accelerated cell invasion. In conclusion, we validate that GPR65 is vital regulatory genes upstream of MMP3, and define a novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors

  13. Screening and Follow-Up Monitoring for Substance Use in Primary Care: An Exploration of Rural-Urban Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ya-Fen; Lu, Shou-En; Howe, Bill; Tieben, Hendrik; Hoeft, Theresa; Unützer, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Rates of substance use in rural areas are close to those of urban areas. While recent efforts have emphasized integrated care as a promising model for addressing workforce shortages in providing behavioral health services to those living in medically underserved regions, little is known on how substance use problems are addressed in rural primary care settings. To examine rural-urban variations in screening and monitoring primary care- based patients for substance use problems in a state-wide mental health integration program. This was an observational study using patient registry. The study included adult enrollees (n = 15,843) with a mental disorder from 133 participating community health clinics. We measured whether a standardized substance use instrument was used to screen patients at treatment entry and to monitor symptoms at follow-up visits. While on average 73.6 % of patients were screened for substance use, follow-up on substance use problems after initial screening was low (41.4 %); clinics in small/isolated rural settings appeared to be the lowest (13.6 %). Patients who were treated for a mental disorder or substance abuse in the past and who showed greater psychiatric complexities were more likely to receive a screening, whereas patients of small, isolated rural clinics and those traveling longer distances to the care facility were least likely to receive follow-up monitoring for their substance use problems. Despite the prevalent substance misuse among patients with mental disorders, opportunities to screen this high-risk population for substance use and provide a timely follow-up for those identified as at risk remained overlooked in both rural and urban areas. Rural residents continue to bear a disproportionate burden of substance use problems, with rural-urban disparities found to be most salient in providing the continuum of services for patients with substance use problems in primary care.

  14. Monitoring and regulation of learning in medical education: the need for predictive cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B H; Dunlosky, John; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2017-06-01

    Being able to accurately monitor learning activities is a key element in self-regulated learning in all settings, including medical schools. Yet students' ability to monitor their progress is often limited, leading to inefficient use of study time. Interventions that improve the accuracy of students' monitoring can optimise self-regulated learning, leading to higher achievement. This paper reviews findings from cognitive psychology and explores potential applications in medical education, as well as areas for future research. Effective monitoring depends on students' ability to generate information ('cues') that accurately reflects their knowledge and skills. The ability of these 'cues' to predict achievement is referred to as 'cue diagnosticity'. Interventions that improve the ability of students to elicit predictive cues typically fall into two categories: (i) self-generation of cues and (ii) generation of cues that is delayed after self-study. Providing feedback and support is useful when cues are predictive but may be too complex to be readily used. Limited evidence exists about interventions to improve the accuracy of self-monitoring among medical students or trainees. Developing interventions that foster use of predictive cues can enhance the accuracy of self-monitoring, thereby improving self-study and clinical reasoning. First, insight should be gained into the characteristics of predictive cues used by medical students and trainees. Next, predictive cue prompts should be designed and tested to improve monitoring and regulation of learning. Finally, the use of predictive cues should be explored in relation to teaching and learning clinical reasoning. Improving self-regulated learning is important to help medical students and trainees efficiently acquire knowledge and skills necessary for clinical practice. Interventions that help students generate and use predictive cues hold the promise of improved self-regulated learning and achievement. This framework is

  15. Screening and identification of sites for a proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE), has identified the Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Hartsville Nuclear Plant site as preferred and alternative sites, respectively, for development of site-specific designs as part of the proposal for construction of an integrated Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The proposal, developed pursuant to Section 141 (b) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, will be submitted to Congress in January 1986. The Director expects to propose to Congress that an MRS be constructed at the perferred site. His judgment could change based on information to be developed between now and January 1986. The decision to construct an MRS facility and final site selection are reserved by Congress for itself. The Director's judgment is based on the results of a rigorous site screening and evaluation process described in this report. The three sites were selected from among eleven sites evaluated in detail. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority, was identified as the preferred site. It has several particularly desirable features including: (1) federal ownership and control by the Department of Energy; (2) particularly good transportation access (five miles to the nearest interstate highway and direct rail access); (3) site characteristics and current data base judged by the NRC in 1983 as sufficient for granting a limited work authorization for the now cancelled breeder reactor; and (4) a technical community in the vicinity of site which can provide experienced nuclear facility support functions. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  17. Monitoring of heavy metals in selected Water Supply Systems in Poland, in relation to current regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuster-Janiaczyk, Agnieszka; Zeuschner, Piotr; Noga, Paweł; Skrzypczak, Marta

    2018-02-01

    The study presents an analysis of water quality monitoring in terms of the content of heavy metals, which is conducted in three independent water supply systems in Poland. The analysis showed that the monitoring of heavy metals isn't reliable - both the quantity of tested water samples and the location of the monitoring points are the problem. The analysis of changes in water quality from raw water to tap water was possible only for one of the analysed systems and indicate a gradual deterioration of water quality, although still within acceptable limits of legal regulations.

  18. A Mobile Health Data Collection System for Remote Areas to Monitor Women Participating in a Cervical Cancer Screening Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Kelly; Tran, Phuong Lien; Jinoro, Jéromine; Herniainasolo, Joséa Lea; Viviano, Manuela; Vassilakos, Pierre; Benski, Caroline; Petignat, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Barriers to efficient cervical cancer screening in low- and medium-income countries include the lack of systematic monitoring of the participants' data. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a mobile health (m-Health) data collection system to facilitate monitoring of women participating to cervical cancer screening campaign. Women aged 30-65 years, participating in a cervical cancer screening campaign in Ambanja, Madagascar, were invited to participate in the study. Cervical Cancer Prevention System, an m-Health application, allows the registration of clinical data, while women are undergoing cervical cancer screening. All data registered in the smartphone were transmitted onto a secure, Web-based platform through the use of an Internet connection. Healthcare providers had access to the central database and could use it for the follow-up visits. Quality of data was assessed by computing the percentage of key data missing. A total of 151 women were recruited in the study. Mean age of participants was 41.8 years. The percentage of missing data for the key variables was less than 0.02%, corresponding to one woman's medical history data, which was not sent to the central database. Technical problems, including transmission of photos, human papillomavirus test results, and pelvic examination data, have subsequently been solved through a system update. The quality of the data was satisfactory and allowed monitoring of cervical cancer screening data of participants. Larger studies evaluating the efficacy of the system for the women's follow-up are needed in order to confirm its efficiency on a long-term scale.

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of Biofilm Regulators Identified by an Overexpression Screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, Gareth A.; Tan, Zhihao; Hays, Michelle; Sirr, Amy; Jeffery, Eric W.; Dudley, Aimée M.

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation by microorganisms is a major cause of recurring infections and removal of biofilms has proven to be extremely difficult given their inherent drug resistance . Understanding the biological processes that underlie biofilm formation is thus extremely important and could lead to the development of more effective drug therapies, resulting in better infection outcomes. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biofilm model, overexpression screens identified DIG1, SFL1, HEK2, TOS8, SAN1, and ROF1/YHR177W as regulators of biofilm formation. Subsequent RNA-seq analysis of biofilm and nonbiofilm-forming strains revealed that all of the overexpression strains, other than DIG1 and TOS8, were adopting a single differential expression profile, although induced to varying degrees. TOS8 adopted a separate profile, while the expression profile of DIG1 reflected the common pattern seen in most of the strains, plus substantial DIG1-specific expression changes. We interpret the existence of the common transcriptional pattern seen across multiple, unrelated overexpression strains as reflecting a transcriptional state, that the yeast cell can access through regulatory signaling mechanisms, allowing an adaptive morphological change between biofilm-forming and nonbiofilm states. PMID:28673928

  20. Monitoring of Dips in the MV Network for Regulation- A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldemariam, L.E.; Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract— Voltage dips constitute to a noticeable part of power quality (PQ) problems but causing major financial losses to industrial and commercial customers. This work involves comparative studies to choose the most appropriate location of monitoring dips for regulation. In this paper, a Dutch MV

  1. Endogenous monitoring: a new challenge for the regulation of energy externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millock, K.

    1999-11-01

    The present article studies the problem of regulating externalities from energy use, with particular emphasis on the problem of information. A standard economics. The article shows how the optimal choice of instruments used to regulate the externalities from energy use will change with the more widespread adoption of modern monitoring technologies. We will illustrate how the application of incentive policies conditioned on monitoring can contribute to the implementation of flexible mechanisms for greenhouse gas abatement. Section 2 briefly summarises the economic framework for the regulation of externalities resulting from energy use. In Section 3, an illustrative model is presented in which the introduction of monitoring of emissions is endogenous and conditions the best type of instrument used by the regulator to internalize the externalities from energy use. Section 4 then examines the implications of this framework for the application of the flexible incentives introduced in the Kyoto Protocol. It shows how the success of project-based approaches, such as Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism, depends upon the implementation of appropriate incentives for monitoring. Section 5 concludes. (author)

  2. Improving Self-Monitoring and Self-Regulation: From Cognitive Psychology to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B. H.; van Gog, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Although there is abundant experimental metamemory research on the relation between students' monitoring, regulation of learning, and learning outcomes, relatively little of this work has influenced educational research and practice. Metamemory research, traditionally based on experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology, can potentially…

  3. Introducing an integrated climate change perspective in POPs modelling, monitoring and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamon, L.; Dalla Valle, M.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the implications of climate change on the monitoring, modelling and regulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Current research gaps are also identified and discussed. Long-term data sets are essential to identify relationships between climate fluctuations and changes in chemical species distribution. Reconstructing the influence of climatic changes on POPs environmental behaviour is very challenging in some local studies, and some insights can be obtained by the few available dated sediment cores or by studying POPs response to inter-annual climate fluctuations. Knowledge gaps and future projections can be studied by developing and applying various modelling tools, identifying compounds susceptibility to climate change, local and global effects, orienting international policies. Long-term monitoring strategies and modelling exercises taking into account climate change should be considered when devising new regulatory plans in chemicals management. - Climate change implications on POPs are addressed here with special attention to monitoring, modelling and regulation issues.

  4. Evaluation of mobile smartphones app as a screening tool for environmental noise monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, Titus S; Folorunsho, David O; Dahilo, Enoch A; Gbujie, Ibeneche O; Nwegbu, Maxwell M; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere G

    2016-01-01

    Noise is a global occupational and environmental health hazard with considerable social and physiological impact and, therefore, there is a need for regular measurements to boost monitoring and regulations of environmental noise levels in our communities. This necessitates a readily available, inexpensive, and easy to use noise measuring device. We aimed to test the sensitivity and validity of mobile "smart" phones for this purpose. This was a comparative analysis of a cross sectional study done between January 2014 and February 2015. Noise levels were measured simultaneously at different locations within Abuja Nigeria at day and night hours in real time environments. A sound level meter (SLM) (Extech407730 Digital Soundmeter, serial no.: 2310135, calibration no: 91037) and three smartphones (Samsung Galaxy note3, Nokia S, and Techno Phantom Z running on Android "Apps" Androidboy1) were used. Statistical calculations were done with Pearson correlation, T-test and Consistency within American National Standards Institute acceptable standard errors. Noise level readings for both daytime and night with the SLM and the mobile phones showed equivalent values. All noise level meters measured were <100dB. The daytime readings were nearly identical in six locations and the maximum difference in values between the SLM and Smartphone instruments was 3db, noted in two locations. Readings in dBA showed strong correlation (r = 0.9) within acceptable error limits for Type 2 SLM devices and no significant difference in the values (p = 0.12 & 0.58) for both day and night. Sensitivity of the instrument yielded 92.9%. The androidboy1 "app" performance in this study showed a good correlation and comparative high sensitivity to the Standard SLM (type 2 SLM device). However there is the need for further studies.

  5. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  6. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  7. A Biochemical Screen for Identification of Small-Molecule Regulators of the Wnt Pathway Using Xenopus Egg Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Curtis A.; Lafleur, Bonnie; Lewis, Michelle; Hanson, Alison J.; Jernigan, Kristin K.; Weaver, David C.; Huppert, Kari A.; Chen, Tony W.; Wichadiit, Chonlarat; Cselenyi, Christopher S.; Tahinci, Emilios; Meyers, Kelly C.; Waskow, Emily; Orton, Darren; Salic, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Misregulation of the Wnt pathway has been shown to be responsible for a variety of human diseases, most notably cancers. Screens for inhibitors of this pathway have been performed almost exclusively using cultured mammalian cells or with purified proteins. We have previously developed a biochemical assay using Xenopus egg extracts to recapitulate key cytoplasmic events in the Wnt pathway. Using this biochemical system, we show that a recombinant form of the Wnt coreceptor, LRP6, regulates the...

  8. Inaccurate Metacognitive Monitoring and Its Effects on Metacognitive Control and Task Outcomes in Self-Regulated L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Accurate metacognitive monitoring of one's own knowledge or performance is a precondition for self-regulated learning; monitoring informs metacognitive control, which in turn affects task outcomes. Studies of monitoring accuracy and its connection to knowledge and performance are common in psychology and educational research but rare in instructed…

  9. Screening and monitoring of main diseases a modern strategy of health maintenance in personnel of radiation dangerous plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhauov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.; Kubat, I. I.; Maslyuk, A. I.; Semenova, Y. V.; Freidin, M. B.; Trivozhenko, A. B.; Litvinenko, T. M.

    2004-01-01

    Population health is greatly determined by social factors, mode of life, ecological situation, amount and quality of medical assistance. The analysis of reasons of health troubles increase in population should be done taking into account the above aspects. Main consideration should be given to the development of measures aimed at the highest possible decrease of technogenic and anthropogenic factors influence on a human. Thereupon a complex programme of main diseases screening and monitoring in the personnel of the Siberian Group of Chemical enterprises (SGCE) to be the biggest one among Russian atomic plants has been developed. The purpose of the present paper is to determine main diseases at the earliest stage, the decrease of death rate, as well as the complex estimation of technogenic factor influence on the personnel of radiation dangerous plants nand their offsprings. In this case a long-term effect of low doses seems to be the main risk factor. Taking into account the structure of death rate causes of the population of industrialized countries as well as the spectrum of stochastic effects of ionizing radiation, the screening of cardiac ischemia and arterial hypertension, localization of cancer and congenital malformations have been chosen as the program priorities. Algorithm of instrumental laboratory screening of a particular disease includes modern diagnostic tests. Groups ar risk are formed taking into account a complex of exogenous and endogenous risk factors (age, chronic diseases, bad habits, length of service at a radiation dangerous plant, dose loads, hereditary factors) and on the basis of the screening examination results. The information obtained is entered in the list of database of the Regional Medico dosimetric Register of the SGCE personnel and Seversk residents followed by analysis and monitoring of groups ar risk. (Author) 4 refs

  10. Occupation-specific screening for future sickness absence: Criterion validity of the trucker strain monitor (TSM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M.de; Blonk, R.W.; Sluiter, J.K.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Monitoring psychological job strain may help occupational physicians to take preventive action at the appropriate time. For this purpose, the 10-item trucker strain monitor (TSM) assessing work-related fatigue and sleeping problems in truck drivers was developed. Objectives: This study

  11. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  12. Screening for Circulating Tumour Cells Allows Early Detection of Cancer and Monitoring of Treatment Effectiveness: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Eng, Peter; Sali, Avni

    2017-08-27

    Background: Circulating-Tumour-Cells (CTC) provide a blood biomarker for early carcinogenesis, cancer progression and treatment effectiveness. An increase in CTCs is associated with cancer progression, a CTC decrease with cancer containment or remission. Several technologies have been developed to identify CTC, including the validated Isolation-by-Size-of-Epithelial-Tumour (ISET, Rarecells) technology, combining blood filtration and microscopy using standard histo-pathological criteria. Methods: This observational study compared CTC count to cancer status and cancer risk, by monitoring treatment effectiveness in cancer patients and by screening for CTC in asymptomatic patients with risk factors, including family history of cancer. Results: Between Sept-2014 and Dec-2016 we undertook 600 CTC tests (542 patients), including 50% screening requests of patients without cancer diagnosis but with risk factors. CTC were detected in all cancer patients (n=277, 100%), and in half of the asymptomatic patients screened (50%, 132 out-of 265 patients). Follow-up tests including scans, scheduled within 1-10 months of positive CTC tests, found early cancerous lesions in 20% of screened patients. In 50% of male patients with CTC and normal PSA (prostate-specific-antigen) levels, PSMA-PET scans revealed increased uptake in the prostate, indicative of early prostate cancer. Other types of cancers detected by CTC screening and subsequent scans included early breast, ovarian, lung, or renal cancer. Patients with CTC were advised on integrative approaches including immune-stimulating and anti-carcinogenic nutritional therapies. CTC repeat tests were available in 10% of patients with detected CTC (40 outof 409 patients, n=98 CTC tests) to assess treatment effectiveness, suggesting nutritional therapies to be beneficial in reducing CTC count. Conclusions: CTC screening provided a highly sensitive biomarker for the early detection of cancer, with higher CTC counts being associated with

  13. Monitoring Student Immunization, Screening, and Training Records for Clinical Compliance: An Innovative Use of the Institutional Learning Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elting, Julie Kientz

    2017-12-13

    Clinical compliance for nursing students is a complex process mandating them to meet facility employee occupational health requirements for immunization, screening, and training prior to patient contact. Nursing programs monitor clinical compliance with in-house management of student records, either paper or electronic, or by contracting with a vendor specializing in online record tracking. Regardless of method, the nursing program remains fully accountable for student preparation and bears the consequences of errors. This article describes how the institution's own learning management system can be used as an accurate, cost-neutral, user-friendly, and Federal Educational Rights Protection Act-compliant clinical compliance system.

  14. Monitoring substrate enables real-time regulation of a protein localization pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koreaki; Mori, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Shinobu

    2018-06-01

    Protein localization machinery supports cell survival and physiology, suggesting the potential importance of its expression regulation. Here, we summarize a remarkable scheme of regulation, which allows real-time feedback regulation of the machinery expression. A class of regulatory nascent polypeptides, called monitoring substrates, undergoes force-sensitive translation arrest. The resulting ribosome stalling on the mRNA then affects mRNA folding to expose the ribosome-binding site of the downstream target gene and upregulate its translation. The target gene encodes a component of the localization machinery, whose physical action against the monitoring substrate leads to arrest cancellation. Thus, this scheme of feedback loop allows the cell to adjust the amount of the machinery to correlate inversely with the effectiveness of the process at a given moment. The system appears to have emerged late in evolution, in which a narrow range of organisms selected a distinct monitoring substrate-machinery combination. Currently, regulatory systems of SecM-SecA, VemP-SecDF2 and MifM-YidC2 are known to occur in different bacterial species.

  15. Identification of novel transcriptional regulators of PKA subunits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by quantitative promoter-reporter screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, Constanza; Reca, Sol; Chatfield-Reed, Kate; Chua, Gordon; Galello, Fiorella; Portela, Paula; Zaremberg, Vanina; Rossi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling is a broad pathway that plays important roles in the transduction of environmental signals triggering precise physiological responses. However, how PKA achieves the cAMP-signal transduction specificity is still in study. The regulation of expression of subunits of PKA should contribute to the signal specificity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae PKA holoenzyme contains two catalytic subunits encoded by TPK1, TPK2 and TPK3 genes, and two regulatory subunits encoded by BCY1 gene. We studied the activity of these gene promoters using a fluorescent reporter synthetic genetic array screen, with the goal of systematically identifying novel regulators of expression of PKA subunits. Gene ontology analysis of the identified modulators showed enrichment not only in the category of transcriptional regulators, but also in less expected categories such as lipid and phosphate metabolism. Inositol, choline and phosphate were identified as novel upstream signals that regulate transcription of PKA subunit genes. The results support the role of transcription regulation of PKA subunits in cAMP specificity signaling. Interestingly, known targets of PKA phosphorylation are associated with the identified pathways opening the possibility of a reciprocal regulation. PKA would be coordinating different metabolic pathways and these processes would in turn regulate expression of the kinase subunits. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A Genome-wide RNAi Screen for Microtubule Bundle Formation and Lysosome Motility Regulation in Drosophila S2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L. Jolly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance intracellular transport of organelles, mRNA, and proteins (“cargo” occurs along the microtubule cytoskeleton by the action of kinesin and dynein motor proteins, but the vast network of factors involved in regulating intracellular cargo transport are still unknown. We capitalize on the Drosophila melanogaster S2 model cell system to monitor lysosome transport along microtubule bundles, which require enzymatically active kinesin-1 motor protein for their formation. We use an automated tracking program and a naive Bayesian classifier for the multivariate motility data to analyze 15,683 gene phenotypes and find 98 proteins involved in regulating lysosome motility along microtubules and 48 involved in the formation of microtubule filled processes in S2 cells. We identify innate immunity genes, ion channels, and signaling proteins having a role in lysosome motility regulation and find an unexpected relationship between the dynein motor, Rab7a, and lysosome motility regulation.

  17. Screen-printed sensor for batch and flow injection potentiometric chromium(VI) monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, Raul A.; Gismera, M.J.; Sevilla, M.T.; Procopio, Jesus R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A disposable screen-printed electrode was designed and evaluated for direct detection of chromium(VI) in batch and flow analysis. The carbon screen-printed electrode was modified with a graphite-epoxy composite. The optimal graphite-epoxy matrix contains 37.5% graphite powder, 12.5% diphenylcarbohydrazide, a selective compound for chromium(VI), and 50% epoxy resin. The principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis were optimized and calculated. The screen-printed sensor exhibits a response time of 20 {+-} 1 s. In flow analysis, the analytical frequency of sampling is 70 injections per hour using 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution at pH 3 as the carrier, a flow rate of 2.5 mL.min{sup -1}, and an injection sample volume of 0.50 mL. The sensor shows potentiometric responses that are very selective for chromium(VI) ions and optimal detection limits in both static mode (2.1 x 10{sup -7} M) and online analysis (9.4 x 10{sup -7} M). The disposable potentiometric sensor was employed to determine toxicity levels of chromium(VI) in mineral, tap, and river waters by flow-injection potentiometry and batch potentiometry. Chromium(VI) determination was also carried out with successful results in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills. (orig.)

  18. Post-intervention effects on screen behaviours and mediating effect of parental regulation: the HEalth In Adolescents study - a multi-component school-based randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, I.H.; van Stralen, M.M.; Bjelland, M.; Grydeland, M.; Lien, N.; Klepp, K.I.; Anderssen, S.A.; Ommundsen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To improve effectiveness of future screen behaviour interventions, one needs to know whether an intervention works via the proposed mediating mechanisms and whether the intervention is equally effective among subgroups. Parental regulation is identified as a consistent correlate of

  19. Monitoring of drug intake during pregnancy by questionnaires and LC-MS/MS drug urine screening: evaluation of both monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Henrike; Roeder, Stefan; Bertsche, Thilo; Lehmann, Irina; Borte, Michael; von Bergen, Martin; Wissenbach, Dirk K

    2015-08-01

    Various studies pointed towards a relationship between chronic diseases such as asthma and allergy and environmental risk factors, which are one aspect of the so-called Exposome. These environmental risk factors include also the intake of drugs. One critical step in human development is the prenatal period, in which exposures might have critical impact on the child's health outcome. Thereby, the health effects of drugs taken during gestation are discussed controversially with regard to newborns' disease risk. Due to this, the drug intake of pregnant women in the third trimester was monitored by questionnaire, in addition to biomonitoring using a local birth cohort study, allowing correlations of drug exposure with disease risk. Therefore, 622 urine samples were analyzed by an untargeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) urine screening and the results were compared to self-administered questionnaires. In total, 48% (n = 296) reported an intake of pharmaceuticals, with analgesics as the most frequent reported drug class in addition to dietary supplements. 182 times compounds were detected by urine screening, with analgesics (42%; n = 66) as the predominantly drug class. A comparison of reported and detected drug intake was performed for three different time spans between completion of the questionnaires and urine sampling. Even if the level of accordance was low in general, similar percentages (~25%, ~19%, and ~ 20%) were found for all groups. This study illustrates that a comprehensive evaluation of drug intake is neither achieved by questionnaires nor by biomonitoring alone. Instead, a combination of both monitoring methods, providing complementary information, should be considered. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Speeding cis-trans regulation discovery by phylogenomic analyses coupled with screenings of an arrayed library of Arabidopsis transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castrillo

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is an important mechanism underlying gene expression and has played a crucial role in evolution. The number, position and interactions between cis-elements and transcription factors (TFs determine the expression pattern of a gene. To identify functionally relevant cis-elements in gene promoters, a phylogenetic shadowing approach with a lipase gene (LIP1 was used. As a proof of concept, in silico analyses of several Brassicaceae LIP1 promoters identified a highly conserved sequence (LIP1 element that is sufficient to drive strong expression of a reporter gene in planta. A collection of ca. 1,200 Arabidopsis thaliana TF open reading frames (ORFs was arrayed in a 96-well format (RR library and a convenient mating based yeast one hybrid (Y1H screening procedure was established. We constructed an episomal plasmid (pTUY1H to clone the LIP1 element and used it as bait for Y1H screenings. A novel interaction with an HD-ZIP (AtML1 TF was identified and abolished by a 2 bp mutation in the LIP1 element. A role of this interaction in transcriptional regulation was confirmed in planta. In addition, we validated our strategy by reproducing the previously reported interaction between a MYB-CC (PHR1 TF, a central regulator of phosphate starvation responses, with a conserved promoter fragment (IPS1 element containing its cognate binding sequence. Finally, we established that the LIP1 and IPS1 elements were differentially bound by HD-ZIP and MYB-CC family members in agreement with their genetic redundancy in planta. In conclusion, combining in silico analyses of orthologous gene promoters with Y1H screening of the RR library represents a powerful approach to decipher cis- and trans-regulatory codes.

  1. Non-invasive carboxyhemoglobin monitoring: screening emergency medical services patients for carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Douglas; Partridge, Robert; Suner, Selim; Jay, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity is a significant health problem. The use of non-invasive pulse CO-oximetry screening in the emergency department has demonstrated that the rapid screening of numerous individuals for CO toxicity is simple and capable of identifying occult cases of CO toxicity. The objective of this study was to extend the use of this handheld device to the prehospital arena, assess carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO) levels in emergency medical services (EMS) patients, and correlate these levels with clinical and demographic data. This was a retrospective, observational, chart review of adult patients transported to hospital emergency departments by urban fire department EMS ambulances during a six-week period. Each ambulance used a non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad-57, Masimo Inc.) to record patients' COHb concentrations (SpCO) along with the standard EMS assessment data. Spearman's Rank Correlation tests and Student's t-tests were used to analyze the data and calculate relationships between SpCO and other variables (age, gender, respiratory rate, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry). A total of 36.4% of the patients transported during the study had SpCO documented. Of the 1,017 adults included in this group, 11 (1.1%) had an SpCO >15%. There was no correlation between SpCO and heart rate, ventilatory rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation. Screening for CO toxicity in the EMS setting is possible, and may aid in the early detection and treatment of CO-poisoned patients.

  2. A genetic screen identifies BRCA2 and PALB2 as key regulators of G2 checkpoint maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Tobias; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard

    2011-01-01

    To identify key connections between DNA-damage repair and checkpoint pathways, we performed RNA interference screens for regulators of the ionizing radiation-induced G2 checkpoint, and we identified the breast cancer gene BRCA2. The checkpoint was also abrogated following depletion of PALB2......, an interaction partner of BRCA2. BRCA2 and PALB2 depletion led to premature checkpoint abrogation and earlier activation of the AURORA A-PLK1 checkpoint-recovery pathway. These results indicate that the breast cancer tumour suppressors and homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 and PALB2 are main...

  3. Radiological mass screening within the Member States of the European Community. Regulations, practices, effectiveness. Proceedings of a seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Euratom Treaty it is the task of the Commission of the European Community to ensure the health protection of workers and the general public against the dangers of ionizing radiation. Dose limits and the principals of radiation protection were first laid down in a Council Directive of 1959, and have since been repeatedly adapted. The specific problems of radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment are the subject of a separate Council Directive of 3 September 1984. This directive specifies that 'all medical exposures must be medically justified and kept as low as reasonably achievable'. The concept of justification is particularly critical in the case of mass-screening activities. For some diseases with low prevalence the radiological detriment to the population resulting from radiological mass-screening procedures might be greater than the individual benefit of the diagnosis. In addition the costs of public health care are rising in all Member States of the European Community and the effectiveness of public health care programmes like mass-screening must be carefully examined. A technical workshop on practices and regulations in the field of radiological mass-screening within the Member States (Luxembourg, 4-5 December 1984) and a seminar on the same subject (Luxembourg, 3-4 December 1985) were therefore organized by the Commission of the European Communities in cooperation with the Commissariat a l'energie Atomique, CEA, and the Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans le domaine nucleaire, CEPN (France). The workshop provided up-to-date information on effectiveness and cost of radiological mass-screening programmes in the Member States. The seminar provided the representatives of the national authorities responsible for radiation protection, public health and occupational medicine with an opportunity to discuss mass-screening practices with experts. This publication contains the papers presented at the

  4. Regulations and monitoring of the financial part of the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Svante; Eliasson, Torben; Jenssen Aasmund

    2001-11-01

    The electricity derivatives market has grown significantly during the last few years. It refers to all commodity derivatives (options, futures and forwards) based on electricity and traded either on the Nord Pool Exchange or bilaterally between single parties. The growth of the derivatives market has also led to an increasing need for relevant regulation and monitoring. In this report ECON describes how the common financial regulations (e.g. Sweden's Securities Operations Act) affect power sector companies and how the electricity derivatives market is being monitored by the Swedish and the Norwegian financial supervisory authorities. The aim of the report is to give ideas about possible future research projects about the electricity derivatives market. In Sweden commodity derivatives based on electricity are generally considered to be 'financial instruments' according to The Trading in Financial Instruments Act. At least this seems to be the case with contracts traded on Nord Pool and bilateral contracts that can be subject to clearing by Nord Pool. In some cases, companies wanting to offer services regarding financial instruments in the Swedish market need a special licence and it comes from the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority. The services that require a special permit are: trading financial instruments, in one's own name, on behalf of another party, brokering of contacts between purchasers and sellers, trading in financial instruments on one's own account, management of another party's financial instruments, and underwriting or other participation in issuances of securities or offers to purchase or sell financial instruments directly to the public. A licence to conduct a securities operation brings with it, among other things, certain mandatory capital requirements. Securities operations should also be conducted in such a manner that public confidence is maintained in the securities markets. Regulation should insure that for example, insider trading is

  5. Evaluation design of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Goodman, Ken; Dunn, Lillian; Stephens, Robert L; Dawkins, Nicola; Dixon, Beth; Jernigan, Jan; Kakietek, Jakub; Lesesne, Catherine; Lessard, Laura; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Osuji, Thearis A; Bronson, Bernice; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    This article describes the multi-method cross-sectional design used to evaluate New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's regulations of nutrition, physical activity, and screen time for children aged 3 years or older in licensed group child care centers. The Center Evaluation Component collected data from a stratified random sample of 176 licensed group child care centers in New York City. Compliance with the regulations was measured through a review of center records, a facility inventory, and interviews of center directors, lead teachers, and food service staff. The Classroom Evaluation Component included an observational and biometric study of a sample of approximately 1,400 children aged 3 or 4 years attending 110 child care centers and was designed to complement the center component at the classroom and child level. The study methodology detailed in this paper may aid researchers in designing policy evaluation studies that can inform other jurisdictions considering similar policies.

  6. RNAi Screen in Drosophila melanogastor Identifies Regulators of Steroidogenesis and Developmental Maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    and duration required for juvenile-adult transition. This PhD project demonstrates the power of Drosophila genetics by taking an in vivo genome-wide RNAi screening approach to uncover genes required for the function of steroid producing tissue and developmental maturation. In total, 1909 genes were found...... to be required for the prothoracic gland function and affected the developmental timing for the juvenile-adult transition. Among the screen hits, we focused on an uncharacterized gene, sit (CG5278), which is highly expressed in the gland and is required for ecdysone production. Sit is a homolog of mammalian very...... flux of cholesterol uptake in the gland cells and affected the endosomal trafficking. Therefore this gene was suggested to be named stuck in traffic (sit). Sit’s role in cholesterol uptake was also supported by the observation that the developmental delayed phenotype from loss of sit expression...

  7. A large-scale RNA interference screen identifies genes that regulate autophagy at different stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Virbasius, Ching-Man

    2018-01-01

    Dysregulated autophagy is central to the pathogenesis and therapeutic development of cancer. However, how autophagy is regulated in cancer is not well understood and genes that modulate cancer autophagy are not fully defined. To gain more insights into autophagy regulation in cancer, we performed...... with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we successfully isolated autophagic K562 cells where we identified 336 short hairpin RNAs. After candidate validation using Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometry, LC3B immunoblotting, and quantitative RT-PCR, 82 genes were identified as autophagy-regulating genes. 20 genes...... have been reported previously and the remaining 62 candidates are novel autophagy mediators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most candidate genes were involved in molecular pathways regulating autophagy, rather than directly participating in the autophagy process. Further autophagy flux assays...

  8. The use of RIA tests for screening and for monitoring of some diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegesippe, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some examples are described concerning the progress realized in the antenatal and neonatal diagnoses of congenital anomalies and in the follow-up of cancer patients using RIA techniques. The frequencies of some well known congenital abnormalities are recalled. The first example concerns Duchene myopathy. A second example, much more advanced, is the antenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects. A third example, already in routine state by state in north America and in Europe is the neonatal screening of congenital hypothyroidism. The last example concerns the use of CEA assay in the evaluation, the prognosis and the follow-up of cancer patient's state. These RIA examples were chosen to illustrate and also to situate the important place of this analytical response among informations available to the clinician

  9. Sensitive and stable monitoring of lead and cadmium in seawater using screen-printed electrode and electrochemical stripping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueell, Raquel; Aragay, Gemma; Fontas, Claudia; Antico, Enriqueta; Merkoci, Arben

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive and stable monitoring of heavy metals in seawater using screen-printed electrodes (SPE) is presented. The analytical performance of SPE coupled with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) for the simultaneous determination of Pb and Cd in seawater samples, in the low μg L -1 range, is evaluated. The stripping response for the heavy metals following 2 min deposition was linear over the concentration range examined (10-2000 μg L -1 ) with detection limits of 1.8 and 2.9 μg L -1 for Pb and Cd, respectively. The accuracy of the method was validated by analyzing metal contents in different spiked seawater samples and comparing these results to those obtained with the well-established anodic stripping voltammetry using the hanging mercury drop electrode. Moreover, a certified reference material was also used and the results obtained were satisfactory

  10. Sensitive and stable monitoring of lead and cadmium in seawater using screen-printed electrode and electrochemical stripping analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueell, Raquel [ICREA and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Aragay, Gemma [ICREA and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Fontas, Claudia; Antico, Enriqueta [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Merkoci, Arben [ICREA and Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es

    2008-10-10

    Sensitive and stable monitoring of heavy metals in seawater using screen-printed electrodes (SPE) is presented. The analytical performance of SPE coupled with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) for the simultaneous determination of Pb and Cd in seawater samples, in the low {mu}g L{sup -1} range, is evaluated. The stripping response for the heavy metals following 2 min deposition was linear over the concentration range examined (10-2000 {mu}g L{sup -1}) with detection limits of 1.8 and 2.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Pb and Cd, respectively. The accuracy of the method was validated by analyzing metal contents in different spiked seawater samples and comparing these results to those obtained with the well-established anodic stripping voltammetry using the hanging mercury drop electrode. Moreover, a certified reference material was also used and the results obtained were satisfactory.

  11. Automated high-performance cIMT measurement techniques using patented AtheroEdge™: a screening and home monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Filippo; Meiburger, Kristen M; Suri, Jasjit

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the carotid artery wall is fundamental for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. This paper presents the general architecture of an automatic strategy, which segments the lumen-intima and media-adventitia borders, classified under a class of Patented AtheroEdge™ systems (Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc, CA, USA). Guidelines to produce accurate and repeatable measurements of the intima-media thickness are provided and the problem of the different distance metrics one can adopt is confronted. We compared the results of a completely automatic algorithm that we developed with those of a semi-automatic algorithm, and showed final segmentation results for both techniques. The overall rationale is to provide user-independent high-performance techniques suitable for screening and remote monitoring.

  12. A Quantitative RNAi Screen for JNK Modifiers Identifies Pvr as a Novel Regulator of Drosophila Immune Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Foley, Edan

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster responds to gram-negative bacterial challenges through the IMD pathway, a signal transduction cassette that is driven by the coordinated activities of JNK, NF-κB and caspase modules. While many modifiers of NF-κB activity were identified in cell culture and in vivo assays, the regulatory apparatus that determines JNK inputs into the IMD pathway is relatively unexplored. In this manuscript, we present the first quantitative screen of the entire genome of Drosophila for novel regulators of JNK activity in the IMD pathway. We identified a large number of gene products that negatively or positively impact on JNK activation in the IMD pathway. In particular, we identified the Pvr receptor tyrosine kinase as a potent inhibitor of JNK activation. In a series of in vivo and cell culture assays, we demonstrated that activation of the IMD pathway drives JNK-dependent expression of the Pvr ligands, Pvf2 and Pvf3, which in turn act through the Pvr/ERK MAP kinase pathway to attenuate the JNK and NF-κB arms of the IMD pathway. Our data illuminate a poorly understood arm of a critical and evolutionarily conserved innate immune response. Furthermore, given the pleiotropic involvement of JNK in eukaryotic cell biology, we believe that many of the novel regulators identified in this screen are of interest beyond immune signaling. PMID:19893628

  13. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shimada

    Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  14. Monitoring of transcriptional regulation in Pichia pastoris under protein production conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Anamitra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become evident that host cells react to recombinant protein production with a variety of metabolic and intrinsic stresses such as the unfolded protein response (UPR pathway. Additionally, environmental conditions such as growth temperature may have a strong impact on cell physiology and specific productivity. However, there is little information about the molecular reactions of the host cells on a genomic level, especially in context to recombinant protein secretion. For the first time, we monitored transcriptional regulation of a subset of marker genes in the common production host Pichia pastoris to gain insights into the general physiological status of the cells under protein production conditions, with the main focus on secretion stress related genes. Results Overexpression of the UPR activating transcription factor Hac1p was employed to identify UPR target genes in P. pastoris and the responses were compared to those known for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the folding/secretion related genes showed similar regulation patterns in both yeasts, whereas genes associated with the general stress response were differentially regulated. Secretion of an antibody Fab fragment led to induction of UPR target genes in P. pastoris, however not to the same magnitude as Hac1p overproduction. Overexpression of S. cerevisiae protein disulfide isomerase (PDI1 enhances Fab secretion rates 1.9 fold, but did not relief UPR stress. Reduction of cultivation temperature from 25°C to 20°C led to a 1.4-fold increase of specific product secretion rate in chemostat cultivations, although the transcriptional levels of the product genes (Fab light and heavy chain were significantly reduced at the lower temperature. A subset of folding related genes appeared to be down-regulated at the reduced temperature, whereas transcription of components of the ER associated degradation and the secretory transport was enhanced. Conclusion Monitoring of

  15. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl -1 metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  16. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An RNAi-mediated screen identifies novel targets for next-generation antiepileptic drugs based on increased expression of the homeostatic regulator pumilio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Hsiang; He, Miaomiao; Fan, Yuen Ngan; Baines, Richard A

    2018-05-02

    Despite availability of a diverse range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), only about two-thirds of epilepsy patients respond well to drug treatment. Thus, novel targets are required to catalyse the design of next-generation AEDs. Manipulation of neuron firing-rate homoeostasis, through enhancing Pumilio (Pum) activity, has been shown to be potently anticonvulsant in Drosophila. In this study, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in S2R + cells, using a luciferase-based dPum activity reporter and identified 1166 genes involved in dPum regulation. Of these genes, we focused on 699 genes that, on knock-down, potentiate dPum activity/expression. Of this subgroup, 101 genes are activity-dependent based on comparison with genes previously identified as activity-dependent by RNA-sequencing. Functional cluster analysis shows these genes are enriched in pathways involved in DNA damage, regulation of cell cycle and proteasomal protein catabolism. To test for anticonvulsant activity, we utilised an RNA-interference approach in vivo. RNAi-mediated knockdown showed that 57/101 genes (61%) are sufficient to significantly reduce seizure duration in the characterized seizure mutant, para bss . We further show that chemical inhibitors of protein products of some of the genes targeted are similarly anticonvulsant. Finally, to establish whether the anticonvulsant activity of identified compounds results from increased dpum transcription, we performed a luciferase-based assay to monitor dpum promoter activity. Third instar larvae exposed to sodium fluoride, gemcitabine, metformin, bestatin, WP1066 or valproic acid all showed increased dpum promoter activity. Thus, this study validates Pum as a favourable target for AED design and, moreover, identifies a number of lead compounds capable of increasing the expression of this homeostatic regulator.

  18. A Target-Lighted dsDNA-Indicator for High-Performance Monitoring of Mercury Pollution and Its Antagonists Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhihe; Zhu, Lixuan; Li, Xiaoxuan; Yang, Sheng; Zou, Zhen; Guo, Jingru; Cao, Zhong; Yang, Ronghua

    2017-10-17

    As well-known, the excessive discharge of heavy-metal mercury not only destroys the ecological environment, bust also leads to severe damage of human health after ingestion via drinking and bioaccumulation of food chains, and mercury ion (Hg 2+ ) is designated as one of most prevalent toxic metal ions in drinking water. Thus, the high-performance monitoring of mercury pollution is necessary. Functional nucleic acids have been widely used as recognition probes in biochemical sensing. In this work, a carbazole derivative, ethyl-4-[3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridium iodine)-9H-carbazol -9-yl)] butanoate (EBCB), has been synthesized and found as a target-lighted DNA fluorescent indicator. As a proof-of-concept, Hg 2+ detection was carried out based on EBCB and Hg 2+ -mediated conformation transformation of a designed DNA probe. By comparison with conventional nucleic acid indicators, EBCB held excellent advantages, such as minimal background interference and maximal sensitivity. Outstanding detection capabilities were displayed, especially including simple operation (add-and-read manner), ultrarapidity (30 s), and low detection limit (0.82 nM). Furthermore, based on these advantages, the potential for high-performance screening of mercury antagonists was also demonstrated by the fluorescence change of EBCB. Therefore, we believe that this work is meaningful in pollution monitoring, environment restoration and emergency treatment, and may pave a way to apply EBCB as an ideal signal transducer for development of high-performance sensing strategies.

  19. Oxygen sensor nanoparticles for monitoring bacterial growth and characterization of dose–response functions in microfluidic screenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jialan; Köhler, J. Michael; Nagl, Stefan; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a microfluidic droplet-based system for non-invasive, simultaneous optical monitoring of oxygen during bacterial cultivation in nL-sized droplets using ∼350 nm nanobeads made from polystyrene and doped with the NIR-emitting oxygen probe platinum (II) 5, 10, 15, 20-meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPTBP). Data were readout by a two-channel micro flow-through fluorimeter and a two-channel micro flow-through photometer. The time-resolved miniaturized optical multi endpoint detection was applied to simultaneously sense dissolved oxygen, cellular autofluorescence, and cell density in nL-sized segments. Two bacterial strains were studied that are resistant to heavy metal ions, viz. Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Psychrobacillus psychrodurans UrPLO1. The study has two main features in that it demonstrates (a) the possibility to monitor the changes in oxygen partial pressure during metabolic activity of different bacterial cultures inside droplets, and (b) the efficiency of droplet-based microfluidic techniques along with multi-parameter optical sensing for highly resolved microtoxicological screenings in aquatic systems. (author)

  20. Rapid Gamma Screening of Shipments of Analytical Samples to Meet DOT Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaszek, P.A.; Remington, D.L.; Ideker-Mulligan, V.

    2006-01-01

    The accelerated closure program at Rocky Flats required the capacity to ship up to 1000 analytical samples per week to off-site commercial laboratories, and to conduct such shipment within 24 hours of sample collection. During a period of near peak activity in the closure project, a regulatory change significantly increased the level of radionuclide data required for shipment of each package. In order to meet these dual challenges, a centralized and streamlined sample management program was developed which channeled analytical samples through a single, high-throughput radiological screening facility. This trailerized facility utilized high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometers to conduct screening measurements of entire packages of samples at once, greatly increasing throughput compared to previous methods. The In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was employed to calibrate the HPGe systems to accommodate the widely varied sample matrices and packing configurations encountered. Optimum modeling and configuration parameters were determined. Accuracy of the measurements of grouped sample jars was confirmed with blind samples in multiple configurations. Levels of radionuclides not observable by gamma spectroscopy were calculated utilizing a spreadsheet program that can accommodate isotopic ratios for large numbers of different waste streams based upon acceptable knowledge. This program integrated all radionuclide data and output all information required for shipment, including the shipping class of the package. (authors)

  1. Mammography and mammographic screening in the United Kingdom: Practices, regulations and radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation-induced cancers due to mammography represent about 0.6 % of the natural incidence in this survey and would seem to be a very small risk. If the frequency or period of screening was increased, the risk would be enhanced. However, it should be possible to reduce the radiation dose to less than the mean value used here. For example, if film screen mammography alone was used for this population, the quoted risk would be reduced by 25%. The dose is also reduced by the use of a single view. The relatively low risk to the breast is a consequence partly of the low dose mammographic techniques that can now be practised, and partly of the acceptance of mean breast dose, which may be an order to magnitude less than the surface dose, as the measure of risk. The risk to other organs should be negligible provided that the X-ray field is carefully collimated and that the breast table incorporates a primary absorber

  2. Validation of the custo screen pediatric blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beime, Beate; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Hammel, Gertrud; Bramlage, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) device custo screen pediatric in children aged 3 to 12 years according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP revision 2010). Thirty-three children were included and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were performed according to the ESH-IP. The protocol was modified for children considering data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS). The custo screen pediatric met all the requirements of the ESH-IP. The mean difference between the test device and the reference was -1.4 ± 3.0 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and -0.7 ± 3.2 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). For SBP and DBP, all 99 measurements were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the test device and the reference. As to part 2 of the protocol, for DBP in all subjects, two out of three measurements were within 5 mmHg between the device and the standard, whereas for SBP in 32 of 33 subjects, two out of three measurements were within this range. The custo screen pediatric met all criteria of the ESH-IP review 2010, modified for children from 3 to about 12 years, and can be recommended for ABPM in children. What is Known: • Validation of blood pressure measuring devices is essential to provide patients with an accurate blood pressure measuring device. • The majority of devices has not been validated in children. What is New: • Prior to the present validation, study protocol adjustments of ESH-IP review 2010 for children were defined according to German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2013 (KIGGS). • The custo screen pediatric test device met all criteria of ESH-IP revision 2010, modified for children, and can be recommended for ABPM in children aged 3 to about 12 years.

  3. New genes tied to endocrine, metabolic, and dietary regulation of lifespan from a Caenorhabditis elegans genomic RNAi screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Hansen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge about the regulation of aging comes from mutants originally isolated for other phenotypes. To ask whether our current view of aging has been affected by selection bias, and to deepen our understanding of known longevity pathways, we screened a genomic Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi library for clones that extend lifespan. We identified 23 new longevity genes affecting signal transduction, the stress response, gene expression, and metabolism and assigned these genes to specific longevity pathways. Our most important findings are (i that dietary restriction extends C. elegans' lifespan by down-regulating expression of key genes, including a gene required for methylation of many macromolecules, (ii that integrin signaling is likely to play a general, evolutionarily conserved role in lifespan regulation, and (iii that specific lipophilic hormones may influence lifespan in a DAF-16/FOXO-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, of the new genes that have conserved sequence domains, only one could not be associated with a known longevity pathway. Thus, our current view of the genetics of aging has probably not been distorted substantially by selection bias.

  4. New Genes Tied to Endocrine, Metabolic, and Dietary Regulation of Lifespan from a Caenorhabditis elegans Genomic RNAi Screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge about the regulation of aging comes from mutants originally isolated for other phenotypes. To ask whether our current view of aging has been affected by selection bias, and to deepen our understanding of known longevity pathways, we screened a genomic Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi library for clones that extend lifespan. We identified 23 new longevity genes affecting signal transduction, the stress response, gene expression, and metabolism and assigned these genes to specific longevity pathways. Our most important findings are (i that dietary restriction extends C. elegans' lifespan by down-regulating expression of key genes, including a gene required for methylation of many macromolecules, (ii that integrin signaling is likely to play a general, evolutionarily conserved role in lifespan regulation, and (iii that specific lipophilic hormones may influence lifespan in a DAF-16/FOXO-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, of the new genes that have conserved sequence domains, only one could not be associated with a known longevity pathway. Thus, our current view of the genetics of aging has probably not been distorted substantially by selection bias.

  5. Screening and Monitoring Coeliac Disease: Multicentre Trial of a New Serum Antibody Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Devine

    1994-01-01

    average interassay CV was 6.4% for IgA and 4.3% for IgG (n=3. By defining a positive te st as both IgA and IgG elevated, a sensitivity of 93% in untreated coeliacs (n=75 was observed. The corresponding specificities in healthy adults (n=130 and healthy children (n=77 were >99% and 100% respectively, while in patients with other gastrointestinal disorders (disease controls the specificity was 94% (n=129. The test was also useful in monitoring patients, with anti-gliadin IgA and IgG falling for up to a year after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD (12 adults. In some patients however, antibody levels did not reach the normal cutpoint after many months on a GFD, which may reflect the patients ' poor adherence to their gluten free diet. The test was superior to the Pharmacia anti-gliadin ELISA, and should be useful as an aid to the diagnosis of coeliac disease, as well as in the follow-up of treated patients.

  6. Identification of autophagosome-associated proteins and regulators by quantitative proteomic analysis and genetic screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Høyer-Hansen, Maria; Nielsen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the major intracellular catabolic pathways, but little is known about the composition of autophagosomes. To study the associated proteins, we isolated autophagosomes from human breast cancer cells using two different biochemical methods and three stimulus types: amino acid dep...... regulators of autophagy, including subunits of the retromer complex. The combined spatiotemporal proteomic and genetic data sets presented here provide a basis for further characterization of autophagosome biogenesis and cargo selection....

  7. A Screening of UNF Targets Identifies Rnb, a Novel Regulator of Drosophila Circadian Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Anatoly; Jaumouillé, Edouard; Machado Almeida, Pedro; Koch, Rafael; Rodriguez, Joseph; Abruzzi, Katharine C; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-07-12

    Behavioral circadian rhythms are controlled by multioscillator networks comprising functionally different subgroups of clock neurons. Studies have demonstrated that molecular clocks in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are regulated differently in clock neuron subclasses to support their specific functions (Lee et al., 2016; Top et al., 2016). The nuclear receptor unfulfilled ( unf ) represents a regulatory node that provides the small ventral lateral neurons (s-LNvs) unique characteristics as the master pacemaker (Beuchle et al., 2012). We previously showed that UNF interacts with the s-LNv molecular clocks by regulating transcription of the core clock gene period ( per ) (Jaumouillé et al., 2015). To gain more insight into the mechanisms by which UNF contributes to the functioning of the circadian master pacemaker, we identified UNF target genes using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Our data demonstrate that a previously uncharacterized gene CG7837 , which we termed R and B ( Rnb ), acts downstream of UNF to regulate the function of the s-LNvs as the master circadian pacemaker. Mutations and LNv-targeted adult-restricted knockdown of Rnb impair locomotor rhythms. RNB localizes to the nucleus, and its loss-of-function blunts the molecular rhythms and output rhythms of the s-LNvs, particularly the circadian rhythms in PDF accumulation and axonal arbor remodeling. These results establish a second pathway by which UNF interacts with the molecular clocks in the s-LNvs and highlight the mechanistic differences in the molecular clockwork within the pacemaker circuit. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Circadian behavior is generated by a pacemaker circuit comprising diverse classes of pacemaker neurons, each of which contains a molecular clock. In addition to the anatomical and functional diversity, recent studies have shown the mechanistic differences in the molecular clockwork among the pacemaker neurons in Drosophila Here, we identified the molecular characteristics

  8. Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2006-08-01

    ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat.

  9. Film-Screen Mammography versus digital storage plate mammography: Hard copy and monitor display of microcalcifications and focal findings - A retrospective clinical and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Wenkel, E.; Aichinger, U.; Tartsch, M.; Kuchar, I.; Bautz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective clinical-histological study to determine the diagnostic accuracy of mammography using conventional screen-film cassettes (hard copy), high-resolution digital phosphor storage plates (hard copy) and monitor display (soft copy) for microcalcifications and focal lesions (BI-RADS TM category 4 or 5). Materials and methods: From April to November 2001, 76 patients underwent conventional film-screen mammography and, after diagnosis and preoperative wire localization, digital mammography with the same exposure parameters. Five investigators retrospectively determined the diagnosis after the operation from randomly distributed mediolateral views (hard-copy reading) and from the monitor display (soft-copy reading). These results were correlated with the final histology. Results: The accuracy of conventional screen-film mammography, digital mammography and monitor-displayed mammography was 67%, 65% and 68% for all findings, (n = 76), 59%, 59% and 68% for microcalcifications (n = 44) and 75%, 72% and 63% for focal lesions (n = 32). The overall results showed no difference. Conclusions: Our findings indicate equivalence of conventional screen-film mammography, high-resolution digital phosphor storage plate mammography and monitor-displayed mammography. (orig.) [de

  10. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  11. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  12. Radioactivity in drinking water: regulations, monitoring results and radiation protection issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nuccetelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drinking waters usually contain several natural radionuclides: tritium, radon, radium, uranium isotopes, etc. Their concentrations vary widely since they depend on the nature of the aquifer, namely, the prevailing lithology and whether there is air in it or not. AIMS: In this work a broad overview of the radioactivity in drinking water is presented: national and international regulations, for limiting the presence of radioactivity in waters intended for human consumption; results of extensive campaigns for monitoring radioactivity in drinking waters, including mineral bottled waters, carried out throughout the world in recent years; a draft of guidelines for the planning of campaigns to measure radioactivity in drinking water proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA of Lombardia.

  13. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  14. Multidimensional Screening with Complementary Activities: Regulating a Monopolist with Unknown Cost and Unknown Preference for Empire Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Laussel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the optimal regulation of a monopolist when intrinsic efficiency (intrinsic cost and empire building tendency (marginal utility of output are private information, but actual cost (the difference between intrinsic cost and effort level is observable. This is a problem of multidimensional screening with complementary activities. Results are not only driven by the prior probabilities of the four possible types, but also by the relative magnitude of the uncertainty along the two dimensions of private information. If the marginal utility of output varies much more (less across managers than the intrinsic marginal cost, there is empire building (efficiency dominance. In that case, an inefficient empire builder produces more (less and at lower (higher marginal cost than an efficient money-seeker. It is only when variabilities are similar that there may be the natural ranking of activities (empire builders produce more, while efficient managers produce at a lower cost.

  15. A genome-wide siRNA screen in mammalian cells for regulators of S6 phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available mTOR complex1, the major regulator of mRNA translation in all eukaryotic cells, is strongly activated in most cancers. We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in a human cancer cell line, seeking genes that regulate S6 phosphorylation, readout of mTORC1 activity. Applying a stringent selection, we retrieved nearly 600 genes wherein at least two RNAis gave significant reduction in S6-P. This cohort contains known regulators of mTOR complex 1 and is significantly enriched in genes whose depletion affects the proliferation/viability of the large set of cancer cell lines in the Achilles database in a manner paralleling that caused by mTOR depletion. We next examined the effect of RNAi pools directed at 534 of these gene products on S6-P in TSC1 null mouse embryo fibroblasts. 76 RNAis reduced S6 phosphorylation significantly in 2 or 3 replicates. Surprisingly, among this cohort of genes the only elements previously associated with the maintenance of mTORC1 activity are two subunits of the vacuolar ATPase and the CUL4 subunit DDB1. RNAi against a second set of 84 targets reduced S6-P in only one of three replicates. However, an indication that this group also bears attention is the presence of rpS6KB1 itself, Rac1 and MAP4K3, a protein kinase that supports amino acid signaling to rpS6KB1. The finding that S6 phosphorylation requires a previously unidentified, functionally diverse cohort of genes that participate in fundamental cellular processes such as mRNA translation, RNA processing, DNA repair and metabolism suggests the operation of feedback pathways in the regulation of mTORC1 operating through novel mechanisms.

  16. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

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    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  17. Novel heparan sulfate assay by using automated high-throughput mass spectrometry: Application to monitoring and screening for mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kelly, Joan; LaMarr, William A; van Vlies, Naomi; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert W; Mackenzie, William; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    in an HS assay, indicating that HT-MS/MS may be feasible for diagnosis, monitoring, and newborn screening of MPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Practices and regulations of radiological mass screening in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The only radiological mass screening undertaken in the UK was the mass miniature radiography service for detection of tuberculosis by chest x-ray. Mass miniature radiographic (MMR) units were set up when tuberculosis was a common illness. However, by 1969 the detection rate of tuberculosis was so low that it was no longer cost-effective as a preventive health measure. In the last decade there has also been an increased awareness that people should only be exposed to radiation for medical purposes if it is judged to be clinically desirable. For some years, therefore, the Department's policy has been to discourage self-referral to these units and to advise people to consult their doctor should they be concerned about symptoms. Health authorities have been made aware of the need to continue to review the level of provision of MMR services and to integrate these facilities with hospital radiological departments as far as possible. To secure further information on the costs and benefits of radiological procedures, the Department is financially supporting research by the Royal College of Radiologists' Working Party on the Effective use of Diagnostic Radiology. Research is taking place in a number of areas and the work done on the use of preoperative chest x-ray in hospital is particularly germane

  19. Forward genetic screening for regulators involved in cholesterol synthesis using validation-based insertional mutagenesis.

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    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Somatic cell genetics is a powerful approach for unraveling the regulatory mechanism of cholesterol metabolism. However, it is difficult to identify the mutant gene(s due to cells are usually mutagenized chemically or physically. To identify important genes controlling cholesterol biosynthesis, an unbiased forward genetics approach named validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM system was used to isolate and characterize the 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC-resistant and SR-12813-resistant mutants. Here we report that five mutant cell lines were isolated. Among which, four sterol-resistant mutants either contain a truncated NH2-terminal domain of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-2 terminating at amino acids (aa 400, or harbor an overexpressed SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP. Besides, one SR-12813 resistant mutant was identified to contain a truncated COOH-terminal catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase. This study demonstrates that the VBIM system can be a powerful tool to screen novel regulatory genes in cholesterol biosynthesis.

  20. Genome-wide screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes regulated by vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2015-01-01

    During pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, a variety of fermentation inhibitors, including acetic acid and vanillin, are released. Using DNA microarray analysis, this study explored genes of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that respond to vanillin-induced stress. The expression of 273 genes was upregulated and that of 205 genes was downregulated under vanillin stress. Significantly induced genes included MCH2, SNG1, GPH1, and TMA10, whereas NOP2, UTP18, FUR1, and SPR1 were down regulated. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of upregulated genes suggested that vanillin might regulate gene expression in a stress response element (STRE)-dependent manner, in addition to a pathway that involved the transcription factor Yap1p. Retardation in the cell growth of mutant strains indicated that MCH2, SNG1, and GPH1 are intimately involved in vanillin stress response. Deletion of the genes whose expression levels were decreased under vanillin stress did not result in a notable change in S. cerevisiae growth under vanillin stress. This study will provide the basis for a better understanding of the stress response of the yeast S. cerevisiae to fermentation inhibitors.

  1. Screening and Monitoring for Infectious Complications When Immunosuppressive Agents Are Studied in the Treatment of Autoimmune Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loechelt, Brett J; Green, Michael; Gottlieb, Peter A; Blumberg, Emily; Weinberg, Adriana; Quinlan, Scott; Baden, Lindsey R

    2015-09-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development, investigation, and clinical application of immunosuppressive agents to treat a variety of autoimmune disorders. The expansion of clinical applications of these new agents requires the performance of large multicenter clinical trials. These large clinical trials are particularly important as one considers these agents for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, which although autoimmune in its pathogenesis, is not classically treated as an autoimmune disorder. Although these agents hold promise for amelioration or cure of this disease, they have the potential to facilitate infectious complications. There are limited data regarding the prospective assessment of infectious risks with these agents in trials of this nature. Pediatric subjects may be at greater risk due to the higher likelihood of primary infection. A subgroup of experts associated with TrialNet (a National Institutes of Health [NIH]-funded Type 1 diabetes mellitus research network) with expertise in infectious diseases, immunology, and diagnostics developed an approach for screening and monitoring of immunosuppression-associated infections for prospective use in clinical trials. The goals of these recommendations are to provide a structured approach to monitor for infections, to identify specific laboratory testing and surveillance methods, and to consider therapies for treatment of these potential complications. Prospective evaluations of these infectious risks allow for greater scientific rigor in the evaluation of risk, which must be balanced with the potential benefits of these therapies. Our experience supports an important role for investigators with expertise in infections in immunocompromised individuals in protocol development of immunosuppressive trials in type 1diabetes and potentially other autoimmune diseases.

  2. A multiparametric automatic method to monitor long-term reproducibility in digital mammography: results from a regional screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, G; Ballaminut, A; Contento, G

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to illustrate a multiparametric automatic method for monitoring long-term reproducibility of digital mammography systems, and its application on a large scale. Twenty-five digital mammography systems employed within a regional screening programme were controlled weekly using the same type of phantom, whose images were analysed by an automatic software tool. To assess system reproducibility levels, 15 image quality indices (IQIs) were extracted and compared with the corresponding indices previously determined by a baseline procedure. The coefficients of variation (COVs) of the IQIs were used to assess the overall variability. A total of 2553 phantom images were collected from the 25 digital mammography systems from March 2013 to December 2014. Most of the systems showed excellent image quality reproducibility over the surveillance interval, with mean variability below 5%. Variability of each IQI was 5%, with the exception of one index associated with the smallest phantom objects (0.25 mm), which was below 10%. The method applied for reproducibility tests-multi-detail phantoms, cloud automatic software tool to measure multiple image quality indices and statistical process control-was proven to be effective and applicable on a large scale and to any type of digital mammography system. • Reproducibility of mammography image quality should be monitored by appropriate quality controls. • Use of automatic software tools allows image quality evaluation by multiple indices. • System reproducibility can be assessed comparing current index value with baseline data. • Overall system reproducibility of modern digital mammography systems is excellent. • The method proposed and applied is cost-effective and easily scalable.

  3. Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation of a Visual-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program Using a Decision Support Job Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis W. Peterson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing nations, cervical cancer screening is done by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E of such screening programs is challenging. An enhanced visual assessment (EVA system was developed to augment VIA procedures in low-resource settings. The EVA System consists of a mobile colposcope built around a smartphone, and an online image portal for storing and annotating images. A smartphone app is used to control the mobile colposcope, and upload pictures to the image portal. In this paper, a new app feature that documents clinical decisions using an integrated job aid was deployed in a cervical cancer screening camp in Kenya. Six organizations conducting VIA used the EVA System to screen 824 patients over the course of a week, and providers recorded their diagnoses and treatments in the application. Real-time aggregated statistics were broadcast on a public website. Screening organizations were able to assess the number of patients screened, alongside treatment rates, and the patients who tested positive and required treatment in real time, which allowed them to make adjustments as needed. The real-time M&E enabled by “smart” diagnostic medical devices holds promise for broader use in screening programs in low-resource settings.

  4. Real-Time Monitoring and Evaluation of a Visual-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program Using a Decision Support Job Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Curtis W; Rose, Donny; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2016-05-16

    In many developing nations, cervical cancer screening is done by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such screening programs is challenging. An enhanced visual assessment (EVA) system was developed to augment VIA procedures in low-resource settings. The EVA System consists of a mobile colposcope built around a smartphone, and an online image portal for storing and annotating images. A smartphone app is used to control the mobile colposcope, and upload pictures to the image portal. In this paper, a new app feature that documents clinical decisions using an integrated job aid was deployed in a cervical cancer screening camp in Kenya. Six organizations conducting VIA used the EVA System to screen 824 patients over the course of a week, and providers recorded their diagnoses and treatments in the application. Real-time aggregated statistics were broadcast on a public website. Screening organizations were able to assess the number of patients screened, alongside treatment rates, and the patients who tested positive and required treatment in real time, which allowed them to make adjustments as needed. The real-time M&E enabled by "smart" diagnostic medical devices holds promise for broader use in screening programs in low-resource settings.

  5. A Knockout Screen of ApiAP2 Genes Reveals Networks of Interacting Transcriptional Regulators Controlling the Plasmodium Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzynska, Katarzyna; Pfander, Claudia; Chappell, Lia; Yu, Lu; Suarez, Catherine; Dundas, Kirsten; Gomes, Ana Rita; Goulding, David; Rayner, Julian C; Choudhary, Jyoti; Billker, Oliver

    2017-01-11

    A family of apicomplexa-specific proteins containing AP2 DNA-binding domains (ApiAP2s) was identified in malaria parasites. This family includes sequence-specific transcription factors that are key regulators of development. However, functions for the majority of ApiAP2 genes remain unknown. Here, a systematic knockout screen in Plasmodium berghei identified ten ApiAP2 genes that were essential for mosquito transmission: four were critical for the formation of infectious ookinetes, and three were required for sporogony. We describe non-essential functions for AP2-O and AP2-SP proteins in blood stages, and identify AP2-G2 as a repressor active in both asexual and sexual stages. Comparative transcriptomics across mutants and developmental stages revealed clusters of co-regulated genes with shared cis promoter elements, whose expression can be controlled positively or negatively by different ApiAP2 factors. We propose that stage-specific interactions between ApiAP2 proteins on partly overlapping sets of target genes generate the complex transcriptional network that controls the Plasmodium life cycle. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinome screening for regulators of the estrogen receptor identifies LMTK3 as a new therapeutic target in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamas, Georgios; Filipović, Aleksandra; Jacob, Jimmy; Messier, Walter; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Dongyun; Zhang, Wu; Shifa, Belul Assefa; Photiou, Andrew; Tralau-Stewart, Cathy; Castellano, Leandro; Green, Andrew R; Coombes, R Charles; Ellis, Ian O; Ali, Simak; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Stebbing, Justin

    2011-06-01

    Therapies targeting estrogen receptor α (ERα, encoded by ESR1) have transformed the treatment of breast cancer. However, large numbers of women relapse, highlighting the need for the discovery of new regulatory targets modulating ERα pathways. An siRNA screen identified kinases whose silencing alters the estrogen response including those previously implicated in regulating ERα activity (such as mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT). Among the most potent regulators was lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3), for which a role has not previously been assigned. In contrast to other modulators of ERα activity, LMTK3 seems to have been subject to Darwinian positive selection, a noteworthy result given the unique susceptibility of humans to ERα+ breast cancer. LMTK3 acts by decreasing the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) and the phosphorylation of AKT (Ser473), thereby increasing binding of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) to the ESR1 promoter. LMTK3 phosphorylated ERα, protecting it from proteasomal degradation in vitro. Silencing of LMTK3 reduced tumor volume in an orthotopic mouse model and abrogated proliferation of ERα+ but not ERα- cells, indicative of its role in ERα activity. In human cancers, LMTK3 abundance and intronic polymorphisms were significantly associated with disease-free and overall survival and predicted response to endocrine therapies. These findings yield insights into the natural history of breast cancer in humans and reveal LMTK3 as a new therapeutic target.

  7. Yeast functional genomic screens lead to identification of a role for a bacterial effector in innate immunity regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger W Kramer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous bacterial pathogens manipulate host cell processes to promote infection and ultimately cause disease through the action of proteins that they directly inject into host cells. Identification of the targets and molecular mechanisms of action used by these bacterial effector proteins is critical to understanding pathogenesis. We have developed a systems biological approach using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can expedite the identification of cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins. We systematically screened the viable yeast haploid deletion strain collection for mutants hypersensitive to expression of the Shigella type III effector OspF. Statistical data mining of the results identified several cellular processes, including cell wall biogenesis, which when impaired by a deletion caused yeast to be hypersensitive to OspF expression. Microarray experiments revealed that OspF expression resulted in reversed regulation of genes regulated by the yeast cell wall integrity pathway. The yeast cell wall integrity pathway is a highly conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway, normally activated in response to cell wall perturbations. Together these results led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that OspF inhibited both yeast and mammalian MAPK signaling cascades. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK signaling by OspF is associated with attenuation of the host innate immune response to Shigella infection in a mouse model. These studies demonstrate how yeast systems biology can facilitate functional characterization of pathogenic bacterial effector proteins.

  8. UV-screening Organic Matter (CDOM and MAA) as indicators for monitoring changes of the polar marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, M. O.; Kang, S. H.; Ha, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    At Kongsfjorden bay, DOC, CDOM, FDOM, composition of phytoplankton and MAAs were measured from seawater. The relationship between CDOM, DOC vs Chl a was also investigated. DOC of seawater in 2010 and 2011 was increased 68% and 34% respectively in average compared to DOC in 2009. CDOM was in the range of acdom(375): 0.1855 m-1 ~ 0.0965 m-1, and it showed clear decreasing gradient form inside bay to offshore. CDOM vs DOC and Chl a was inversely related in the study area. Biomass of phytoplankton during 2009~2011 was 0.43~ 0.76 mg/m3 and little change was observed, but the composition and dominant classes have changed. Phaeocystis sp. was rare and diatom and cryptophyte were dominant in the center of bay and coastal area, respectively. 5 different MAAs, shinorine, palythine, mycosporine-glycine, porphyra-334, asterine-330 are identified and separated from Arctic phytoplanktons by HPLC and an unknown MAA was identified from Phaeocystis pouchetti. The spatial distribution pattern of MAAs in the study area was similar with the distribution of Phaeocystis sp. in 2009. The concentration of MAA in 2011 was decreased upto 50% with maximum concentration and seems to related with very low abundance of Phaeocystis sp. in the bay. The results from UV B exposure experiment with Phaeocystis pouchetti. and Porosira glacialis revealed clear discrepancy in the response to carbon uptake rate and photo-inhibition, and also the organic matter from these phytoplankton showed a different photo reactivity. Porosira glacialis, larger than Phaeocystis pouchetti. was more resistant to harmful UV B effect and result of carbon uptake rate using 13C support this tendency. In case Phaeocystis pouchetti becomes the dominant species, it is likely CDOM will be easily degraded and the UV screening effect of seawater will be reduced. acdom(375) 0.14m-1in spring in the arctic was higher than 0.11m-1 in the antarctic at monitoring station. These 3 year monitoring in the arctic Kongsfjorden showed a

  9. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; 1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); 2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, '86), and 3) in european countries (to may 31, '86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; 4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (( 134 Cs + 137 Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, 5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; 6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; 7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export's country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  10. Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs in Japan following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Yoshiro [Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring and import regulation of the contaminated foodstuffs executed by Minstry of Health and Welfare following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident were reviewed as follows; (1) background of socio-psychological effects and environmental radioactivity leading to the regulation (to may 3, 1986); (2) intial intervention for imported foodstuffs in Japan (may 8, `86), and (3) in european countries (to may 31, `86), immediately after the Accident, respectively; (4) determination of the interim driven intervention level for radionuclides in imported foodstuffs (({sup 134}Cs + {sup 137}Cs): 370 Bq/Kg) and activation of the monitoring, (5) outline of the monitoring with elapsed time, number of foodstuffs monitored, number of foodstuffs exceeded radioactivity of the intervention level and re-exported; (6) guideline in international trade of radioactive contaminated foodstuffs adopted by CODEX Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) and the intervention level recommended by ICRP following the Accident; (7) discussion for problems and scopes in future based on the results of monitoring. As the results, a number of imported foodstuffs (about 75,000 samples at present) has been monitored, 55 samples exceeding the interim intervention level were re-exported to each export`s country, and socio-psychological doubts for radioactive contamination of imported foodstuffs have been dispersed. In addition, problems for several factors based on calculation of the interim intervention level, radioactivity level of foodstuffs exceeding about 50 Bq/Kg as radiocesiums and necessity of monitoring for the other radionuclides in foods except radiocesiums were also discussed. (author)

  11. Model for screened, charge-regulated electrostatics of an eye lens protein: Bovine gammaB-crystallin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahle, Christopher W.; Martini, K. Michael; Hollenbeck, Dawn M.; Langner, Andreas; Ross, David S.; Hamilton, John F.; Thurston, George M.

    2017-09-01

    We model screened, site-specific charge regulation of the eye lens protein bovine gammaB-crystallin (γ B ) and study the probability distributions of its proton occupancy patterns. Using a simplified dielectric model, we solve the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation to calculate a 54 ×54 work-of-charging matrix, each entry being the modeled voltage at a given titratable site, due to an elementary charge at another site. The matrix quantifies interactions within patches of sites, including γ B charge pairs. We model intrinsic p K values that would occur hypothetically in the absence of other charges, with use of experimental data on the dependence of p K values on aqueous solution conditions, the dielectric model, and literature values. We use Monte Carlo simulations to calculate a model grand-canonical partition function that incorporates both the work-of-charging and the intrinsic p K values for isolated γ B molecules and we calculate the probabilities of leading proton occupancy configurations, for 4 Debye screening lengths from 6 to 20 Å. We select the interior dielectric value to model γ B titration data. At p H 7.1 and Debye length 6.0 Å, on a given γ B molecule the predicted top occupancy pattern is present nearly 20% of the time, and 90% of the time one or another of the first 100 patterns will be present. Many of these occupancy patterns differ in net charge sign as well as in surface voltage profile. We illustrate how charge pattern probabilities deviate from the multinomial distribution that would result from use of effective p K values alone and estimate the extents to which γ B charge pattern distributions broaden at lower p H and narrow as ionic strength is lowered. These results suggest that for accurate modeling of orientation-dependent γ B -γ B interactions, consideration of numerous pairs of proton occupancy patterns will be needed.

  12. Monitoring, metacognition, and executive function: elucidating the role of self-reflection in the development of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kristen E; Zelazo, Philip David

    2011-01-01

    While an abundance of research has investigated the development of the automatic and controlled processes through which individuals control their thoughts, emotions, and actions, less research has emphasized the role of the self in self-regulation. This chapter synthesizes four literatures that have examined the mechanisms through which the individual acts in a managerial role, evaluating the current status of the system and initiating regulatory actions as necessary. Taken together, these literatures (on executive function, error monitoring, metacognition, and uncertainty monitoring) suggest that self-reflection plays a critical role in self-regulation, and that developmental improvements in self-reflection (via increasing levels of conscious awareness and enhanced calibration of monitoring systems) may serve as driving forces underlying developmental improvement (and temperamental individual differences) in children's ability to control their thoughts and actions.

  13. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  14. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  15. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals MAP kinase phosphatases as key ERK pathway regulators during embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hsi Yang

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells represent potentially important therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine. Complex interlinked transcriptional and signaling networks control the fate of these cells towards maintenance of pluripotency or differentiation. In this study we have focused on how mouse embryonic stem cells begin to differentiate and lose pluripotency and, in particular, the role that the ERK MAP kinase and GSK3 signaling pathways play in this process. Through a genome-wide siRNA screen we have identified more than 400 genes involved in loss of pluripotency and promoting the onset of differentiation. These genes were functionally associated with the ERK and/or GSK3 pathways, providing an important resource for studying the roles of these pathways in controlling escape from the pluripotent ground state. More detailed analysis identified MAP kinase phosphatases as a focal point of regulation and demonstrated an important role for these enzymes in controlling ERK activation kinetics and subsequently determining early embryonic stem cell fate decisions.

  16. SMG1 identified as a regulator of Parkinson's disease-associated alpha-synuclein through siRNA screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Henderson-Smith

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies are a broad class of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of intracellular protein aggregates containing α-synuclein protein. The aggregated α-synuclein protein is hyperphosphorylated on serine 129 (S129 compared to the unaggregated form of the protein. While the precise functional consequences of S129 hyperphosphorylation are still being clarified, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that S129 phosphorylation is an early event in α-synuclein dysfunction and aggregation. Identifying the kinases and phosphatases that regulate this critical phosphorylation event may ultimately prove beneficial by allowing pharmacological mitigation of synuclein dysfunction and toxicity in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. We report here the development of a high-content, fluorescence-based assay to quantitate levels of total and S129 phosphorylated α-synuclein protein. We have applied this assay to conduct high-throughput loss-of-function screens with siRNA libraries targeting 711 known and predicted human kinases and 206 phosphatases. Specifically, knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinase SMG1 resulted in significant increases in the expression of pS129 phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn. Moreover, SMG1 protein levels were significantly reduced in brain regions with high p-syn levels in both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD. These findings suggest that SMG1 may play an important role in increased α-synuclein pathology during the course of PDD, DLB, and possibly other synucleinopathies.

  17. The Effect of Delayed-JOLs and Sentence Generation on Children's Monitoring Accuracy and Regulation of Idiom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Mariëtte H.; de Bruin, Anique B. H.; van Gog, Tamara; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    When studying verbal materials, both adults and children are often poor at accurately monitoring their level of learning and regulating their subsequent restudy of materials, which leads to suboptimal test performance. The present experiment investigated how monitoring accuracy and regulation of study could be improved when learning idiomatic…

  18. Epigenetic Library Screen Identifies Abexinostat as Novel Regulator of Adipocytic and Osteoblastic Differentiation of Human Skeletal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Dalia; Hamam, Rimi; Alfayez, Musaed; Kassem, Moustapha; Aldahmash, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes or osteoblasts are still not fully understood. Herein, we performed an epigenetic library functional screen and identified several novel compounds, including abexinostat, which promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs. Using gene expression microarrays, chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K9Ac combined with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq), and bioinformatics, we identified several key genes involved in regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation that were targeted by abexinostat. Concordantly, ChIP-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed marked increase in H3K9Ac epigenetic mark on the promoter region of AdipoQ, FABP4, PPARγ, KLF15, CEBPA, SP7, and ALPL in abexinostat-treated hMSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (PF-573228) or insulin-like growth factor-1R/insulin receptor (NVP-AEW51) signaling exhibited significant inhibition of abexinostat-mediated adipocytic differentiation, whereas inhibition of WNT (XAV939) or transforming growth factor-β (SB505124) signaling abrogated abexinostat-mediated osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our findings provide insight into the understanding of the relationship between the epigenetic effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors, transcription factors, and differentiation pathways governing adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Manipulating such pathways allows a novel use for epigenetic compounds in hMSC-based therapies and tissue engineering. Significance This unbiased epigenetic library functional screen identified several novel compounds, including abexinostat, that promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs). These data provide new insight into the understanding of the relationship between the epigenetic effect of histone deacetylase

  19. Prognostic factors for specific lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injuries identified through medical screening and training load monitoring in professional football (soccer): a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Jamie C; Parkes, Matthew J; Callaghan, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Background Medical screening and load monitoring procedures are commonly used in professional football to assess factors perceived to be associated with injury. Objectives To identify prognostic factors (PFs) and models for lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injuries in professional/elite football players from medical screening and training load monitoring processes. Methods The MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, SPORTDiscus and PubMed electronic bibliographic databases were searched (from inception to January 2017). Prospective and retrospective cohort studies of lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injury incidence in professional/elite football players aged between 16 and 40 years were included. The Quality in Prognostic Studies appraisal tool and the modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation synthesis approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence. Results Fourteen studies were included. 16 specific lower extremity injury outcomes were identified. No spinal injury outcomes were identified. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and study quality. All evidence related to PFs and specific lower extremity injury outcomes was of very low to low quality. On the few occasions where multiple studies could be used to compare PFs and outcomes, only two factors demonstrated consensus. A history of previous hamstring injuries (HSI) and increasing age may be prognostic for future HSI in male players. Conclusions The assumed ability of medical screening tests to predict specific musculoskeletal injuries is not supported by the current evidence. Screening procedures should currently be considered as benchmarks of function or performance only. The prognostic value of load monitoring modalities is unknown. PMID:29177074

  20. The prevalence of depression in White-European and South-Asian people with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, Navneet; Abrams, Keith R.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2009-01-01

    ) and South-Asian (SA) population attending a community diabetes screening programme, and to explore the association of depression with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Methodology/Principal Findings: Participants were recruited from general practices.......9% in WE, 26.4% in SA, p = 0.86). Age-adjusted prevalences were higher for females than males. Odds ratios adjusted for age, gender, and ethnicity, showed no significant increase in prevalent depression for people with T2DM (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.62 to 1.45) or IGR (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 0.96 to1.42). Conclusions......: Prior to the knowledge of diagnosis, depression was not significantly more prevalent in people with screen detected T2DM or IGR. Differences in prevalent depression between WE and SA people were also not identified. In this multi-ethnic population, female gender was significantly associated...

  1. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Peletz; Emily Kumpel; Mateyo Bonham; Zarah Rahman; Ranjiv Khush

    2016-01-01

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did no...

  2. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Peter; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Zwingers, Thomas; Beime, Beate; Mengden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM) device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP). The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females) and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers). A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained. The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was -0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and -0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP. The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.

  3. Safety regulations regarding to accident monitoring and accident sampling at Russian NPPs with VVER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafutdinov, Rachet; Lankin, Michail; Kharitonova, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a tendency by development of regulatory document requirements related to accident monitoring and accident sampling at Russia's NPPs. Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident pointed at the importance and necessary to carry out an additional safety check at Russia's nuclear power plants in the preparedness for management of severe accidents at NPPs. Planned measures for improvement of severe accidents management include development and implementation of the accident instrumentation systems, providing, monitoring, management and storage of information in a severe accident conditions. The draft of Safety Guidelines <monitoring system of nuclear power plants with VVER reactors' prepared by Scientific and Engineering Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS) established the main criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation that can monitor relevant plant parameters in the reactor and inside containment during and after a severe accident in nuclear power plants. Development of these safety guidelines is in line with the recommendations of IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety in response to the Fukushima Daiichi event and recommendations of the IAEA Nuclear Energy series Report <Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants' (Draft V 2.7). The paper presents the principles, which are used as the basis for selection of plant parameters for accident monitoring and for establishing of accident monitoring instrumentation. The recommendations to the accident sampling system capable to obtain the representative reactor coolant and containment air and fluid samples that support accurate analytical results for the parameters of interest are considered. The radiological and chemistry parameters to be monitored for primary coolant and sump and for containment air are specified. (author)

  4. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peter Bramlage,1 Cornelia Deutsch,1 Ralf Krüger,1 Andreas Wolf,2 Peter Müller,2 Thomas Zwingers,1,4 Beate Beime,1 Thomas Mengden31Institut für Pharmakologie und Präventive Medizin, Cloppenburg, 2Müller and Sebastiani, Ottobrunn, 3Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim, 4Estimate, Augsburg, GermanyObjective: The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP. The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours.Materials and methods: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers. A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained.Results: The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was −0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and −0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP.Conclusion: The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.Keywords: validation, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ESH

  5. A functional microRNA library screen reveals miR-410 as a novel anti-apoptotic regulator of cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, Tiziana; Poultsides, George A.; Kouraklis, Grigorios; Liakakos, Theodore; Drakaki, Alexandra; Peros, George; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is characterized by late diagnosis and a poor survival rate. MicroRNAs have been involved in the pathogenesis of different cancer types, including cholangiocarcinoma. Our aim was to identify novel microRNAs regulating cholangiocarcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. A functional microRNA library screen was performed in human cholangiocarcinoma cells to identify microRNAs that regulate cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Real-time PCR analysis evaluated miR-9 and XIAP mRNA levels in cholangiocarcinoma cells and tumors. The screen identified 21 microRNAs that regulated >50 % cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. MiR-410 was identified as the top suppressor of growth, while its overexpression significantly inhibited the invasion and colony formation ability of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that microRNA-410 exerts its effects through the direct regulation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). Furthermore, overexpression of miR-410 significantly reduced cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model through induction of apoptosis. In addition, we identified an inverse relationship between miR-410 and XIAP mRNA levels in human cholangiocarcinomas. Taken together, our study revealed a novel microRNA signaling pathway involved in cholangiocarcinoma and suggests that manipulation of the miR-410/XIAP pathway could have a therapeutic potential for cholangiocarcinoma. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2384-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  6. A neutral-beam profile monitor with a phosphor screen and a high-sensitivity camera for the J-PARC KOTO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T.; Kamiji, I.; Nakagiri, K.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Sasao, N.; Shinkawa, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a beam-profile monitor (BPM) system to align the collimators for the neutral beam-line at the Hadron Experimental Facility of J-PARC. The system is composed of a phosphor screen and a CCD camera coupled to an image intensifier mounted on a remote control X- Y stage. The design and detailed performance studies of the BPM are presented. The monitor has a spatial resolution of better than 0.6 mm and a deviation from linearity of less than 1%. These results indicate that the BPM system meets the requirements to define collimator-edge positions for the beam-line tuning. Confirmation using the neutral beam for the KOTO experiment is also presented.

  7. Impact of the internal contamination monitoring for national and international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Sordi, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the internal radiation dose received by workers between 1984 and 1994 was performed, after a brief description of IPEN facility. The National and International Recommendation aims to reduce the workers' doses below 1/10 of the annual limits. The routine monitoring should be eliminated, if the individual annual dose is below 3/10 of the annual limits. In this case, only the operational monitoring should be maintained. In principle, the concept of restricted area should be reviewed, because, according to Publication 26 of ICRP, 1977, it should be a supervised area instead. The new concept of restricted area recommended by the Publication 60, ICRP 1991, should be adjusted accordingly. Thus, the classification used by the Commission-controlled areas and supervised areas will be with the foreseeable dose and not with the actual dose. When the individual annual dose is kept below 1/10 of the annual limits, the routine monitoring is not necessary, and only operational monitoring is needed. Finally, the future possible activities of the Individual Internal Dosimetry Laboratory at IPEN are discussed, after the elimination of individual monitoring. (authors). 8 refs

  8. Color-Changing Microfiber-Based Multifunctional Window Screen for Capture and Visualized Monitoring of NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Yuan, Xinxin; Cong, Shan; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Qingwen; Geng, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhigang

    2018-05-02

    Air pollution is one of the most serious issues affecting the world today. Instead of expensive and energy-intensive air filtering devices, a fiber-based transparent air filter coated on a window screen is seen as one of the state-of-the-art filtration technologies to combat the seriously growing problem, delivering the advantages of simplicity, convenience, and high filtering efficiency. However, such a window screen is currently limited to particulate matter (PM) filtration and ineffective with other air pollutants. Here, we report the use of a newfangled type of color-changing fibers, porous Prussian blue analogues (CuHCF)/polymer composite microfibers, for transparent window screens toward air pollutant filtration. To increase pollution filtration, pores and dimples are purposely introduced to the fibers using binary solvent systems through a nonsolvent-induced phase separation mechanism. Such composite microfibers overcome some of the limitations of those previously used fibers and could simultaneously capture PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and NH 3 with high efficiency. More interestingly, a distinct color change is observed upon exposure to air pollutants in such window screens, which provides multifunctional capability of simultaneous pollutant capture and naked eye screening of the pollutant amount. Specifically, in the case of long-term exposure to low-concentration NH 3 , the symbol displayed in such window screens changes from yellow color to brown and the coloration rate is directly controlled by the NH 3 concentration, which may serve as a careful reminder for those people who are repeatedly exposed to low-concentration ammonia gas (referred to as chronic poisoning). In contrast, after short-term exposure to a high concentration of ammonia gas, the yellow symbol immediately becomes blackened, which provides timely information about the risk of acute ammonia poisoning or even ammonia explosion. Further spectroscopic results show that the chromatic behaviors in

  9. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Peletz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies, served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p < 0.05. Our results indicate that smaller water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  10. To What Extent is Drinking Water Tested in Sub-Saharan Africa? A Comparative Analysis of Regulated Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Kumpel, Emily; Bonham, Mateyo; Rahman, Zarah; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-03-02

    Water quality information is important for guiding water safety management and preventing water-related diseases. To assess the current status of regulated water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa, we evaluated testing programs for fecal contamination in 72 institutions (water suppliers and public health agencies) across 10 countries. Data were collected through written surveys, in-person interviews, and analysis of microbial water quality testing levels. Though most institutions did not achieve the testing levels specified by applicable standards or World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines, 85% of institutions had conducted some microbial water testing in the previous year. Institutions were more likely to meet testing targets if they were suppliers (as compared to surveillance agencies), served larger populations, operated in urban settings, and had higher water quality budgets (all p water providers and rural public health offices will require greater attention and additional resources to achieve regulatory compliance for water quality monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa. The cost-effectiveness of water quality monitoring should be improved by the application of risk-based water management approaches. Efforts to strengthen monitoring capacity should pay greater attention to program sustainability and institutional commitment to water safety.

  11. Congenital hypothyroidism - Polish recommendations for therapy, treatment monitoring, and screening tests in special categories of neonates with increased risk of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Anna Małgorzata; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona; Walczak, Mieczysław; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Jackowska, Teresa; Lewiński, Andrzej; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Proper treatment of congenital hypothyroidism warrants normal intellectual and physical development. This paper introduces the principles of treatment of congenital hypothyroidism, the recommended levothyroxine dosage, and the aims of therapy with its justification. The principles of treatment, specialist care of the patient, and methods used to evaluate therapeutic effects are described. Based on these data, recommendations concerning treatment and its monitoring in patients with congenital hypothyroidism are formulated. The paper also highlights the importance of educating the patients and/or their caretakers as one of the basic components of an effective therapy. The interpretation of screening tests in preterm neonates is provided as well. In the current screening program in preterm children TSH was determined between days three and five of life and then after three weeks. During this time TSH values are frequently low because of the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Due to the increased risk of primary and secondary hypothyroidism in preterm and low birth weight babies the determination of TSH and fT4 between days three and five of life is recommended, irrespective of the screening test. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 536-547).

  12. The effects of divided attention at study and reporting procedure on regulation and monitoring for episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, James; Hope, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Eyewitnesses regulate the level of detail (grain size) reported to balance competing demands for informativeness and accuracy. However, research to date has predominantly examined metacognitive monitoring for semantic memory tasks, and used relatively artificial phased reporting procedures. Further, although the established role of confidence in this regulation process may affect the confidence-accuracy relation for volunteered responses in predictable ways, previous investigations of the confidence-accuracy relation for eyewitness recall have largely overlooked the regulation of response granularity. Using a non-phased paradigm, Experiment 1 compared reporting and monitoring following optimal and sub-optimal (divided attention) encoding conditions. Participants showed evidence of sacrificing accuracy for informativeness, even when memory quality was relatively weak. Participants in the divided (cf. full) attention condition showed reduced accuracy for fine- but not coarse-grained responses. However, indices of discrimination and confidence diagnosticity showed no effect of divided attention. Experiment 2 compared the effects of divided attention at encoding on reporting and monitoring using both non-phased and 2-phase procedures. Divided attention effects were consistent with Experiment 1. However, compared to those in the non-phased condition, participants in the 2-phase condition displayed a more conservative control strategy, and confidence ratings were less diagnostic of accuracy. When memory quality was reduced, although attempts to balance informativeness and accuracy increased the chance of fine-grained response errors, confidence provided an index of the likely accuracy of volunteered fine-grained responses for both condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of screening and monitoring of capillary blood glucose in the detection of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in non-critical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Silicani Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of screening hyper and hypoglycemia measured by capillary glycemia and standard monitorization of  hyperglycemic patients hospitalized in regular care units of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Methods: The capillary glycemia was  measured by the Precision PCx (Abbott glucosimeter, using the PrecisionWeb (Abbott software. The detection of hyper and hypoglycemia during the months of May/June were compared to those of March/April in 2009 and to the frequency of the diagnosis of diabetes in 2007. Rresults: There was an increase in the glycemia screening from 27.7 to 77.5% of hospitalized patients (p < 0.001, of hyperglycemia detection (from 9.3 to 12.2%; p < 0.001 and of hypoglycemia (from 1.5 to 3.3%; p < 0.001 during  the months of May/June  2009. According to this action 14 patients for each additional case of hyperglycemia and 26 cases for each case of hypoglycemia were identified. The detection of hyperglycemia was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than the frequency of registered diagnosis related do diabetes in the year of 2007. Cconclusions: the adoption of an institutional program of glycemia monitorization improves the detection of hyper and hypoglycemia and glycemia control in hospitalized patients in regular care units.

  14. Regulating task-monitoring systems in response to variable reward contingencies and outcomes in cocaine addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, Kristen P; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Garavan, Hugh; Foxe, John J

    2016-03-01

    We investigated anticipatory and consummatory reward processing in cocaine addiction. In addition, we set out to assess whether task-monitoring systems were appropriately recalibrated in light of variable reward schedules. We also examined neural measures of task-monitoring and reward processing as a function of hedonic tone, since anhedonia is a vulnerability marker for addiction that is obviously germane in the context of reward processing. High-density event-related potentials were recorded while participants performed a speeded response task that systematically varied anticipated probabilities of reward receipt. The paradigm dissociated feedback regarding task success (or failure) from feedback regarding the value of reward (or loss), so that task-monitoring and reward processing could be examined in partial isolation. Twenty-three active cocaine abusers and 23 age-matched healthy controls participated. Cocaine abusers showed amplified anticipatory responses to reward predictive cues, but crucially, these responses were not as strongly modulated by reward probability as in controls. Cocaine users also showed blunted responses to feedback about task success or failure and did not use this information to update predictions about reward. In turn, they showed clearly blunted responses to reward feedback. In controls and users, measures of anhedonia were associated with reward motivation. In cocaine users, anhedonia was also associated with diminished monitoring and reward feedback responses. Findings imply that reward anticipation and monitoring deficiencies in addiction are associated with increased responsiveness to reward cues but impaired ability to predict reward in light of task contingencies, compounded by deficits in responding to actual reward outcomes.

  15. Franchise Values, Regulatory Monitoring, and Capital Requirements in Optimal Bank Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial deregulation is likely to make standard prudential regulatory instruments less effective in curbing excessive risk-taking incentives among banks. This has interesting implications for optimal bank regulation. When there is an increase in competition, the opt...

  16. Screening protocols to monitor respiratory status in primary immunodeficiency disease : Findings from a European survey and subclinical infection working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolles, S.; Sánchez-Ramón, S.; Quinti, I.; Soler-Palacín, P.; Agostini, C.; Florkin, B.; Couderc, L.J.; Brodszki, N.; Jones, A.; Longhurst, H.; Warnatz, K.; Haerynck, F.; Matucci, A.; de Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres

  17. In-situ nanoelectrospray for high-throughput screening of enzymes and real-time monitoring of reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhan; Han, Feifei; Ouyang, Jin; Zhao, Yunling; Han, Juan; Na, Na

    2016-01-01

    The in-situ and high-throughput evaluation of enzymes and real-time monitoring of enzyme catalyzed reactions in liquid phase is quite significant in the catalysis industry. In-situ nanoelectrospray, the direct sampling and ionization method for mass spectrometry, has been applied for high-throughput evaluation of enzymes, as well as the on-line monitoring of reactions. Simply inserting a capillary into a liquid system with high-voltage applied, analytes in liquid reaction system can be directly ionized at the capillary tip with small volume consumption. With no sample pre-treatment or injection procedure, different analytes such as saccharides, amino acids, alkaloids, peptides and proteins can be rapidly and directly extracted from liquid phase and ionized at the capillary tip. Taking irreversible transesterification reaction of vinyl acetate and ethanol as an example, this technique has been used for the high-throughput evaluation of enzymes, fast optimizations, as well as real-time monitoring of reaction catalyzed by different enzymes. In addition, it is even softer than traditional electrospray ionization. The present method can also be used for the monitoring of other homogenous and heterogeneous reactions in liquid phases, which will show potentials in the catalysis industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the AQT Color-Form Additive Model for Screening and Monitoring Pharmacological Treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niels Peter; Wiig, Elisabeth Hemmersam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This retrospective study used A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) processing-speed and efficiency measures for evaluating sensitivity and monitoring effects during pharmacological treatment of adults with ADHD. Method: Color (C), form (F), and color-form (CF) combination naming were administered to 69 adults during outpatient…

  19. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M.; Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E.; Munoz, Rodrigo A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L −1 HClO 4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  20. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil); Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science and the Environment, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester, M1 5GD, England (United Kingdom); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A., E-mail: raamunoz@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil)

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HClO{sub 4} (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  1. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  2. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  3. Emotional Self-Regulation of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Smartwatches for Monitoring and Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Torrado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the needs of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD to have a pervasive, feasible and non-stigmatizing form of assistance in their emotional self-regulation, in order to ease certain behavioral issues that undermine their mental health throughout their life. We argue the potential of recent widespread wearables, and more specifically smartwatches, to achieve this goal. Then, a smartwatch system that implements a wide range of self-regulation strategies and infers outburst patterns from physiological signals and movement is presented, along with an authoring tool for smartphones that is to be used by caregivers or family members to create and edit these strategies, in an adaptive way. We conducted an intensive experiment with two individuals with ASD who showed varied, representative behavioral responses to their emotional dysregulation. Both users were able to employ effective, customized emotional self-regulation strategies by means of the system, recovering from the majority of mild stress episodes and temper tantrums experienced in the nine days of experiment in their classroom.

  4. Substantiating Recommendations on the Choice of an Efficient Strategy of the State Regulation for System of Monitoring Economy Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashchaulov Vitalii V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with substantiating recommendations on the choice of an effective strategy of the State regulation for system of monitoring economy branches. To display the financial aspect of the enterprise's strategic positioning in the sectoral environment, a modified ADL matrix was used. A matrix of choosing an optimum variant (scenario of the enterprise's financial strategy has been considered taking into account possibilities of its use in the system of monitoring the development of economic sectors. Disadvantages in the use of modified ADL matrices and in choosing an optimum variant (scenario financial strategy of the enterprise's financial strategy have been identified. Factors of internal and external environment, which affect the strategic choice of enterprises, have been determined and analyzed. The SPACE matrix for building the model of choosing a strategy of financing the development of enterprises in the economy branches has been modified in the context of the system of monitoring the development of economy branches. A description of the strategies proposed by author for financing the development of enterprise has been provided, their advantages and disadvantages have been determined. Individual tools of the proposed models of actions can be accepted as a way of improving the strategic positions with a view to achieving a higher quantitative-qualitative situation as well as adjustment of the existing model of behavior.

  5. Monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulations. Lessons from a natural field experiment in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telle, Kjetil

    2012-07-01

    Relying on a small natural field experiment with random assignment of treatments, I estimate effects of three core elements of most monitoring and enforcement practices: self-reporting, audit frequency and specific deterrence. I find evidence of evasive reporting of violations in self-audits, as more violations are detected in on-site audits than in self-audits. Announcing the increased audit frequency has no effect on compliance, but an audit raises the firm's subsequent compliance substantially.(Author)

  6. Use of pulse co-oximetry as a screening and monitoring tool in mass carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Bryan E; Nowicki, Kevin; Creel, James H; Carrison, Dale; Severance, Harry W

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of poisoning in the United States. We describe a case where responding fire department personnel encountered a sick employee with a headache at an automotive brake manufacturing plant. Using both atmospheric CO monitoring and pulse CO-oximetry technology, fire department personnel were able to diagnose the cause of the patient's illness and later identify the source of CO in the plant.

  7. Bringing together raptor collections in Europe for contaminant research and monitoring in relation to chemicals regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, Paola; Dekker, René; Koschorreck, Jan; Treu, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Raptors are good sentinels of environmental contamination and there is good capability for raptor biomonitoring in Europe. Raptor biomonitoring can benefit from natural history museums (NHMs), environmental specimen banks (ESBs) and other collections (e.g. specialist raptor specimen collections). Europe's NHMs, ESBs and other collections hold large numbers of raptor specimens and samples, covering long periods of time. These collections are potentially a valuable resource for contaminant studies over time and space. There are strong needs to monitor contaminants in the environment to support EU and national chemical management. However, data on raptor specimens in NHMs, ESBs and other collections are dispersed, few are digitised, and they are thus not easy to access. Specimen coverage is patchy in terms of species, space and time. Contaminant research with raptors would be facilitated by creating a framework to link relevant collections, digitising all collections, developing a searchable meta-database covering all existing collections, making them more visible and accessible for contaminant research. This would also help identify gaps in coverage and stimulate specimen collection to fill gaps in support of prioritised contaminant monitoring. Collections can further support raptor biomonitoring by making samples available for analysis on request.

  8. On-line monitoring of base current and forward emitter current gain of the voltage regulator's serial pnp transistor in a radiation environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of on-line monitoring of the low-dropout voltage regulator's operation in a radiation environment is developed in this paper. The method had to enable detection of the circuit's degradation during exploitation, without terminating its operation in an ionizing radiation field. Moreover, it had to enable automatic measurement and data collection, as well as the detection of any considerable degradation, well before the monitored voltage regulator's malfunction. The principal parameters of the voltage regulator's operation that were monitored were the serial pnp transistor's base current and the forward emitter current gain. These parameters were procured indirectly, from the data on the voltage regulator's load and quiescent currents. Since the internal consumption current in moderately and heavily loaded devices was used, the quiescent current of a negligibly loaded voltage regulator of the same type served as a reference. Results acquired by on-line monitoring demonstrated marked agreement with the results acquired from examinations of the voltage regulator's maximum output current and minimum dropout voltage in a radiation environment. The results were particularly consistent in tests with heavily loaded devices. Results obtained for moderately loaded voltage regulators and the risks accompanying the application of the presented method, were also analyzed.

  9. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo S; Silva, Luiz A J; Sousa, Raquel M F; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L(-1) HClO4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide miRNA screening reveals miR-310 family members negatively regulate the immune response in Drosophila melanogaster via co-targeting Drosomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Li, Shengjie; Li, Ruimin; Xu, Jiao; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-03-01

    Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs. Interestingly, four out of these eight miRNAs, miR-310, miR-311, miR-312 and miR-313, are clustered miRNAs and belong to the miR-310 family. These miR-310 family members were shown to target and regulate the expression of Drosomycin, an antimicrobial peptide produced by Toll signaling. Taken together, our study implies important regulatory roles of miRNAs in the Toll-mediated innate immune response of Drosophila upon Gram-positive bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Danieli B; Sosnay, Patrick R; Azen, Colleen; Young, Suzanne; Raraigh, Karen S; Keens, Thomas G; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California's racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance. We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C); those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC); and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown). Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared. Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78) and 11% of Unknown (27/244) met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing. While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed.

  12. Benign and Deleterious Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutations Identified by Sequencing in Positive Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screen Children from California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli B Salinas

    Full Text Available Of the 2007 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR mutations, 202 have been assigned disease liability. California's racially diverse population, along with CFTR sequencing as part of newborn screening model, provides the opportunity to examine the phenotypes of children with uncategorized mutations to help inform disease liability and penetrance.We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on children screened from 2007 to 2011 and followed for two to six years. Newborns that screened positive were divided into three genotype groups: those with two CF-causing mutations (CF-C; those with one mutation of varying clinic consequence (VCC; and those with one mutation of unknown disease liability (Unknown. Sweat chloride tests, pancreatic sufficiency status, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization were compared.Children with two CF-causing mutations had a classical CF phenotype, while 5% of VCC (4/78 and 11% of Unknown (27/244 met diagnostic criteria of CF. Children carrying Unknown mutations 2215insG with D836Y, and T1036N had early and classical CF phenotype, while others carrying 1525-42G>A, L320V, L967S, R170H, and 296+28A>G had a benign clinical presentation, suggesting that these are non-CF causing.While most infants with VCC and Unknown CFTR mutations do not meet diagnostic criteria for CF, a small proportion do. These findings highlight the range of genotypes and phenotypes in the first few years of life following CF newborn screening when CFTR sequencing is performed.

  13. Computerised decision support systems in order communication for diagnostic, screening or monitoring test ordering: systematic reviews of the effects and cost-effectiveness of systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, C; Moxham, T; Wyatt, J C; Kay, J; Anderson, R; Stein, K

    2010-10-01

    Order communication systems (OCS) are computer applications used to enter diagnostic and therapeutic patient care orders and to view test results. Many potential benefits of OCS have been identified including improvements in clinician ordering patterns, optimisation of clinical time, and aiding communication processes between clinicians and different departments. Many OCS now include computerised decision support systems (CDSS), which are information systems designed to improve clinical decision-making. CDSS match individual patient characteristics to a computerised knowledge base, and software algorithms generate patient-specific recommendations. To investigate which CDSS in OCS are in use within the UK and the impact of CDSS in OCS for diagnostic, screening or monitoring test ordering compared to OCS without CDSS. To determine what features of CDSS are associated with clinician or patient acceptance of CDSS in OCS and what is known about the cost-effectiveness of CDSS in diagnostic, screening or monitoring test OCS compared to OCS without CDSS. A generic search to identify potentially relevant studies for inclusion was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database, IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) Xplore digital library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and EconLit, searched between 1974 and 2009 with a total of 22,109 titles and abstracts screened for inclusion. CDSS for diagnostic, screening and monitoring test ordering OCS in use in the UK were identified through contact with the 24 manufacturers/suppliers currently contracted by the National Project for Information Technology (NpfIT) to provide either national or specialist decision support. A generic search to identify potentially relevant studies for inclusion in the review was

  14. A Loss-of-Function Screen for Phosphatases that Regulate Neurite Outgrowth Identifies PTPN12 as a Negative Regulator of TrkB Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Malene; Dubreuil, Véronique; Miozzo, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in function of the neurotrophin BDNF are associated with neurodegeneration, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disorders. BDNF promotes axonal outgrowth and branching, regulates dendritic tree morphology and is important for axonal regeneration after injury, responses that largely....... This approach identified phosphatases from diverse families, which either positively or negatively modulate BDNF-TrkB-mediated neurite outgrowth, and most of which have little or no previously established function related to NT signaling. "Classical" protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) accounted for 13......% of the candidate regulatory phosphatases. The top classical PTP identified as a negative regulator of BDNF-TrkB-mediated neurite outgrowth was PTPN12 (also called PTP-PEST). Validation and follow-up studies showed that endogenous PTPN12 antagonizes tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkB itself, and the downstream...

  15. Kinase Screening in Pichia pastoris Identified Promising Targets Involved in Cell Growth and Alcohol Oxidase 1 Promoter (PAOX1 Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available As one of the most commonly used eukaryotic recombinant protein expression systems, P. pastoris relies heavily on the AOX1 promoter (PAOX1, which is strongly induced by methanol but strictly repressed by glycerol and glucose. However, the complicated signaling pathways involved in PAOX1 regulation when supplemented with different carbon sources are poorly understood. Here we constructed a kinase deletion library in P. pastoris and identified 27 mutants which showed peculiar phenotypes in cell growth or PAOX1 regulation. We analyzed both annotations and possible functions of these 27 targets, and then focused on the MAP kinase Hog1. In order to locate its potential downstream components, we performed the phosphoproteome analysis on glycerol cultured WT and Δhog1 strains and identified 157 differentially phosphorylated proteins. Our results identified important kinases involved in P. pastoris cell growth and PAOX1 regulation, which could serve as valuable targets for further mechanistic studies.

  16. FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid screening and monitoring of polyunsaturated fatty acid production in commercially valuable marine yeasts and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Heraud, Philip; Gupta, Adarsha; Puri, Munish; McNaughton, Don; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-10-21

    The increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption has prompted research into alternative resources other than fish oil. In this study, a new approach based on focal-plane-array Fourier transform infrared (FPA-FTIR) microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis was developed for the characterisation of some marine microorganisms. Cell and lipid compositions in lipid-rich marine yeasts collected from the Australian coast were characterised in comparison to a commercially available PUFA-producing marine fungoid protist, thraustochytrid. Multivariate classification methods provided good discriminative accuracy evidenced from (i) separation of the yeasts from thraustochytrids and distinct spectral clusters among the yeasts that conformed well to their biological identities, and (ii) correct classification of yeasts from a totally independent set using cross-validation testing. The findings further indicated additional capability of the developed FPA-FTIR methodology, when combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for rapid monitoring of lipid production in one of the yeasts during the growth period, which was achieved at a high accuracy compared to the results obtained from the traditional lipid analysis based on gas chromatography. The developed FTIR-based approach when coupled to programmable withdrawal devices and a cytocentrifugation module would have strong potential as a novel online monitoring technology suited for bioprocessing applications and large-scale production.

  17. A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegel, Gabriele; Obernosterer, Gregor; Fiore, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    of acyl protein thioesterase 1 (APT1), an enzyme regulating the palmitoylation status of proteins that are known to function at the synapse, including the alpha(13) subunits of G proteins (Galpha(13)). RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of APT1 and the expression of membrane-localized Galpha(13) both...... suppress spine enlargement caused by inhibition of miR-138, suggesting that APT1-regulated depalmitoylation of Galpha(13) might be an important downstream event of miR-138 function. Our results uncover a previously unknown miRNA-dependent mechanism in neurons and demonstrate a previously unrecognized...

  18. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  19. An siRNA-based functional genomics screen for the identification of regulators of ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racher, Hilary; Phelps, Ian G.; Toedt, Grischa; Kennedy, Julie; Wunderlich, Kirsten A.; Sorusch, Nasrin; Abdelhamed, Zakia A.; Natarajan, Subaashini; Herridge, Warren; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Horn, Nicola; Boldt, Karsten; Parry, David A.; Letteboer, Stef J.F.; Roosing, Susanne; Adams, Matthew; Bell, Sandra M.; Bond, Jacquelyn; Higgins, Julie; Morrison, Ewan E.; Tomlinson, Darren C.; Slaats, Gisela G.; van Dam, Teunis J. P.; Huang, Lijia; Kessler, Kristin; Giessl, Andreas; Logan, Clare V.; Boyle, Evan A.; Shendure, Jay; Anazi, Shamsa; Aldahmesh, Mohammed; Al Hazzaa, Selwa; Hegele, Robert A.; Ober, Carole; Frosk, Patrick; Mhanni, Aizeddin A.; Chodirker, Bernard N.; Chudley, Albert E.; Lamont, Ryan; Bernier, Francois P.; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Gordon, Paul; Pon, Richard T.; Donahue, Clem; Barkovich, A. James; Wolf, Louis; Toomes, Carmel; Thiel, Christian T.; Boycott, Kym M.; McKibbin, Martin; Inglehearn, Chris F.; Stewart, Fiona; Omran, Heymut; Huynen, Martijn A.; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Parboosingh, Jillian S.; Innes, A Micheil; Willoughby, Colin E.; Giles, Rachel H.; Webster, Andrew R.; Ueffing, Marius; Blacque, Oliver; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Wolfrum, Uwe; Beales, Philip L.; Gibson, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Defects in primary cilium biogenesis underlie the ciliopathies, a growing group of genetic disorders. We describe a whole genome siRNA-based reverse genetics screen for defects in biogenesis and/or maintenance of the primary cilium, obtaining a global resource. We identify 112 candidate ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes, including 44 components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, 12 G-protein-coupled receptors, and three pre-mRNA processing factors (PRPF6, PRPF8 and PRPF31) mutated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The PRPFs localise to the connecting cilium, and PRPF8- and PRPF31-mutated cells have ciliary defects. Combining the screen with exome sequencing data identified recessive mutations in PIBF1/CEP90 and C21orf2/LRRC76 as causes of the ciliopathies Joubert and Jeune syndromes. Biochemical approaches place C21orf2 within key ciliopathy-associated protein modules, offering an explanation for the skeletal and retinal involvement observed in individuals with C21orf2-variants. Our global, unbiased approaches provide insights into ciliogenesis complexity and identify roles for unanticipated pathways in human genetic disease. PMID:26167768

  20. RNAi screening of subtracted transcriptomes reveals tumor suppression by taurine-activated GABAA receptors involved in volume regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Pim; Vormer, Tinke L.; Foijer, Floris; Verheij, Joanne; Lodder, Johannes C.; Andersen, Jesper B.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; te Riele, Hein

    2018-01-01

    To identify coding and non-coding suppressor genes of anchorage-independent proliferation by efficient loss-of-function screening, we have developed a method for enzymatic production of low complexity shRNA libraries from subtracted transcriptomes. We produced and screened two LEGO (Low-complexity by Enrichment for Genes shut Off) shRNA libraries that were enriched for shRNA vectors targeting coding and non-coding polyadenylated transcripts that were reduced in transformed Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs). The LEGO shRNA libraries included ~25 shRNA vectors per transcript which limited off-target artifacts. Our method identified 79 coding and non-coding suppressor transcripts. We found that taurine-responsive GABAA receptor subunits, including GABRA5 and GABRB3, were induced during the arrest of non-transformed anchor-deprived MEFs and prevented anchorless proliferation. We show that taurine activates chloride currents through GABAA receptors on MEFs, causing seclusion of cell volume in large membrane protrusions. Volume seclusion from cells by taurine correlated with reduced proliferation and, conversely, suppression of this pathway allowed anchorage-independent proliferation. In human cholangiocarcinomas, we found that several proteins involved in taurine signaling via GABAA receptors were repressed. Low GABRA5 expression typified hyperproliferative tumors, and loss of taurine signaling correlated with reduced patient survival, suggesting this tumor suppressive mechanism operates in vivo. PMID:29787571

  1. Large-scale functional RNAi screen in C. elegans identifies genes that regulate the dysfunction of mutant polyglutamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, François-Xavier; Mesrob, Lilia; Parmentier, Frédéric; Bicep, Cedric; Vazquez-Manrique, Rafael P; Parker, J Alex; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Tourette, Cendrine; Neri, Christian

    2012-03-13

    A central goal in Huntington's disease (HD) research is to identify and prioritize candidate targets for neuroprotective intervention, which requires genome-scale information on the modifiers of early-stage neuron injury in HD. Here, we performed a large-scale RNA interference screen in C. elegans strains that express N-terminal huntingtin (htt) in touch receptor neurons. These neurons control the response to light touch. Their function is strongly impaired by expanded polyglutamines (128Q) as shown by the nearly complete loss of touch response in adult animals, providing an in vivo model in which to manipulate the early phases of expanded-polyQ neurotoxicity. In total, 6034 genes were examined, revealing 662 gene inactivations that either reduce or aggravate defective touch response in 128Q animals. Several genes were previously implicated in HD or neurodegenerative disease, suggesting that this screen has effectively identified candidate targets for HD. Network-based analysis emphasized a subset of high-confidence modifier genes in pathways of interest in HD including metabolic, neurodevelopmental and pro-survival pathways. Finally, 49 modifiers of 128Q-neuron dysfunction that are dysregulated in the striatum of either R/2 or CHL2 HD mice, or both, were identified. Collectively, these results highlight the relevance to HD pathogenesis, providing novel information on the potential therapeutic targets for neuroprotection in HD. © 2012 Lejeune et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A; Ramirez Silva, M T; Palomar Pardave, M E

    2010-01-01

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10 -6 M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  3. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A [Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Ramirez Silva, M T [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Palomar Pardave, M E, E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-06-18

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10{sup -6} M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  4. A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, Gabriele; Obernosterer, Gregor; Fiore, Roberto; Oehmen, Martin; Bicker, Silvia; Christensen, Mette; Khudayberdiev, Sharof; Leuschner, Philipp F; Busch, Clara J L; Kane, Christina; Hübel, Katja; Dekker, Frank; Hedberg, Christian; Rengarajan, Balamurugan; Drepper, Carsten; Waldmann, Herbert; Kauppinen, Sakari; Greenberg, Michael E; Draguhn, Andreas; Rehmsmeier, Marc; Martinez, Javier; Schratt, Gerhard M; Dekker, Frank

    The microRNA pathway has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic protein synthesis and ultimately in dendritic spine morphogenesis, a phenomenon associated with long-lasting forms of memory. However, the particular microRNAs (miRNAs) involved are largely unknown. Here we identify specific

  5. Frequent screening for syphilis as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Melanie; Fairley, Christopher K; Leslie, David; Howley, Kerri; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-10-01

    Syphilis continues to be a significant public health problem among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally. This study aimed to determine whether the routine inclusion of syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM. We examined the effect of this intervention, implemented in January 2007, on the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, and compared this with the previous clinic policy of annual syphilis screening. In the 18 months before and after the intervention, the median number of syphilis tests performed per man per year was 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of MSM diagnosed with early syphilis who were asymptomatic was 21% (3 of 14) and 85% (41 of 48) for the 2 respective periods (P = 0.006). The time between the midpoint since last syphilis serology and diagnosis of syphilis was a median of 107 days (range 9-362) and 45 days (range 23-325) for the 2 periods, respectively (P = 0.018). The inclusion of routine syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring in HIV-positive MSM resulted in a large increase in the proportion of men diagnosed with early asymptomatic syphilis. This simple intervention probably also decreased the duration of infectiousness, enhancing syphilis control while also reducing morbidity.

  6. Crystallins are regulated biomarkers for monitoring topical therapy of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Prokosch

    Full Text Available Optic nerve atrophy caused by abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP remains the most common cause of irreversible loss of vision worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether topically applied IOP-lowering eye drugs affect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and retinal metabolism in a rat model of optic neuropathy. IOP was elevated through cauterization of episcleral veins, and then lowered either by the daily topical application of timolol, timolol/travoprost, timolol/dorzolamide, or timolol/brimonidine, or surgically with sectorial iridectomy. RGCs were retrogradely labeled 4 days prior to enucleation, and counted. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry allowed the identification of IOP-dependent proteomic changes. Genomic changes were scrutinized using microarrays and qRT-PCR. The significant increase in IOP induced by episcleral vein cauterization that persisted until 8 weeks of follow-up in control animals (p<0.05 was effectively lowered by the eye drops (p<0.05. As anticipated, the number of RGCs decreased significantly following 8 weeks of elevated IOP (p<0.05, while treatment with combination compounds markedly improved RGC survival (p<0.05. 2D-PAGE and Western blot analyses revealed an IOP-dependent expression of crystallin cry-βb2. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses verified the results at the mRNA level. IHC demonstrated that crystallins were expressed mainly in the ganglion cell layer. The data suggest that IOP and either topically applied antiglaucomatous drugs influence crystallin expression within the retina. Neuronal crystallins are thus suitable biomarkers for monitoring the progression of neuropathy and evaluating any neuroprotective effects.

  7. Implications of research on endocrine disruption for the environmental risk assessment, regulation and monitoring of chemicals in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Johnson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    We assess the implications which research on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has for the regulation of synthetic substances and for the protection of the environment, particularly under the forthcoming European Union (EU) REACH legislation. EDCs present regulatory problems inter alia because they can act additively at concentrations which are individually harmless, and they may have non-classical dose (concentration)-response relationships at low exposure levels. Furthermore, current in vivo testing routines were not specifically designed to assess the endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals, whilst in silico and in vitro methods have only limited applicability and availability for this purpose. We need to ensure that the assessment approaches specified in the draft REACH legislation and Technical Guidance are able to evaluate EDCs efficiently. However, it must also be recognised that environmental monitoring procedures in Europe will need to be improved to detect EDCs that have evaded identification, and where appropriate, control, under REACH. - The challenges associated with the environmental risk assessment and regulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals are discussed

  8. Interactome Screening Identifies the ER Luminal Chaperone Hsp47 as a Regulator of the Unfolded Protein Response Transducer IRE1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Denisse; Rojas-Rivera, Diego; Rodríguez, Diego A; Groenendyk, Jody; Köhler, Andres; Lebeaupin, Cynthia; Ito, Shinya; Urra, Hery; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Hazari, Younis; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; Ali, Maruf M U; Chevet, Eric; Campos, Gisela; Godoy, Patricio; Vaisar, Tomas; Bailly-Maitre, Béatrice; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Michalak, Marek; Sierralta, Jimena; Hetz, Claudio

    2018-01-18

    Maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis is controlled by a dynamic signaling network known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). IRE1α is a major UPR transducer, determining cell fate under ER stress. We used an interactome screening to unveil several regulators of the UPR, highlighting the ER chaperone Hsp47 as the major hit. Cellular and biochemical analysis indicated that Hsp47 instigates IRE1α signaling through a physical interaction. Hsp47 directly binds to the ER luminal domain of IRE1α with high affinity, displacing the negative regulator BiP from the complex to facilitate IRE1α oligomerization. The regulation of IRE1α signaling by Hsp47 is evolutionarily conserved as validated using fly and mouse models of ER stress. Hsp47 deficiency sensitized cells and animals to experimental ER stress, revealing the significance of Hsp47 to global proteostasis maintenance. We conclude that Hsp47 adjusts IRE1α signaling by fine-tuning the threshold to engage an adaptive UPR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Martin; Es-Saad, Salwa; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fink, Karin; Pham, Tram; Raymond, Valérie-Ann; Audette, Karine; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Servant, Marc; Bilodeau, Marc; Cohen, Eric; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Lamarre, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1) promoter following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1) upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  10. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baril

    Full Text Available To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1 promoter following Sendai virus (SeV infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1 upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  11. Overview of food monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, I.

    2014-01-01

    May 11th 2011, nuclear accidents occurred by Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake made radioisotopes overflow in reactors and spread around the environments, and it caused risk of food contamination in these areas. And May 17th 2011, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Japan announced provisional regulation values of radioactive materials in food in accordance with the food sanitation act. And they had notified the municipality to corresponding foods above the provisional regulation not had to be on sale. It causes massive needs for food monitoring in Japan. For reply to these massive needs, Hitachi Aloka Medical Ltd. commercialized food monitor: CAN-OSP-NAI in cooperation with CANBERRA Industries Inc. And after this, commercialized food screening system: FSS-101 for reply more expand food monitoring in Japan. This paper introduce Hitachi Aloka Medical Ltd. products which two types of food monitor product, provisional regulation values of radioactive materials in food in accordance with the food sanitation act and with comparing with past food monitoring, needs when accident happen. I wish this is going to be good report for help to radioactive and radiation detection in the future. (author)

  12. Blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecking Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data generated with the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius show, based on bioimpedance technology, that chronic fluid overload in hemodialysis patients is associated with poor survival. However, removing excess fluid by lowering dry weight can be accompanied by intradialytic and postdialytic complications. Here, we aim at testing the hypothesis that, in comparison to conventional hemodialysis, blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR will decrease complications when ultrafiltration volumes are systematically increased in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients. Methods/design BCM measurements yield results on fluid overload (in liters, relative to extracellular water (ECW. In this prospective, multicenter, triple-arm, parallel-group, crossover, randomized, controlled clinical trial, we use BCM measurements, routinely introduced in our three maintenance hemodialysis centers shortly prior to the start of the study, to recruit sixty hemodialysis patients with fluid overload (defined as ≥15% ECW. Patients are randomized 1:1:1 into UCR, UTR and conventional hemodialysis groups. BCM-determined, ‘final’ dry weight is set to normohydration weight −7% of ECW postdialysis, and reached by reducing the previous dry weight, in steps of 0.1 kg per 10 kg body weight, during 12 hemodialysis sessions (one study phase. In case of intradialytic complications, dry weight reduction is decreased, according to a prespecified algorithm. A comparison of intra- and post-dialytic complications among study groups constitutes the primary endpoint. In addition, we will assess relative weight reduction, changes in residual renal function, quality of life measures, and predialysis levels of various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein, troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, before and after the first study

  13. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  14. Interval cancer peer review in East Anglia: Implications for monitoring doctors as well as the NHS breast screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, P.D.; McCann, J.; O'Driscoll, D.; Hunnam, G.; Warren, R.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To devise a method for reviewing interval cancers that will both educate radiologists and facilitate improvement of breast screening practice. To evaluate different methods for case classification to find one that best serves this purpose. METHOD: The method of peer review and the means by which interval cancers are classified is described. The way in which cases are designated false-negative is an issue of acceptability for radiologists, and so three different methods are evaluated. Each is applied to the data set collected in this region over a 3-year period. RESULTS: For cases read by five readers, when a consensus method was used for classifying cases, the proportion of cases classified as false-negative was 14%. Using a method in which only one of the five readers had to classify a case as false-negative for it to be categorized as such, the proportion of false-negative cases rose to a maximum of 38%. The minimum proportion of cases that could be considered to be false-negative was 6% and was obtained when all five readers had to classify a case as false-negative for it to be so categorized. Consistent with its majority viewpoint, the consensus method gave results for proportions of total cases classified as false-negative which were similar to those given by methods in which cases are classified as false-negative if either three of five readers, or at least 60% of readers, classified it as such. CONCLUSION: For the peer review method to achieve its dual aims of educating radiologists and auditing performance, the participating radiologists must share ownership of the results and view the analysis as fair. The method used to classify interval cancers as false-negative will influence the number so classified. A consensus method has been found to give a result that is both fair and acceptable to our radiologist. Using this method 16% of all reviewed cases were classified as false-negative and 60% as true interval cancers. Britton, P.D. (2001)

  15. A sensitive fluorescence reporter for monitoring quorum sensing regulated protease production in Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sathish; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-02-01

    Many bacteria produce and secrete proteases during host invasion and pathogenesis. Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic pathogen of shrimp, is known to use a two-component quorum sensing (QS) mechanism for coordination of gene expression including protease secretion at high population densities. We examined the role of V. harveyi's QS signaling molecules, N-(3-hydroxybutanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (AI-1) and the boron derivative of autoinducer-2 (BAI-2) in extracellular protease production. A fusion protein, M3CLPY (Rajamani et al., 2007), consisting of a large protease sensitive BAI-2 mutant receptor LuxP (~38kDa) flanked by two protease insensitive cyan and yellow variants of GFP (~28kDa each) was utilized as a substrate to detect secreted protease activity. The M3CLPY fusion, with the addition of wild-type V. harveyi (BB120) cell-free culture filtrate showed a time-dependent loss in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) associated with the cleavage of the LuxP linker protein and hence separation of the two fluorophores. This cleavage of LuxP linker protein leading to decreased FRET efficiency was further confirmed by immunoblotting using anti-GFP antibody. The addition of cell-free filtrates from strains defective in one or both of the two-component QS pathways: luxN(-) (defective in AI-1), luxS(-) (defective in BAI-2), and luxN(-)/luxS(-) (defective in both AI-1/BAI-2) showed differential levels of protease production. The observed protease activities were most pronounced in wild-type, followed by the AI-1 defective mutant (BB170) and the least for luxS(-) mutant (MM30) and luxN(-)/luxS(-) double mutant (MM32) strains. Incidentally, the lowest protease producing strains MM30 and MM32 were both defective in BAI-2 production. This observation was validated by addition of synthetic BAI-2 to MM30 and MM32 strains to restore protease production. Our results indicate that BAI-2 signaling in the two-component QS pathway plays the key role in regulating

  16. Metabolic Genetic Screens Reveal Multidimensional Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression in Listeria monocytogenes and an Aminopeptidase That Is Critical for PrfA Protein Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sivan; Linsky, Marika; Lobel, Lior; Rabinovich, Lev; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A

    2017-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and intracellular bacterial pathogen. Upon invading mammalian cells, the bacterium senses abrupt changes in its metabolic environment, which are rapidly transduced to regulation of virulence gene expression. To explore the relationship between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence, we monitored virulence gene expression dynamics across a library of genetic mutants grown under two metabolic conditions known to activate the virulent state: charcoal-treated rich medium containing glucose-1-phosphate and minimal defined medium containing limiting concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We identified over 100 distinct mutants that exhibit aberrant virulence gene expression profiles, the majority of which mapped to nonessential metabolic genes. Mutants displayed enhanced, decreased, and early and late virulence gene expression profiles, as well as persistent levels, demonstrating a high plasticity in virulence gene regulation. Among the mutants, one was noteworthy for its particularly low virulence gene expression level and mapped to an X-prolyl aminopeptidase (PepP). We show that this peptidase plays a role in posttranslational activation of the major virulence regulator, PrfA. Specifically, PepP mediates recruitment of PrfA to the cytoplasmic membrane, a step identified as critical for PrfA protein activation. This study establishes a novel step in the complex mechanism of PrfA activation and further highlights the cross regulation of metabolism and virulence. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. A targeted glycan-related gene screen reveals heparan sulfate proteoglycan sulfation regulates WNT and BMP trans-synaptic signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Dani

    Full Text Available A Drosophila transgenic RNAi screen targeting the glycan genome, including all N/O/GAG-glycan biosynthesis/modification enzymes and glycan-binding lectins, was conducted to discover novel glycan functions in synaptogenesis. As proof-of-product, we characterized functionally paired heparan sulfate (HS 6-O-sulfotransferase (hs6st and sulfatase (sulf1, which bidirectionally control HS proteoglycan (HSPG sulfation. RNAi knockdown of hs6st and sulf1 causes opposite effects on functional synapse development, with decreased (hs6st and increased (sulf1 neurotransmission strength confirmed in null mutants. HSPG co-receptors for WNT and BMP intercellular signaling, Dally-like Protein and Syndecan, are differentially misregulated in the synaptomatrix of these mutants. Consistently, hs6st and sulf1 nulls differentially elevate both WNT (Wingless; Wg and BMP (Glass Bottom Boat; Gbb ligand abundance in the synaptomatrix. Anterograde Wg signaling via Wg receptor dFrizzled2 C-terminus nuclear import and retrograde Gbb signaling via synaptic MAD phosphorylation and nuclear import are differentially activated in hs6st and sulf1 mutants. Consequently, transcriptional control of presynaptic glutamate release machinery and postsynaptic glutamate receptors is bidirectionally altered in hs6st and sulf1 mutants, explaining the bidirectional change in synaptic functional strength. Genetic correction of the altered WNT/BMP signaling restores normal synaptic development in both mutant conditions, proving that altered trans-synaptic signaling causes functional differentiation defects.

  18. An acute rat in vivo screening model to predict compounds that alter blood glucose and/or insulin regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brott, David A; Diamond, Melody; Campbell, Pam; Zuvich, Andy; Cheatham, Letitia; Bentley, Patricia; Gorko, Mary Ann; Fikes, James; Saye, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced glucose dysregulation and insulin resistance have been associated with weight gain and potential induction and/or exacerbation of diabetes mellitus in the clinic suggesting they may be safety biomarkers when developing antipsychotics. Glucose and insulin have also been suggested as potential efficacy biomarkers for some oncology compounds. The objective of this study was to qualify a medium throughput rat in vivo acute Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT) for predicting compounds that will induce altered blood glucose and/or insulin levels. Acute and sub-chronic studies were performed to qualify an acute IVGTT model. Double cannulated male rats (Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley) were administered vehicle, olanzapine, aripiprazole or other compounds at t=-44min for acute studies and at time=-44min on the last day of dosing for sub-chronic studies, treated with dextrose (time=0min; i.v.) and blood collected using an automated Culex® system for glucose and insulin analysis (time=-45, -1, 2, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180min). Olanzapine significantly increased glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) values while aripiprazole AUC values were similar to control, in both acute and sub-chronic studies. All atypical antipsychotics evaluated were consistent with literature references of clinical weight gain. As efficacy biomarkers, insulin AUC but not glucose AUC values were increased with a compound known to have insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) activity, compared to control treatment. These studies qualified the medium throughput acute IVGTT model to more quickly screen compounds for 1) safety - the potential to elicit glucose dysregulation and/or insulin resistance and 2) efficacy - as a surrogate for compounds affecting the glucose and/or insulin regulatory pathways. These data demonstrate that the same in vivo rat model and assays can be used to predict both clinical safety and efficacy of compounds. © 2013.

  19. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  20. Transcriptome-wide identification and screening of WRKY factors involved in the regulation of taxol biosynthesis in Taxus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Ying; Nie, Lin; Jin, Xiaofei; Liao, Weifang; Zhao, Shengying; Fu, Chunhua; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-03-26

    WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays important roles in pathogen defense, abiotic cues, phytohormone signaling, and regulation of plant secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the roles, functions, and mechanisms of WRKY in taxane biosynthesis in Taxus spp. In this study, 61 transcripts were identified from Taxus chinensis transcriptome datasets by using hidden Markov model search. All of these transcripts encoded proteins containing WRKY domains, which were designated as TcWRKY1-61. After phylogenetic analysis of the WRKY domains of TcWRKYs and AtWRKYs, 16, 8, 10, 14, 5, 7, and 1 TcWRKYs were cladded into Group I, IIa-IIe, and III, respectively. Then, six representative TcWRKYs were selected to classify their effects on taxol biosynthesis. After MeJA (methyl jasmonate acid) and SA (salicylic acid) treatments, all of the six TcWRKYs were upregulated by MeJA treatment. TcWRKY44 (IId) and TcWRKY47 (IIa) were upregulated, whereas TcWRKY8 (IIc), TcWRKY20 (III), TcWRKY26 (I), TcWRKY41 (IIe), and TcWRKY52 (IIb) were downregulated by SA treatment. Overexpression experiments showed that the six selected TcWRKYs exerted different effects on taxol biosynthesis. In specific, TcWRKY8 and TcWRKY47 significantly improved the expression levels of taxol-biosynthesis-related genes. Transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY factors in Taxus not only enhances our understanding of plant WRKY factors but also identifies candidate regulators of taxol biosynthesis.

  1. Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tanja Y; Medhurst, Annette L; Waisfisz, Quinten; Zhi, Yu; Herterich, Sabine; Hoehn, Holger; Gross, Hans J; Joenje, Hans; Hoatlin, Maureen E; Mathew, Christopher G; Huber, Pia A J

    2003-10-01

    Mutations in one of at least eight different genes cause bone marrow failure, chromosome instability, and predisposition to cancer associated with the rare genetic syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The cloning of seven genes has provided the tools to study the molecular pathway disrupted in Fanconi anemia patients. The structure of the genes and their gene products provided few clues to their functional role. We report here the use of 3 FA proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG, as "baits" in the hunt for interactors to obtain clues for FA protein functions. Using five different human cDNA libraries we screened 36.5x10(6) clones with the technique of the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified 69 proteins which have not previously been linked to the FA pathway as direct interactors of FANCA, FANCC, or FANCG. Most of these proteins are associated with four functional classes including transcription regulation (21 proteins), signaling (13 proteins), oxidative metabolism (10 proteins), and intracellular transport (11 proteins). Interaction with 6 proteins, DAXX, Ran, IkappaBgamma, USP14, and the previously reported SNX5 and FAZF, was additionally confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and/or colocalization studies. Taken together, our data strongly support the hypothesis that FA proteins are functionally involved in several complex cellular pathways including transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

  2. Regulating Effluents From India’s Textile Sector: New Commands and Compliance Monitoring for Zero Liquid Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grönwall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016 large parts of India had experienced failing monsoons for two consecutive years. Textiles production was a natural target in the quest for solutions when re-distribution of water between sectors became imperative, and it seemed likely that the zero liquid discharge (ZLD approach would be mainstreamed nationwide. However, when amended standards for discharge of effluents were enacted it was without strict requirements for reuse of water in-house; the legislator chose to make ZLD applicable only to large units and refrained from making it mandatory. The carrying capacity of the environment in sensitive or otherwise critical areas may henceforth be taken into account by the executive, but the textile sector’s wastewater is not yet regarded the resource that a circular economy calls for. This paper examines the command-side of regulation by shedding light on the applicable law, the reform steps taken in 2014–16 and how judicial interventions influenced these. It also seeks to contribute to the understanding of enforcement control by discussing what role court-established committees are playing in implementation and monitoring of compliance, based on an in-depth case study of Tirupur, India’s ‘knit city’.

  3. Yeast three-hybrid screen identifies TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a negative regulator of Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi V Odell

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii into its latent bradyzoite stage is a key event in the parasite's life cycle. Compound 2 is an imidazopyridine that was previously shown to inhibit the parasite lytic cycle, in part through inhibition of parasite cGMP-dependent protein kinase. We show here that Compound 2 can also enhance parasite differentiation, and we use yeast three-hybrid analysis to identify TgBRADIN/GRA24 as a parasite protein that interacts directly or indirectly with the compound. Disruption of the TgBRADIN/GRA24 gene leads to enhanced differentiation of the parasite, and the TgBRADIN/GRA24 knockout parasites show decreased susceptibility to the differentiation-enhancing effects of Compound 2. This study represents the first use of yeast three-hybrid analysis to study small-molecule mechanism of action in any pathogenic microorganism, and it identifies a previously unrecognized inhibitor of differentiation in T. gondii. A better understanding of the proteins and mechanisms regulating T. gondii differentiation will enable new approaches to preventing the establishment of chronic infection in this important human pathogen.

  4. New methods for the identification of efflux mediated MDR bacteria, genetic assessment of regulators and efflux pump constituents, characterization of efflux systems and screening for inhibitors of efflux pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viveiros, M; Martins, M; Couto, I

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a number of methods that identify efflux pump mediated multi-drug resistant bacteria, characterize efflux systems and screen for inhibitors of efflux pumps. These approaches were complemented by the quantification of the expression of genes that regulate and code for constituents...

  5. Functional microRNA high throughput screening reveals miR-9 as a central regulator of liver oncogenesis by affecting the PPARA-CDH1 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakaki, Alexandra; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Polytarchou, Christos; Vorvis, Christina; Poultsides, George A.; Souglakos, John; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, reflecting the aggressiveness of this type of cancer and the absence of effective therapeutic regimens. MicroRNAs have been involved in the pathogenesis of different types of cancers, including liver cancer. Our aim was to identify microRNAs that have both functional and clinical relevance in HCC and examine their downstream signaling effectors. MicroRNA and gene expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in HCC tumors and controls. A TargetScan algorithm was used to identify miR-9 downstream direct targets. A high-throughput screen of the human microRNAome revealed 28 microRNAs as regulators of liver cancer cell invasiveness. MiR-9, miR-21 and miR-224 were the top inducers of HCC invasiveness and also their expression was increased in HCC relative to control liver tissues. Integration of the microRNA screen and expression data revealed miR-9 as the top microRNA, having both functional and clinical significance. MiR-9 levels correlated with HCC tumor stage and miR-9 overexpression induced SNU-449 and HepG2 cell growth, invasiveness and their ability to form colonies in soft agar. Bioinformatics and 3′UTR luciferase analyses identified E-cadherin (CDH1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) as direct downstream effectors of miR-9 activity. Inhibition of PPARA suppressed CDH1 mRNA levels, suggesting that miR-9 regulates CDH1 expression directly through binding in its 3′UTR and indirectly through PPARA. On the other hand, miR-9 inhibition of overexpression suppressed HCC tumorigenicity and invasiveness. PPARA and CDH1 mRNA levels were decreased in HCC relative to controls and were inversely correlated with miR-9 levels. Taken together, this study revealed the involvement of the miR-9/PPARA/CDH1 signaling pathway in HCC oncogenesis. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1562-9) contains supplementary material, which is

  6. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality......, but it is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational requirements...... for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  7. A monitoring of chemical contaminants in waters used for field irrigation and livestock watering in the Veneto region (Italy), using bioassays as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liguoro, Marco; Bona, Mirco Dalla; Gallina, Guglielmo; Capolongo, Francesca; Gallocchio, Federica; Binato, Giovanni; Di Leva, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 50 livestock watering sources (ground water) and 50 field irrigation sources (surface water) from various industrialised areas of the Veneto region were monitored for chemical contaminants. From each site, four water samples (one in each season) were collected during the period from summer 2009 through to spring 2010. Surface water samples and ground water samples were first screened for toxicity using the growth inhibition test on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the immobilisation test on Daphnia magna, respectively. Then, based on the results of these toxicity tests, 28 ground water samples and 26 surface water samples were submitted to chemical analysis for various contaminants (insecticides/acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, metals and anions) by means of UPLC-MS(n) HPLC-MS(n), AAS and IEC. With the exception of one surface water sample where the total pesticides concentration was greater than 4 μg L(-1), positive samples (51.9 %) showed only traces (nanograms per liter) of pesticides. Metals were generally under the detection limit. High concentrations of chlorines (up to 692 mg L(-1)) were found in some ground water samples while some surface water samples showed an excess of nitrites (up to 336 mg L(-1)). Detected levels of contamination were generally too low to justify the toxicity recorded in bioassays, especially in the case of surface water samples, and analytical results painted quite a reassuring picture, while tests on P. subcapitata showed a strong growth inhibition activity. It was concluded that, from an ecotoxicological point of view, surface waters used for field irrigation in the Veneto region cannot be considered safe.

  8. The Effect of Using Self-Monitoring Strategies in Social Studies Course on Self-Monitoring, Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Suleyman; Kurnaz, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the behavioral differences and a dimension of the individual's metacognitive processes, Snyder introduced the "Self-Monitoring Theory" in 1974. According to the theory, individuals differ in the extent to which they control their self-presentation in social interactions. Some people can observe and control their…

  9. Real-Time Monitoring of Results During First Year of Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program and Optimization by Altering Fecal Immunochemical Test Cut-Off Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toes-Zoutendijk, Esther; van Leerdam, Monique E; Dekker, Evelien; van Hees, Frank; Penning, Corine; Nagtegaal, Iris; van der Meulen, Miriam P; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bonfrer, Johannes M G; Biermann, Katharina; Thomeer, Maarten G J; van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Kroep, Sonja; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Meijer, Gerrit A; de Koning, Harry J; Spaander, Manon C W; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-03-01

    After careful pilot studies and planning, the national screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC), with biennial fecal immunochemical tests (FITs), was initiated in The Netherlands in 2014. A national information system for real-time monitoring was developed to allow for timely evaluation. Data were collected from the first year of this screening program to determine the importance of planning and monitoring for optimal screening program performance. The national information system of the CRC screening program kept track of the number of invitations sent in 2014, FIT kits returned, and colonoscopies performed. Age-adjusted rates of participation, the number of positive test results, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for advanced neoplasia were determined weekly, quarterly, and yearly. In 2014, there were 741,914 persons invited for FIT; of these, 529,056 (71.3%; 95% CI, 71.2%-71.4%) participated. A few months into the program, real-time monitoring showed that rates of participation and positive test results (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.5%-10.8%) were higher than predicted and the PPV was lower (42.1%; 95% CI, 41.3%-42.9%) than predicted based on pilot studies. To reduce the burden of unnecessary colonoscopies and alleviate colonoscopy capacity, the cut-off level for a positive FIT result was increased from 15 to 47 μg Hb/g feces halfway through 2014. This adjustment decreased the percentage of positive test results to 6.7% (95% CI, 6.6%-6.8%) and increased the PPV to 49.1% (95% CI, 48.3%-49.9%). In total, the first year of the Dutch screening program resulted in the detection of 2483 cancers and 12,030 advanced adenomas. Close monitoring of the implementation of the Dutch national CRC screening program allowed for instant adjustment of the FIT cut-off levels to optimize program performance. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Facile high-throughput forward chemical genetic screening by in situ monitoring of glucuronidase-based reporter gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek eHalder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biologically active small molecules to perturb biological functions holds enormous potential for investigating complex signaling networks. However, in contrast to animal systems, the search for and application of chemical tools for basic discovery in the plant sciences, generally referred to as ‘chemical genetics’, has only recently gained momentum. In addition to cultured cells, the well-characterized, small-sized model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is suitable for cultivation in microplates, which allows employing diverse cell- or phenotype-based chemical screens. In such screens, a chemical’s bioactivity is typically assessed either through scoring its impact on morphological traits or quantifying molecular attributes such as enzyme or reporter activities. Here, we describe a facile forward chemical screening methodology for intact Arabidopsis seedlings harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter by directly quantifying GUS activity in situ with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (4-MUG as substrate. The quantitative nature of this screening assay has an obvious advantage over the also convenient histochemical GUS staining method, as it allows application of statistical procedures and unbiased hit selection based on threshold values as well as distinction between compounds with strong or weak bioactivity. At the same time, the in situ bioassay is very convenient requiring less effort and time for sample handling in comparison to the conventional quantitative in vitro GUS assay using 4-MUG, as validated with several Arabidopsis lines harboring different GUS reporter constructs. To demonstrate that the developed assays is particularly suitable for large-scale screening projects, we performed a pilot screen for chemical activators or inhibitors of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling using the Arabidopsis PR1p::GUS line. Importantly, the screening methodology provided here can be adopted for any inducible GUS reporter line.

  12. General administrative regulation relating to the Integrated Monitoring and Information System (IMIS) and its application in compliance with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act (StrlSchVG), (AVV-IMIS). As of 27 September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This general administrative regulation applies to the measuring, communication, compilation, processing, and documentation of data recorded within the IMIS system for the purpose of environmental radioactivity monitoring. (orig./HP) [de

  13. High-Throughput Screening of Chemical Compound Libraries for Modulators of Salicylic Acid Signaling by In Situ Monitoring of Glucuronidase-Based Reporter Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Vivek; Kombrink, Erich

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a vital phytohormone that is intimately involved in coordination of the complex plant defense response to pathogen attack. Many aspects of SA signaling have been unraveled by classical genetic and biochemical methods using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but many details remain unknown, owing to the inherent limitations of these methods. In recent years, chemical genetics has emerged as an alternative scientific strategy to complement classical genetics by virtue of identifying bioactive chemicals or probes that act selectively on their protein targets causing either activation or inhibition. Such selective tools have the potential to create conditional and reversible chemical mutant phenotypes that may be combined with genetic mutants. Here, we describe a facile chemical screening methodology for intact Arabidopsis seedlings harboring the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter by directly quantifying GUS activity in situ with 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (4-MUG) as substrate. The quantitative nature of this screening assay has an obvious advantage over the also convenient histochemical GUS staining method, as it allows application of statistical procedures and unbiased hit selection based on threshold values as well as distinction between compounds with strong or weak bioactivity. We show pilot screens for chemical activators or inhibitors of salicylic acid-mediated defense signaling using the Arabidopsis line expressing the SA-inducible PR1p::GUS reporter gene. Importantly, the screening methodology provided here can be adopted for any inducible GUS reporter line.

  14. COMMUNICATION ETHICS: MONITORING AS A COMPLEMENT TO SELF-REGULATION IN THE PURSUIT OF TRANSPARENCY IN THE NEWS INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Ramon A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on the role of communication ethics in the search for solutions to some of the problems in the journalistic arena today. Specifically, the article first examines the importance of applying the principle of transparency in the news industry. It then analyses the potential complementary role that monitoring processes can play in consolidating this transparency in the mass media business model. The present article attempts to propose a communication ethics model grounded on d...

  15. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003578.htm Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  16. Evaluation of the Data-Ray DR96L 4 x 3 Aspect Ratio, 22-Inch Diagonal Flat Screen Monochrome CRT Monitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Based on results of our evaluation of the third sample NIDL cannot certify the Data-Ray DR96L monochrome monitor as being suitable for suitable monoscopic or stereoscopic operation in IEC workstations...

  17. Fast and Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Screening for THC and 16 Other Abused Drugs and Metabolites in Human Hair to Monitor Patients for Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.

    Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,

  18. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Witten, Karen

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. In retrospect stakeholders questioned the decision to approve strong synthetic cannabinoid smoking products, noting their health risks because of product formulation, inconsistent manufacturing practices and smoking as the means of administration. Industry actors claimed the decision to approve synthetic cannabinoid smokeable products prevented potentially safer products from gaining market share. The system for withdrawing approved products which were subsequently found to be harmful was criticised for the poor quality of data available, limited engagement with health professionals and the slowness of product withdrawal. Many of the problems with the regime were attributed to the urgency under which the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act was established and implemented. The selection of 'safer' products, implementation of the product monitoring system, and engagement with health professionals may have benefited from more time and resources. An incremental approach to establishing the new market may have made the regulatory management of the new regime more workable. [Rychert M, Wilkins C, Witten K. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Assessing Drinking Water Quality and Water Safety Management in Sub-Saharan Africa Using Regulated Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Khush, Ranjiv

    2016-10-18

    Universal access to safe drinking water is prioritized in the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Collecting reliable and actionable water quality information in low-resource settings, however, is challenging, and little is known about the correspondence between water quality data collected by local monitoring agencies and global frameworks for water safety. Using 42 926 microbial water quality test results from 32 surveillance agencies and water suppliers in seven sub-Saharan African countries, we determined the degree to which water sources were monitored, how water quality varied by source type, and institutional responses to results. Sixty-four percent of the water samples were collected from piped supplies, although the majority of Africans rely on nonpiped sources. Piped supplies had the lowest levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) compared to any other source type: only 4% of samples of water piped to plots and 2% of samples from water piped to public taps/standpipes were positive for FIB (n = 14 948 and n = 12 278, respectively). Among other types of improved sources, samples from harvested rainwater and boreholes were less often positive for FIB (22%, n = 167 and 31%, n = 3329, respectively) than protected springs or protected dug wells (39%, n = 472 and 65%, n = 505). When data from different settings were aggregated, the FIB levels in different source types broadly reflected the source-type water safety framework used by the Joint Monitoring Programme. However, the insufficient testing of nonpiped sources relative to their use indicates important gaps in current assessments. Our results emphasize the importance of local data collection for water safety management and measurement of progress toward universal safe drinking water access.

  20. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  1. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Bobrov, A F; Sneve, M K

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical–Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. (paper)

  2. A Screen Identifies the Oncogenic Micro-RNA miR-378a-5p as a Negative Regulator of Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooistra, Susanne Marije; Rudkjær, Lise Christine; Lees, Michael James

    2014-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) can occur in response to hyperactive oncogenic signals and is believed to be a fail-safe mechanism protecting against tumorigenesis. To identify new factors involved in OIS, we performed a screen for microRNAs that can overcome or inhibit OIS in human diploid fib...

  3. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in a white European and South Asian population with impaired glucose regulation and screen-detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aujla, N.; Skinner, T. C.; Khunti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To compare the identification of prevalent depressive symptoms by the World Health Organization-5 Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for South Asian and white European people, male and female, attending a diabetes screening programme, and ...

  4. An siRNA-based functional genomics screen for the identification of regulators of ciliogenesis and ciliopathy genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheway, Gabrielle; Schmidts, Miriam; Mans, Dorus A; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Nguyen, Thanh-Minh T; Racher, Hilary; Phelps, Ian G; Toedt, Grischa; Kennedy, Julie; Wunderlich, Kirsten A; Sorusch, Nasrin; Abdelhamed, Zakia A; Natarajan, Subaashini; Herridge, Warren; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Horn, Nicola; Boldt, Karsten; Parry, David A; Letteboer, Stef J F; Roosing, Susanne; Adams, Matthew; Bell, Sandra M; Bond, Jacquelyn; Higgins, Julie; Morrison, Ewan E; Tomlinson, Darren C; Slaats, Gisela G; van Dam, Teunis J P; Huang, Lijia; Kessler, Kristin; Giessl, Andreas; Logan, Clare V; Boyle, Evan A; Shendure, Jay; Anazi, Shamsa; Aldahmesh, Mohammed; Al Hazzaa, Selwa; Hegele, Robert A; Ober, Carole; Frosk, Patrick; Mhanni, Aizeddin A; Chodirker, Bernard N; Chudley, Albert E; Lamont, Ryan; Bernier, Francois P; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Gordon, Paul; Pon, Richard T; Donahue, Clem; Barkovich, A James; Wolf, Louis; Toomes, Carmel; Thiel, Christian T; Boycott, Kym M; McKibbin, Martin; Inglehearn, Chris F; Stewart, Fiona; Omran, Heymut; Huynen, Martijn A; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Innes, A Micheil; Willoughby, Colin E; Giles, Rachel H; Webster, Andrew R; Ueffing, Marius; Blacque, Oliver; Gleeson, Joseph G; Wolfrum, Uwe; Beales, Philip L; Gibson, Toby; Doherty, Dan; Mitchison, Hannah M; Roepman, Ronald; Johnson, Colin A

    Defects in primary cilium biogenesis underlie the ciliopathies, a growing group of genetic disorders. We describe a whole-genome siRNA-based reverse genetics screen for defects in biogenesis and/or maintenance of the primary cilium, obtaining a global resource. We identify 112 candidate ciliogenesis

  5. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  6. A rapid screening method to monitor expression of various recombinant proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jebanathirajah, J.A.; Andersen, S.; Blagoev, B.

    2002-01-01

    Rapid methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to monitor recombinant protein expression from various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture systems were devised. Intracellular as well as secreted proteins from both induced and constitutive...

  7. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  8. A Non-invasive and Real-time Monitoring of the Regulation of Photosynthetic Metabolism Biosensor Based on Measurement of Delayed Fluorescence in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new principle biosensor for non-invasive monitoring of theregulation of photosynthetic metabolism based on quantitative measurement of delayedfluorescence (DF is developed. The biosensor, which uses light-emitting diode lattice asexcitation light source and a compact Single Photon Counting Module to collect DF signal,is portable and can evaluate plant photosynthesis capacity in vivo. Compared with itsprimary version in our previous report, the biosensor can better control environmentalfactors. Moreover, the improved biosensor can automatically complete the measurements oflight and CO2 response curves of DF intensity. In the experimental study, the testing of theimproved biosensor has been made in soybean (Glycine max Zaoshu No. 18 seedlingstreated with NaHSO3 to induce changes in seedlings growth and photosynthetic metabolism.Contrast evaluations of seedlings photosynthesis were made from measurements of netphotosynthesis rate (Pn based on consumption of CO2 in tested plants. Current testingresults have demonstrated that the improved biosensor can accurately determine theregulatory effects of NaHSO3 on photosynthetic metabolism. Therefore, the biosensorpresented here could be potential useful for real-time monitoring the regulatory effects ofplant growth regulators (PGRs and other exogenous chemical factors on plant growth andphotosynthetic metabolism.

  9. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Peletz, Rachel; Bonham, Mateyo; Fay, Annette; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Khush, Ranjiv

    2015-09-02

    Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT) tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l'Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts.

  10. When Are Mobile Phones Useful for Water Quality Data Collection? An Analysis of Data Flows and ICT Applications among Regulated Monitoring Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kumpel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality monitoring is important for identifying public health risks and ensuring water safety. However, even when water sources are tested, many institutions struggle to access data for immediate action or long-term decision-making. We analyzed water testing structures among 26 regulated water suppliers and public health surveillance agencies across six African countries and identified four water quality data management typologies. Within each typology, we then analyzed the potential for information and communication technology (ICT tools to facilitate water quality information flows. A consistent feature of all four typologies was that testing activities occurred in laboratories or offices, not at water sources; therefore, mobile phone-based data management may be most beneficial for institutions that collect data from multiple remote laboratories. We implemented a mobile phone application to facilitate water quality data collection within the national public health agency in Senegal, Service National de l’Hygiène. Our results indicate that using the phones to transmit more than just water quality data will likely improve the effectiveness and sustainability of this type of intervention. We conclude that an assessment of program structure, particularly its data flows, provides a sound starting point for understanding the extent to which ICTs might strengthen water quality monitoring efforts.

  11. Longitudinal Monitoring of Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain During Physical Therapy Treatment Using the STarT Back Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Preplanned secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Background The STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST) was developed to screen and to classify patients with low back pain into subgroups for the risk of having a poor prognosis. However, this classification at baseline does not take into account variables that can influence the prognosis during treatment or over time. Objectives (1) To investigate the changes in risk subgroup measured by the SBST over a period of 6 months, and (2) to assess the long-term predictive ability of the SBST when administered at different time points. Methods Patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (n = 148) receiving physical therapy care as part of a randomized trial were analyzed. Pain intensity, disability, global perceived effect, and the SBST were collected at baseline, 5 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Changes in SBST risk classification were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders were built to analyze the predictive capabilities of the SBST when administered at different time points. Results A large proportion of patients (60.8%) changed their risk subgroup after receiving physical therapy care. The SBST improved the prediction for all 6-month outcomes when using the 5-week risk subgroup and the difference between baseline and 5-week subgroup, after controlling for potential confounders. The SBST at baseline did not improve the predictive ability of the models after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion This study shows that many patients change SBST risk subgroup after receiving physical therapy care, and that the predictive ability of the SBST in patients with chronic low back pain increases when administered at different time points. Level of Evidence Prognosis, 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(5):314-323. Epub 29 Mar 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7199.

  12. Employee Screening : Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang; Peter Cappelli

    2007-01-01

    Arguably the fundamental problem faced by employers is how to elicit effort from employees. Most models suggest that employers meet this challenge by monitoring employees carefully to prevent shirking. But there is another option that relies on heterogeneity across employees, and that is to screen job candidates to find workers with a stronger work ethic who require less monitoring. This should be especially useful in work systems where monitoring by supervisors is more difficult, such as tea...

  13. Quality is the key for emerging issues of population-based colonoscopy screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Yoon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is currently regarded as the gold standard and preferred method of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, the benefit of colonoscopy screening may be blunted by low participation rates in population-based screening programs. Harmful effects of population-based colonoscopy screening may include complications induced by colonoscopy itself and by sedation, psychosocial distress, potential over-diagnosis, and socioeconomic burden. In addition, harmful effects of colonoscopy may increase with age and comorbidities. As the risk of adverse events in population-based colonoscopy screening may offset the benefit, the adverse events should be managed and monitored. To adopt population-based colonoscopy screening, consensus on the risks and benefits should be developed, focusing on potential harm, patient preference, socioeconomic considerations, and quality improvement of colonoscopy, as well as efficacy for CRC prevention. As suboptimal colonoscopy quality is a major pitfall of population-based screening, adequate training and regulation of screening colonoscopists should be the first step in minimizing variations in quality. Gastroenterologists should promote quality improvement, auditing, and training for colonoscopy in a population-based screening program.

  14. Screening and monitoring of MPL W515L mutation with real-time PCR in patients with myelofibrosis undergoing allogeneic-SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alchalby, H; Badbaran, A; Bock, O; Fehse, B; Bacher, U; Zander, A R; Kröger, N

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) after allogeneic (allo)-SCT for myelofibrosis (MF) allows recognizing the depth of remission and thus guides application of appropriate therapeutic interventions. MPL W515L/K mutations, which are detected in 5-10% of JAK2V617F-negative patients, may be useful for this purpose. Using a highly sensitive quantitative PCR method, we tested 90 patients with MF who underwent allo-SCT for the presence of MPL W515L/K mutations. Two patients with primary MF were found to harbor MPLW515L while no patient was positive for MPLW515K mutation. Both patients were JAK2V617F negative and cleared the mutation rapidly after allo-SCT and remained negative for a median follow-up of 19 months. The results of molecular monitoring correlated well with other remission parameters such as normalization of peripheral blood counts and morphology and complete donor chimerism. We conclude that MPLW515L can be cleared after allo-SCT and hence may be used as an MRD marker in a proportion of JAK2V617F-negative MF patients.

  15. Genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, biosynthetic, and tRNA methylation genes involved in life span regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved.

  16. Genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, biosynthetic, and tRNA methylation genes involved in life span regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Paola; Hoon, Shawn; Shamalnasab, Mehrnaz; Galbani, Abdulaye; Wei, Min; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Longo, Valter D

    2010-07-15

    The study of the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which measures the survival of populations of non-dividing yeast, has resulted in the identification of homologous genes and pathways that promote aging in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Using a competitive genome-wide approach, we performed a screen of a complete set of approximately 4,800 viable deletion mutants to identify genes that either increase or decrease chronological life span. Half of the putative short-/long-lived mutants retested from the primary screen were confirmed, demonstrating the utility of our approach. Deletion of genes involved in vacuolar protein sorting, autophagy, and mitochondrial function shortened life span, confirming that respiration and degradation processes are essential for long-term survival. Among the genes whose deletion significantly extended life span are ACB1, CKA2, and TRM9, implicated in fatty acid transport and biosynthesis, cell signaling, and tRNA methylation, respectively. Deletion of these genes conferred heat-shock resistance, supporting the link between life span extension and cellular protection observed in several model organisms. The high degree of conservation of these novel yeast longevity determinants in other species raises the possibility that their role in senescence might be conserved.

  17. Screen dealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The screen dealing system provides a facility whereby buyers and sellers of spot thermal coal can make bids and offers via the medium of the Reuters screen. A sale results when a market participant notifies his acceptance of a price to a central dealing desk. Use of the system is available to all genuine participants in the coal trade. This paper reports that it provides a focus for information and for the visible making of coal prices. For years screen trading has been used successfully to trade other commodities. At last coal is being traded electronically. It makes sense. It works. Users like it

  18. Post-acquisition data processing for the screening of transformation products of different organic contaminants. Two-year monitoring of river water using LC-ESI-QTOF-MS and GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S Herrera; Ulaszewska, M M; Hernando, M D; Martínez Bueno, M J; Gómez, M J; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a comprehensive strategy for detecting and elucidating the chemical structures of expected and unexpected transformation products (TPs) from chemicals found in river water and effluent wastewater samples, using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS), with post-acquisition data processing and an automated search using an in-house database. The efficacy of the mass defect filtering (MDF) approach to screen metabolites from common biotransformation pathways was tested, and it was shown to be sufficiently sensitive and applicable for detecting metabolites in environmental samples. Four omeprazole metabolites and two venlafaxine metabolites were identified in river water samples. This paper reports the analytical results obtained during 2 years of monitoring, carried out at eight sampling points along the Henares River (Spain). Multiresidue monitoring, for targeted analysis, includes a group of 122 chemicals, amongst which are pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and PAHs. For this purpose, two analytical methods were used based on direct injection with a LC-ESI-QTOF-MS system and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with bi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight spectrometer (GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS).

  19. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Airport Screening Fact Sheet Adopted: May 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan ... a safe level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum ...

  20. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  1. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  2. Operation and monitoring guidelines and the development of a screening tool for irrigating with coal mine water in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of impacted mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa. The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Detailed research has been undertaken over the past number of years onl both undisturbed soils and in coal-mining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that over the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts are contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From these data mixing ratios were calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers. One of the outcomes from this study was to define the conditions under which mine-water irrigation can be implemented and the associated operational and monitoring guidelines that should be followed. These have been based on the findings from this study, the fundamental considerations of mine-water irrigation, the regulatory environment and, as far as possible, the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management. In an attempt to standardise decision-making regarding mine-water irrigation, the criteria, data, rules and fundamentals discussed have been combined in a user-friendly tool, called GIMI (Groundwater Impacts from Minewater Irrigation). This tool should assist in the practical implementation of mine-water irrigation as part of optimal mine-water management.

  3. Simple beam profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B. [ASD Inc. Garden Bay, BC (Canada); Best Theratronics Ltd Ottawa Ontario (Canada); PharmaSpect Ltd., Burnaby BC (Canada)

    2012-12-19

    An inexpensive beam profile monitor is based on the well proven rotating wire method. The monitor can display beam position and shape in real time for particle beams of most energies and beam currents up to 200{mu}A. Beam shape, position cross-section and other parameters are displayed on a computer screen.

  4. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  5. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  6. Comparison between xCELLigence biosensor technology and conventional cell culture system for real-time monitoring human tenocytes proliferation and drugs cytotoxicity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Lei, Kin Fong; Yeh, Wen-Ling; Chen, Poyu; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu

    2017-10-16

    tenocytes could proliferate inside xCELLigence system. These responses varied when tenocytes were exposed to different concentrations of ketorolac tromethamine, bupivacaine, methylprednisolone, and betamethasone. The result of cell proliferation and gene expression of tenocytes in both xCELLigence and conventional culture system is strongly correlated. xCELLigence culture system may replace conventional cell culture, which made real-time tenocyte proliferation monitoring possible.

  7. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  8. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  9. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  10. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  11. Screening Risk Evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) Guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on D ampersand D facilities. These guidelines are designed specifically for the completion of the second (semi-quantitative screening) phase of the D ampersand D Risk-Based Process. The SRE Guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the risk to human health and the environment from ongoing or probable releases within a one year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the risk to workers, occupants, and visitors in D ampersand D facilities of contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risk-to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. The index of Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, determined on a project by project basis. The SRE is the first and most important step in the overall D ampersand D project level decision making process

  12. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  13. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  14. Process monitoring by display devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerdinger, C.; Schattner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of extensive automation, regulating, protection and limiting devices and the application of ergonomic principles (e.g. the increased use of mimic diagrams) has led to plant being capable of continued operation. German nuclear power stations are in top position worldwide as regards safety and availability. However, there is already a requirement to overcome the unmanageable state due to the large number and miniaturization of elements by renewed efforts. An attempt at this made with conventional technology is represented by a mimic board, which was provided in a powerstation just being set to work. Such mimic boards give the opportunity of monitoring the most important parameters at a glance but there are limits to their use due to the large space required. The use of VDU screens represents a possibility of solving this problem. (orig./DG) [de

  15. 48 CFR 245.608 - Screening of contractor inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening of contractor inventory. 245.608 Section 245.608 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.608 Screening of contractor inventory. ...

  16. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers; Bilan 2000 et reglementation et methode. Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  17. Facilitating Socio-Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Monitoring in Collaborative Learning with a Regulation Macro Script--An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näykki, Piia; Isohätälä, Jaana; Järvelä, Sanna; Pöysä-Tarhonen, Johanna; Häkkinen, Päivi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines student teachers' collaborative learning by focusing on socio-cognitive and socio-emotional monitoring processes during more and less active script discussions as well as the near transfer of monitoring activities in the subsequent task work. The participants of this study were teacher education students whose collaborative…

  18. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  19. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  20. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  1. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  2. New Technologies in Screening for Disease Risk: Implications for the Worksite and for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    The screening of workers for health problems has been ubiquitous in the worksite for many years. These screening procedures may have ethical and policy implications. Three common types of screening in use include pre-employment, early identification of health problems, and employee monitoring. Pre-employment screening may be used to screen out…

  3. Pennsylvania's experience in mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    A policy statement issued in 1972 by the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare recommended that community chest x-ray surveys should not be used as a screening procedure for the detection of cardiopulmonary disorders and that when chest x-ray screening programs are justified for selected population groups, the full size photograph, rather than the miniature film, is preferred. A survey conducted in 1974--75 revealed that chest x rays were required for prisoners, prison employees, school employees, food handlers, and students who wished to participate in sports. Meetings were held with medical associations in the hope of stopping the local mass-screening operations. Of 27 groups in Pennsylvania involved in tuberculosis screening, 12 groups refused or were unwilling to phase out their photofluorographic procedures. The problem will be resolved by regulation

  4. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  5. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  6. Program of environmental radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirement of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 5.14, related to the Program of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (PMRA)

  7. 40 CFR 143.4 - Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring. 143.4 Section 143.4... SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.4 Monitoring. (a) It is recommended that the parameters in these regulations should be monitored at intervals no less frequent than the monitoring performed for inorganic...

  8. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  9. On the usability of frequency distributions and source attribution of Cs-137 detections encountered in the IMS radio-nuclide network for radionuclide event screening and climate change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Wotawa, G.; Zähringer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Under the provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), airborne radioactivity is measured by means of high purity Germanium gamma ray detectors deployed in a global monitoring network. Almost 60 of the scheduled 80 stations have been put in provisional operations by the end of 2008. Each station daily sends the 24 hour samples' spectroscopic data to the Vienna based Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) for review for treaty-relevant nuclides. Cs-137 is one of these relevant isotopes. Its typical minimum detectable concentration is in the order of a few Bq/m3. However, this isotope is also known to occur in atmospheric trace concentrations, due to known non CTBT relevant processes and sources related to, for example, the re-suspension of cesium from historic nuclear tests and/or the Chernobyl reactor disaster, temporarily enhanced by bio-mass burning (Wotawa et al. 2006). Properly attributed cesium detections can be used as a proxy to detect Aeolian dust events (Igarashi et al, 2001) that potentially carry cesium from all aforementioned sources but are also known to play an important role for the radiative forcing in the atmosphere (shadow effect), at the surface (albedo) and the carbon dioxide cycle when interacting with oceanic phytoplankton (Mikami and Shi, 2005). In this context this paper provides a systematic attribution of recent Cs-137 detections in the PTS monitoring network in order to Characterize those stations which are regularly affected by Cs-137 Provide input for procedures that distinguish CTBT relevant detection from other sources (event screening) Explore on the capability of certain stations to use their Cs-137 detections as a proxy to detect aeolian dust events and to flag the belonging filters to be relevant for further investigations in this field (-> EGU-2009 Session CL16/AS4.6/GM10.1: Aeolian dust: initiator, player, and recorder of environmental change). References Igarashi, Y., M

  10. Effects of Online Note Taking Formats and Self-Monitoring Prompts on Learning from Online Text: Using Technology to Enhance Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng; Yang, Ya-Shu

    2011-01-01

    This study explored conditions under which note taking methods and self-monitoring prompts are most effective for facilitating information collection and achievement in an online learning environment. In experiment 1 30 students collected notes from a website using an online conventional, outline, or matrix note taking tool. In experiment 2 119…

  11. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  12. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  13. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  16. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer in Italy: 2011-2012 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Mangone, Lucia; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Baracco, Susanna; Borciani, Elisabetta; Caldarella, Adele; Falcini, Fabio; Fanetti, Anna Clara; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Michiara, Maria; Randi, Giorgia; Stracci, Fabrizio; Vicentini, Massimo; Zucchetto, Antonella; Zappa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The impact of organized screening programmes on colorectal cancer (CRC) can be observed at a population level only several years after the implementation of screening. We compared CRC characteristics by diagnostic modality (screen-detected, non-screen-detected) as an early outcome to monitor screening programme effectiveness. Data on CRCs diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 were collected by several cancer registries. Linkage with screening datasets made it possible to divide the cases by geographic area, implementation of screening, and modality of diagnosis (screen-detected, non-screen-detected).We compared the main characteristics of the different subgroups of CRCs through multivariate logistic regression models. The study included 23,668 CRCs diagnosed in subjects aged 50-69 years, of which 11.9% were screen-detected (N=2,806), all from the North-Centre of Italy. Among screen-detected CRCs, we observed a higher proportion of males, of cases in the distal colon, and a higher mean age of the patients. Compared with pre-screening cases, screen-detected CRCs showed a better distribution by stage at diagnosis (OR for stage III or IV: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.36-0.44) and grading (OR for poorly differentiated CRCs was 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-1.00). Screen-detected CRCs have more favourable prognostic characteristics than non-screen-detected cases. A renewed effort to implement screening programmes throughout the entire country is recommended.

  18. Using the WTO/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio Borges Menezes, Rodrigo; Maria de Souza Antunes, Adelaide

    2005-04-01

    The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities. The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well understood in the United States and recently in the European Union. In less developed countries, however, the general level of public understanding of these issues is still minimal. It is common knowledge that the so-called "regulatory asymmetry" between countries at different levels of development contributes to the establishment of technical barriers to trade. Such asymmetries, however, also have other impacts: the displacement of polluting industrial sectors to countries which have less demanding regulations, the concentration of unsafe and harmful environmental conditions in certain parts of the globe, and the competitive disadvantage for industries located in countries where control is more rigid. This study analyses information on a wide range of technical regulations issued by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, and focuses on those regulations that affect the chemical industry. This information is available through the WTO Enquiry Points, organizations created in each country to administrate the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT). This article consists of an analysis of 4,301 notifications of technical regulations by WTO member states in the 7-year period following the establishment of the WTO in 1995. Starting from this mass of information, 585 notifications that affect the circulation or use of chemical products were isolated. Of this group, 71% refer to only 15 countries. This group of notifications was further classified according to their motivation (the environment, health, safety), by the type of product affected (medications, fuels

  19. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  20. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  1. The LEP injection monitors: Design and first results with beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, G.; Colchester, R.; Fischer, C.; Halvarsson, B.; Hemery, J.Y.; Jung, R.; Levitt, S.; Vouillot, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The LEP injection monitors comprise of split foil monitors, luminescent screens and beam stoppers. The monitors are described with particular emphasis on their special features. These include: their low loss factors, their protection against synchrotron radiation and the screen read-out with a CCD chip. The results obtained during the positron injection tests in LEP in July 1988 are reported. 8 figs

  2. Screening physical health? Yes! But...: nurses' views on physical health screening in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Scott, David; Nankivell, Janette; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2013-08-01

    To explore nurses' views on the role of nurses in screening and monitoring for physical care of consumers with serious mental illness, at a regional mental health care service. People with serious mental illness experience heightened incidence of preventable and treatable physical illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Screening and monitoring are considered universal clinical safeguards. Nurses can potentially facilitate systematic screening, but their views on physical health care practices are rarely investigated. Qualitative exploratory study. Focus group interviews with 38 nurses of a regional mental health care service district of Australia. To facilitate discussion, participants were presented with a screening system, called the Health Improvement Profile (HIP), as an exemplar of screening of physical health risks by nurses. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analysis framework. Nurses argued that treatable and preventable physical health problems were common. Four main themes were identified: screening - essential for good practice; the policy-practice gap; 'screening then what?' and, is HIP the answer? Screening and monitoring were considered crucial to proper diagnosis and treatment, however, were not performed systematically or consistently. Nurse readiness for an enhanced role in screening was shaped by: role and responsibility issues, legal liability concerns, funding and staff shortages. Participants were concerned that lack of follow up would limit effectiveness of these interventions. Screening was considered an important clinical step in effective diagnosis and treatment; however, identified barriers need to be addressed to ensure screening is part of a systemic approach to improve physical health of consumers with serious mental illness. Nurses have potential to influence improvement in physical health outcomes for consumers of mental health services. Such potential can only be realised if a

  3. Inspection and market-based regulation through emissions trading. The striking reliance on self-monitoring, self-reporting and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, M.

    2006-01-01

    This contribution discusses inspection with regard to emissions trading. It focuses on the EU greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. The core rule of emissions trading is that industries need to cover their emissions with tradable emission rights. There are several options for the government to distribute those rights, basically through a free allocation or an auction. The need to cover emissions with a tradable right gives a financial incentive to firms to choose for the reduction of emissions, of course related to the market price of the tradable right. This price-incentive at the same time urges governments to put in place a sound enforcement approach. One of the characteristics of current emissions trading schemes is that they heavily rely on self-monitoring duties. Nevertheless, the ultimate responsibility to inspect rests on the government. However, with the introduction of emissions trading a remarkable shift takes place: instead of the more traditional control of the actual behaviour of industries, inspection by the government ranges under the greenhouse gas emissions-trading instrument much more towards the control of self-monitoring activities. The use of verifiers within the EU greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme is in this respect a unique new provision, but at the same time raises many practical and fundamental questions.

  4. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  5. CEMs turn monitoring giant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Crucial to complying with environmental regulations is selecting appropriate pollution control equipment to capture or destroy regulated pollutants. But just as important is selecting a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEM). CEMs play a dual role in an overall compliance strategy. On one hand, they identify the type and quantity of emissions at a source as a first step for determining which regulatory requirements and control technologies are applicable. They also provide ongoing emissions data to demonstrate compliance with air and other environmental regulations. Facilities are required to monitor their processes with CEMs, or a comparable technology, under several titles of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. CEMs meet regulatory requirements if they include a SO 2 concentration monitor, nitrogen oxides (NO x ) concentration monitor, volumetric flow monitor, opacity monitor, diluent gas monitor and data acquisition and handling system. The entire system and each subsystem has to be installed and certified before it can be used for compliance. A written quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) plan for the CEMs must accompany the permit application. The acid rain rules also impose performance standards and frequent calibration checks to ensure the integrity of CEMs data

  6. An intelligent fetal monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, J.; Akatsuka, T.; Kubo, T.; Iwasaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    An intelligent monitoring system is constructed by a multi-micro-computer system. The monitoring signals are fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) through the conventional monitoring device for a day until the delivery. These signals are fed to a micro-computer in digital format, and evaluated by the computer in real time according to the diagnostic algorithm of the expert physician. Monitoring signals are always displayed on the CRT screen and in the case of dangerous state of the fetus, warning signal will appear on the screen and the doctor or nurse will be called. All these signals are sent to the next micro-computer with 10MB hard disk system. On this computer, the doctor and nurse can retrieve and inspect the details of the process by clock-key and/or events-key. After finishing monitoring process, summarized report is constructed and printed out on the paper

  7. Portal monitoring for detecting fissile materials and chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1992-01-01

    The portal monitoring of pedestrians, packages, equipment, and vehicles entering or leaving areas of high physical security has been common for many years. Many nuclear facilities rely on portal monitoring to prevent the theft or diversion of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. At commercial airports, portals are used to prevent firearms and explosives from being smuggled onto airplanes. An August 1989 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulation requires US airlines to screen luggage on international flights for chemical explosives. This paper reports that portal monitoring is now being introduced into arms-control agreements. Because some of the portal-monitoring equipment that would be useful in verifying arms-control agreements is already widely used as part of the physical security systems at nuclear facilities and commercial airports, the authors review these uses of portal monitoring, as well as its role in verifying the INF treaty. Then the authors survey the major types of portal-monitoring equipment that would be most useful in detecting nuclear warheads or fissile material

  8. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999; Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA. Bilan et reglementation et methode 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  9. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  10. Oenorm S 5220-1: monitoring of persons with regard to incorporated radioactive materials. Part 1: General necessity and frequency, a regulation in Austria to protect workers from occupational internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Brandl, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intake of non-sealed radioactive material (incorporation) results in people's internal exposure to radioactivity. The basic requirements for incorporation monitoring provided by Part 1 of OENORM S 5220 are intended to contain internal exposures within the limits set forth in EC-Regulation 96/29/Euratom. In particular, it enables the user to determine the internal exposure contribution to the effective dose and to prove at any time that dose limits for equivalent and effective dose have not been exceeded and conditions at the work place have not changed unexpectedly. The OENORM discussed in this paper can be used by the competent authorities as a basis for their determination of the permissibility of the work with non-sealed radioactive material in a certain work place. Based on the OENORM, they can ensure standardized physical radiation protection after incorporation of radionuclides and the calculation of the resulting equivalent and effective doses according to consistent criteria. In the case where the work with non-sealed radioactive material has previously been permitted, the competent authorities can re-evaluate the necessity, the frequency, and the optimal method for incorporation monitoring. Two different kinds of laboratories are envisioned in this standards series to perform the necessary measurements

  11. Active versus passive screening for entrance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits of different entrance control actions are quantitatively assessed by defining a relative improvement index for the screening activity. Three classes of entrance control measures are investigated: the use of a purely active screening measure (such as a portal monitor), the use of a purely passive screening measure (such as personality typing), and the combined use of active and passive measures. Active entrance control measures have been studied previously [McCormick and Erdmann, Nucl. Mat. Manag. 4, (1975)] where it was determined that the relative improvement index is approximately related to the nondetection probability factor r for the protective system by (1-r + r ln r). It is shown here that the relative improvement index for a purely passive screening system also can be approximately expressed in a convenient manner. Because the probability is very small that a sabotage or diversion action would be attempted, the result for passive screening, multiplied by r, may be combined with the factor (1-r + r ln r) to give the relative improvement index for a combined, active-and-passive entrance control system. Results from simple example calculations indicate that passive screening of nuclear plant personnel or applicants for such positions is orders-of-magnitude less effective than portal monitors or reasonable improvements in them. 5 tables

  12. Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poses no physical risks for you or your baby. While prenatal cell-free DNA screening might cause anxiety, it might help you avoid the need for more invasive tests, treatment or monitoring during your pregnancy. Keep in mind, however, that ...

  13. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Glaucoma The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Glaucoma . This final recommendation statement ...

  14. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  15. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  17. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  18. Comparison of field screening techniques with fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, C.; Turriff, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of four field screening techniques. Field screenings, is an important part of conducting cost-effective and comprehensive site investigations. Regulators limit the use of field screening in lieu of laboratory analyses, in part, because there is little information on the accuracy and precision of field screening techniques. The results here represent a step forward towards a better understanding of the accuracy and practicality of field screening methods. The authors hope that the role of field screening in site investigation will increase as this type of information becomes more available. Innovative techniques for homogenizing soils were used to allow simultaneous analysis of hydrocarbon contaminated soils using field GCs, immunoassays, ''jar headspace'' and ''Lab in a Bag.'' The results shown here illustrate the variability of field screening results and the importance of good method development and operator competency. Certainly more work in this area is needed to truly characterize field screening techniques

  19. Comparative difficulty and the strategic regulation of accuracy: the impact of test-list context on monitoring and meta-metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle M; Prike, Toby

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research has shown that context manipulations can have little or no impact on accuracy performance, yet still significantly influence metacognitive performance. For example, participants in a test-list context paradigm study one list of words with a medium levels-of-processing task and a second word list with either a shallow or deep task: Recognition for medium words does not differ across conditions, however medium words are significantly more likely to be labeled as "remembered" (vs. merely familiar) if they had been studied with a shallow word list (Bodner & Lindsay, 2003). The goal of the current studies was to extend the test-list context paradigm to strategic regulation (report/withhold recognition test), and broaden it to incorporate different types of stimuli (i.e., face stimuli in place of a medium word list). The paradigm also was modified to include separate answer (studied/new) confidence and decision (report/withhold) confidence ratings at test. Results showed that context did not impact recognition accuracy for faces across the context conditions, however participants were more likely to report (i.e., volunteer) their face responses if they had studied the shallow word list. The results also demonstrated a difference between answer confidence and decision confidence, and the pattern of this difference depended on whether responses were reported or withheld (Experiment 1). Overall, the data are presented as support for the functional account of memory, which views memory states as inferential and attributional rather than static categories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lon protease modulates virulence traits in Erwinia amylovora by direct monitoring of major regulators and indirectly through the Rcs and Gac-Csr regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Ancona, Veronica; Zhao, Youfu

    2018-04-01

    Lon, an ATP-dependent protease in bacteria, influences diverse cellular processes by degrading damaged, misfolded and short-lived regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of lon mutation and determined the molecular mechanisms underlying Lon-mediated virulence regulation in Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterial pathogen of apple. Erwinia amylovora depends on the type III secretion system (T3SS) and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran to cause disease. Our results showed that mutation of the lon gene led to the overproduction of amylovoran, increased T3SS gene expression and the non-motile phenotype. Western blot analyses showed that mutation in lon directly affected the accumulation and stability of HrpS/HrpA and RcsA. Mutation in lon also indirectly influenced the expression of flhD, hrpS and csrB through the accumulation of the RcsA/RcsB proteins, which bind to the promoter of these genes. In addition, lon expression is under the control of CsrA, possibly at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although mutation in csrA abolished both T3SS and amylovoran production, deletion of the lon gene in the csrA mutant only rescued amylovoran production, but not T3SS. These results suggest that CsrA might positively control both T3SS and amylovoran production partly by suppressing Lon, whereas CsrA may also play a critical role in T3SS by affecting unknown targets. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  1. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a data collecting section for periodically collecting processed data sent from plant equipments, a top node induction and processing section for an important plant function model for inducing the plant function to be noted particularly by an operator from important plant function models by using process data and a window screen selection section for selecting a window screen to be displayed based on the result of the evaluation for each of function nodes based on the processing described above and determining the layout and automatically forming the display screen. It is constituted so that the kind and the layout of the window under display are checked if they are the same as those one cycle before or not and, if they are different, the screen is automatically switched to a new screen display. Then, operator's psychological burdens such as selection of information and judgement for the operation upon occurrence of plant abnormality and accident can be mitigated, to provide a safe operation circumstance having reinforced monitoring of the function of the whole plant can be provided. (N.H.)

  2. MifM monitors total YidC activities of Bacillus subtilis, including that of YidC2, the target of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shinobu; Ito, Koreaki

    2015-01-01

    The YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 family proteins are involved in membrane protein biogenesis in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Recent studies show that YidC uses a channel-independent mechanism to insert a class of membrane proteins into the membrane. Bacillus subtilis has two YidC homologs, SpoIIIJ (YidC1) and YidC2 (YqjG); the former is expressed constitutively, while the latter is induced when the SpoIIIJ activity is compromised. MifM is a substrate of SpoIIIJ, and its failure in membrane insertion is accompanied by stable ribosome stalling on the mifM-yidC2 mRNA, which ultimately facilitates yidC2 translation. While mutational inactivation of SpoIIIJ has been known to induce yidC2 expression, here, we show that the level of this induction is lower than that observed when the membrane insertion signal of MifM is defective. Moreover, this partial induction of YidC2 translation is lowered further when YidC2 is overexpressed in trans. These results suggest that YidC2 is able to insert MifM into the membrane and to release its translation arrest. Thus, under SpoIIIJ-deficient conditions, YidC2 expression is subject to MifM-mediated autogenous feedback repression. Our results show that YidC2 uses a mechanism that is virtually identical to that used by SpoIIIJ; Arg75 of YidC2 in its intramembrane yet hydrophilic cavity is functionally indispensable and requires negatively charged residues of MifM as an insertion substrate. From these results, we conclude that MifM monitors the total activities of the SpoIIIJ and the YidC2 pathways to control the synthesis of YidC2 and to maintain the cellular capability of the YidC mode of membrane protein biogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations: A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Bleymann, Kayleigh; Lyall, Elaine; Aslam, Fouad; Bam, Tara Singh; Chowdhury, Ishrat; Daouda, Elhadj Adam; Espinosa, Mariana; Romo, Jonathan; Singh, Rana J; Semple, Sean

    2016-05-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high. Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day. Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5% in India to 72% in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P hospitality venues in LMICs. Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  4. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio

  5. Self and External Monitoring of Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ling-po; Chen, Qishan

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effectiveness of 2 approaches to remedy the inaccuracy of self-monitoring of reading comprehension. The first approach attempts to enhance self-monitoring by strengthening the cues utilized in monitoring. The second approach replaces self-monitoring with external regulation based on objective evaluative information.…

  6. Installation of beam screens in LHC arc cryomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Cruikshank, P; Schneider, G; Veness, R J M

    1999-01-01

    Beam screens will be installed in the cold bores of the LHC arc cryodipoles and Short Straight Sections (SSS). This note describes the constraints on the beam screen installation imposed by the beam vacuum interconnects and Beam Position Monitors (BPM), and explains the installation scenario which has been adopted.

  7. Genetic and pharmacological screens converge in identifying FLIP, BCL2 and IAP proteins as key regulators of sensitivity to the TRAIL-inducing anti-cancer agent ONC201/TIC10

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua E.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, AP; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Fritz, Jennifer L.; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 sile...

  8. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...... to screen for cognitive dysfunction in UD, and their associations with socio-occupational capacity. METHOD: Participants (n=53) with UD in partial or full remission and healthy control persons (n=103) were assessed with two new screening instruments, the Danish translations of the Screen for Cognitive...... Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-D) and Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and with established neuropsychological and self-assessment measures. Depression symptoms and socio-occupational function were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Functional Assessment...

  9. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  10. [Technology and prevention in the era of mobile health: applications for cancer screening programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Clemente, Salvatore; Villa, Giulia; Siliquini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The Italian national health system provides screening to detect breast, colorecatal and cervical cancers, however, population adherence is not as high as expected. Smartphones and their applications (apps) could be used as a tool to communicate with the population and to help improve adherence. The aim of this study was to analyze the features and functions of smartphone applications aimed at secondary prevention of oncological diseases. In February 2016, we reviewed online app stores, using specific key-words, to search for available apps for cancer screening. We identified 32 apps meeting our inclusion criteria. The most frequent types of app are breast cancer (13/32) and cervical cancer (4/32) screening apps. We also found apps addressing secondary prevention of cancers for which screening is not provided to the Italian population (melanoma, prostate cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma). The most common features are: information providers (22/32), risk calculators (10/32), reminders for appointments and tests (7/32). Only one app has been validated for diagnostic accuracy or utility using established international certification (CE Marking). The results show a large potential for development and utilization of applications in secondary prevention. Despite their potential usefulness, there are also disadvantages such as language barriers (only 2 of 32 apps are in Italian), and the digital divide. Future efforts should focus on improving education regarding approaches to technologies, strengthen national and international regulations and monitoring inequalities in access to services.

  11. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen practice...... to the dispositif of screen practice in curating, resulting in a medium-based curatorial discourse. With reference to the nomadic exhibition project Nordic Outbreak that I co-curated with Nina Colosi in 2013 and 2014, I suggest that the topos of the defined visual display area, frequently still known as "the screen...

  12. Mammography screening: A major issue in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is declining in most high-income countries. The role of mammography screening in these declines is much debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the incidence of number of advanced cancers with poor prognosis, while therapies and patient management impact cancer mortality through decreasing the fatality of cancers. The effectiveness of cancer screening is the ability of a screening method to curb the incidence of advanced cancers in populations. Methods for evaluating cancer screening effectiveness are based on the monitoring of age-adjusted incidence rates of advanced cancers that should decrease after the introduction of screening. Likewise, cancer-specific mortality rates should decline more rapidly in areas with screening than in areas without or with lower levels of screening but where patient management is similar. These two criteria have provided evidence that screening for colorectal and cervical cancer contributes to decreasing the mortality associated with these two cancers. In contrast, screening for neuroblastoma in children was discontinued in the early 2000s because these two criteria were not met. In addition, overdiagnosis - i.e. the detection of non-progressing occult neuroblastoma that would not have been life-threatening during the subject's lifetime - is a major undesirable consequence of screening. Accumulating epidemiological data show that in populations where mammography screening has been widespread for a long time, there has been no or only a modest decline in the incidence of advanced cancers, including that of de novo metastatic (stage IV) cancers at diagnosis. Moreover, breast cancer mortality reductions are similar in areas with early introduction and high penetration of screening and in areas with late introduction and low penetration of screening. Overdiagnosis is commonplace, representing 20% or more of all breast cancers among women invited to screening and 30-50% of screen

  13. Environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of one environmental monitoring program for nuclear facilities, are presented. The program in Federal Republic of Germany, its goals, its basic conditions, its regulations, and its dose limits are emphasized. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Smart material screening machines using smart materials and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Corradi, Gary; Waigand, Al

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this product is to address the specific need for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness in physical separation technologies in the screening areas. Currently, the mining industry uses approximately 33 billion kW-hr per year, costing 1.65 billion dollars at 0.05 cents per kW-hr, of electrical energy for physical separations. Even though screening and size separations are not the single most energy intensive process in the mining industry, they are often the major bottleneck in the whole process. Improvements to this area offer tremendous potential in both energy savings and production improvements. Additionally, the vibrating screens used in the mining processing plants are the most costly areas from maintenance and worker health and safety point of views. The goal of this product is to reduce energy use in the screening and total processing areas. This goal is accomplished by developing an innovative screening machine based on smart materials and smart actuators, namely smart screen that uses advanced sensory system to continuously monitor the screening process and make appropriate adjustments to improve production. The theory behind the development of Smart Screen technology is based on two key technologies, namely smart actuators and smart Energy Flow ControlT (EFCT) strategies, developed initially for military applications. Smart Screen technology controls the flow of vibration energy and confines it to the screen rather than shaking much of the mass that makes up the conventional vibratory screening machine. Consequently, Smart Screens eliminates and downsizes many of the structural components associated with conventional vibratory screening machines. As a result, the surface area of the screen increases for a given envelope. This increase in usable screening surface area extends the life of the screens, reduces required maintenance by reducing the frequency of screen change-outs and improves throughput or productivity.

  15. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michak, P.; Rogers, R.; Amos, K.

    1991-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  16. Personal radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report reviews the context of a primary university course in individual radiation monitoring. A brief account of the regulations and permissible doses is given. The principles and design of film dosemeters, thermoluminescent dosemeters and the whole-body counting technique are treated

  17. Environmental monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The tasks of the radiation protection department at a nuclear power plant are mentioned and described. Special attention is given to the environmental monitoring program. The consequences from regulations, the different items in the program and the results are described. (orig./RW)

  18. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-06-01

    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  19. Small Screen Use and Driving Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Paul; Strayer, David L

    2017-11-01

    The increased availability of "small screens," wireless devices with Internet-enabled connections, and their associated applications has almost overnight changed the way that we interact with our phones. The current work outlines some of the aspects of this problem as it relates to the influence of small screens on driving safety. Small screens are highly compelling to drivers, both for the information they convey and because the ability to ignore them while driving is impaired by cognitive resources used by the driving task itself. However, much is unknown about why people make choices to multitask while driving. Given the safety risks, it is recommended that parents, the public, and regulators take a stand against the use of Internet-enabled small screens unrelated to driving when the vehicle is in motion. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. 48 CFR 645.608 - Screening of contractor inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inventory. 645.608 Section 645.608 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 645.608 Screening of contractor inventory. ...

  1. Nuclear regulations and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Antonio A.

    2001-01-01

    After an historical overview of the nuclear regulation system in Argentina a description is made of the country's Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) and of its regulation and control functions. Its organic structure is also outlined. A detailed report is given of the environmental monitoring activities in the sites of the operating Argentine nuclear power plants as well as those of the nuclear research centres. A special reference is made of the monitoring of the relevant uranium mining districts in Argentina. The radon determination in houses of several regions of the country is also mentioned

  2. Automated Groundwater Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard B.

    2005-01-01

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application

  3. 48 CFR 245.608-71 - Screening industrial plant equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening industrial plant..., and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.608-71 Screening industrial plant equipment. (a) Reporting...) After 90th day. If DoD requirement is identified, and item is available, ship item against the...

  4. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. Mammography for women in their 40s : to screen or not to screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Heron, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the United States there is currently a raging controversy as to whether women in their 40s should be screened for breast cancer, with responsible medical bodies each issuing divergent recommendations. With the imminent commencement of the national breast screening programme in New Zealand, it is relevant to briefly review what underlies these differences. The evicence from international studies is that breast cancer deaths on the population of women aged 50 to 69 can be reduced by about 30% by good mammography screening programes. However the evidence in not so unequivocal for the 40 to 49 age group. Breast cancer in younger women tends to be more virulent, growing faster, and killing faster, and detection of cancer in younger breasts is more difficult than in breasts of older women due to the presence of greater amounts of glandular tissue. Where does this leave breast screening in New Zealand? The nationwide breast screening programme will commence with asymmptomatic women aged 50-64 eligible for screening. Extension to women older than 64 will be considered again once the programme is in place and running well. The Ministry of Health has not recommended routine screening for women in their 40s, but will continue to monitor the latest information and if, sufficient new evidence becomes availabe, the screening guidelines will be reassessed. (author)

  6. Regulating the Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-26

    The article reports on a challenge to the UK electricity regulator to defend his record by the Coalition for Fair Electricity Regulation (COFFER). The challenge centres on whether the obligation for the regional electric companies (REC) to purchase power from the cheapest source is being enforced. This is related to the wider issue of whether the REC's support of combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) is economic. COFFER considers that uneconomic gas-fired power plants are being allowed to displace economic coal-fired stations. Aspects discussed include the background to the dispute and the costs of CCGT and coal fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Genetic and pharmacological screens converge in identifying FLIP, BCL2 and IAP proteins as key regulators of sensitivity to the TRAIL-inducing anti-cancer agent ONC201/TIC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, AP; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Fritz, Jennifer L.; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 silencing did not affect MAPK signaling in the presence or absence of ONC201, but instead reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. In parallel to this work, we also conducted a synergy screen in which ONC201 was combined with approved small molecule anticancer drugs. In multiple cancer cell populations, ONC201 synergized with diverse drug classes including the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Notably, combining ONC201 and sorafenib led to synergistic induction of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 along with a potent induction of cell death. In a mouse xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrated that ONC201 and sorafenib cooperatively and safely triggered tumor regressions. Overall, our results established a set of determinants for ONC201 sensitivity that may predict therapeutic response, particularly in settings of sorafenib co-treatment to enhance anticancer responses. PMID:25681273

  8. Genetic and Pharmacological Screens Converge in Identifying FLIP, BCL2, and IAP Proteins as Key Regulators of Sensitivity to the TRAIL-Inducing Anticancer Agent ONC201/TIC10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E; Prabhu, Varun V; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, A Pieter J; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T; Fritz, Jennifer L; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-04-15

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small-molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway-inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 silencing did not affect MAPK signaling in the presence or absence of ONC201, but instead reduced expression of the antiapoptotic proteins FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. In parallel to this work, we also conducted a synergy screen in which ONC201 was combined with approved small-molecule anticancer drugs. In multiple cancer cell populations, ONC201 synergized with diverse drug classes, including the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Notably, combining ONC201 and sorafenib led to synergistic induction of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 along with a potent induction of cell death. In a mouse xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrated that ONC201 and sorafenib cooperatively and safely triggered tumor regressions. Overall, our results established a set of determinants for ONC201 sensitivity that may predict therapeutic response, particularly in settings of sorafenib cotreatment to enhance anticancer responses. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Ionising radiation: a guide to the Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Donald.

    1986-01-01

    The author explains the basic requirements on health and safety personnel in relation to the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The outline paper is presented under the following headings: Dose assessment, Interpretation and general regulations 1-5, Dose limitation regulations 6 and 7, Regulation of work - regulations 8-12, Dosimetry and medical surveillance - regulations 13-17, summary of records to be kept, entry to controlled areas, Control of radioactive substances -regulations 18-23, Monitoring of radiation regulation 24, Assessments and notifications - regulations 25-31, Safety of articles and equipment - regulations 32-34, Other guidance. (U.K.)

  10. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J S; Juul, Svend; Henneberg, E W

    1997-01-01

    rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... to 80 year of age are caused by ruptured AAA. Screening men over 65 for AAA can theoretically prevent a substantial number of deaths. Our calculations predict one prevented AAA-death per 200-300 scans for a cost of about 4000 DKK per saved year of life. However, cost-benefit analyses are based...... on uncertain assumptions concerning prevalence, incidence and risk of rupture. Therefore a randomized trial screening of 65-73 year old males is taking place in the County of Viborg in Denmark. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Mar-24...

  11. Cathode ray tube screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne, B.; Robbins, D.J.; Glasper, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    An improved cathode ray tube screen is described which consists of a single- or a poly-crystalline slice of a material such as yttrium aluminium garnet in which dopants such as Tb 3 + , Eu 3 + , Ce 3 + or Tm 3 + are ion implanted to different depths or in different areas of the screen. Annealing the screen removes lattice damage caused by the ion implanting and assists the diffusion of the dopant into the crystal. (U.K.)

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  13. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  14. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  15. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  16. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  18. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  20. RNAi screening in primary human hepatocytes of genes implicated in genome-wide association studies for roles in type 2 diabetes identifies roles for CAMK1D and CDKAL1, among others, in hepatic glucose regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Haney

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association (GWA studies have described a large number of new candidate genes that contribute to of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D. In some cases, small clusters of genes are implicated, rather than a single gene, and in all cases, the genetic contribution is not defined through the effects on a specific organ, such as the pancreas or liver. There is a significant need to develop and use human cell-based models to examine the effects these genes may have on glucose regulation. We describe the development of a primary human hepatocyte model that adjusts glucose disposition according to hormonal signals. This model was used to determine whether candidate genes identified in GWA studies regulate hepatic glucose disposition through siRNAs corresponding to the list of identified genes. We find that several genes affect the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycolytic response and/or affect the utilization of pyruvate, the critical step in gluconeogenesis. Of the genes that affect both of these processes, CAMK1D, TSPAN8 and KIF11 affect the localization of a mediator of both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis regulation, CRTC2, to the nucleus in response to glucagon. In addition, the gene CDKAL1 was observed to affect glycogen storage, and molecular experiments using mutant forms of CDK5, a putative target of CDKAL1, in HepG2 cells show that this is mediated by coordinate regulation of CDK5 and PKA on MEK, which ultimately regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a critical step in the insulin signaling pathway.

  1. The Borg scale as an important tool of self-monitoring and self-regulation of exercise prescription in heart failure patients during hydrotherapy. A randomized blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2009-10-01

    The Borg Scale may be a useful tool for heart failure patients to self-monitor and self-regulate exercise on land or in water (hydrotherapy) by maintaining the heart rate (HR) between the anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point. Patients performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test to determine their anaerobic threshold/respiratory compensation points. The percentage of the mean HR during the exercise session in relation to the anaerobic threshold HR (%EHR-AT), in relation to the respiratory compensation point (%EHR-RCP), in relation to the peak HR by the exercise test (%EHR-Peak) and in relation to the maximum predicted HR (%EHR-Predicted) was calculated. Next, patients were randomized into the land or water exercise group. One blinded investigator instructed the patients in each group to exercise at a level between "relatively easy and slightly tiring". The mean HR throughout the 30-min exercise session was recorded. The %EHR-AT and %EHR-predicted did not differ between the land and water exercise groups, but they differed in the %EHR-RCP (95 +/-7 to 86 +/-7, P<0.001) and in the %EHR-Peak (85 +/-8 to 78 +/-9, P=0.007). Exercise guided by the Borg scale maintains the patient's HR between the anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point (ie, in the exercise training zone).

  2. Visible-to-near IR quantum dot-based hypermulticolor high-content screening of herbal medicines for the efficacy monitoring of hair growth promotion and hair loss inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Lim, Chaeyun; Lee, Jun Young; Im, Kyung Ran; Yoon, Kyung-Sup; Song, Joon Myong

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing interest in alopecia prevention strategies, as the number of alopecia patients is increasing. We examine the efficacy of herbal medicine for hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition in two cell lines via Western blot and high-content screening (HCS). Nine herbal extracts were obtained from three different herbal medicine mixtures using 3 different extraction methods. Five target proteins-IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor-β2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), DKK-1 (Dickkopf-1), and Wnt5α-were observed for the assessment of hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition efficacy. The efficacies of nine extracts were compared with minoxidil as control. Efficacy was defined as a rise in the expression levels of IGF-1, VEGF, and Wnt5α but a decrease in DKK-1 and TGF-β2. Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging.

  3. International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.

  4. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  5. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  6. Substance Abuse Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information is collected, stored or sent over the Internet. To ensure complete privacy, exit your web browser after completing this screening. ... information is collected, stored or sent over the Internet. To ensure complete privacy, exit your web browser after completing this screening. ...

  7. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  8. Screen-film mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, W.W.; Janus, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The development of screen-film mammography has resulted in the re-emergence of confidence, rather than fear, in mammography. When screen-film mammography is performed with state-of-the-art dedicated equipment utilizing vigorous breast compression and a ''soft'' x-ray beam for improved contrast, screen-film images are equivalent or superior to those of reduced-dose xeromammography and superior to those of nonscreen film mammography. Technological aids for conversion from xeromammographic or nonscreen film mammographic techniques to screen-film techniques have been described. Screen-film mammography should not be attempted until dedicated equipment has been obtained and the importance of vigorous compression has been understood

  9. Molecular HIV screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlet, Thomas; Memmi, Meriam; Saoudin, Henia; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear acid testing is more and more used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. This paper focuses on the use of molecular tools for HIV screening. The term 'screening' will be used under the meaning of first-line HIV molecular techniques performed on a routine basis, which excludes HIV molecular tests designed to confirm or infirm a newly discovered HIV-seropositive patient or other molecular tests performed for the follow-up of HIV-infected patients. The following items are developed successively: i) presentation of the variety of molecular tools used for molecular HIV screening, ii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of blood products, iii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of organs and tissue from human origin, iv) use of HIV molecular tools in medically assisted procreation and v) use of HIV molecular tools in neonates from HIV-infected mothers.

  10. Screening for abdominalt aortaaneurisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Henneberg, E W

    1997-01-01

    In spite of increasing number of elective resections of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) the mortality or ruptured AAA is increasing. The advantages of elective operations are obvious; the lethality is 2-6% while the lethality of ruptured AAA is 75-95%. However, AAA seldom causes symptoms before...... rupture. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA takes 10 minutes per scan, and the sensitivity and specificity are high. Ultrasonographic screening for AAA is a reliable, safe and inexpensive method for screening, and screening for AAA is discussed worldwide. One point four percent of deaths among men from 65...... to 80 year of age are caused by ruptured AAA. Screening men over 65 for AAA can theoretically prevent a substantial number of deaths. Our calculations predict one prevented AAA-death per 200-300 scans for a cost of about 4000 DKK per saved year of life. However, cost-benefit analyses are based...

  11. Medical auditing of whole-breast screening ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung

    2017-07-01

    Since breast ultrasonography (US) has been used as an adjunctive screening modality in women with dense breasts, the need has arisen to evaluate and monitor its possible harm and benefits in comparison with other screening modalities such as mammography. Recently, the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System published by the American College of Radiology has suggested auditing methods for screening breast US. However, the method proposed therein is slightly different from how diagnostic performance was calculated in previous studies on screening breast US. In this article, the background and core aspects of medical audits of breast cancer screening will be reviewed to provide an introduction to the medical auditing of screening breast US, with the goal of helping radiologists to understand and identify potential ways to improve outcomes.

  12. Medical auditing of whole-breast screening ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Since breast ultrasonography (US) has been used as an adjunctive screening modality in women with dense breasts, the need has arisen to evaluate and monitor its possible harm and benefits in comparison with other screening modalities such as mammography. Recently, the fifth edition of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System published by the American College of Radiology has suggested auditing methods for screening breast US. However, the method proposed therein is slightly different from how diagnostic performance was calculated in previous studies on screening breast US. In this article, the background and core aspects of medical audits of breast cancer screening will be reviewed to provide an introduction to the medical auditing of screening breast US, with the goal of helping radiologists to understand and identify potential ways to improve outcomes.

  13. Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, John D.; Tong, Long S.

    1977-03-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

  14. Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods. 3 claims, 9 figures

  15. Beam profile monitors in the NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantista, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Brown, R.L.; Fuller, R.; Rifkin, J.

    1997-05-01

    The transverse current profile in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) electron beam can be monitored at several locations along the beam line by means of profile monitors. These consist of insertable phosphor screens, light collection and transport systems, CID cameras, a frame-grabber, and PC and VAX based image analysis software. In addition to their usefulness in tuning and steering the accelerator, the profile monitors are utilized for emittance measurement. A description of these systems and their performance is presented

  16. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  17. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  18. Review of Private Sector Personnel Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    private sector investigative sources or methods would be useful to the DoD for conducting national security background investigations. The federal government by and large examines more sources and conducts more thorough investigations than industry. In general, private employers (1) have less access to information about applicants...outsource many elements of background checks. It is recommended that the DoD periodically evaluate private sector screening programs and data sources in order to monitor

  19. Identification of a new androgen receptor (AR) co-regulator BUD31 and related peptides to suppress wild-type and mutated AR-mediated prostate cancer growth via peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Liu, Jai-Shin; Wu, Po-Long; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Chen, Yuh-Ling; Lin, An-Chi; Ting, Huei-Ju; Pang, See-Tong; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Ma, Wen-Lung; Chen, Chung-Jung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-12-01

    Treatment with individual anti-androgens is associated with the development of hot-spot mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Here, we found that anti-androgens-mt-ARs have similar binary structure to the 5α-dihydrotestosterone-wt-AR. Phage display revealed that these ARs bound to similar peptides, including BUD31, containing an Fxx(F/H/L/W/Y)Y motif cluster with Tyr in the +5 position. Structural analyses of the AR-LBD-BUD31 complex revealed formation of an extra hydrogen bond between the Tyr+5 residue of the peptide and the AR. Functional studies showed that BUD31-related peptides suppressed AR transactivation, interrupted AR N-C interaction, and suppressed AR-mediated cell growth. Combination of peptide screening and X-ray structure analysis may serve as a new strategy for developing anti-ARs that simultaneously suppress both wt and mutated AR function. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preimplantation genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C

    2018-03-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first successfully performed in 1989 as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis for couples at risk of transmitting a genetic or chromosomal abnormality, such as cystic fibrosis, to their child. From embryos generated in vitro, biopsied cells are genetically tested. From the mid-1990s, this technology has been employed as an embryo selection tool for patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation, screening as many chromosomes as possible, in the hope that selecting chromosomally normal embryos will lead to higher implantation and decreased miscarriage rates. This procedure, preimplantation genetic screening, was initially performed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, but 11 randomised controlled trials of screening using this technique showed no improvement in in vitro fertilisation delivery rates. Progress in genetic testing has led to the introduction of array comparative genomic hybridisation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic screening, and three small randomised controlled trials of preimplantation genetic screening using these new techniques indicate a modest benefit. Other trials are still in progress but, regardless of their results, preimplantation genetic screening is now being offered globally. In the near future, it is likely that sequencing will be used to screen the full genetic code of the embryo.

  1. 7 CFR 1940.330 - Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Monitoring. 1940.330 Section 1940.330 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.330 Monitoring. (a) FmHA or its successor agency... monitoring of approved projects will ensure that those measures which were identified in the preapproval...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.543 - Grant monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Grant monitoring. 1944.543 Section 1944.543 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... monitoring. Each grant will be monitored by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 to ensure...

  3. 7 CFR 1948.95 - Grant monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Grant monitoring. 1948.95 Section 1948.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... § 1948.95 Grant monitoring. Each grant will be monitored by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law...

  4. Breast Cancer Screening in an Era of Personalized Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Sprague, Brian L.; Barlow, William E.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L.; Conant, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women’s health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for “overdiagnosis,” and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a “1-size-fits-all” guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women’s risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. PMID:24830599

  5. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D. J.; Anderson, D. C.; Hall, D. B.; Greger, P. D.; Ostler, W. K.

    2012-06-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2011. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2011, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  6. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.J.; Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.; Greger, P.D.; Ostler, W.K.

    2011-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2010. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2010, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  7. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent; Hansen, Dennis J.

    2013-07-03

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2012. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2012, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  8. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2009 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. Dennis; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2010-07-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2009. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2009, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  9. Screening sensitivity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.; Perey, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive rigorous theory is developed for screening sensitivity coefficients in largescale modeling applications. The theory uses Bayesian inference and group theory to establish a probabilistic framework for solving an underdetermined system of linear equations. The underdetermined problem is directly related to statistical screening sensitivity theory as developed in recent years. Several examples of the new approach to screening are worked out in detail and comparisons are made with statistical approaches to the problem. The drawbacks of these latter methods are discussed at some length

  10. Screening children for elevated blood lead - Learnings from the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreland, Frances [Broken Hill Centre for Remote Health Research, Broken Hill University Department of Rural Health, University of Sydney, Corrindah Court, PO Box 457, Broken Hill, NSW 2880 (Australia)], E-mail: fboreland@gwahs.health.nsw.gov.au; Lyle, David [Broken Hill Centre for Remote Health Research, Broken Hill University Department of Rural Health, University of Sydney, Corrindah Court, PO Box 457, Broken Hill, NSW 2880 (Australia)], E-mail: dlyle@gwahs.health.nsw.gov.au

    2008-02-01

    Introduction: Although it is important that children at risk of developing elevated blood lead receive regular screening, attendance at screening programs is variable. A literature review was undertaken to better understand the factors that affect carers' decisions about whether or not to take their children for blood lead screening. Method: Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Psychinfo) were searched to identify relevant publications, supported by reviewing reference lists of identified articles and searching with internet-based search engines. Results: Thirty-four published studies dealing with blood lead screening rates were identified, of which only seven papers focused specifically on parent's attitudes to blood lead screening. The barriers to and enablers of screening for elevated blood lead levels appear to be similar to those identified for other screening programs. Discussion: It is recommended that attendance at screening be routinely monitored, and that where participation is suboptimal further research be undertaken, in close co-operation with affected communities or sub-groups, to determine how best to encourage screening and to protect children from lead. It is important to minimize stigma and to ensure, as far as possible, that practical barriers such as lack of transport do not restrict access to screening programs.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  12. Screening children for elevated blood lead - Learnings from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreland, Frances; Lyle, David

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Although it is important that children at risk of developing elevated blood lead receive regular screening, attendance at screening programs is variable. A literature review was undertaken to better understand the factors that affect carers' decisions about whether or not to take their children for blood lead screening. Method: Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Psychinfo) were searched to identify relevant publications, supported by reviewing reference lists of identified articles and searching with internet-based search engines. Results: Thirty-four published studies dealing with blood lead screening rates were identified, of which only seven papers focused specifically on parent's attitudes to blood lead screening. The barriers to and enablers of screening for elevated blood lead levels appear to be similar to those identified for other screening programs. Discussion: It is recommended that attendance at screening be routinely monitored, and that where participation is suboptimal further research be undertaken, in close co-operation with affected communities or sub-groups, to determine how best to encourage screening and to protect children from lead. It is important to minimize stigma and to ensure, as far as possible, that practical barriers such as lack of transport do not restrict access to screening programs

  13. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  15. RTP Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfred, S.L.; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Nurhayati Ramli

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Monitoring System aiming to limiting dose exposed to personnel to the lowest level referring to the concept of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). Atomic Energy Licensing (Basic Safety Radiation Protection) Regulation 2010 (Act 304) is a baseline to control employee and public radiation protection program and guideline, as well as to meet the requirement of the Occupational Safety and Health 1994 (Act 514). (author)

  16. EIA screening and nature protection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The number of environmental impact assessment (EIA) screenings in Denmark has increased dramatically since 2000. This is a consequence of increased pig production as well as the concentration of production on larger farms. In the same period, EIA rules have developed primarily due to an increased...... in screening practices. In this paper, the demands formulated in the guidelines of local authorities were analysed in order to investigate how the protection of groundwater, coastal waters, lakes and Natura 2000 sites develops through EIA screening. It is concluded that the level of protection has improved......, and that the main cause for this is not EIA regulations as such, but the positive role which the implementation of the Natura 2000 objectives has played in this development. However, it was also found that the formulation of demands varies greatly between the counties, thus often resulting in ambiguity and leaving...

  17. Good laboratory practices for biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening for inherited metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. Under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) regulations, laboratory testing is categorized on the basis of the level of testing complexity as either waived (i.e., from routine regulatory oversight) or nonwaived testing (which includes tests of moderate and high complexity). Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. Laboratories that perform public health newborn screening are subject to the same CLIA regulations and applicable state requirements. As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. To help ensure the quality of laboratory testing, CDC collaborated with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Food and Drug Administration, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institutes of Health to develop guidelines for laboratories to meet CLIA requirements and apply additional quality assurance measures for these areas of genetic testing. This report provides recommendations for good laboratory practices that were developed based on recommendations from the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, with additional input from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society; the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children; and representatives of newborn

  18. Personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  19. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring

    2015-01-01

    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  20. Personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-31

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  1. A chemical genetic screen for mTOR pathway inhibitors based on 4E-BP-dependent nuclear accumulation of eIF4E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Mark; Larsson, Ola; Sukarieh, Rami; Pelletier, Jerry; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2009-12-24

    The signal transduction pathway wherein mTOR regulates cellular growth and proliferation is an active target for drug discovery. The search for new mTOR inhibitors has recently yielded a handful of promising compounds that hold therapeutic potential. This search has been limited by the lack of a high-throughput assay to monitor the phosphorylation of a direct rapamycin-sensitive mTOR substrate in cells. Here we describe a novel cell-based chemical genetic screen useful for efficiently monitoring mTOR signaling to 4E-BPs in response to stimuli. The screen is based on the nuclear accumulation of eIF4E, which occurs in a 4E-BP-dependent manner specifically upon inhibition of mTOR signaling. Using this assay in a small-scale screen, we have identified several compounds not previously known to inhibit mTOR signaling, demonstrating that this method can be adapted to larger screens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of national regulations in RPAS-based mapping projects in the monitoring of natural hazards that could involve infrastructures: the example of the Val Venosta Railway (Northern Italy - Bolzano).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, Luca; Busnardo, Enrico; Castellarin, Nicola; Canella, Claudio; Canella, Federico; Stabile, Marco; Curci, Francesco; Petrillo, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Italy has adopted National Regulations for the use of RPAS in its country's airspace in December 2013, issued by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC). Despite the issued regulations, over the past months an increasing number of unauthorized and unsafe operations have been performed and the attention to safety is growing quickly in the public opinion. For this reason "Critical Operations" is permitted only to those RPAS Operators which have received special authorization by ENAC after a very demanding Aeronautical procedure. According to the Regulations, the flight close to-over urban areas, industrial plants, highways and railways, implies that only authorized RPAS Operators may perform such activities. An example of a "Critical" operation were the RPAS flights performed along the Venosta railway line to evaluate the current situation of two areas affected by geological instability and laid the basis for a future high accurate monitoring. The Venosta Valley is located in the western part of South Tyrol (Norhtern Italy). The valley possesses some unique features compared to the entire Alps, the particularly dry climate and the presence of huge alluvional fans, which give rise to different levels of altitude in the valley. From geological point of view, the Venosta Valley is characterized by the presence of the Austroalpine domain. In particular, there are two different geological units in this area: (i) the crystalline schists of the basement, which includes paragneiss, gneiss, granitoid pegmatites, garnet micaschists, quartzites and phyllites. (ii) The Mesozoic coverage divided into various complexes with successions of phyllites, volcanics and magmatiti. The railway line that runs through the Venosta Valley (Merano - Malles) unfolds along a path of 59,8 kilometers and covers an altitude difference of about 700 meters. In particular, three tunnels characterized the first section, including the M. Giuseppe tunnel, which required extensive consolidations both

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  4. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  5. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  6. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  7. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  8. Process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Many of the measurements and observations made in a nuclear processing facility to monitor processes and product quality can also be used to monitor the location and movements of nuclear materials. In this session information is presented on how to use process monitoring data to enhance nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). It will be seen that SNM losses can generally be detected with greater sensitivity and timeliness and point of loss localized more closely than by conventional MC and A systems if process monitoring data are applied. The purpose of this session is to enable the participants to: (1) identify process unit operations that could improve control units for monitoring SNM losses; (2) choose key measurement points and formulate a loss indicator for each control unit; and (3) describe how the sensitivities and timeliness of loss detection could be determined for each loss indicator

  9. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  10. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  11. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  12. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  13. Secondary arterial hypertension: when, who, and how to screen?

    OpenAIRE

    Rimoldi, Stefano F.; Scherrer, Urs; Messerli, Franz H.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary hypertension refers to arterial hypertension due to an identifiable cause and affects ∼5-10% of the general hypertensive population. Because secondary forms are rare and work up is time-consuming and expensive, only patients with clinical suspicion should be screened. In recent years, some new aspects gained importance regarding this screening. In particular, increasing evidence suggests that 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring plays a central role in the work up of patie...

  14. Physics in Screening Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certik, Ondrej

    In the current study, we investigated atoms in screening environments like plasmas. It is common practice to extract physical data, such as temperature and electron densities, from plasma experiments. We present results that address inherent computational difficulties that arise when the screening approach is extended to include the interaction between the atomic electrons. We show that there may arise an ambiguity in the interpretation of physical properties, such as temperature and charge density, from experimental data due to the opposing effects of electron-nucleus screening and electron-electron screening. The focus of the work, however, is on the resolution of inherent computational challenges that appear in the computation of two-particle matrix elements. Those enter already at the Hartree-Fock level. Furthermore, as examples of post Hartree-Fock calculations, we show second-order Green's function results and many body perturbation theory results of second order. A self-contained derivation of all necessary equations has been included. The accuracy of the implementation of the method is established by comparing standard unscreened results for various atoms and molecules against literature for Hartree-Fock as well as Green's function and many body perturbation theory. The main results of the thesis are presented in the chapter called Screened Results, where the behavior of several atomic systems depending on electron-electron and electron-nucleus Debye screening was studied. The computer code that we have developed has been made available for anybody to use. Finally, we present and discuss results obtained for screened interactions. We also examine thoroughly the computational details of the calculations and particular implementations of the method.

  15. More comprehensive discussion of CRC screening associated with higher screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosen, David M; Feldstein, Adrianne C; Perrin, Nancy A; Rosales, A Gabriella; Smith, David H; Liles, Elizabeth G; Schneider, Jennifer L; Meyers, Ronald E; Elston-Lafata, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    Examine association of comprehensiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening discussion by primary care physicians (PCPs) with completion of CRC screening. Observational study in Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a group-model health maintenance organization. A total of 883 participants overdue for CRC screening received an automated telephone call (ATC) between April and June 2009 encouraging CRC screening. Between January and March 2010, participants completed a survey on PCPs' discussion of CRC screening and patient beliefs regarding screening. receipt of CRC screening (assessed by electronic medical record [EMR], 9 months after ATC). Primary independent variable: comprehensiveness of CRC screening discussion by PCPs (7-item scale). Secondary independent variables: perceived benefits of screening (4-item scale assessing respondents' agreement with benefits of timely screening) and primary care utilization (EMR; 9 months after ATC). The independent association of variables with CRC screening was assessed with logistic regression. Average scores for comprehensiveness of CRC discussion and perceived benefits were 0.4 (range 0-1) and 4.0 (range 1-5), respectively. A total of 28.2% (n = 249) completed screening, 84% of whom had survey assessments after their screening date. Of screeners, 95.2% completed the fecal immunochemical test. More comprehensive discussion of CRC screening was associated with increased screening (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-2.21). Higher perceived benefits (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.13-1.90) and 1 or more PCP visits (OR = 5.82, 95% CI = 3.87-8.74) were also associated with increased screening. More comprehensive discussion of CRC screening was independently associated with increased CRC screening. Primary care utilization was even more strongly associated with CRC screening, irrespective of discussion of CRC screening.

  16. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2015-01-01

    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  17. Radioactivity monitoring in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrescu, M.; Milu, C.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in Romania is based on National Regulations for Radiation Protection enforced in 1976, on other environment protection laws enforced in the last years and on the recommendations of IAEA. Accordingly two systems of radioactive monitoring are to date operational in this field: the first one is the self-control of the radioactive emissions in the environment generated by the own nuclear activities (of nuclear units like the Cernavoda NPP, the Institute of Atomic Physics at Magurele-Bucharest, the Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti, the R Plant at Feldioara, Uranium mining units, etc.), while the other is based on two national agencies (the National Network of Environment Radiation Monitoring of the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environment Protection and the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Health Ministry). The authors review and discuss the radiation protection legislation, the structure and the organizational operations of the national monitoring systems and the co-operation of the national monitoring systems with international authorities or programmes. 3 Figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  18. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  19. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Soiti Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  20. Pattern visual evoked potentials elicited by organic electroluminescence screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Sasaki, Kakeru; Minoda, Haruka; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  1. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2015 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2015. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2015, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  2. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Perry, Jeanette [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2016. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2016, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  3. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2013. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed activity sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, and (f) habitat restoration monitoring. During 2013, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  4. Newborn hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D L; Pearlman, A

    1994-11-01

    Congenital deafness is a relatively common problem with an incidence of 1/300 to 1/1000. Most states have no mass screening program for hearing loss, but the state of Kentucky compiles a High Risk Registry which is a historical survey of parents relating to risk factors for hearing loss. Unfortunately this survey can miss 50% of those who have a hearing deficit. If not detected prior to discharge, there is often a delay in diagnosis of deafness which prevents early intervention. We report 2 years' experience at Kosair Children's Hospital where 1,987 infants admitted to well baby, intermediate, or intensive care nurseries were screened using the ALGO-1 screener (Natus Medical Inc, Foster City, CA) which is a modified auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR). Our screening of this population led to an 11% incidence of referral for complete audiological evaluation. There were no significant complications. Forty-eight infants were found to have nonspecified, sensorineural, or conductive hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the test was 96%. Therefore, we feel that the use of the modified ABR in the newborn is a timely, cost efficient method of screening for hearing loss and should be used for mass screening of all newborns.

  5. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... cancer screening policies and inadequacies in the key organisational elements of the programme such as registration and monitoring required for quality-assurance and fail-safe mechanisms. Based on data from available screening registers, coverage of the screening test taken within the population...

  6. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.

    1992-01-01

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image

  7. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  8. Radiographic intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Landeghem, W.K.; Suys, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    A fluorescent x-ray image intensifying screen is described which comprises discrete particles of fluorescent material dispersed in a binder layer. Intensifying screens are employed to increase the exposure of a photosensitive plate or film without increasing the x-ray exposure dose when struck by x-rays. The screen has an outermost layer containing solid particulate material protruding from a coherent film-forming organic binder medium and having a static friction coefficient at room temperature not higher than 0.50 on steel. The outermost layer may be characterized by micro-unevennesses of at least 3 μm and at least 9 protruding particles per 0.35 sq. cm. These particles have a static friction coefficient less than 0.3 and are made of a solid polystyrene, polyaklylene and/or a solid organic fluorinated polymer. (JTA)

  9. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  10. Smartphone Homecare Monitoring of Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Szu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Homecare monitoring blood pressures and heartbeats are commercially available using dedicated devices, for example, wrist watch, pulse oximetry. With the advent of Smartphone and compressive sensing technology, we wish to monitor precisely the electrical waveforms of heartbeats called the electrocardiography (ECG for an aging global villager biomedical wellness homecare system. Our design separates into 3 innovative modules within the size-weight and power-cost bandwidth (Swap-CB limitation. We develop each separately but in concert with one another: (i Smart Electrode (adopting a low-power-mixed signal embedded with modern compressive sensing firmware and applying the nanotechnology to improve the electrodes’ contact impedance as well as novel transduction mechanism, between ECG and electronics, e.g., a pressure mattress coupling, or fiber-optics coupling; (ii Learnable Database (utilizing adaptive wavelets transforms for systolic and diastolic P-QRS-T-U features extraction Aided Target Recognition and adopting Sequential Query Language for a relational database allowing distant monitoring and retrievable; (iii Smartphone (inheriting a large touch screen interface display with powerful computation capability and assisting caretaker reporting system with GPS and ID and two-way interaction with patient panic button for programmable emergence reporting procedure. While (i is novel, (ii and (iii are mature. Together, they can eventually provide a supplementary home screening system for the post- or the prediagnosis care at home with a built-in database searchable with the time, the place, and the degree of urgency happened, using in situ screening.

  11. Screening strategies for atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Nicky J; McAleenan, Alexandra; Thom, Howard Hz; Davies, Philippa; Hollingworth, Will; Higgins, Julian Pt; Okoli, George; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Feder, Gene; Eaton, Diane; Hingorani, Aroon; Fawsitt, Christopher; Lobban, Trudie; Bryden, Peter; Richards, Alison; Sofat, Reecha

    2017-05-01

    -effective than systematic population screening, as long as the uptake of opportunistic screening observed in randomised controlled trials translates to practice. Modified blood pressure monitors, photoplethysmography or nurse pulse palpation were more likely to be cost-effective than other screening tests. A screening strategy with an initial screening age of 65 years and repeated screens every 5 years until age 80 years was likely to be cost-effective, provided that compliance with treatment does not decline with increasing age. A national screening programme for AF is likely to represent a cost-effective use of resources. Systematic opportunistic screening is more likely to be cost-effective than systematic population screening. Nurse pulse palpation or modified blood pressure monitors would be appropriate screening tests, with confirmation by diagnostic 12-lead electrocardiography interpreted by a trained GP, with referral to a specialist in the case of an unclear diagnosis. Implementation strategies to operationalise uptake of systematic opportunistic screening in primary care should accompany any screening recommendations. Many inputs for the economic model relied on a single trial [the Screening for Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly (SAFE) study] and DTA results were based on a few studies at high risk of bias/of low applicability. Comparative studies measuring long-term outcomes of screening strategies and DTA studies for new, emerging technologies and to replicate the results for photoplethysmography and GP interpretation of 12-lead electrocardiography in a screening population. This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42014013739. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

  12. Newborn screening for galactosaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lak, Rohollah; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Davari, Majid; Nouhi, Mojtaba; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-12-23

    Classical galactosaemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. This is a rare and potentially lethal condition that classically presents in the first week of life once milk feeds have commenced. Affected babies may present with any or all of the following: cataracts; fulminant liver failure; prolonged jaundice; or Escherichia coli sepsis. Once the diagnosis is suspected, feeds containing galactose must be stopped immediately and replaced with a soya-based formula. The majority of babies will recover, however a number will not survive. There are long-term complications of galactosaemia, despite treatment, including learning disabilities and female infertility. It has been postulated that galactosaemia could be detected on newborn screening and this would prevent the immediate severe liver dysfunction and sepsis. To assess whether there is evidence that newborn screening for galactosaemia prevents or reduces mortality and morbidity and improves clinical outcomes in affected neonates and the quality of life in older children. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and conference abstract books. We also searched online trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of the most recent search of Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Group's Trials Register: 18 December 2017.Date of the most recent search of additional resources: 11 October 2017. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies, published or unpublished comparing the use of any newborn screening test to diagnose infants with galactosaemia and presenting a comparison between a screened population versus a non-screened population. No studies of newborn screening for galactosaemia were found. No studies were identified for inclusion in the

  13. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  14. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2008 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis J.; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2009-04-30

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2008. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  15. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  16. No. 434 - Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation, made under the Radiation Control Act 1990, replaces the Radioactive Substances Regulation 1959, repealed by the 1990 Act. It deals with licensing of the use of radioactive substances and radiation apparatus, regulates their use, disposal and transport. It also provides for radiation monitoring and emergency planning. (NEA)

  17. Approaches to virtual screening and screening library selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    The ease of access to virtual screening (VS) software in recent years has resulted in a large increase in literature reports. Over 300 publications in the last year report the use of virtual screening techniques to identify new chemical matter or present the development of new virtual screening techniques. The increased use is accompanied by a corresponding increase in misuse and misinterpretation of virtual screening results. This review aims to identify many of the common difficulties associated with virtual screening and allow researchers to better assess the reliability of their virtual screening effort.

  18. Unattended Monitoring System Design Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drayer, D.D.; DeLand, S.M.; Harmon, C.D.; Matter, J.C.; Martinez, R.L.; Smith, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    A methodology for designing Unattended Monitoring Systems starting at a systems level has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This proven methodology provides a template that describes the process for selecting and applying appropriate technologies to meet unattended system requirements, as well as providing a framework for development of both training courses and workshops associated with unattended monitoring. The design and implementation of unattended monitoring systems is generally intended to respond to some form of policy based requirements resulting from international agreements or domestic regulations. Once the monitoring requirements are established, a review of the associated process and its related facilities enables identification of strategic monitoring locations and development of a conceptual system design. The detailed design effort results in the definition of detection components as well as the supporting communications network and data management scheme. The data analyses then enables a coherent display of the knowledge generated during the monitoring effort. The resultant knowledge is then compared to the original system objectives to ensure that the design adequately addresses the fundamental principles stated in the policy agreements. Implementation of this design methodology will ensure that comprehensive unattended monitoring system designs provide appropriate answers to those critical questions imposed by specific agreements or regulations. This paper describes the main features of the methodology and discusses how it can be applied in real world situations

  19. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freedman, Ben; Camm, John; Calkins, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 10% of ischemic strokes are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) first diagnosed at the time of stroke. Detecting asymptomatic AF would provide an opportunity to prevent these strokes by instituting appropriate anticoagulation. The AF-SCREEN international collaboration was formed...

  20. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  1. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  2. Radiological protective screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugnatti, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    A radiological screen for placing on a patient's skin is discussed, comprising a flat jacket containing a fine particulate filler and a settable resin binder, the fine particulate filler being of a material which absorbs medical radiation, and the jacket including a window to transmit such radiation through the flat jacket. 16 claims, 4 drawing figures

  3. Screening Devices at School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2011-01-01

    ethnographic data from a Danish school, the article explores,first, the script and agencement of the SMTTE and, second, how the screening properties of the SMTTE are achieved, including how these properties challenge management-­‐teacher relations when the SMTTE travels to other networks at the school...

  4. Colorec tal cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... The operator must be skilled in the management of adverse events. • The operator must arrange appropriate follow-up of histopathological results. • The operator must provide appropriate recommendations for follow-up surveil- lance and screening. The average- risk person has a lifetime risk of developing.

  5. [ASCUS in screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, L; Monari, F; De Bianchi, P S; Amadori, A; Bondi, A

    2001-12-01

    The significance and use of the cytological diagnosis "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance" (ASCUS) remain a major problem in cervical cancer screening. The prevalence of ASCUS by patient age has seldom been investigated. The present paper reports the prevalence of ASCUS in a large series of screening Pap smears from the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The study was based on the data collected by the Department of Health of the Emilia-Romagna Region for the first 3-year round (1997-1999) of a population-based screening programme (target age, 25-64 years). The age-specific frequency of ASCUS has been calculated as a prevalence rate per 1000 screened patients. A total of 597,386 women participated in the programme. Women diagnosed with ASCUS (n = 8205 or 13.7 per 1000) accounted for 49% of the recalls for colposcopy (n = 16,871, or 28.2 per 1000). The prevalence of diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL) decreased progressively with age while that of high-grade SIL was slightly higher between 30 and 39 years. The prevalence of ASCUS peaked at age 45-49 years (17.3 per 1000 subjects). The observed peak reflects the prevalence of (1) cytological changes closely associated with perimenopausal age and at least compatible with the ASCUS diagnosis, and (2) cytological abnormalities induced by hormone replacement therapy.

  6. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  7. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  8. High-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of lysine demethylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Molly; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Lysine demethylases (KDMs) are epigenetic regulators whose dysfunction is implicated in the pathology of many human diseases including various types of cancer, inflammation and X-linked intellectual disability. Particular demethylases have been identified as promising therapeutic targets, and tremendous efforts are being devoted toward developing suitable small-molecule inhibitors for clinical and research use. Several High-throughput screening strategies have been developed to screen for small-molecule inhibitors of KDMs, each with advantages and disadvantages in terms of time, cost, effort, reliability and sensitivity. In this Special Report, we review and evaluate the High-throughput screening methods utilized for discovery of novel small-molecule KDM inhibitors.

  9. Engineering aspects of Passavant screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddle, K.R.; Sharma, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Passavant screen was developed in Europe almost 30 years ago. The Passavant screen is a vertical traveling screen; however, the basic difference between the conventional vertical traveling screen and the Passavant screen is that in the conventional screen water passes through the front screen belt and then the back screen belt, whereas in the Passavant screen the water enters in between the two belts and passes laterally through either of the belts. Thus, theoretically, the screening surface of the Passavant screen is doubled as compared to the same size conventional vertical traveling screen. Various design and operational modifications of the Passavant screen are possible to yield optimum design and performance characteristics which make it amenable to installation at power plants for safe removal of not only fish but also smaller organisms such as fish eggs and larvae. In this paper, details of the screen design and operational characteristics are discussed with notes on how these features can be modified to suit site- and organism-specific requirements

  10. Treaty Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jasani, B.; Lingenfelder, I.

    2009-01-01

    of remote sensing technologies. The book therefore comprises management aspects (issues and priorities of security research, crisis response), applied methodologies and process chains (treaty monitoring, estimation of population densities and characteristics, border permeability models, damage assessment...... companies, national research institutions and international organizations, all of whom were brought together under the aegis of the European research project GMOSS (Global Monitoring for Security and Stability). This book is tailored for the scientific community that deals with the application of EO data...... of civil security. Written for: Scientists, researchers in spatial sciences as well as practitioners, politicians, decision makers at NGO's in the field of security, crisis management, risk assessment and vulnerability....

  11. Screening of 23 β-lactams in foodstuffs by LC-MS/MS using an alkaline QuEChERS-like extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessaire, Thomas; Mujahid, Claudia; Beck, Andrea; Tarres, Adrienne; Savoy, Marie-Claude; Woo, Pei-Mun; Mottier, Pascal; Desmarchelier, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    A fast and robust high performance LC-MS/MS screening method was developed for the analysis of β-lactam antibiotics in foods of animal origin: eggs, raw milk, processed dairy ingredients, infant formula, and meat- and fish-based products including baby foods. QuEChERS extraction with some adaptations enabled 23 drugs to be simultaneously monitored. Screening target concentrations were set at levels adequate to ensure compliance with current European, Chinese, US and Canadian regulations. The method was fully validated according to the European Community Reference Laboratories Residues Guidelines using 93 food samples of different composition. False-negative and false-positive rates were below 5% for all analytes. The method is adequate for use in high-routine laboratories. A 1-year study was additionally conducted to assess the stability of the 23 analytes in the working standard solution.

  12. Monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    An improved monitoring apparatus for use with process plants, such as nuclear reactors, is described. System failure in the acquisition of data from the plant, owing to stuck signals, is avoided by arranging input signals from transducers in the plant in a test pattern. (U.K.)

  13. Monitor 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Ekberg, E.L.; Lambert, J.E.; Meyer, R.E.; Stroik, P.J.; Wickham, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    The status, improvements, and accomplishments of the Monitor remote-handling system previously reported are updated. It also outlines the goals for the future to improve the efficiency and speed of remote-maintenance operations at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility

  14. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  15. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  16. Screening for chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H D; Helfand, M

    2001-04-01

    To examine data on the effectiveness of screening for chlamydial infection by a physician or other health care professional. Specifically, we examine the evidence that early treatment of chlamydial infection improves health outcomes, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of screening strategies in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, and men, and the accuracy of tests used for screening. This review updates the literature since the last recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published in 1996. We searched the topic of chlamydia in the MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1994 to July 2000, supplemented by reference lists of relevant articles and from experts in the field. Articles published prior to 1994 and research abstracts were cited if particularly important to the key questions or to the interpretation of included articles. A single reader reviewed all English abstracts. Articles were selected for full review if they were about Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infections in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, or men and were relevant to key questions in the analytic framework. Investigators read the full-text version of the retrieved articles and applied additional eligibility criteria. For all topics, we excluded articles if they did not provide sufficient information to determine the methods for selecting subjects and for analyzing data. We systematically reviewed three types of studies about screening in nonpregnant women that relate to three key questions: (1) studies about the effectiveness of screening programs in reducing prevalence rates of infection, (2) studies about risk factors for chlamydial infection in women, and (3) studies about chlamydial screening tests in women. Our search found too few studies on pregnant women to systematically review, although pertinent studies are described. We systematically reviewed two types of studies about screening in men: (1) studies about prevalence rates and

  17. Monitoring Financial Conflict of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…

  18. Noninvasive molecular screening for oral precancer in Fanconi anemia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smetsers, Stephanie E.; Velleuer, Eunike; Dietrich, Ralf; Wu, Thijs; Brink, Arjen; Buijze, Marijke; Deeg, Dorly J H; Soulier, Jean; Leemans, C. René; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.

    2015-01-01

    LOH at chromosome arms 3p, 9p, 11q, and 17p are wellestablished oncogenetic aberrations in oral precancerous lesions and promising biomarkers to monitor the development of oral cancer. Noninvasive LOH screening of brushed oral cells is a preferable method for precancer detection in patients at

  19. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  20. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  1. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  2. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  3. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  4. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  5. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Mary J.; Dresel, P. Evan; Lindberg, Jon W.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Thornton, Edward C.

    2000-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The U.S. Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/ frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories: plume and trend tracking, treatment/ storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  6. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.; Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently

  7. Melanoma screening with cellular phones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Massone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mobile teledermatology has recently been shown to be suitable for teledermatology despite limitations in image definition in preliminary studies. The unique aspect of mobile teledermatology is that this system represents a filtering or triage system, allowing a sensitive approach for the management of patients with emergent skin diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the feasibility of teleconsultation using a new generation of cellular phones in pigmented skin lesions. 18 patients were selected consecutively in the Pigmented Skin Lesions Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria. Clinical and dermoscopic images were acquired using a Sony Ericsson with a built-in two-megapixel camera. Two teleconsultants reviewed the images on a specific web application (http://www.dermahandy.net/default.asp where images had been uploaded in JPEG format. Compared to the face-to-face diagnoses, the two teleconsultants obtained a score of correct telediagnoses of 89% and of 91.5% reporting the clinical and dermoscopic images, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work is the first study performing mobile teledermoscopy using cellular phones. Mobile teledermatology has the potential to become an easy applicable tool for everyone and a new approach for enhanced self-monitoring for skin cancer screening in the spirit of the eHealth program of the European Commission Information for Society and Media.

  8. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  9. An experience of qualified preventive screening: shiraz smart screening software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Zare, Hashem; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Computerized preventive screening software is a cost effective intervention tool to address non-communicable chronic diseases. Shiraz Smart Screening Software (SSSS) was developed as an innovative tool for qualified screening. It allows simultaneous smart screening of several high-burden chronic diseases and supports reminder notification functionality. The extent in which SSSS affects screening quality is also described. Following software development, preventive screening and annual health examinations of 261 school staff (Medical School of Shiraz, Iran) was carried out in a software-assisted manner. To evaluate the quality of the software-assisted screening, we used quasi-experimental study design and determined coverage, irregular attendance and inappropriateness proportions in relation with the manual and software-assisted screening as well as the corresponding number of requested tests. In manual screening method, 27% of employees were covered (with 94% irregular attendance) while by software-assisted screening, the coverage proportion was 79% (attendance status will clear after the specified time). The frequency of inappropriate screening test requests, before the software implementation, was 41.37% for fasting plasma glucose, 41.37% for lipid profile, 0.84% for occult blood, 0.19% for flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy, 35.29% for Pap smear, 19.20% for mammography and 11.2% for prostate specific antigen. All of the above were corrected by the software application. In total, 366 manual screening and 334 software-assisted screening tests were requested. SSSS is an innovative tool to improve the quality of preventive screening plans in terms of increased screening coverage, reduction in inappropriateness and the total number of requested tests.

  10. Ellipticity Weakens Chameleon Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.; Stevenson, James

    2014-01-01

    The chameleon mechanism enables a long range fifth force to be screened in dense environments when non-trivial self interactions of the field cause its mass to increase with the local density. To date, chameleon fifth forces have mainly been studied for spherically symmetric sources, however the non-linear self interactions mean that the chameleon responds to changes in the shape of the source differently to gravity. In this work we focus on ellipsoidal departures from spherical symmetry and ...

  11. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  12. SCREENING FOR PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A brief but valid self-report measure to screen for personality disorders (PDs) would be a valuable tool in making decisions about further assessment and in planning optimal treatments. In psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples, we compared the validity of three screening measures: the PD scales from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, a self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen, and the self-directedness scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Despite their different theoretical origins, the screeners were highly correlated in a range from .71 to .77. As a result, the use of multiple screeners was not a significant improvement over any individual screener, and no single screener stood out as clearly superior to the others. Each performed modestly in predicting the presence of any PD diagnosis in both the psychiatric and nonpsychiatric groups. Performance was best when predicting a more severe PD diagnosis in the psychiatric sample. The results also highlight the potential value of multiple assessments when relying on self-reports. PMID:17492920

  13. Automated screening for retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinal pathology is a common cause of an irreversible decrease of central vision commonly found amongst senior population. Detection of the earliest signs of retinal diseases can be facilitated by viewing retinal images available from the telemedicine networks. To facilitate the process of retinal images, screening software applications based on image recognition technology are currently on the various stages of development.Purpose: To develop and implement computerized image recognition software that can be used as a decision support technologyfor retinal image screening for various types of retinopathies.Methods: The software application for the retina image recognition has been developed using C++ language. It was tested on dataset of 70 images with various types of pathological features (age related macular degeneration, chorioretinitis, central serous chorioretinopathy and diabetic retinopathy.Results: It was shown that the system can achieve a sensitivity of 73 % and specificity of 72 %.Conclusion: Automated detection of macular lesions using proposed software can significantly reduce manual grading workflow. In addition, automated detection of retinal lesions can be implemented as a clinical decision support system for telemedicine screening. It is anticipated that further development of this technology can become a part of diagnostic image analysis system for the electronic health records.

  14. Screening Resonances In Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.

    1998-01-01

    When it was suggested that a new recombination mechanism (Resonant Radiative Recombination (RRR)) which, based on very general physical arguments, should happen in dense plasmas and promises to provide useful information for the local temperature and density diagnostics of plasmas, they assumed the existence of screening resonances. For model potentials the existence of screening resonances has been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt in a number of calculations. The key question, how well those potentials describe the dominant effects of a real plasma remains open. The relation of theoretical predictions to experimentally measurable effects is an important issue at the present stage of their research. In particular, RRR is expected to account for enhanced recombination rates of low energetic electrons with their ions, since the first stage is the resonant capture of a slow electron by an atom or ion. The mechanism that traps an electron is a combination of complicated many-body interactions of the ions and electrons. For clarity they start here, however, with a discussion in terms of local potential traps the shapes of which are determined predominantly and in an average way by two factors: the degree of screening present at the ionic site and the degree of short-range order in the immediate neighborhood of this ion

  15. Personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Sources of ionizing radiation have innumerable applications in the workplace. The potential exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with personal monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Module can only be provided by qualified experts

  16. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  17. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  18. Push for the Second Screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    Users’ perception of the relation between the TV screen and a secondary screen (e.g. smartphone or tablet) is examined empirically in a pilot project through a low-fi prototype and interviews. Early observations indicate that the user value/acceptance of push-messages delivered to the second screen...

  19. Material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly

  20. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  1. Individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  2. Time-resolved luminescence screening method for enrofloxacin in beef serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrofloxacin is one of only two fluoroquinolone antibiotics approved for use in cattle in the U.S. Microbial screening methods currently used in the U.S. for monitoring veterinary drug residues are not sensitive or selective for fluoroquinolones. In this work, a luminescence-based screening assay ...

  3. Reading and Studying on the Screen: An Overview of Literature towards Good Learning Design Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As distance education moves increasingly towards online provision, and because of the benefits provided by online approaches, students will be expected to engage with more resources available on screen. Contemporary forms of reading from the screen include reading from tablet devices, LCD monitors, and smartphones. However, print remains the…

  4. Comparison of screening methods for anaemia in pregnant women in Awassa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gies, S.; Brabin, B. J.; Yassin, M. A.; Cuevas, L. E.

    2003-01-01

    Screening for anaemia in pregnancy is essential for implementing and monitoring effective antenatal programmes. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of invasive and non-invasive screening methods in a cross-sectional survey of 403 pregnant women attending an urban health centre in Awassa, southern

  5. Smartphone home monitoring of ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Moon, Gyu; Landa, Joseph; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    A system of ambulatory, halter, electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system has already been commercially available for recording and transmitting heartbeats data by the Internet. However, it enjoys the confidence with a reservation and thus a limited market penetration, our system was targeting at aging global villagers having an increasingly biomedical wellness (BMW) homecare needs, not hospital related BMI (biomedical illness). It was designed within SWaP-C (Size, Weight, and Power, Cost) using 3 innovative modules: (i) Smart Electrode (lowpower mixed signal embedded with modern compressive sensing and nanotechnology to improve the electrodes' contact impedance); (ii) Learnable Database (in terms of adaptive wavelets transform QRST feature extraction, Sequential Query Relational database allowing home care monitoring retrievable Aided Target Recognition); (iii) Smartphone (touch screen interface, powerful computation capability, caretaker reporting with GPI, ID, and patient panic button for programmable emergence procedure). It can provide a supplementary home screening system for the post or the pre-diagnosis care at home with a build-in database searchable with the time, the place, and the degree of urgency happened, using in-situ screening.

  6. 7 CFR 3560.631 - Agency monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency monitoring. 3560.631 Section 3560.631 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.631 Agency monitoring. A...

  7. Monitoring as a partially observable decision problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Fackler; Robert G. Haight

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring is an important and costly activity in resource man-agement problems such as containing invasive species, protectingendangered species, preventing soil erosion, and regulating con-tracts for environmental services. Recent studies have viewedoptimal monitoring as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Pro-cess (POMDP), which provides a framework for...

  8. 50 CFR 300.37 - Radio monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio monitoring. 300.37 Section 300.37 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.37 Radio monitoring. The international distress frequency, 2.182 mHz...

  9. 49 CFR 238.237 - Automated monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automated monitoring. 238.237 Section 238.237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.237 Automated monitoring. (a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after...

  10. 15 CFR 971.424 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information as necessary to permit evaluation of environmental effects. The environmental monitoring plan and... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Issuance/Transfer... TCRs; (b) To cooperate with Federal officers and employees in the performance of monitoring functions...

  11. 5 CFR 430.306 - Monitoring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monitoring performance. 430.306 Section 430.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.306 Monitoring performance. (a) Supervisors must...

  12. Zebra mussel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  13. Organization of the individual monitoring in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, P.

    1991-01-01

    There are about 35,000 workers monitored in Brazil. Most of them are employed onhealth and non-nuclear industrial areas. The external individual monitoring is done by 10 laboratories accredited by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, applying specific regulation. The personal date and doses of the monitored workers are stored in a data bank. In this paper, future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Tritium monitoring equipments for animal experiment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroo

    1980-01-01

    Animal experiment facilities using tritium are described with reference to laws and regulations concerning radiological safety. Usual breeding facilities and surrounding conditions at non-radioactive animal experiments are summarized on feasible and effective designs of tritium monitors. Characteristics and desirable arrangements of various kinds of tritium monitors such as ionization chambers, proportional counters and liquid scintillation detectors are discussed from the standpoint of monitoring for room, glove-box, stack, liquid waste and personnel. (J.P.N.)

  15. D ampersand D screening risk evaluation guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D ampersand D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D ampersand D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis

  16. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  17. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  18. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  19. Development of a home screening system for pediatric respiratory sleep studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Lim, Chu Sing

    2006-12-01

    To develop a simple and portable home screening monitor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. In such a system, identifying the respiratory events and occurrences of motional artifacts are two essential elements that can affect the accuracy of the study. Moreover, such a system needs to be easy to set up and user friendly. The proposed system includes the following: electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter, microcontroller-based computation device, and a tri-axial accelerometer. Three physiologic parameters derived with this device were used to identify central (CE) and obstructive (OE) respiratory events. The criteria used were based on documented evidence and compared against corresponding standard polysomnographic scorings. In addition, a module was constructed in conjunction with a RS232 chip to transmit the recorded data to a personal computer. The accelerometer was used as a motion artifact detector. Detectable signals were acquired from the accelerometer when artifacts were induced on the photoplethysmography by motions in three regulated test activities lasting at least 30 seconds each. In classifying respiratory events, the combined use of oxygen saturation, heart rate, and pulse transit time to produce a complex classification (logic OR) showed promise. For OE, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.828 and 0.859, respectively. For CE, these values were 0.868 and 0.762, respectively. The proposed system potentially fulfils the criterion as a home screening tool and can form an indispensable addition to the SDB investigation in the pediatric population.

  20. Technology monitoring; Technologie-Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways of systematically monitoring energy technology development and the cost of such technologies in order to pave the way to a basis for judging the economic development of new energy technologies. Initial results of a survey of the past development of these technologies are presented and estimates are made of future developments in the areas of motor-based combined heat and power systems, fuel-cell heating units for single-family homes and apartment buildings, air/water heat pumps for new housing projects and high-performance thermal insulation. The methodology used for the monitoring and analysis of the various technologies is described. Tables and diagrams illustrate the present situation and development potential of various fields of technology.