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Sample records for monitoring protocol deviations

  1. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  2. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  3. An Audit of Protocol Deviations Submitted to an Institutional Ethics Committee of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila V Jalgaonkar

    Full Text Available Protocol deviations (PDs may jeopardize safety, rights, and welfare of subjects and data integrity. There is scarce literature and no guidelines for Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs to process PD reports. The PD reports submitted to IECs from Jan 2011 to August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Types of studies reporting PDs, category and type of PDs, PD rate per participant, time of reporting PD since its occurrence and corrective actions stated by principal investigator (PI for major deviations were noted. Out of 447 PDs from 73/1387 total studies received during study period, 402 were from 126 pharma studies. Investigator initiated studies and dissertations reported negligible PDs. Median number of PDs was 4 per protocol. Out of 447 PDs, 304 were related to study procedure, 87, 47 and 9 were from safety, informed consent document (ICD and eligibility category respectively. The most common reason for PDs was incomplete ICD (22/47. Maximum study procedure related PDs were due to patient visiting outside window period (126/304. Thirty five of 87 PDs were due to missed safety assessment. The overall PD reporting rate per participant was 0.08. In 90% of reports, date of occurrence of PD was not specified. The median delay for reporting PDs after occurrence was 94 days. PDs classified as Major were 73% (323/447. The most common corrective actions stated by PI were participant counseling (85/323 and caution in future (70/323. The study findings emphasize the need for GCP training at regular interval of study team members. IEC have to be vigilant and visit sites frequently, take initiative and formulate guidelines regarding PD reporting.

  4. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  5. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  6. Phase-I monitoring of standard deviations in multistage linear profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaei, Mahdiyeh; Soleimani, Paria; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Atashgar, Karim

    2018-03-01

    In most modern manufacturing systems, products are often the output of some multistage processes. In these processes, the stages are dependent on each other, where the output quality of each stage depends also on the output quality of the previous stages. This property is called the cascade property. Although there are many studies in multistage process monitoring, there are fewer works on profile monitoring in multistage processes, especially on the variability monitoring of a multistage profile in Phase-I for which no research is found in the literature. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to monitor the standard deviation involved in a simple linear profile designed in Phase I to monitor multistage processes with the cascade property. To this aim, an autoregressive correlation model between the stages is considered first. Then, the effect of the cascade property on the performances of three types of T 2 control charts in Phase I with shifts in standard deviation is investigated. As we show that this effect is significant, a U statistic is next used to remove the cascade effect, based on which the investigated control charts are modified. Simulation studies reveal good performances of the modified control charts.

  7. Monitoring System with Two Central Facilities Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caesar Firdaus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of data and information on government’s information system required proper way of defending against threat. Security aspect can be achieved by using cryptography algorithm, applying information hiding concept, and implementing security protocol. In this research, two central facilities protocol was implemented on Research and Development Center of Mineral and Coal Technology’s Cooperation Contract Monitoring System by utilizing AES and whitespace manipulation algorithm. Adjustment on the protocol by creating several rule of validation ID’s generation and checking processes could fulfill two of four cryptography objectives, consist of authentication and non-repudiation. The solid collaboration between central legitimization agency (CLA, central tabulating facility (CTF, and client is the main idea in two central facilities protocol. The utilization of AES algorithm could defend the data on transmission from man in the middle attack scenario. On the other hand, whitespace manipulation algorithm provided data integrity aspect of the document that is uploaded to the system itself. Both of the algorithm fulfill confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication.

  8. Investigation of the Study Characteristics Affecting Clinical Trial Quality Using the Protocol Deviations Leading to Exclusion of Subjects From the Per Protocol Set Data in Studies for New Drug Application: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Norihito; Kaneko, Masayuki; Narukawa, Mamoru

    2018-01-01

    The concept of the risk-based approach has been introduced as an effort to secure the quality of clinical trials. In the risk-based approach, identification and evaluation of risk in advance are considered important. For recently completed clinical trials, we investigated the relationship between study characteristics and protocol deviations leading to the exclusion of subjects from Per Protocol Set (PPS) efficacy analysis. New drugs approved in Japan in the fiscal year 2014-2015 were targeted in the research. The reasons for excluding subjects from the PPS efficacy analysis were described in 102 trials out of 492 in the summary of new drug application documents, which was publicly disclosed after the drug's regulatory approval. The author extracted these reasons along with the numbers of the cases and the study characteristics of each clinical trial. Then, the direct comparison, univariate regression analysis, and multivariate regression analysis was carried out based on the exclusion rate. The study characteristics for which exclusion of subjects from the PPS efficacy analysis were frequently observed was multiregional clinical trials in study region; inhalant and external use in administration route; Anti-infective for systemic use; Respiratory system, Dermatologicals, and Nervous system in therapeutic drug under the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification. In the multivariate regression analysis, the clinical trial variables of inhalant, Respiratory system, or Dermatologicals were selected as study characteristics leading to a higher exclusion rate. The characteristics of the clinical trial that is likely to cause protocol deviations that will affect efficacy analysis were suggested. These studies should be considered for specific attention and priority observation in the trial protocol or its monitoring plan and execution, such as a clear description of inclusion/exclusion criteria in the protocol, development of training materials to site staff, and

  9. Performance evaluations of continuous glucose monitoring systems: precision absolute relative deviation is part of the assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Karin; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Klötzer, Hans-Martin; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Eikmeier, Heino; del Re, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Even though a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute proposal exists on the design of studies and performance criteria for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, it has not yet led to a consistent evaluation of different systems, as no consensus has been reached on the reference method to evaluate them or on acceptance levels. As a consequence, performance assessment of CGM systems tends to be inconclusive, and a comparison of the outcome of different studies is difficult. Published information and available data (as presented in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology by Freckmann and coauthors) are used to assess the suitability of several frequently used methods [International Organization for Standardization, continuous glucose error grid analysis, mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), precision absolute relative deviation (PARD)] when assessing performance of CGM systems in terms of accuracy and precision. The combined use of MARD and PARD seems to allow for better characterization of sensor performance. The use of different quantities for calibration and evaluation, e.g., capillary blood using a blood glucose (BG) meter versus venous blood using a laboratory measurement, introduces an additional error source. Using BG values measured in more or less large intervals as the only reference leads to a significant loss of information in comparison with the continuous sensor signal and possibly to an erroneous estimation of sensor performance during swings. Both can be improved using data from two identical CGM sensors worn by the same patient in parallel. Evaluation of CGM performance studies should follow an identical study design, including sufficient swings in glycemia. At least a part of the study participants should wear two identical CGM sensors in parallel. All data available should be used for evaluation, both by MARD and PARD, a good PARD value being a precondition to trust a good MARD value. Results should be analyzed and

  10. Moving standard deviation and moving sum of outliers as quality tools for monitoring analytical precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Tan, Chin Hon; Badrick, Tony; Loh, Tze Ping

    2018-02-01

    An increase in analytical imprecision (expressed as CV a ) can introduce additional variability (i.e. noise) to the patient results, which poses a challenge to the optimal management of patients. Relatively little work has been done to address the need for continuous monitoring of analytical imprecision. Through numerical simulations, we describe the use of moving standard deviation (movSD) and a recently described moving sum of outlier (movSO) patient results as means for detecting increased analytical imprecision, and compare their performances against internal quality control (QC) and the average of normal (AoN) approaches. The power of detecting an increase in CV a is suboptimal under routine internal QC procedures. The AoN technique almost always had the highest average number of patient results affected before error detection (ANPed), indicating that it had generally the worst capability for detecting an increased CV a . On the other hand, the movSD and movSO approaches were able to detect an increased CV a at significantly lower ANPed, particularly for measurands that displayed a relatively small ratio of biological variation to CV a. CONCLUSION: The movSD and movSO approaches are effective in detecting an increase in CV a for high-risk measurands with small biological variation. Their performance is relatively poor when the biological variation is large. However, the clinical risks of an increase in analytical imprecision is attenuated for these measurands as an increased analytical imprecision will only add marginally to the total variation and less likely to impact on the clinical care. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Mervyn D.; Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly; Apgar, Bruce K.

    2011-01-01

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  12. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  13. Importance of borehole deviation surveys for monitoring of hydraulic fracturing treatments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulant, P.; Eisner, L.; Pšenčík, Ivan; Le Calvez, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2007), s. 891-899 ISSN 0016-8025 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/0032; EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : hydraulic fracture * borehole deviation * seismic rays Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.731, year: 2007

  14. A field protocol to monitor cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dudley; V. Saab

    2003-01-01

    We developed a field protocol to monitor populations of cavity-nesting birds in burned and unburned coniferous forests of western North America. Standardized field methods are described for implementing long-term monitoring strategies and for conducting field research to evaluate the effects of habitat change on cavity-nesting birds. Key references (but not...

  15. National protocol framework for the inventory and monitoring of bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Sam; Engler, Joseph D.; Sellers, Elizabeth A.; Lee O'Brien,

    2016-01-01

    This national protocol framework is a standardized tool for the inventory and monitoring of the approximately 4,200 species of native and non-native bee species that may be found within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). However, this protocol framework may also be used by other organizations and individuals to monitor bees in any given habitat or location. Our goal is to provide USFWS stations within the NWRS (NWRS stations are land units managed by the USFWS such as national wildlife refuges, national fish hatcheries, wetland management districts, conservation areas, leased lands, etc.) with techniques for developing an initial baseline inventory of what bee species are present on their lands and to provide an inexpensive, simple technique for monitoring bees continuously and for monitoring and evaluating long-term population trends and management impacts. The latter long-term monitoring technique requires a minimal time burden for the individual station, yet can provide a good statistical sample of changing populations that can be investigated at the station, regional, and national levels within the USFWS’ jurisdiction, and compared to other sites within the United States and Canada. This protocol framework was developed in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the USFWS, and a worldwide network of bee researchers who have investigated the techniques and methods for capturing bees and tracking population changes. The protocol framework evolved from field and lab-based investigations at the USGS Bee Inventory and Monitoring Laboratory at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland starting in 2002 and was refined by a large number of USFWS, academic, and state groups. It includes a Protocol Introduction and a set of 8 Standard Operating Procedures or SOPs and adheres to national standards of protocol content and organization. The Protocol Narrative

  16. Updating the U.S. SMART dispersant efficacy monitoring protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, K.; Belore, R.; VanHaverbeke, M.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (SMART) is a written dispersant effectiveness monitoring protocol developed in the United States in the mid 1990s. It has been the subject of considerable review and research since its development. This paper reported on the 2007-2008 review of the SMART dispersant effectiveness monitoring protocol which involved the following 3 tasks: (1) stakeholders reviewed their experience with SMART and identified the key deficiencies in the current protocol, (2) the SMART monitoring experience gathered during dispersant effectiveness testing at the Ohmsett National Oil Spill Response Test Facility was reviewed to evaluate the usefulness of existing SMART decision criteria, (3) available commercial off-the-shelf instruments (COTS) were surveyed to identify the instruments that might be more effective or simpler to use than those presently in use. The review concluded that the three-tiered approach in SMART was appropriate, but better guidance was needed for users. In addition, the fluorometer historically used for monitoring of dispersed oil was found to have several operating challenges and should be replaced with more modern equipment. It was recommended that all U.S. government sponsored monitoring teams work with identical instruments and operating protocols. The COTS survey identified 6 potentially suitable submersible and field-portable fluorometers and three particle-size analyzers. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The monitoring will be directed at the absolute amount of used solar energy, the relative contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand in the Netherlands, and the average efficiency of passive solar energy systems. Based on a model of the total building stock the quantities to be monitored can be determined. The most important parameters in the model are: the window surface per orientation, the average U-value (heat transfer coefficient) of windows, the average ZTA-value (incoming solar radiation factor) of windows, and the presence of sun lounges and atriums

  18. Protocols of radiocontaminant air monitoring for inhalation exposure estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    Monitoring the plutonium and americium particle emissions from soils contaminated during atmospheric nuclear testing or due to accidental releases is important for several reasons. First, it is important to quantify the extent of potential human exposure from inhalation of alpha-emitting particles, which is the major exposure pathway from transuranic radionuclides. Second, the information provided by resuspension monitoring is the basis of criteria that determine the target soil concentrations for management and cleanup of contaminated soil sites. There are other radioactive aerosols, such as the fission products (cesium and strontium) and neutron-activation products (europium isotopes), which may be resuspended and therefore necessary to monitor as well. This Standard Protocol (SP) provides the method used for radiocontaminant air monitoring by the Health and Ecological Assessment Division (formerly Environmental Sciences Division), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as developed and tested at Nevada Test Site (NTS) and in the Marshall Islands. The objective of this SP is to document the applications and methods of monitoring of all the relevant variables. This protocol deals only with measuring air concentrations of radionuclides and total suspended particulates (TSP, or open-quotes dustclose quotes). A separate protocol presents the more difficult measurements required to determine transuranic aerosol emission rates, or open-quotes resuspension rateclose quotes

  19. The relationship between ST segment deviation projected to the front of the chest during exercise and simultaneous Holter monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1988-01-01

    were placed to correspond to CM5 and an aVF-like lead. In 36 patients, ST segment changes were found with both Holter and the 12-lead precordial electrocardiogram, while in 12 patients no ischaemic changes were detected by either method. Thus the results of the two methods concurred in 48 of 50 patient...... (96%). The magnitude of the ischaemic change was similar in 24 of 36 patients (67%), while the Holter system underestimated the ischaemic change by 0.5-2.0 mm in 12 patients. When the maximal ST segment deviation in V5 was compared with CM5, the deviations with both systems were identical in all...... but one patient in whom a difference of 0.5 mm was found. The use of a Holter lead resembling a VF identified maximal ST segment change on only one occasion, and in only four patients was an ST segment change of 1 mm noted. In conclusion, ambulatory monitoring utilizing only CM5 seems to detect most...

  20. A global protocol for monitoring of coral bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, J.; Setiasih, N.; Marshall, P.; Hansen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Coral bleaching and subsequent mortality represent a major threat to the future health and productivity of coral reefs. However a lack of reliable data on occurrence, severity and other characteristics of bleaching events hampers research on the causes and consequences of this important phenomenon. This article describes a global protocol for monitoring coral bleaching events, which addresses this problem and can be used by people with different levels of expertise and resources.

  1. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  2. Protocol of specific health monitoring: ionizing radiation, 11 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo Puertas, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval on November 11 t h 2003 of the Protocol of Specific Health Monitoring for Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation a study has been carried out to discover its effectiveness. These areas were examined: the daily practice od accupational medicine and, in particular, its specific task in the application of the different clinical/labour criteria for workers exposed to ionizing radiation or at risk of radioactive contamination; the degree of its uses as well as the updates and improvements. For that purpose, a descriptive bibliographic revision has been used for the last 11 years. The results revealed the lack of updates of the Protocol as well as the few usable objective criteria, when the clinical/labour aptitudes are reflected upon. (Author)

  3. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  4. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  5. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  6. Developing a yeast-based assay protocol to monitor total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A yeast-based assay protocol developed for detecting oestrogenic activity in activated sludge (AS) supernatant is described. The protocol used Saccharomyces cerevisiae construct RMY/ER-ERE with human oestrogen receptor (ERα) and lacZ reporter genes, and was developed by modifying existing assays for use with AS ...

  7. Investigating Long-Term Monitoring Protocols in support of Quivira NWR Habitat Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The project purpose is to investigate long-term monitoring protocols in support of Quivira NWR habitat objectives as described in the Refuge’s recently approved CCP...

  8. An Ad-Hoc Opportunistic Dissemination Protocol for Smartphone-based Participatory Traffic Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Johan; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted

  9. Development of protocols to inventory or monitor wildlife, fish, or rare plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Vesely; Brenda C. McComb; Christina D. Vojta; Lowell H. Suring; Jurai Halaj; Richard S. Holthausen; Benjamin Zuckerberg; Patricia M. Manley

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this technical guide (hereafter referred to as the Species Protocol Technical Guide) is to provide guidelines for developing inventory and monitoring (I&M) protocols for wildlife, fish, and rare plants (WFRP) using the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service technical guide format.

  10. Calibration of Community-based Coral Reef Monitoring Protocols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has been recognised as an important management tool and has consequently been incorporated in Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) programmes in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Community-based coral reef monitoring (CB-CRM), which uses simplified procedures suitable for ...

  11. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC) for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Peter; Putnik, Kurt; Kreimeyer, Thore; Sprague, Lisa D; Koelbl, Oliver; Schäfer, Christof

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck ca...

  12. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprague Lisa D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %, one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 % and one fifth (19 % suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion. This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy. All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Results Forty patients (63 % received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d, respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 % had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 % suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient 10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. Conclusion The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led to long-term disease control and survival in about 50 % of the patients with significant but acceptable toxicity. Most patients

  13. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC) for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Peter; Putnik, Kurt; Kreimeyer, Thore; Sprague, Lisa D; Koelbl, Oliver; Schäfer, Christof

    2006-01-01

    The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol 'SCHARC' and the overall survival of our patients. From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III) were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %), one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 %) and one fifth (19 %) suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m 2 /d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m 2 /d 5FU (cont. infusion). This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy). All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Forty patients (63 %) received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d) and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d), respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 %) had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 %) suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient < 1.0 g/nl) and the mean hemoglobin value decreased from 13.2 to 10.5 g/dl. Univariate analysis of survival showed a better outcome for patients with a hemoglobin nadir >10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led

  14. Split course hyperfractionated accelerated radio-chemotherapy (SCHARC) for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Peter; Putnik, Kurt; Kreimeyer, Thore; Sprague, Lisa D; Koelbl, Oliver; Schäfer, Christof

    2006-12-07

    The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III) were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %), one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 %) and one fifth (19 %) suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1-5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750-1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion). This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69-70.5 Gy). All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Forty patients (63 %) received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d) and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d), respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 %) had acute grade 2-3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 %) suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient hemoglobin value decreased from 13.2 to 10.5 g/dl. Univariate analysis of survival showed a better outcome for patients with a hemoglobin nadir >10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer. It led to long-term disease control and survival in

  15. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  16. Improvement of burn pain management through routine pain monitoring and pain management protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeong Tae; Hur, Giyeun; Kwak, In-Suk; Yim, Haejun; Cho, Yong Suk; Kim, Dohern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Boung Chul; Seo, Cheong Hoon; Chun, Wook

    2013-06-01

    Pain management is an important aspect of burn management. We developed a routine pain monitoring system and pain management protocol for burn patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of our new pain management system. From May 2011 to November 2011, the prospective study was performed with 107 burn patients. We performed control group (n=58) data analysis and then developed the pain management protocol and monitoring system. Next, we applied our protocol to patients and performed protocol group (n=49) data analysis, and compared this to control group data. Data analysis was performed using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) of background pain and procedural pain, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale (STAIS), and Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale (HRSS). The NRS of background pain for the protocol group was significantly decreased compared to the control group (2.8±2.0 versus 3.9±1.9), and the NRS of procedural pain of the protocol group was significantly decreased compared to the control group (4.8±2.8 versus 3.7±2.5). CAPS and HDRS were decreased in the protocol group, but did not have statistical significance. STAIS and HRSS were decreased in the protocol group, but only the STAIS had statistical significance. Our new pain management system was effective in burn pain management. However, adequate pain management can only be accomplished by a continuous and thorough effort. Therefore, pain control protocol and pain monitoring systems need to be under constant revision and improvement using creative ideas and approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  18. Two-Layer Hierarchy Optimization Model for Communication Protocol in Railway Wireless Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless monitoring system is always destroyed by the insufficient energy of the sensors in railway. Hence, how to optimize the communication protocol and extend the system lifetime is crucial to ensure the stability of system. However, the existing studies focused primarily on cluster-based or multihop protocols individually, which are ineffective in coping with the complex communication scenarios in the railway wireless monitoring system (RWMS. This study proposes a hybrid protocol which combines the cluster-based and multihop protocols (CMCP to minimize and balance the energy consumption in different sections of the RWMS. In the first hierarchy, the total energy consumption is minimized by optimizing the cluster quantities in the cluster-based protocol and the number of hops and the corresponding hop distances in the multihop protocol. In the second hierarchy, the energy consumption is balanced through rotating the cluster head (CH in the subnetworks and further optimizing the hops and the corresponding hop distances in the backbone network. On this basis, the system lifetime is maximized with the minimum and balance energy consumption among the sensors. Furthermore, the hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm (PSO-GA are adopted to optimize the energy consumption from the two-layer hierarchy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed CMCP is verified in the simulation. The performances of the proposed CMCP in system lifetime, residual energy, and the corresponding variance are all superior to the LEACH protocol widely applied in the previous research. The effective protocol proposed in this study can facilitate the application of the wireless monitoring network in the railway system and enhance safety operation of the railway.

  19. Influence of regression model and incremental test protocol on the relationship between lactate threshold using the maximal-deviation method and performance in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana Andrade; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói De

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the regression model and initial intensity of an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and the endurance performance. Sixteen non-competitive, recreational female runners performed a discontinuous incremental treadmill test. The initial speed was set at 7 km · h⁻¹, and increased every 3 min by 1 km · h⁻¹ with a 30-s rest between the stages used for earlobe capillary blood sample collection. Lactate-speed data were fitted by an exponential-plus-constant and a third-order polynomial equation. The lactate threshold was determined for both regression equations, using all the coordinates, excluding the first and excluding the first and second initial points. Mean speed of a 10-km road race was the performance index (3.04 ± 0.22 m · s⁻¹). The exponentially-derived lactate threshold had a higher correlation (0.98 ≤ r ≤ 0.99) and smaller standard error of estimate (SEE) (0.04 ≤ SEE ≤ 0.05 m · s⁻¹) with performance than the polynomially-derived equivalent (0.83 ≤ r ≤ 0.89; 0.10 ≤ SEE ≤ 0.13 m · s⁻¹). The exponential lactate threshold was greater than the polynomial equivalent (P performance index that is independent of the initial intensity of the incremental test and better than the polynomial equivalent.

  20. A Novel Smart Routing Protocol for Remote Health Monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. P. Sundararajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN, sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  1. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  2. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  3. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  4. Improvement in QA protocol for TLD based personnel monitoring laboratory in last five year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakesh, R.B.

    2018-01-01

    The Quality Assurance (QA) in Personnel monitoring (PM) is a tool to assess the performance of PM laboratories and reliability of dose estimation with respect to standards laid down by international agencies such as IAEA (ISO trumpet curve), IEC, ANSI etc. Reliable personal dose estimation is a basic requirement for radiation protection planning as well as decision making continuous improvement in radiation protection is inherent in radiation protection practices which is highly dependent on accuracy and reliability of the monitoring data. Experience based evolution of Quality control (QC) measures as well as Quality assurance (QA) protocol are two important aspects towards continuous improvement in accuracy and reliability of personnel monitoring results. The paper describes improvement in QC measures and QA protocols initiated during the last five years which led to improvement in the quality of PM services

  5. TH-E-209-00: Radiation Dose Monitoring and Protocol Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dose monitoring solutions have opened up new opportunities for medical physicists to be more involved in modern clinical radiology practices. In particular, with the help of comprehensive radiation dose data, data-driven protocol management and informed case follow up are now feasible. Significant challenges remain however and the problems faced by medical physicists are highly heterogeneous. Imaging systems from multiple vendors and a wide range of vintages co-exist in the same department and employ data communication protocols that are not fully standardized or implemented making harmonization complex. Many different solutions for radiation dose monitoring have been implemented by imaging facilities over the past few years. Such systems are based on commercial software, home-grown IT solutions, manual PACS data dumping, etc., and diverse pathways can be used to bring the data to impact clinical practice. The speakers will share their experiences with creating or tailoring radiation dose monitoring/management systems and procedures over the past few years, which vary significantly in design and scope. Topics to cover: (1) fluoroscopic dose monitoring and high radiation event handling from a large academic hospital; (2) dose monitoring and protocol optimization in pediatric radiology; and (3) development of a home-grown IT solution and dose data analysis framework. Learning Objectives: Describe the scope and range of radiation dose monitoring and protocol management in a modern radiology practice Review examples of data available from a variety of systems and how it managed and conveyed. Reflect on the role of the physicist in radiation dose awareness.

  6. TH-E-209-02: Dose Monitoring and Protocol Optimization: The Pediatric Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dose monitoring solutions have opened up new opportunities for medical physicists to be more involved in modern clinical radiology practices. In particular, with the help of comprehensive radiation dose data, data-driven protocol management and informed case follow up are now feasible. Significant challenges remain however and the problems faced by medical physicists are highly heterogeneous. Imaging systems from multiple vendors and a wide range of vintages co-exist in the same department and employ data communication protocols that are not fully standardized or implemented making harmonization complex. Many different solutions for radiation dose monitoring have been implemented by imaging facilities over the past few years. Such systems are based on commercial software, home-grown IT solutions, manual PACS data dumping, etc., and diverse pathways can be used to bring the data to impact clinical practice. The speakers will share their experiences with creating or tailoring radiation dose monitoring/management systems and procedures over the past few years, which vary significantly in design and scope. Topics to cover: (1) fluoroscopic dose monitoring and high radiation event handling from a large academic hospital; (2) dose monitoring and protocol optimization in pediatric radiology; and (3) development of a home-grown IT solution and dose data analysis framework. Learning Objectives: Describe the scope and range of radiation dose monitoring and protocol management in a modern radiology practice Review examples of data available from a variety of systems and how it managed and conveyed. Reflect on the role of the physicist in radiation dose awareness.

  7. TH-E-209-00: Radiation Dose Monitoring and Protocol Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Radiation dose monitoring solutions have opened up new opportunities for medical physicists to be more involved in modern clinical radiology practices. In particular, with the help of comprehensive radiation dose data, data-driven protocol management and informed case follow up are now feasible. Significant challenges remain however and the problems faced by medical physicists are highly heterogeneous. Imaging systems from multiple vendors and a wide range of vintages co-exist in the same department and employ data communication protocols that are not fully standardized or implemented making harmonization complex. Many different solutions for radiation dose monitoring have been implemented by imaging facilities over the past few years. Such systems are based on commercial software, home-grown IT solutions, manual PACS data dumping, etc., and diverse pathways can be used to bring the data to impact clinical practice. The speakers will share their experiences with creating or tailoring radiation dose monitoring/management systems and procedures over the past few years, which vary significantly in design and scope. Topics to cover: (1) fluoroscopic dose monitoring and high radiation event handling from a large academic hospital; (2) dose monitoring and protocol optimization in pediatric radiology; and (3) development of a home-grown IT solution and dose data analysis framework. Learning Objectives: Describe the scope and range of radiation dose monitoring and protocol management in a modern radiology practice Review examples of data available from a variety of systems and how it managed and conveyed. Reflect on the role of the physicist in radiation dose awareness.

  8. TH-E-209-02: Dose Monitoring and Protocol Optimization: The Pediatric Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, R. [Boston Children’s Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation dose monitoring solutions have opened up new opportunities for medical physicists to be more involved in modern clinical radiology practices. In particular, with the help of comprehensive radiation dose data, data-driven protocol management and informed case follow up are now feasible. Significant challenges remain however and the problems faced by medical physicists are highly heterogeneous. Imaging systems from multiple vendors and a wide range of vintages co-exist in the same department and employ data communication protocols that are not fully standardized or implemented making harmonization complex. Many different solutions for radiation dose monitoring have been implemented by imaging facilities over the past few years. Such systems are based on commercial software, home-grown IT solutions, manual PACS data dumping, etc., and diverse pathways can be used to bring the data to impact clinical practice. The speakers will share their experiences with creating or tailoring radiation dose monitoring/management systems and procedures over the past few years, which vary significantly in design and scope. Topics to cover: (1) fluoroscopic dose monitoring and high radiation event handling from a large academic hospital; (2) dose monitoring and protocol optimization in pediatric radiology; and (3) development of a home-grown IT solution and dose data analysis framework. Learning Objectives: Describe the scope and range of radiation dose monitoring and protocol management in a modern radiology practice Review examples of data available from a variety of systems and how it managed and conveyed. Reflect on the role of the physicist in radiation dose awareness.

  9. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  10. Realization of Intelligent Household Appliance Wireless Monitoring Network Based on LEACH Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong ZHOU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent household appliance wireless monitoring network can real-time monitor the apparent power and power factor of various household appliances in different indoor regions, and can realize the real-time monitoring on the household appliance working status and performance. The household appliance wireless monitoring network based on LEACH protocol is designed in the paper. Firstly, the basic idea of LEACH routing algorithm is proposed. Aiming at the node-distribution feature of intelligent home, the selection of cluster head in the routing algorithm and the data transmission method at the stable communication phase is modified. Moreover, the hardware circuit of power acquisition and power factor measurement is designed. The realization of wireless monitoring network based on CC2530 is described, each module and the whole system were conducted the on-line debugging. Finally, the system is proved to meet the practical requirement through the networking test.

  11. Validation of the Oregon Scientific BPU 330 for self-monitoring of blood pressure according to the International Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Li Li1, XinYu Zhang1, ChunHong Yan1, QingXiang Liang21Biomedical Engineering Lab, Faculty of Information Engineering, ShenZhen University, ShenZhen, China; 2Bao An People’s Hospital, ShenZhen, ChinaObjective: Extensive marketing of devices for self-measurement of blood pressure has created a need for purchasers to be able to satisfy themselves that such devices have been evaluated according to agreed criteria. The Oregon Scientific BPU 330 blood pressure monitor is an electronic device for upper arm measurement. This study assessed the accuracy of the Oregon Scientific BPU 330 blood pressure monitor according to the International Protocol by the Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring of the European Society of Hypertension for validation of blood pressure measuring devices.Method: 52 participants over 30 years of age were studied in the validation. Nine blood pressure measurements were taken alternately with a mercury sphygmomanometer by two observers, and by the supervisor, using the BPU 330 device. A total of 33 participants were selected for the analysis. The validation was divided into two phases. Phase 1 included 15 participants. If the device passed phase 1, 18 more participants were included. The 99 pairs of measurements were compared according to the International Protocol. The device was given a pass/fail recommendation based on its accuracy compared with the mercury standard (within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, as well as the number met in the ranges specified by the International Protocol.Results: The mean and standard deviation of the difference between the mean of the observers and the BPU 330 device were 1.7 ± 4.7 mmHg and 2.8 ± 3.9 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, respectively. In phase 1, the device passed with a total of 33, 43, and 44 SBP readings; 38, 44, and 45 DBP readings were within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively. In phase 2.1, 81, 95, and 96 for SBP, and 83, 95, and 98 for DBP

  12. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  13. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Protocol to monitor trade agreement food-related aspects: the Fiji case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-04-26

    Despite the growing rates of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, globally, public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade agreements and the nutritional risks associated with it. Specific trade agreements appear to have played an influential role in the volume and types of foods entering different countries, yet there is currently no systematic and objective monitoring of trade agreements for their impacts on food environments. Recently, INFORMAS was set up to monitor and benchmark food environments, government policies and private sector actions within countries and globally. One of its projects/modules focuses on trade policy and in particular the food-related aspects of trade agreements. This paper describes the INFORMAS trade protocol, an approach to collecting food-related information about four domains of trade: trade in goods; trade in services and foreign direct investment; domestic supports, and policy space. Specifically, the protocol is tested in Fiji. The development and testing of this protocol in Fiji represents the first effort to set out a framework and process for objectively monitoring trade agreements and their impacts on national food supply and the wider food environment. It has shown that entry into WTO trade agreements contributed to the nutrition transition in Fiji through the increased availability of imported foods with varying nutritional quality. We observed an increase in imports of both healthy and less healthy foods. The application of the monitoring protocol also highlights challenges for data collection associated with each trade domain that should be considered for future data collection and analysis in other low and middle income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  16. Informal and formal trail monitoring protocols and baseline conditions: Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Wimpey, Jeremy F.; Park, L.

    2011-01-01

    At Acadia National Park, changing visitor use levels and patterns have contributed to an increasing degree of visitor use impacts to natural and cultural resources. To better understand the extent and severity of these resource impacts and identify effective management techniques, the park sponsored this research to develop monitoring protocols, collect baseline data, and identify suggestions for management strategies. Formal and informal trails were surveyed and their resource conditions were assessed and characterized to support park planning and management decision-making.

  17. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Paintner-Green, Kara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  18. Validation of the Medisana MTP Plus upper arm blood pressure monitor, for self-measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emre; Aydogdu, Türkan; Akpolat, Tekin

    2011-02-01

    Standard validation protocols are objective guides for healthcare providers, physicians, and patients. The purpose of this study was to test validation of the Medisana MTP Plus upper arm blood pressure (BP) measuring monitor for self-measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP2) in adults. The Medisana MTP Plus monitor is an automated and oscillometric upper arm device for home BP monitoring. Nine consecutive measurements were made according to the ESH-IP2. Overseen by an independent supervisor, measurements were recorded by two observers blinded from both each other's readings and from the device readings. The Medisana MTP Plus device fulfills the validation criteria of the ESH-IP2 for the general population. The mean (standard deviation) of the difference between the observers and the device measurements was 0.6 mmHg (5.1 mmHg) for systolic and 2.7 mmHg (3.4 mmHg) for diastolic pressures, respectively. As the Medisana MTP Plus device has achieved the required standards, it is recommended for home BP monitoring in an adult population.

  19. Pilot study: Assessing the effect of continual position monitoring technology on compliance with patient turning protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Suann Cirigliano; Tarver, Christine; Pezzani, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate if continual patient position monitoring, taking into account self-turns and clinician-assisted turns, would increase the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr. While patient turning has clinical benefits, current models to help staff remember to turn patients, such as "turn clocks" and timers, have not resulted in high compliance with turning protocols. In addition, reminders are based on arbitrary 2-hr windows (such as turning on "even" hours) rather than on individual patient activity, including self-turns. This is a first inpatient, non-randomized, pre-/postintervention study. Data collection occurred from May 2013-February 2014 on a 39-bed medical unit in a community hospital. Baseline patient turning data were recorded by a sensor; however, the patient data were not displayed at the nurses' station to establish compliance with the hospital's turning protocol. Postintervention, patient position information was wirelessly displayed on nurses' station computer monitors in real time. A Student t test was used to compare baseline to postintervention "mean time in compliance." Data from 138 patients ( N  =   7,854 hr of monitoring) were collected. The baseline phase yielded 4,322 hr of position monitoring data and the postintervention phase yielded 3,532 hr of data. Statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr from baseline to postintervention.

  20. Rivers rapid assessment protocols and insertion of society in monitoring of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water resources has been detected and changes both institutional and in the legislation have been demanded. The careless use of rivers has ecological changes as direct consequence, causing serious modifications in the landscape and fluvial regime, besides altering the availability of habitats and the trophic composition of the aquatic environment. Pressed by this scenario, scientists have been developing assessment methods that are efficient both for the evaluation itself and for supporting decision taking in the environmental management processes. In this perspective, the objective of this study is to present the Rapid River Assessment Protocols (RAPs and to emphasize how these protocols can promote the community participation in water resources monitoring. The RAPs can used to evaluate in an integrated form the characteristics of a river section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment and it is characterized by its economic viability and easy applicability. In regions with poor financial resources and serious problems of water quality, the RAPs can be used in environmental management programs. By using these protocols, the integration of the community in water resources monitoring generates data which represent the quality of fluvial ecosystems throughout time, without requesting high costs or specialized professionals. The RAPs in a simplified but not simplistic tool, which can be used in activities that aim at promoting a quick and reliable assessment of the “health” of a river.

  1. [Prediction of cardiac function deviations (ECG data) in the course of permanent cosmonaut's monitoring starting from selection till return to earth after short-duration space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovskaia, A R; Koloteva, M I; Luk'ianiuk, V Iu; Stepanova, G P; Filatova, L M; Buĭlov, S P; Zhernavkov, A F; Kondratiuk, L L

    2007-01-01

    Analyzed were deviations in cardiac function in 29 cosmonauts with previous aviation and other occupations ranging of 29 to 61 y.o. who made 8- to 30-day space flights (totai number of flights = 34) between 1982 and 2006. The deviations were identified in ECG records collected during clinical selection, clinical physiological examination (CPE) before flight, insertion and deorbit in transport vehicles, and post-flight CPE. Based on the analysis, the cosmonauts were distributed into three groups. The first group (55.2% of the cosmonauts) did not exhibit noticeable shifts and unfavorable trends in ECG at any time of the period of observation. The second group (34.5%) showed some deviations during selection and pre-flight CPE that became more apparent in the period of deorbit and were still present in post-flight ECG records. The third group (10.3%) displayed health-threatening deviations in cardiac function during deorbit. These findings give start to important investigations with the purpose to define permissible medical risks and ensuing establishment and perfection of medical criteria for candidates to cosmonauts with certain health problems.

  2. QoS and energy aware cooperative routing protocol for wildfire monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Mohamed; Cherif, Sofiane; Besbes, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption.

  3. The radiological monitoring protocol for metallic products and cleared scrap management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Lopez, E.

    2003-01-01

    Event though the use of nuclear and radiological techniques is subject to strict controls in most countries, the presence of radioactive material in batches of metallic scrap has been detected with relative frequency in the last few years. This circumstance has motivated the implementation of a series of national and international initiatives aimed at detecting and preventing this type of events, whether they be intentional or involuntary. The Spanish iron and steel industry is one of the country's most important industrial sectors, and to a great extent it depends on the importation of a very significant amount of metallic scrap that it uses as raw material. Experience has shown that countries that import large amounts of scrap, apart from supporting the mentioned international initiatives, should complement them with other national initiatives to reduce the risks resulting from the presence of radioactive material in scrap. In this context, the Spanish authorities, together with trade unions and entrepreneurial associations in the metal reclamations and smelting sectors and ENRESA, have signed a voluntary Protocol that defines and implements a national radiological monitoring and control system for scrap materials and their byproducts. The Protocol defines the obligations and rights of the signatories, and it describes the monitoring and control system and its legal bases, the operation of both specific and other general-purpose radiological monitoring equipment that existed prior to this initiative, the development of radiological training and dissemination plans for professionals in the metal reclamation and smelting sectors, the establishment of effective systems for the safe management of any radioactive materials detected, and the general improvement of the national response system in the event of radiological emergencies. Since the Protocol took effect in November 1999, more than 100 enterprises from the metallurgical (steel, copper, lead and aluminum

  4. A reliable transmission protocol for ZigBee-based wireless patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyr-Kuen; Kao, Tsair; Chan, Chia-Tai; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Lai, Chin-Yu; Tung, Tse-Hua; Wang, Pi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multihop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both the schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. In this paper, we present a reliable transmission protocol based on anycast routing for wireless patient monitoring. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an anycast group as a destination to reduce the transmission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor positioning, and ECG monitoring. When the triaxial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmitted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, 4-s ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation technology of wireless wide area network, worldwide interoperability for microwave access, to achieve real-time patient monitoring.

  5. Automatic radiation dose monitoring for CT of trauma patients with different protocols: feasibility and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashigaito, K.; Becker, A.S.; Sprengel, K.; Simmen, H.-P.; Wanner, G.; Alkadhi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of automatic radiation dose monitoring software for computed tomography (CT) of trauma patients in a clinical setting over time, and to evaluate the potential of radiation dose reduction using iterative reconstruction (IR). Materials and methods: In a time period of 18 months, data from 378 consecutive thoraco-abdominal CT examinations of trauma patients were extracted using automatic radiation dose monitoring software, and patients were split into three cohorts: cohort 1, 64-section CT with filtered back projection, 200 mAs tube current–time product; cohort 2, 128-section CT with IR and identical imaging protocol; cohort 3, 128-section CT with IR, 150 mAs tube current–time product. Radiation dose parameters from the software were compared with the individual patient protocols. Image noise was measured and image quality was semi-quantitatively determined. Results: Automatic extraction of radiation dose metrics was feasible and accurate in all (100%) patients. All CT examinations were of diagnostic quality. There were no differences between cohorts 1 and 2 regarding volume CT dose index (CTDI_v_o_l; p=0.62), dose–length product (DLP), and effective dose (ED, both p=0.95), while noise was significantly lower (chest and abdomen, both −38%, p<0.017). Compared to cohort 1, CTDI_v_o_l, DLP, and ED in cohort 3 were significantly lower (all −25%, p<0.017), similar to the noise in the chest (–32%) and abdomen (–27%, both p<0.017). Compared to cohort 2, CTDI_v_o_l (–28%), DLP, and ED (both –26%) in cohort 3 was significantly lower (all, p<0.017), while noise in the chest (+9%) and abdomen (+18%) was significantly higher (all, p<0.017). Conclusion: Automatic radiation dose monitoring software is feasible and accurate, and can be implemented in a clinical setting for evaluating the effects of lowering radiation doses of CT protocols over time. - Highlights: • Automatic dose monitoring software can be

  6. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...

  7. Pilot study: Assessing the effect of continual position monitoring technology on compliance with patient turning protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Schutt, Suann Cirigliano; Tarver, Christine; Pezzani, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim The study aim was to evaluate if continual patient position monitoring, taking into account self‐turns and clinician‐assisted turns, would increase the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr. Background While patient turning has clinical benefits, current models to help staff remember to turn patients, such as “turn clocks” and timers, have not resulted in high compliance with turning protocols. In addition, reminders are based on arbitrary 2‐hr windo...

  8. Delay-tolerant mobile network protocol for rice field monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Alexandre; Andres, Frédéric; Cardoso, Jarbas Lopes; Kawtrakul, Asanee; Barbin, Silvio E.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of rice fields can improve productivity by helping farmers throughout the rice cultivation cycle, on various issues: when to harvest, when to treat the crops against disease, when to increase the water level, how to share observations and decisions made in a collaborative way, etc. In this paper, we propose an architecture to monitor a rice field by a wireless sensor network. Our architecture is based on static sensor nodes forming a disconnected network, and mobile nodes communicating with the sensor nodes in a delay-tolerant manner. The data collected by the static sensor nodes are transmitted to mobile nodes, which in turn transmit them to a gateway, connected to a database, for further analysis. We focus on the related architecture, as well as on the energy-efficient protocols intended to perform the data collection.

  9. Zoonoses action plan Salmonella monitoring programme: an investigation of the sampling protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snary, E L; Munday, D K; Arnold, M E; Cook, A J C

    2010-03-01

    The Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) Salmonella Programme was established by the British Pig Executive to monitor Salmonella prevalence in quality-assured British pigs at slaughter by testing a sample of pigs with a meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against group B and C(1) Salmonella. Farms were assigned a ZAP level (1 to 3) depending on the monitored prevalence, and ZAP 2 or 3 farms were required to act to reduce the prevalence. The ultimate goal was to reduce the risk of human salmonellosis attributable to British pork. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the ZAP sampling protocol. Results show that the probability of assigning a farm the correct ZAP level was high, except for farms that had a seroprevalence close to the cutoff points between different ZAP levels. Sensitivity analyses identified that the probability of assigning a farm to the correct ZAP level was dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the test, the number of batches taken to slaughter each quarter, and the number of samples taken per batch. The variability of the predicted seroprevalence was reduced as the number of batches or samples increased and, away from the cutoff points, the probability of being assigned the correct ZAP level increased as the number of batches or samples increased. In summary, the model described here provided invaluable insight into the ZAP sampling protocol. Further work is required to understand the impact of the program for Salmonella infection in British pig farms and therefore on human health.

  10. Elk Monitoring Protocol for Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Boetsch, John R.; Cole, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources. Elk were critical to sustaining the members of the Lewis and Clark expedition by providing food and clothing over the winter of 1805-1806. Today, elk viewing opportunities in the park and surrounding region generate broad appeal with the visiting public, which number over 250,000 per year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. This protocol describes procedures for monitoring trends in the use of the Fort Clatsop area by Roosevelt elk. Specific objectives of elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark NHP are to measure the relative use and proportion of area used by elk during winter in the Fort Clatsop Unit of the park, and the rate at which elk are sighted from roads in and around the park. Relative use and the proportion of area used by elk are determined from elk fecal pellet surveys conducted every other year in the Fort Clatsop park unit. Pairs of observers visit a systematic array of permanent plots in the fall to clear them of elk fecal pellets, and return to the plots in late winter to count elk fecal pellets that have accumulated during winter. Half of the subplots are counted by two independent observers, which allows for the estimation of relative use and proportion of area occupied by elk with analyses of detection biases that account for unseen elk pellet groups. Standardized road surveys are conducted in and near the Fort Clatsop park unit three or four times monthly during alternate months. Data from road surveys are used to quantify the rate that park visitors would be expected to see elk, when driving the selected set of routes. The monitoring protocol is based on three field seasons of development and testing. The protocol narrative describes the background, rationale, sampling design, field methods, analytical methods, data management, reporting

  11. The surface elevation table and marker horizon technique: A protocol for monitoring wetland elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Lynch,; Phillippe Hensel,; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service, in response to the growing evidence and awareness of the effects of climate change on federal lands, determined that monitoring wetland elevation change is a top priority in North Atlantic Coastal parks (Stevens et al, 2010). As a result, the NPS Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN) in collaboration with colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a protocol for monitoring wetland elevation change and other processes important for determining the viability of wetland communities. Although focused on North Atlantic Coastal parks, this document is applicable to all coastal and inland wetland regions. Wetlands exist within a narrow range of elevation which is influenced by local hydrologic conditions. For coastal wetlands in particular, local hydrologic conditions may be changing as sea levels continue to rise. As sea level rises, coastal wetland systems may respond by building elevation to maintain favorable hydrologic conditions for their survival. This protocol provides the reader with instructions and guidelines on designing a monitoring plan or study to: A) Quantify elevation change in wetlands with the Surface Elevation Table (SET). B) Understand the processes that influence elevation change, including vertical accretion (SET and Marker Horizon methods). C) Survey the wetland surface and SET mark to a common reference datum to allow for comparing sample stations to each other and to local tidal datums. D) Survey the SET mark to monitor its relative stability. This document is divided into two parts; the main body that presents an overview of all aspects of monitoring wetland elevation dynamics, and a collection of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) that describes in detail how to perform or execute each step of the methodology. Detailed instruction on the installation, data collection, data management and analysis are provided in this report

  12. A monitoring protocol for vegetation change on Irish peatland and heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, J.; Connolly, J.; Holden, N. M.

    2014-09-01

    Amendments to Articles 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol have meant that detection of vegetation change may now form an interracial part of national soil carbon stocks. In this study multispectral multi-platform satellite data was processed to detect change to the surface vegetation of four peatland sites and one heath in Ireland. Spectral and spatial thresholds were used on difference images between master and slave data in the extraction of temporally invariant targets for multi-platform cross calibration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate any difference in the cumulative probability distributions of the master, slave and calibrated slave data as expressed by the D statistic, with values reduced by an average of 89.7% due to the cross calibration procedure. A change detection model was created which incorporated a spatial threshold of 9 pixels and a standard deviation (SD) spectral threshold. Kappa accuracy values for the five sites ranged from 80 to 97%, showing that 1.5 SD was the optimum spectral threshold for detecting vegetation change. Change detection results showed mean percentage change ranging from 2.11 to 3.28% of total area and cumulative change over the observed time period of between 15.24 and 49.27% of total area.

  13. Performance monitoring in the anterior cingulate is not all error related: expectancy deviation and the representation of action-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flavio T P; McDonald, John J; Goodman, David

    2007-12-01

    Several converging lines of evidence suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is selectively involved in error detection or evaluation of poor performance. Here we challenge this notion by presenting event-related potential (ERP) evidence that the feedback-elicited error-related negativity, an ERP component attributed to the ACC, can be elicited by positive feedback when a person is expecting negative feedback and vice versa. These results suggest that performance monitoring in the ACC is not limited to error processing. We propose that the ACC acts as part of a more general performance-monitoring system that is activated by violations in expectancy. Further, we propose that the common observation of increased ACC activity elicited by negative events could be explained by an overoptimistic bias in generating expectations of performance. These results could shed light into neurobehavioral disorders, such as depression and mania, associated with alterations in performance monitoring and also in judgments of self-related events.

  14. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Shumchenia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave, structure (e.g., turbine, and foundation type (e.g., monopile. Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  15. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  16. Deviating From the Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela

    This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...... the benchmark can be substantial, are persistent over time, and hinder the survival of firms. The implications may, however, vary according to the sector and the ownership structure at entry. Given the stickiness of initial choices, wrong human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible...

  17. TH-C-18A-08: A Management Tool for CT Dose Monitoring, Analysis, and Protocol Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Chan, F; Newman, B; Larson, D; Leung, A; Fleischmann, D; Molvin, L; Marsh, D; Zorich, C; Phillips, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a customizable tool for enterprise-wide managing of CT protocols and analyzing radiation dose information of CT exams for a variety of quality control applications Methods: All clinical CT protocols implemented on the 11 CT scanners at our institution were extracted in digital format. The original protocols had been preset by our CT management team. A commercial CT dose tracking software (DoseWatch,GE healthcare,WI) was used to collect exam information (exam date, patient age etc.), scanning parameters, and radiation doses for all CT exams. We developed a Matlab-based program (MathWorks,MA) with graphic user interface which allows to analyze the scanning protocols with the actual dose estimates, and compare the data to national (ACR,AAPM) and internal reference values for CT quality control. Results: The CT protocol review portion of our tool allows the user to look up the scanning and image reconstruction parameters of any protocol on any of the installed CT systems among about 120 protocols per scanner. In the dose analysis tool, dose information of all CT exams (from 05/2013 to 02/2014) was stratified on a protocol level, and within a protocol down to series level, i.e. each individual exposure event. This allows numerical and graphical review of dose information of any combination of scanner models, protocols and series. The key functions of the tool include: statistics of CTDI, DLP and SSDE, dose monitoring using user-set CTDI/DLP/SSDE thresholds, look-up of any CT exam dose data, and CT protocol review. Conclusion: our inhouse CT management tool provides radiologists, technologists and administration a first-hand near real-time enterprise-wide knowledge on CT dose levels of different exam types. Medical physicists use this tool to manage CT protocols, compare and optimize dose levels across different scanner models. It provides technologists feedback on CT scanning operation, and knowledge on important dose baselines and thresholds

  18. PA.NET International Quality Certification Protocol for blood pressure monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboni, Stefano; Costantini, Carlo; Pini, Claudio; Bulegato, Roberto; Manfellotto, Dario; Rizzoni, Damiano; Palatini, Paolo; O'brien, Eoin; Parati, Gianfranco

    2008-10-01

    Although standard validation protocols provide assurance of the accuracy of blood pressure monitors (BPMs), there is no guidance for the consumer as to the overall quality of a device. The PA.NET International Quality Certification Protocol, developed by the Association for Research and Development of Biomedical Technologies and for Continuing Medical Education (ARSMED), a nonprofit organization, with the support of the Italian Society of Hypertension-Italian Hypertension League, and the dabl Educational Trust denotes additional criteria of quality for BPMs that fulfilled basic validation criteria, published in full in peer-reviewed medical journals. The certification is characterized by three phases: (i) to determine that the device fulfilled standard validation criteria; (ii) to determine the technical and functional characteristics of the device (e.g. operativity, display dimension, accessory functions, memory availability, etc.) and (iii) to determine the commercial characteristics (e.g. price-quality ratio, after-sale service, guarantee, etc.). At the end of the certification process, ARSMED attributes a quality index to the device, based on a scale ranging from 1 to 100, and a quality seal with four different grades (bronze, silver, gold and diamond) according to the achieved score. The seal is identified by a unique alphanumeric code. The quality seal may be used on the packaging of the appliance or in advertising. A quality certification is released to the manufacturer and published on www.pressionearteriosa.net and www.dableducational.org. The PA.NET International Quality Certification Protocol represents the first attempt to provide health care personnel and consumers with an independent and objective assessment of BPMs based on their quality.

  19. Monitoring of high voltage supply using the Controller Area Network protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Igo Amauri dos S.; Farias, Paulo Cesar M.A.; Guedes, Germano P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, experimental physics has made great progress in the investigation of the phenomenology of neutrinos, with significant contribution from experiments using nuclear reactors as source of particles. In this context, The Neutrinos Angra Project proposes the use of an anti-neutrinos detector with ability to monitor parameters related to the activity of nuclear reactors. One of the tasks defined in the project is the development of a system to control and to monitor the high voltage supply units used by the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of the detector. The solution proposed in this work is based on the use of microcontrollers, from Microchip PIC family to adjust the operating point of the high voltage supply units and to acquire the current and output voltage data. Analysis of these data allows the effective control of the gain of the PMTs and to identify anomalous operational conditions. In this work is proposed the study of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol and the implementation of a laboratory network to reproduce the typical operations of data acquisition and information transfer between the nodes. The development of this network is divided in two stages. The first part consisted of the setup of a CAN network, using the PIC18F2680 microcontroller, which has the CAN protocol internally implemented. This network serves as a reduced model of the final system, allowing simulation of typical situations of data acquisition and transmission between the nodes and a computer. In the second part of the work, the PIC18F4550 microcontroller was associated with the external CAN controller MCP2515 to develop a CAN/USB converter. This converter provides a new communication channel between network nodes and the computer, in addition to the RS232 interface. (author)

  20. PMT Dark Noise Monitoring System for Neutrino Detector Borexino Based on the Devicenet Protocol and WEB-Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurnov, A.S.; Orekhov, D.I.; Maimistov, D.A.; Sabelnikov, A.A.; Etenko, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of PMT dark noise in a neutrino detector BOREXINO is a procedure that indicates condition of the detector. Based on CAN industrial network, top level DeviceNet protocol and WEB visualization, the dark noise monitoring system having 256 channels for the internal detector and for the external muon veto was created. The system is composed as a set of controllers, converting the PMT signals to frequency and transmitting them over Can network. The software is the stack of the DeviceNet protocols, providing the data collecting and transporting. Server-side scripts build web pages of user interface and graphical visualization of data

  1. The FOBIMO (FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring) initiative—Towards a standardised protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Joachim; Alve, Elisabeth; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Jorissen, Frans; Korsun, Sergei; Spezzaferri, Silva; Abramovich, Sigal; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Armynot du Chatelet, Eric; Barras, Christine; Bergamin, Luisa; Bicchi, Erica; Bouchet, Vincent; Cearreta, Alejandro; Di Bella, Letizia; Dijkstra, Noortje; Trevisan Disaro, Sibelle; Ferraro, Luciana; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Gennari, Giordana; Golikova, Elena; Haynert, Kristin; Hess, Silvia; Husum, Katrine; Martins, Virginia; McGann, Mary; Oron, Shai; Romano, Elena; Mello Sousa, Silvia; Tsujimoto, Akira

    2012-01-01

    63-μm screen, and the living benthic foraminiferal fauna of the > 125 μm fraction is to be analysed. Splits are to be picked and counted entirely, and all counted foraminifera from at least one replicate per station have to be stored in micropalaeontological slides. Census data, supplementary laboratory data and microslides have to be archived. Advisory recommendations are to sample in autumn, to have a sample size of 50 cm2 or a tube of 8 cm inner diameter, to use > 70% ethanol as a preservative, rose Bengal at a concentration of 2 grams per litre for staining, and a staining time of at least 14 days. The split size should be defined by a target value of 300 specimens, heavy liquid separation should be avoided, and the 63–125 μm fraction or deeper sediment levels may be considered in some environments. We are convinced that the application of this protocol by a large number of scientists is a necessary first step to a general acceptance of benthic foraminifera as a reliable tool in bio-monitoring studies.

  2. Flap monitoring after head and neck reconstruction: evaluating an observation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, J C; Potter, L A; Magennis, P; Brown, J S; Vaughan, E D

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the postoperative free-flap monitoring frequency protocol used in a maxillofacial unit for patients receiving free-tissue transfer for reconstruction following orofacial cancer. All free-tissue transfers undertaken in the unit between January 1992 and October 1998 were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 370 patients evaluated, 46 returned to theatre with compromised free flaps. The compromise was purely venous in origin in 37 of these cases, arterial in three and due to a combination of arterial and venous problems in six. Thirty-five of the flaps were successfully salvaged. On average, the clinical manifestation of the problem occurred 25.5 hours postoperatively. However, there was a significant time difference between flaps that were salvaged successfully and those that were not: in the salvaged group the compromise was identified 17.5 hours postsurgery compared with 51 hours for the unsuccessful group. The timing of the return to theatre following the identification of the compromise was a significant factor in the success rate: 71 minutes for those salvaged and 103 minutes for those not salvaged. It is recommended that flaps are monitored hourly for the first 72 postoperative hours and observations recorded on a chart.

  3. Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks – Tabuk Flood Monitoring System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Babiker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been considered as the most important issue in wireless sensor networks. As in many applications, wireless sensors are scattered in a wide harsh area, where the battery replacement or charging will be quite difficult and it is the most important challenge. Therefore, the design of energy saving mechanism becomes mandatory in most recent research. In this paper, a new energy efficient clustered routing protocol is proposed: the proposed protocol is based on analyzing the data collected from the sensors in a base-station. Based on this analysis the cluster head will be selected as the one with the most useful data. Then, a variable time slot is specified to each sensor to minimize the transmission of repetitive and un-useful data. The proposed protocol Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks (DCRP was compared with the famous energy efficient LEACH protocol and also with one of the recent energy efficient routing protocols named Position Responsive Routing Protocol (PRRP. DCRP has been used in monitoring the floods in Tabuk area –Saudi Arabia. It shows comparatively better results.

  4. The University of Western Ontario Pediatric Audiological Monitoring Protocol (UWO PedAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Sheila T.; Malandrino, April C.; Richert, Frances M.; Clench, Debbie A.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposed and evaluated a guideline for outcome evaluation for infants and children with hearing loss who wear hearing aids. The University of Western Ontario Pediatric Audiological Monitoring Protocol (UWO PedAMP) was developed following a critical review of pediatric outcome evaluation tools and was systematically examined by the Network of Pediatric Audiologists of Canada. It consists of tools to gather clinical process outcomes as well as functional caregiver reports. The UWO PedAMP was administered to a clinical population of infants and children with hearing aids. Sixty-eight children were administered the functional outcome evaluation tools (i.e., caregiver reports) a total of 133 times. Clinical process outcomes of hearing aid verification (e.g., real-ear-to-coupler difference) revealed typical aided audibility (e.g., Speech Intelligibility Index). Results for the LittlEARS® questionnaire revealed that typically developing children with hearing loss who wear hearing aids are meeting auditory development milestones. Children with mild to moderate comorbidities displayed typical auditory development during the 1st year of life after which development began to decline. Children with complex factors related to hearing aid use had lower scores on the LittlEARS, but auditory development was in parallel to norms. Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance (PEACH) results indicated no age effect on scoring for children above 2 years of age; however, the effect of degree of hearing loss was significant. This work provides clinicians with a systematic, evidence-based outcome evaluation protocol to implement as part of a complete pediatric hearing aid fitting. PMID:22194316

  5. Detecting deviating behaviors without models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.; Fahland, D.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Reichert, M.; Reijers, H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deviation detection is a set of techniques that identify deviations from normative processes in real process executions. These diagnostics are used to derive recommendations for improving business processes. Existing detection techniques identify deviations either only on the process instance level

  6. DreamTel; Diabetes risk evaluation and management tele-monitoring study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Wentworth, Joan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hartman, Susan; Hoppe, Jackie; Whiting, Judi; Kennedy, Janice; McAllister, Colin; Kiss, Alex; Perkins, Nancy; Vincent, Lloyd; Pylypchuk, George; Lewanczuk, Richard Z

    2009-05-09

    The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management. The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed. The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel) study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management. Protocol NCT00325624.

  7. DreamTel; Diabetes risk evaluation and management tele-monitoring study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Alex

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management. Methods and design The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed. Discussion The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management. Trial Registration Protocol NCT00325624

  8. Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.

  9. Development of a monitoring protocol to enhance mentoring in the IRIS REU site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H.

    2013-12-01

    Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) sites pair interns with scientists expected to oversee and guide an intern's scientific research, and assist in the development of skills, knowledge, and connections that will enhance the intern's professional and personal growth. This aspect of REU sites is generally recognized as a powerful, yet complicated, component that has a strong influence on the overall success of the intern's experience. Evaluations indicate that the quality and consistency of mentoring in REU sites can be highly variable. Traditional strategies to influence mentorship generally include reading lists or short trainings at the beginning of the summer. The efficacy of these approaches is questionable. As a result many REU Site facilitators are deeply interested in the question 'How can REU programs challenge scientists to raise their participation to the level of (truly) mentoring?' The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) REU site is developing a 13-item rubric measuring research skills, and a protocol of training and intern-mentor meetings to discuss progress. The goal of the intervention is to both increase the extent to which the mentoring relationship is centered on the intern, and to enable interns and mentors to feel more effective monitoring interns' personal/professional growth. This intervention was piloted in 2011, refined, and fully implemented in 2012. During the initial week of the program, interns assess their skills, complete the rubric independently, and discuss the completed rubric with their mentor. Midway through the summer interns and mentors each review the rubric and assess the intern's skills. The intern-mentor pairs then meet to collaborate and complete the rubric together. Finally, in the last week of the program, interns and mentors independently assess the intern's skills and complete the rubric, and the pairs again meet to discuss and negotiate these independent assessments. Survey data from 2012

  10. ADNP-CSMA Random Multiple Access protocol application with the function of monitoring in Ad Hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ad Hoc networks,the net work of mobile nodes exchange information with their wireless transceiver equipment,the network throughput is in increased,compared to other such multiple hops network.Moreover along with the rapid development of modern information,communication business also will be increase.However,the access and adaptive of previous CSMA protocol are insufficient.According to these properties,this paper presents a kind of adaptive dual clock with monitoring function P-CSMA random multiple access protocol(ADNP-CSMA,and discusses two kinds of P-CSMA.ACK with monitoring function is introduced to maintain the stability of the whole system,and the introduction of dual clock mechanism reduces the channel of idle period.It calculate the system throughput expression through the method of average period,and the simulation results show that the system is constant in the case of high load throughput.

  11. Validation of the fully automated A&D TM-2656 blood pressure monitor according to the British Hypertension Society Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Liu, Ming; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2013-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the fully automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor TM-2656 according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) Protocol 1993. We recruited individuals until there were 85 eligible participants and their blood pressure could meet the blood pressure distribution requirements specified by the BHS Protocol. For each individual, we sequentially measured the systolic and diastolic blood pressures using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the TM-2656 device (one supervisor). Data analysis was carried out according to the BHS Protocol. The device achieved grade A. The percentage of blood pressure differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 62, 85, and 96%, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 71, 93, and 99%, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The average (±SD) of the device-observer differences was -2.1±7.8 mmHg (P<0.0001) and -1.1±5.8 mmHg (P<0.0001) for systolic and diastolic blood pressures, respectively. The A&D upper-arm blood pressure monitor TM-2656 has passed the requirements of the BHS Protocol, and can thus be recommended for blood pressure measurement.

  12. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Till Beiwinkel; Stefan Hey; Olaf Bock; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler; Wulf Rössler

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons...

  13. Ecological thresholds in the savanna landscape: developing a protocol for monitoring the change in composition and utilisation of large trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave J Druce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure -- particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts -- is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (> or =5 m in height play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0-6.6 km in length and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0-1.6 km in length. Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next

  14. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Assessment: Literature Review and Laboratory Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R. Scott; Reid, Douglas J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Sullivan, Greg; Blanchard, Jeremy

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of NILM technologies, a literature review was conducted to identify any test protocols or standardized testing approaches currently in use. The literature review indicated that no consistent conventions were currently in place for measuring the accuracy of these technologies. Consequently, PNNL developed a testing protocol and metrics to provide the basis for quantifying and analyzing the accuracy of commercially available NILM technologies. This report discusses the results of the literature review and the proposed test protocol and metrics in more detail.

  15. Visualizing the Sample Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jyotirmoy; Rashid, Mamunur

    2017-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) of a random sample is defined as the square-root of the sample variance, which is the "mean" squared deviation of the sample observations from the sample mean. Here, we interpret the sample SD as the square-root of twice the mean square of all pairwise half deviations between any two sample observations. This…

  16. The effect of the introduction of a standard monitoring protocol on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... management protocol had had any effect on the metabolic and nonmetabolic .... Ages were not recorded. ..... of happiness and wealth.14 Three-quarters of the girls associated ... Information on lifestyle and advice to reduce.

  17. Implementing an Oxygen Supplementation and Monitoring Protocol on Inpatient Pediatric Bronchiolitis: An Exercise in Deimplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LeCleir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of our oxygen (O2 protocol to reduce length of stay (LOS for children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study, the outcomes of children ≤ 24 months old that were admitted with bronchiolitis and placed on the O2 protocol were compared to historical controls. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of O2 supplementation, rates of pediatric intensive care unit transfer, and readmission. Results. Groups were not significantly different in age, gender, and rates of respiratory distress score assessment. Significantly more severely ill patients were in the O2 protocol group. There were no significant differences between control and O2 protocol groups with regard to mean LOS, rates of pediatric intensive care unit transfer, or seven-day readmission rates. By multiple regression analysis, the use of the O2 protocol was associated with a nearly 20% significant decrease in the length of hospitalization (p=0.030. Conclusion. Use of O2 supplementation protocol increased LOS in the more ill patients with bronchiolitis but decreased overall LOS by having a profound effect on patients with mild bronchiolitis.

  18. Large deviations and idempotent probability

    CERN Document Server

    Puhalskii, Anatolii

    2001-01-01

    In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...

  19. A protocol using coho salmon to monitor Tongass National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan standards and guidelines for fish habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Bryant; Trent McDonald; R. Aho; B.E. Wright; Michelle Bourassa Stahl

    2008-01-01

    We describe a protocol to monitor the effectiveness of the Tongass Land Management Plan (TLMP) management standards for maintaining fish habitat. The protocol uses juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in small tributary streams in forested watersheds. We used a 3-year pilot study to develop detailed methods to estimate juvenile salmonid...

  20. Costing 'healthy' food baskets in Australia - a systematic review of food price and affordability monitoring tools, protocols and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Meron; Lee, Amanda

    2016-11-01

    To undertake a systematic review to determine similarities and differences in metrics and results between recently and/or currently used tools, protocols and methods for monitoring Australian healthy food prices and affordability. Electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and online grey literature were systematically searched using the PRISMA approach for articles and reports relating to healthy food and diet price assessment tools, protocols, methods and results that utilised retail pricing. National, state, regional and local areas of Australia from 1995 to 2015. Assessment tools, protocols and methods to measure the price of 'healthy' foods and diets. The search identified fifty-nine discrete surveys of 'healthy' food pricing incorporating six major food pricing tools (those used in multiple areas and time periods) and five minor food pricing tools (those used in a single survey area or time period). Analysis demonstrated methodological differences regarding: included foods; reference households; use of availability and/or quality measures; household income sources; store sampling methods; data collection protocols; analysis methods; and results. 'Healthy' food price assessment methods used in Australia lack comparability across all metrics and most do not fully align with a 'healthy' diet as recommended by the current Australian Dietary Guidelines. None have been applied nationally. Assessment of the price, price differential and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets would provide more robust and meaningful data to inform health and fiscal policy in Australia. The INFORMAS 'optimal' approach provides a potential framework for development of these methods.

  1. Validation of the SCIAN LD-735 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor SCIAN LD-735 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese participants (10 women, mean age 44.8 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the SCIAN LD-735 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The SCIAN LD-735 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 86/99, 97/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 85/99, 98/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. In total, 30 and 33 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). No participant had all of the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The SCIAN wrist blood pressure monitor LD-735 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  2. Validation of the AVITA BPM64 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure (BP) monitor AVITA BPM64 for home BP monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese (14 women, mean age 47.0 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM64 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM64 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 91/99, 98/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic BP and 92/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic BP. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Thirty-two participants for both systolic and diastolic BP had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). Only one participant for systolic BP had all three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The AVITA upper arm BP monitor BPM64 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  3. Validation of the AVITA BPM17 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Qi; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor AVITA BPM17 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (19 men, 45.7 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM17 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM17 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 94/99, 98/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 92/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Overall, 32 participants for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observerss differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). None had all the three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The AVITA wrist blood pressure monitor BPM17 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  4. Validation of the SEJOY BP-1307 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Yi; Chen, Qi; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor SEJOY BP-1307 (also called JOYTECH DBP-1307) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese individuals (13 women, 45.1 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the SEJOY BP-1307 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The average±SD of the device-observer differences was 0.2±4.1 and -1.7±4.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The SEJOY BP-1307 device achieved the criteria in both part 1 and part 2 of the validation study. The SEJOY upper-arm blood pressure monitor BP-1307 has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  5. Validation of the AVITA BPM15S wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Zhang, Lu; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor AVITA BPM15S for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol revision 2010 of the European Society of Hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 Chinese adults (15 women, mean age 51 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM15S device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The AVITA BPM15S device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg were 85/99, 94/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 82/99, 96/99, and 98/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Thirty-two and 28 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥ 24). No participant had all of the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. The AVITA wrist blood pressure monitor BPM15S fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010 and hence can be recommended for home use in an adult population.

  6. Protocol of specific health monitoring: ionizing radiation, 11 years later; Protocolo de vigilancia sanitaria especifica: radiaciones ionizantes, 11 anos despues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillejo Puertas, F. M.

    2016-08-01

    Since the approval on November 11{sup t}h 2003 of the Protocol of Specific Health Monitoring for Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation a study has been carried out to discover its effectiveness. These areas were examined: the daily practice od accupational medicine and, in particular, its specific task in the application of the different clinical/labour criteria for workers exposed to ionizing radiation or at risk of radioactive contamination; the degree of its uses as well as the updates and improvements. For that purpose, a descriptive bibliographic revision has been used for the last 11 years. The results revealed the lack of updates of the Protocol as well as the few usable objective criteria, when the clinical/labour aptitudes are reflected upon. (Author)

  7. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel---we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our resu...

  8. Development and validation of a protocol for field validation of passive dosimeters for ethylene oxide excursion limit monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puskar, M.A.; Szopinski, F.G.; Hecker, L.H. (Corporate Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-04-01

    An exposure and analysis protocol is described for the field validation of passive dosimeters for ethylene oxide (EtO) excursion limit monitoring. The protocol calls for the use of a field exposure chamber with concurrent sampling using Tedlar air-sampling bags. The bags are analyzed immediately after sampling by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The chamber design allows all monitors to be exposed for the exact same time in the field. The sampling and analysis procedure not only determines the actual concentration of EtO present during the monitor's exposure but estimates if concentrations of EtO vary from point to point in the monitor array during the exposure. In chamber operation, the accuracy of the standard generator used to calibrate the GC-FID was independently verified in the field by the standard additions method. The sampling bias of the sampling train was determined to be -3.5% in the 2.4 ppm to 14.3 ppm concentration range. To estimate the stability of collected EtO samples in Tedlar bags, the rate of EtO loss in the bags was determined to be 0.011 ppm/hr at 2.57 ppm and 0.066 ppm/hr at 8.07 ppm. Sampling bias of the passive methods by additional EtO exposure of the monitors in the closed chamber after sampling and during purging was determined to be +1.5%. The Tedlar bag sampling method with subsequent GC-FID determination demonstrated a coefficient of variation of 1.8% at 2.43 ppm.

  9. Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of nodes densely deployed in ad hoc manner. Usually, most of the application areas of WSNs require two-dimensional (2D topology. Various emerging application areas such as airborne networks and underwater wireless sensor networks are usually deployed using three-dimensional (3D network topology. In this paper, a static 3D cluster-based network topology has been proposed for airborne networks. A network protocol stack consisting of various protocols such as TDMA MAC and dynamic routing along with services such as time synchronization, Cluster Head rotation, and power level management has been proposed for this airborne network. The proposed protocol stack has been implemented on the hardware platform consisting of number of TelosB nodes. This 3D airborne network architecture can be used to measure Air Quality Index (AQI in an area. Various parameters of network such as energy consumption, Cluster Head rotation, time synchronization, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR have been analyzed. Detailed description of the implementation of the protocol stack along with results of implementation has been provided in this paper.

  10. Design and Implementation of a Web-based Monitoring System by using EPICS Channel Access Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Eun Mi; Song, Yong Gi

    2009-01-01

    Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has developed a 20MeV proton accelerator, and established a distributed control system based on EPICS for sub-system components such as vacuum unit, beam diagnostics, and power supply system. The control system includes a real-time monitoring and alarm functions. From the aspect of a efficient maintenance of a control system and a additional extension of subsystems, EPICS software framework was adopted. In addition, a control system should be capable of providing an easy access for users and a real-time monitoring on a user screen. Therefore, we have implemented a new web-based monitoring server with several libraries. By adding DB module, the new IOC web monitoring system makes it possible to monitor the system through the web. By integrating EPICS Channel Access (CA) and Database libraries into a Database module, the web-based monitoring system makes it possible to monitor the sub-system status through user's internet browser. In this study, we developed a web based monitoring system by using EPICS IOC (Input Output Controller) with IBM server

  11. Evaluation of a realtime, remote monitoring telemedicine system using the Bluetooth protocol and a mobile phone network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    A generic, realtime wireless telemedicine system has been developed that uses the Bluetooth protocol and the general packet radio service for mobile phones. The system was tested on 10 healthy volunteers, by continuous monitoring of their electrocardiograms (ECGs). Under realistic conditions, the system had 96.5% uptime, a data throughput of 3.3 kbit/s, a mean packet error rate of 8.5x10(-3) packet/s and a mean packet loss rate of 8.2x10(-3) packet/s. During 24 h testing, the total average downtime was 66 min and 90% of the periods of downtime were of only 1-3 min duration. Less than 10% of the ECGs were of unacceptable quality. Thus, the generic telemedicine system showed high reliability and performance, and the design may provide a foundation for realtime monitoring in clinical practice, for example in cardiology.

  12. Validation of the A&D UA-1020 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the British Hypertension Society Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure (BP) monitor A&D UA-1020 with two different-shaped cuffs for home BP monitoring according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) Protocol. We recruited individuals for each of the two cuffs (D-ring and cylindrical) until there were 85 eligible participants (255 pairs of comparisons) and their BP could meet the BP distribution requirements specified by the BHS Protocol. For each participant, we sequentially measured the systolic and diastolic BP using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the UA-1020 device (one supervisor). For the D-ring cuff, the device achieved grade A. The percentage of BP differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 67, 87, and 96%, respectively, for systolic BP, and 70, 90, and 99%, respectively, for diastolic BP. The average (±SD) of the device-observer differences was -0.2±7.3 mmHg (P=0.64) and 1.7±5.8 mmHg (P<0.0001) for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. For the cylindrical cuff, the device also achieved grade A. The percentage of BP differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 67, 88, and 97%, respectively, for systolic BP and 64, 89, and 98%, respectively, for diastolic BP. The average of the device-observer differences was -0.1±7.0 mmHg (P=0.89) and 2.0±6.3 mmHg (P<0.0001) for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The UA-1020 device has passed the requirements of the BHS Protocol with both the D-ring and the cylindrical cuffs, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  13. Development of a Land Use Mapping and Monitoring Protocol for the High Plains Region: A Multitemporal Remote Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Nellis, M. Duane

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a practical protocol that employs multitemporal remotely sensed imagery, integrated with environmental parameters to model and monitor agricultural and natural resources in the High Plains Region of the United States. The value of this project would be extended throughout the region via workshops targeted at carefully selected audiences and designed to transfer remote sensing technology and the methods and applications developed. Implementation of such a protocol using remotely sensed satellite imagery is critical for addressing many issues of regional importance, including: (1) Prediction of rural land use/land cover (LULC) categories within a region; (2) Use of rural LULC maps for successive years to monitor change; (3) Crop types derived from LULC maps as important inputs to water consumption models; (4) Early prediction of crop yields; (5) Multi-date maps of crop types to monitor patterns related to crop change; (6) Knowledge of crop types to monitor condition and improve prediction of crop yield; (7) More precise models of crop types and conditions to improve agricultural economic forecasts; (8;) Prediction of biomass for estimating vegetation production, soil protection from erosion forces, nonpoint source pollution, wildlife habitat quality and other related factors; (9) Crop type and condition information to more accurately predict production of biogeochemicals such as CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gases that are inputs to global climate models; (10) Provide information regarding limiting factors (i.e., economic constraints of pumping, fertilizing, etc.) used in conjunction with other factors, such as changes in climate for predicting changes in rural LULC; (11) Accurate prediction of rural LULC used to assess the effectiveness of government programs such as the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Conservation Reserve Program; and (12) Prediction of water demand based on rural LULC that can be related to rates of

  14. Relevance to Home Blood Pressure Monitoring Protocol of Blood Pressure Measurements Taken Before First- Morning Micturition and in the Afternoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of measuring blood pressure before morning micturition and in the afternoon, while working, is yet to be established in relation to the accuracy of home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM. Objective: To compare two HBPM protocols, considering 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (wakefulness ABPM as gold-standard and measurements taken before morning micturition (BM and in the afternoon (AM, for the best diagnosis of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, and their association with prognostic markers. Methods: After undergoing 24-hour wakefulness ABPM, 158 participants (84 women were randomized for 3- or 5-day HBPM. Two variations of the 3-day protocol were considered: with measurements taken before morning micturition and in the afternoon (BM+AM; and with post-morning-micturition and evening measurements (PM+EM. All patients underwent echocardiography (for left ventricular hypertrophy - LVH and urinary albumin measurement (for microalbuminuria - MAU. Result: Kappa statistic for the diagnosis of SAH between wakefulness-ABPM and standard 3-day HBPM, 3-day HBPM (BM+AM and (PM+EM, and 5-day HBPM were 0.660, 0.638, 0.348 and 0.387, respectively. The values of sensitivity of (BM+AM versus (PM+EM were 82.6% × 71%, respectively, and of specificity, 84.8% × 74%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 69.1% × 40% and 92.2% × 91.2%, respectively. The comparisons of intraclass correlations for the diagnosis of LVH and MAU between (BM+AM and (PM+EM were 0.782 × 0.474 and 0.511 × 0.276, respectively. Conclusions: The 3 day-HBPM protocol including measurements taken before morning micturition and during work in the afternoon showed the best agreement with SAH diagnosis and the best association with prognostic markers.

  15. Validation of the Kingyield BP210 wrist blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension-International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Fang; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2012-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese participants (21 women, 51 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BP210 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was conducted using the ESHIP analyzer. The BP210 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 33/45, 44/45, and 44/45 measurements, respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 77/99, 95/99, and 97/99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for systolic blood pressure, and with 78/99, 97/99, and 99/99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 29 and 25 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required≥22) for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The Kingyield wrist blood pressure monitor BP210 has passed the International Protocol requirements, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  16. Validation of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Rossmax CF175 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (17 women, mean age 46 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Rossmax CF175 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The Rossmax CF175 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 78/99, 94/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 81/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-nine participants, for both of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). Only one participant for diastolic blood pressure had all three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The Rossmax automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor CF175 fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  17. Validation of the AVITA BPM63S upper arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Wei-Fang; Liu, Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the AVITA BPM63S upper arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (14 women, mean age of 47 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the AVITA BPM63S device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The AVITA BPM63S device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 68/99, 89/99, and 96/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and 75/99, 95/99, and 97/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also achieved the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-four and 25 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). One and two participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had all three device-observers differences greater than 5 mmHg. The AVITA BPM63S automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement at home in adults.

  18. Computer generation of random deviates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, John

    1991-01-01

    The need for random deviates arises in many scientific applications. In medical physics, Monte Carlo simulations have been used in radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Specific instances include the modelling of x-ray scattering processes and the addition of random noise to images or curves in order to assess the effects of various processing procedures. Reliable sources of random deviates with statistical properties indistinguishable from true random deviates are a fundamental necessity for such tasks. This paper provides a review of computer algorithms which can be used to generate uniform random deviates and other distributions of interest to medical physicists, along with a few caveats relating to various problems and pitfalls which can occur. Source code listings for the generators discussed (in FORTRAN, Turbo-PASCAL and Data General ASSEMBLER) are available on request from the authors. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Availability and performance of image/video-based vital signs monitoring methods: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Mirae; Catherall, Jacqueline; Gerry, Stephen; Young, Duncan; Watkinson, Peter

    2017-10-25

    For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. PROSPERO CRD42016029167.

  20. Availability and performance of image/video-based vital signs monitoring methods: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Harford

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many vital signs, monitoring methods require contact with the patient and/or are invasive in nature. There is increasing interest in developing still and video image-guided monitoring methods that are non-contact and non-invasive. We will undertake a systematic review of still and video image-based monitoring methods. Methods We will perform searches in multiple databases which include MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane library, IEEE Xplore and ACM Digital Library. We will use OpenGrey and Google searches to access unpublished or commercial data. We will not use language or publication date restrictions. The primary goal is to summarise current image-based vital signs monitoring methods, limited to heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturations and blood pressure. Of particular interest will be the effectiveness of image-based methods compared to reference devices. Other outcomes of interest include the quality of the method comparison studies with respect to published reporting guidelines, any limitations of non-contact non-invasive technology and application in different populations. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of image-based non-contact methods of vital signs monitoring. Synthesis of currently available technology will facilitate future research in this highly topical area. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016029167

  1. Validation of the HONSUN LD-578 blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jie; Huang, Qi-Fang; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 (HONSUN Group, Shanghai, China) for home blood pressure monitoring according to the International Protocol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the LD-578 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. Data analysis was performed using the ESHIP Analyzer. The LD-578 device successfully passed phase 1 of the validation study with a number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for at least 32 of 45, 41 of 45, and 45 of 45 measurements (required 25, 35, and 40), respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phase 2.1, with 67 of 99, 90 of 99, and 98 of 99 differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for systolic blood pressure, and with 69 of 99, 95 of 99, and 98 of 99 within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. In phase 2.2, 24 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required >or=22) for systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The HONSUN upper arm blood pressure monitor LD-578 can be recommended for home use in adults.

  2. Validation of the BPUMP BF1112 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure (BP) monitor BPUMP BF1112 for home BP monitoring according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010 (ESH-IP2010). Systolic and diastolic BPs were sequentially measured in 33 adult Chinese (13 women, mean age 46.7 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BF1112 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The BPUMP BF1112 device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 85/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for systolic BP, and 83/99, 97/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic BP. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. A total of 31 and 30 participants for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required≥24mmHg). No participant for systolic or diastolic BP had all the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The BPUMP BP monitor BF1112 has passed the requirements of the ESH-IP2010, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  3. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kang, Seong-Gil; Park, Young-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO_2), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO_2 levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO_2 gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO_2 leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO_2 leakage (ocean acidification, hypercapnia) on marine

  4. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyewon, E-mail: hyewon@ldeo.columbia.edu [Division of Biology and Paleo Environment, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Kim, Yong Hoon, E-mail: Yong.Kim@rpsgroup.com [RPS ASA, 55 Village Square Drive, South Kingstown, RI 02879 (United States); Kang, Seong-Gil, E-mail: kangsg@kriso.re.kr [Offshore CCS Research Unit, Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, 32 1312 Beon-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Deaejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Gyu, E-mail: ypark@kiost.ac.kr [Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, 787 Haeanro, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO{sub 2} levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO{sub 2} gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here, we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO{sub 2} leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO{sub 2} leakage (ocean acidification

  5. Validating visual disturbance types and classes used for forest soil monitoring protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Page-Dumroese; A. M. Abbott; M. P. Curran; M. F. Jurgensen

    2012-01-01

    We describe several methods for validating visual soil disturbance classes used during forest soil monitoring after specific management operations. Site-specific vegetative, soil, and hydrologic responses to soil disturbance are needed to identify sensitive and resilient soil properties and processes; therefore, validation of ecosystem responses can provide information...

  6. Validation of the Andon KD-5965 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhua; Li, Zhijie; Li, Guimei; Liu, Zhaoying

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Andon KD-5965 upper-arm blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adults, with 20 women using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Andon KD-5965 device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. The device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between the device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 70/99, 91/99, and 98/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 81/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-five and 29 participants, for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg (required≥24). Two and one participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had all three device-observers comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. According to the validation results, with better performance for diastolic blood pressure than that for systolic blood pressure, the Andon automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor KD-5965 fulfilled the requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  7. An ICT-Based Platform to Monitor Protocols in the Healthcare Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorís, Víctor M Alonso; Gago, Juan M Santos; Sabucedo, Luis Álvarez; Merino, Mateo Ramos; Valero, Javier Sanz

    2016-10-01

    Procedures from the healthcare domain involve highly critical actions as they may pose a risk for patients' life. Therefore, a large effort is devoted to the standardization in clinical praxis and to the control of quality for these protocols in order to minimize hazards. In this line, this work is compelled to provide an ICT-based support to carry out these controls in a simple and effective manner. Using a methodology based on HACCP and taking advantage of Semantic tools, a holistic platform of services for traceability and control of processes has been designed and implemented. The applied paradigm is based on the use of Control Points as singular points to generate traces using observations and measures relevant for the processes considered. Based on those, it is possible to offer services for advanced querying and knowledge inference. The local deployment just requires regular mobile phones or tablets making this solution cost-effective and easily replicable.

  8. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Klingbeil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar

  9. A Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry Protocol for Validation of Proteomic Biomarker Candidates in Studies of Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis-de-Oliveira, Guilherme; Garcia, Sheila; Guest, Paul C; Cassoli, Juliana S; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Most biomarker candidates arising from proteomic studies of psychiatric disorders have not progressed for use in clinical studies due to insufficient validation steps. Here we describe a selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) approach that could be used as a follow-up validation tool of proteins identified in blood serum or plasma. This protocol specifically covers the stages of peptide selection and optimization. The increasing application of SRM-MS should enable fast, sensitive, and robust methods with the potential for use in clinical studies involving sampling of serum or plasma. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and identifying potential biomarkers for risk assessment, diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of drug response goes toward the implementation of translational medicine strategies for improved treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders and other debilitating diseases.

  10. The SNM Scanner: A Non-invasive Protocol for Effective Monitoring of Special Nuclear Material Inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanier, R G; Dauffy, L S; Hodge, A M

    2004-01-01

    We suggest a system of monitoring special nuclear material inventories which uses simple mathematical techniques to compare the gross features of emitted gamma-ray spectra. In this report we develop the techniques necessary to make such spectral comparisons and describe their application. We also apply these ideas and develop inventory confirmation results using a room-temperature CdTe detector in a real nuclear-material inventory environment

  11. Capnography monitoring during procedural sedation and analgesia: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Aaron; Douglas, Clint; Sutherland, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background An important potential clinical benefit of using capnography monitoring during procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is that this technology could improve patient safety by reducing serious sedation-related adverse events, such as death or permanent neurological disability, which are caused by inadequate oxygenation. The hypothesis is that earlier identification of respiratory depression using capnography leads to a change in clinical management that prevents hypoxaemia. As inade...

  12. A data acquisition protocol for a reactive wireless sensor network monitoring application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderohunmu, Femi A; Brunelli, Davide; Deng, Jeremiah D; Purvis, Martin K

    2015-04-30

    Limiting energy consumption is one of the primary aims for most real-world deployments of wireless sensor networks. Unfortunately, attempts to optimize energy efficiency are often in conflict with the demand for network reactiveness to transmit urgent messages. In this article, we propose SWIFTNET: a reactive data acquisition scheme. It is built on the synergies arising from a combination of the data reduction methods and energy-efficient data compression schemes. Particularly, it combines compressed sensing, data prediction and adaptive sampling strategies. We show how this approach dramatically reduces the amount of unnecessary data transmission in the deployment for environmental monitoring and surveillance networks. SWIFTNET targets any monitoring applications that require high reactiveness with aggressive data collection and transmission. To test the performance of this method, we present a real-world testbed for a wildfire monitoring as a use-case. The results from our in-house deployment testbed of 15 nodes have proven to be favorable. On average, over 50% communication reduction when compared with a default adaptive prediction method is achieved without any loss in accuracy. In addition, SWIFTNET is able to guarantee reactiveness by adjusting the sampling interval from 5 min up to 15 s in our application domain.

  13. Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel—we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our results, we introduce a 2D space defined by the aforementioned measures, in which the performance of the teleportation is represented as a point with the channel noise parameter. Through further analysis, we specify some regions drawn for different channel conditions, establishing the connection to the dissimilar contributions of the entanglement to the teleportation and the Bell inequality violation.

  14. Validation of the custo screen pediatric blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beime, Beate; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Hammel, Gertrud; Bramlage, Peter

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) device custo screen pediatric in children aged 3 to 12 years according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP revision 2010). Thirty-three children were included and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were performed according to the ESH-IP. The protocol was modified for children considering data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS). The custo screen pediatric met all the requirements of the ESH-IP. The mean difference between the test device and the reference was -1.4 ± 3.0 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and -0.7 ± 3.2 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). For SBP and DBP, all 99 measurements were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the test device and the reference. As to part 2 of the protocol, for DBP in all subjects, two out of three measurements were within 5 mmHg between the device and the standard, whereas for SBP in 32 of 33 subjects, two out of three measurements were within this range. The custo screen pediatric met all criteria of the ESH-IP review 2010, modified for children from 3 to about 12 years, and can be recommended for ABPM in children. What is Known: • Validation of blood pressure measuring devices is essential to provide patients with an accurate blood pressure measuring device. • The majority of devices has not been validated in children. What is New: • Prior to the present validation, study protocol adjustments of ESH-IP review 2010 for children were defined according to German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2013 (KIGGS). • The custo screen pediatric test device met all criteria of ESH-IP revision 2010, modified for children, and can be recommended for ABPM in children aged 3 to about 12 years.

  15. Development of Novel Protocol for Preclinical Monitoring the Release of Adjuvants Encapsulated Mucosal Delivery Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim-Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contributes in vaccines down-stream process by introducing a novel platform for in-vitro monitoring of vaccine-adjuvant delivery profile as a crucial preclinical optimizing step in mucosal vaccines. Nano and micro particles of Calcium phosphate (Cap vaccine-adjuvant were encapsulated in Chitosan and Alginate polymeric carriers. Adjuvants release profiles monitored in a permeable bag at 37°C, pH 2, incubated in isotonic buffer for 96 hours. The released Calcium in the outer buffer was monitored and compared in-addition to the carrier’s swelling and biophysical properties. The adjuvants and carriers did not interfere with the proliferation of cultured hepatocytes an indicator of their safe use; Chitosan’s viscosity and swelling were higher than Alginate. Chitosan’s Zeta-potential was significantly high positive, while Cap and Alginate were negative. The prepared CaP and Chitosan particles were in nano-size, while the ready-made CaP adjuvant and Alginate were in micro-size using zeta-seizer and scanning electron-micrograph. The release of nano-size particle was in ascending, extended and controlled manner compared to micro-size adjuvant. Moreover, nano-adjuvant release profile from Chitosan was superior compared to Alginate. The core controlling factors in vaccine-adjuvant sustained release includes; smaller adjuvant particles (nano-size, carrier’s low swelling, high viscosity and importantly carrier-adjuvant entrapment reversibility. Chitosan offers sustained ascending superior capacity in releasing Nano-Cap adjuvant. This novel in-vitro pre-clinical study answer a crucial downstream preparative step for optimizing mucosal vaccines before their direct routine in-vivo trial on animal regardless of adjuvant’s particle size or delivery kinetics.

  16. Seabird tissue archival and monitoring project: Protocol for collecting and banking seabird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-York, Geoff; Porter, Barbara J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.; Simac, Kristin S.; Becker, Paul R.; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Archiving biological and environmental samples for retrospective analysis is a major component of systematic environmental monitoring. The long-term storage of carefully selected, representative samples in an environmental specimen bank is an important complement to the real-time monitoring of the environment. These archived samples permit:The use of subsequently developed innovative analytical technology that was not available at the time the samples were archived, for clear state-of-art identification an~ quantification of analytes of interest,The identification and quantification of analytes that are of subsequent interest but that were not of interest at the time the samples were archived, andThe comparison of present and past analytical techniques and values, providing continued credibility of past analytical values, and allowing flexibility in environmental monitoring programs.Seabirds, including albatrosses, pelicans, cormorants, terns, kittiwakes, murres, guillemots, and puffins spend most of their lives at sea and have special adaptations for feeding in the marine environment, including the ability to excrete the excess salt obtained from ingesting seawater. Many species nest in dense groups (colonies) on steep, precipitous sea-cliffs and headlands.Seabirds are long-lived and slow to mature. They occupy high positions in the marine food web and are considered sensitive indicators for the marine environment (prey includes krill, small fish, and squid). Breeding success, timing of nesting, diets, and survival rates may provide early indications of changing environmental conditions (e.g., see Hatch et aI., 1993). Chemical analysis of seabird tissues, including egg contents, can be particularly useful in determining whether contaminants (and potential biological effects) associated with human industrial activities, such as offshore petroleum and mineral exploration and development, are accumulating in marine environments. The collection and archival of seabird

  17. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buck Deborah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T] is a type of strabismus (squint in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision. Treatment options for X(T include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. Methods Design: an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. Setting: four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. Participants: children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T. Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit. Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T. Interventions: initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring; 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire; qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. Outcomes: recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or

  18. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  19. Validation of the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan; Zeng, Zhao-Lin; Bing, Sen; Li, Lin-Yi; Wang, Rui; Wan, Yi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010. The ESH-IP revision 2010 for the validation of blood pressure-measuring devices in adults was followed precisely. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were measured sequentially in 33 adult patients and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers). A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained. The device produced 78, 95 and 99 measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for SBP and 83, 96, and 99 for DBP, respectively. The average device-observer difference was -1.81±4.22 mmHg for SBP and -0.15±3.93 mmHg for DBP. All of the data were within the standards requirements to pass the testing. The Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor meets the standards of the ESH-IP revision 2010 and can be recommended for self/home measurement in the general population.

  20. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Ferris, Jason; Coomber, Kerri; Zahnow, Renee; Carah, Nicholas; Jiang, Heng; Kypri, Kypros; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Clough, Alan; Livingston, Michael; de Andrade, Dominique; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Curtis, Ashlee; Mayshak, Richelle; Droste, Nicolas; Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Taylor, Nicholas; Crane, Meredythe; Thorn, Michael; Najman, Jake

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs). Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data). Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  1. Quality of care in palliative sedation: audit and compliance monitoring of a clinical protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Rosario, Miguel Angel; Castillo-Padrós, Manuel; Garrido-Bernet, Belén; Ascanio-León, Belen

    2012-10-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care and the U.S. National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization have published statements that recommend an audit of palliative sedation practices. The aim was to assess the feasibility of a quality care project in palliative sedation. We carried out an audit of adherence to a guideline regarding palliative sedation, undertaken as a yearly assessment during two years, of a sample of patient charts. With an audit tool, the charts were evaluated as to the presence of the ethical sedation checklist, information that justified palliative sedation, patient and/or family agreement, and the appropriateness of treatment in concordance with the clinical protocol. An educational program and result feedback meetings were used as the implementation strategy. Roughly 25% of the medical charts of patients who died in the palliative care unit were evaluated, 94 in 2007 and 110 in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, 63% and 57% of the patients, respectively, whose median age was 65 years, were sedated, with a median length of two days. The main reason for sedation was agitation concomitant with respiratory failure in roughly 60% and 75% of the cases in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Agreement of the patient/family about sedation was collected from 100% of the cases. The concordance of procedures with the sedation guideline was 100% in both years. Our quality-of-care strategy was shown to obtain a higher level of compliance with the palliative sedation guideline for at least two years. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Miller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs. Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. Methods The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data. Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. Discussion The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  3. Implementation of a monitoring protocol for the natural attenuation of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setier, J.C.; Pornain, J.L.; Millette, D.; Perie, F.; Deschenes, L.; Samson, R.

    2005-01-01

    a method for the management of sites contaminated with hydrocarbons and BTEX, as well as the determination of the limits of the applicability of this technology in site restoration and management, 2. Determination of the kinetics of the key processes involved. The data gathered during the first of the five annual rounds of monitoring of soils and interstitial air suggest that microbiological mechanisms to eliminate contaminant mass have a limited impact on natural attenuation of the soil. However, results from subsequent monitoring campaigns should allow for the validation of this observation and for a better understanding of the contribution of physicochemical mechanisms to the elimination of contaminant mass. The heterogeneity of the zones complicated data interpretation, which means that the monitoring of natural attenuation in soils must be done using a dense sampling grid and be performed over a long period of time. The data indicate high levels of heterogeneity within each experimental zone, such that essentially all possible combinations of concentration and of index of natural attenuation predicted by SITE II are found in a given study area. Thus, uncertainty arises around basing data analysis on an experimental plan consisting of four study areas representing the four extreme conditions of the matrix of contamination and natural attenuation potential index. Hence, a cross-analysis of the entire set of data, making abstraction of the concept of study areas, seems most appropriate. Field data obtained on the five annual rounds of monitoring of soil show a clear decrease of the concentrations of pollutants. A cross-analysis of the entire set of data would enable the principal parameters affecting natural attenuation of soils to be identified and the kinetics of biological breakdown of hydrocarbons to be assessed

  4. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Beiwinkel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile health (mHealth could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks, and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.

  5. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user’s daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:28983477

  6. The Development of Smart Home System for Controlling and Monitoring Energy Consumption using WebSocket Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthayawiroj, Niti; Nilaphruek, Pongpon

    2017-03-01

    Energy consumption especially electricity is considered one of the most serious problems in households these days. It is because the amount of electricity consumed is more than the amount that people actually need. This means that there is an overusing which resulted from the inconvenience of moving to the switch to turn off the light or any appliances and it is often that closing the light is forgettable, for instance; in addition, there are no tools for monitoring how much energy that is consumed in residents. From this, it can be easily seen that people are having a problem in energy usage monitor and control. There are two main objectives of this study including 1) creating the communication framework among server, clients and devices, and 2) developing the prototype system that try to solve the mentioned problems which gives the user an opportunity to know the amount of electricity they have used in their houses and also the ability to turn appliances on and off through the Internet on smart devices such as smart phones and tablets that support Android platform or any web browser. Raspberry Pi is used as a microcontroller and the data is transferred to the smart device by WebSocket protocol which is strongly recommended for real-time communication. The example features on the device’s screen are user management, controlling and monitoring of appliances. The result expresses that the system is very effective and not difficult to use from users’ satisfaction. However, current sensors may be used for a more accurate electricity measurement and Wi-Fi module for more appliances to calculate its power in the future.

  7. Supportive Mental Health Self-Monitoring among Smartphone Users with Psychological Distress: Protocol for a Fully Mobile Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Hey, Stefan; Bock, Olaf; Rössler, Wulf

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) could be widely used in the population to improve access to psychological treatment. In this paper, we describe the development of a mHealth intervention on the basis of supportive self-monitoring and describe the protocol for a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness among smartphone users with psychological distress. Based on power analysis, a representative quota sample of N  = 186 smartphone users will be recruited, with an over-sampling of persons with moderate to high distress. Over a 4-week period, the intervention will be compared to a self-monitoring without intervention group and a passive control group. Telephone interviews will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention (4 weeks), and 12-week follow-up to assess study outcomes. The primary outcome will be improvement of mental health. Secondary outcomes will include well-being, intentions toward help-seeking and help-seeking behavior, user activation, attitudes toward mental-health services, perceived stigmatization, smartphone app quality, user satisfaction, engagement, and adherence with the intervention. Additionally, data from the user's daily life as collected during self-monitoring will be used to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in real-world settings. Therefore, this study will allow us to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone application as a widely accessible and low-cost intervention to improve mental health on a population level. It also allows to identify new assessment approaches in the field of psychiatric epidemiology.

  8. Energy conservation in the Netherlands 1995-2006. Update on the basis of the Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Energiebesparing in Nederland 1995-2006. Update op basis van het Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verdonk, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Pouwels, H. [Centraal bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Voorburg/Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    Results are presented of realized energy savings in the Netherlands for the period 1995-2006 for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services, transport, refineries and electricity, and for the national level. The figures on energy savings are based on the 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings', a common methodology and database to calculate the amount of energy savings. A description of the methodology used can be found elsewhere. Results are presented for savings on final energy use, conversion in end-use sectors (co-generation) and conversion in the energy sector. National savings for the period 1995-2006 equal 0.9% per year on average, with a decreasing tendency in recent years. For end-use sectors the highest figure is found for agriculture (2.1%) and the lowest figure for transport (0.4%). An uncertainty analysis reveals that the margin for the national savings figure is {+-} 0.3 percent-point. [Dutch] In dit rapport worden de energiebesparingcijfers gepresenteerd voor de periode 1995-2006, berekend volgens het Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing (PME). De besparing wordt berekend voor de verbruiksectoren industrie, huishoudens, transport, land- en tuinbouw, diensten en raffinaderijen, de elektriciteitscentrales en het nationale niveau. De nationale besparing in de periode 1995-2006 bedroeg gemiddeld ruim 0,9% per jaar. Als er vanaf 1995 niet zou zijn bespaard, dan zou het energiegebruik in 2006 ongeveer 11% hoger zijn geweest. Per sector varieert de besparing tussen 0,4% voor Transport en 2,1% voor de Land- en tuinbouw (inclusief 0,4% door warmte/kracht). In de figuur wordt het verloop van de gemiddelde jaarlijkse besparing vanaf 1995 gegeven. De nationale besparing blijkt na 2000 geleidelijk af te nemen. Hetzelfde geldt voor de Industrie en, met fluctuaties, Huishoudens en Transport. De besparing door warmte/kracht-productie bij verbruikers is ook afgenomen na 2000. Hetzelfde geldt voor besparing bij centrales, hoewel hier in 2006 een

  9. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  10. Validation of the Pangao PG-800B11 blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension and the British Hypertension Society protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Sen; Zhang, Cunhai; Wang, Liping; Li, Linyi; Wan, Yi

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the accuracy of the fully automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure (BP) monitor Pangao PG-800B11 according to the European Society of Hypertension-International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010 and the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocol 1993. Data from 33 participants were initially examined according to the ESH-IP revision 2010. Furthermore, 52 participants were then enrolled to fulfill the BHS protocol requirements. In all participants, sequential left arm measurements were performed by two trained observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer and one supervisor using the device. The protocols' requirements were followed precisely. The device passed all parts of the ESH protocol for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and was graded A according to the criteria of the BHS protocol for both SBP and DBP. The A/A grade was achieved in low (160/100 mmHg) BP categories. The mean BP difference between PG-800B11 and observers in the 85 participants was -0.6±5.0 mmHg for SBP and -0.6±4.5 mmHg for DBP; thus, the device also fulfilled the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). The Pangao PG-800B11 passed all requirements of the ESH-IP revision 2010 and achieved A/A grade of the BHS protocol across a wide range of BPs.

  11. Channel Deviation-Based Power Control in Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Son Dinh; Cotton, Simon L; Smith, David B

    2018-05-01

    Internet enabled body area networks (BANs) will form a core part of future remote health monitoring and ambient assisted living technology. In BAN applications, due to the dynamic nature of human activity, the off-body BAN channel can be prone to deep fading caused by body shadowing and multipath fading. Using this knowledge, we present some novel practical adaptive power control protocols based on the channel deviation to simultaneously prolong the lifetime of wearable devices and reduce outage probability. The proposed schemes are both flexible and relatively simple to implement on hardware platforms with constrained resources making them inherently suitable for BAN applications. We present the key algorithm parameters used to dynamically respond to the channel variation. This allows the algorithms to achieve a better energy efficiency and signal reliability in everyday usage scenarios such as those in which a person undertakes many different activities (e.g., sitting, walking, standing, etc.). We also profile their performance against traditional, optimal, and other existing schemes for which it is demonstrated that not only does the outage probability reduce significantly, but the proposed algorithms also save up to average transmit power compared to the competing schemes.

  12. 48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an...

  13. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized in...

  14. Time-of-flight PET/CT using low-activity protocols: potential implications for cancer therapy monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Iain; Hasan, Syed; Quraishi, Shuaib; Avril, Norbert; Kalemis, Antonis; Glennon, Joe; Beyer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Accurate quantification of tumour tracer uptake is essential for therapy monitoring by sequential PET imaging. In this study we investigated to what extent a reduction in administered activity, synonymous with an overall reduction in repeated patient exposure, compromised the accuracy of quantitative measures using time-of-flight PET/CT. We evaluated the effect of reducing the emission count statistics, using a 64-channel GEMINI TF PET/CT system. Experiments were performed with the NEMA IEC body phantom at target-to-background ratios of 4:1 and 10:1. Emission data for 10 s, 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 5 min and 30 min were acquired. Volumes of interest fitted to the CT outline of the spheres were used to calculate recovery coefficients for each target-to-background ratio and for different reconstruction algorithms. Whole-body time-of-flight PET/CT was performed in 20 patients 62±4 min after injection of 350±40 MBq (range 269-411 MBq) 18 F-FDG. From the acquired 2 min per bed position list mode data, simulated 1-min, 30-s and 15-s PET acquisitions were created. PET images were reconstructed using the TOF-OSEM algorithm and analysed for differences in SUV measurements resulting from the use of lower administered activity as simulated by reduced count statistics. In the phantom studies, overall we identified no significant quantitation bias over a wide range of acquired counts. With acquisition times as short as 10 s, lesions as small as 1 cm in diameter could still be identified. In the patient studies, visual analysis showed that emission scans as short as 15 s per bed position sufficiently identified tumour lesions for quantification. As the acquisition time per bed position decreased, the differences in SUV quantification of tumour lesions increased relative to the 2-min reference protocol. However, SUVs remained within the limits of reproducibility required for therapy monitoring. Measurements of SUVmean within the region of interest were less prone to noise than

  15. Monitoring the impact of the DRG payment system on nursing service context factors in Swiss acute care hospitals: Study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Rebecca; Spichiger, Elisabeth; Martin, Jacqueline S.; Frei, Irena Anna; Müller, Marianne; Kleinknecht, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aims: With this study protocol, a research program is introduced. Its overall aim is to prepare the instruments and to conduct the first monitoring of nursing service context factors at three university and two cantonal hospitals in Switzerland prior to the introduction of the reimbursement system based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) and to further develop a theoretical model as well as a methodology for future monitoring following the introduction of DRGs. Background: DRG was introduced to all acute care hospitals in Switzerland in 2012. In other countries, DRG introduction led to rationing and subsequently to a reduction in nursing care. As result, nursing-sensitive patient outcomes were seriously jeopardised. Switzerland has the opportunity to learn from the consequences experienced by other countries when they introduced DRGs. Their experiences highlight that DRGs influence nursing service context factors such as complexity of nursing care or leadership, which in turn influence nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. For this reason, the monitoring of nursing service context factors needs to be an integral part of the introduction of DRGs. However, most acute care hospitals in Switzerland do not monitor nursing service context data. Nursing managers and hospital executive boards will be in need of this data in the future, in order to distribute resources effectively. Methods/Design: A mixed methods design in the form of a sequential explanatory strategy was chosen. During the preparation phase, starting in spring 2011, instruments were selected and prepared, and the access to patient and nursing data in the hospitals was organized. Following this, online collection of quantitative data was conducted in fall 2011. In summer 2012, qualitative data was gathered using focus group interviews, which helped to describe the processes in more detail. During 2013 and 2014, an integration process is being conducted involving complementing, comparing and contrasting

  16. Monitoring the impact of the DRG payment system on nursing service context factors in Swiss acute care hospitals: Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Rebecca; Spichiger, Elisabeth; Martin, Jacqueline S; Frei, Irena Anna; Müller, Marianne; Kleinknecht, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With this study protocol, a research program is introduced. Its overall aim is to prepare the instruments and to conduct the first monitoring of nursing service context factors at three university and two cantonal hospitals in Switzerland prior to the introduction of the reimbursement system based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) and to further develop a theoretical model as well as a methodology for future monitoring following the introduction of DRGs. DRG was introduced to all acute care hospitals in Switzerland in 2012. In other countries, DRG introduction led to rationing and subsequently to a reduction in nursing care. As result, nursing-sensitive patient outcomes were seriously jeopardised. Switzerland has the opportunity to learn from the consequences experienced by other countries when they introduced DRGs. Their experiences highlight that DRGs influence nursing service context factors such as complexity of nursing care or leadership, which in turn influence nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. For this reason, the monitoring of nursing service context factors needs to be an integral part of the introduction of DRGs. However, most acute care hospitals in Switzerland do not monitor nursing service context data. Nursing managers and hospital executive boards will be in need of this data in the future, in order to distribute resources effectively. A mixed methods design in the form of a sequential explanatory strategy was chosen. During the preparation phase, starting in spring 2011, instruments were selected and prepared, and the access to patient and nursing data in the hospitals was organized. Following this, online collection of quantitative data was conducted in fall 2011. In summer 2012, qualitative data was gathered using focus group interviews, which helped to describe the processes in more detail. During 2013 and 2014, an integration process is being conducted involving complementing, comparing and contrasting quantitative and qualitative findings

  17. Protocol-driven remote monitoring of cardiac resynchronization therapy as part of a heart failure disease management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Christophe J P; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Vranken, Julie; Van der Auwera, Jo; Mullens, Wilfried; Dupont, Matthias; Grieten, Lars; De Cannière, Hélène; Lanssens, Dorien; Vandenberk, Thijs; Storms, Valerie; Thijs, Inge M; Vandervoort, Pieter

    2017-08-14

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. CRT devices are equipped with remote monitoring functions, which are pivotal in the detection of device problems, but may also facilitate disease management. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical interventions taken based on remote monitoring. This is a single centre observational study of consecutive CRT patients (n = 192) participating in protocol-driven remote follow-up. Incoming technical- and disease-related alerts were analysed together with subsequently triggered interventions. During 34 ± 13 months of follow-up, 1372 alert-containing notifications were received (2.53 per patient-year of follow-up), comprising 1696 unique alerts (3.12 per patient-year of follow-up). In 60%, notifications resulted in a phone contact. Technical alerts constituted 8% of incoming alerts (0.23 per patient-year of follow-up). Rhythm (1.43 per patient-year of follow-up) and bioimpedance alerts (0.98 per patient-year of follow-up) were the most frequent disease-related alerts. Notifications included a rhythm alert in 39%, which triggered referral to the emergency room (4%), outpatient cardiology clinic (36%) or general practitioner (7%), or resulted in medication changes (13%). Sole bioimpedance notifications resulted in a telephone contact in 91%, which triggered outpatient evaluation in 8% versus medication changes in 10%. Clinical outcome was excellent with 97% 1-year survival. Remote CRT follow-up resulted in 0.23 technical- versus 2.64 disease-related alerts annually. Rhythm and bioimpedance notifications constituted the majority of incoming notifications which triggered an actual intervention in 22% and 15% of cases, respectively.

  18. Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

    2010-07-15

    This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

  19. Deviations in human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M

    2015-01-01

    microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...

  20. Validation of the Pangao PG-800A36 automatic wrist blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension and the British Hypertension Society protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hairong; Qiao, Weichang; Zhang, Rui; Cui, Peng; Hou, Fanglin; Zhang, Wenli

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the PG-800A36 automatic wrist blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010 and the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocols. A total of 33 participants were initially included on the basis of the ESH-IP, followed by examination of 85 participants according to the BHS protocol. The procedures and analysis methods of the protocols were followed precisely with left arm/wrist sequential measurements by two trained observers using a mercury sphygmomanometer and one supervisor using the device. The device passed the ESH-IP with an average difference of 1.45±6.46 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 1.25±5.10 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, the A/A grade of the BHS protocol was achieved with an average difference of 1.84±6.94 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 1.15±6.49 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure, and thus, the device also fulfilled the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. The Pangao PG-800A36 passed the requirements of the ESH-IP revision 2010 and achieved the A/A grade of the BHS protocol, which can be recommended for self-measurement in the general population.

  1. Large deviations and portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.

  2. Validation of the BPLab® 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system in a pediatric population according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaev MY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mikhail Y Ledyaev, Olga V Stepanova, Anastasia M Ledyaeva Department of Pediatric Disease, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, Russian Federation Background: Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93 protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods: Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP. Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results: The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion: The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, children, device, validation 

  3. [A security protocol for the exchange of personal medical data via Internet: monitoring treatment and drug effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, R; Fischer, J; Spitzer, M; Freudenmann, R W

    2004-04-01

    We present a security protocol for the exchange of medical data via the Internet, based on the type/domain model. We discuss two applications of the protocol: in a system for the exchange of data for quality assurance, and in an on-line database of adverse reactions to drug use. We state that a type/domain security protocol can successfully comply with the complex requirements for data privacy and accessibility typical of such applications.

  4. Applying IPFIX Protocol for Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks against Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mukhtarov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The way of monitoring deviations in network traffic behavior inside “Cloud Infrastructure” using IPFIX protocol is suggested in the paper. The proposed algorithm is applied for registration of “Distributed Denial of Service” attacks against “Cloud Infrastructure”.

  5. 48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70. ...

  6. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470. ...

  7. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the...

  8. 48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant an...

  9. 48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual deviations... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR...

  10. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect...

  11. 48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior Procurement...

  12. 48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting...

  13. VALIDATION OF THE MECG-DP-NS-01 MONITOR IN OSCILLOMETRY AND AUSCULTATION MODES IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, ACCORDING TO ESH-IP2, BHS AND AAMI PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure in childhood and adolescence is associated with a 2 to 3-fold increase of the risk of arterial hypertension. According to the Russian guidelines, only devices that have been tested by international protocols can be used for the main diagnostic method of arterial hypertension in children and adolescents, i.e. ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring.Aim: To validate the MECG-DP-NS-01 upper arm BP monitor in oscillometry and auscultation modes within the “Soyuz” complex, in children and adolescents aged from 5 to 15 years according to the international protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH from 2010 (ESH-IP2, the protocol of the British Hypertension Society (BHS from 1993 and the standard of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI.Materials and methods: We recruited 99 children and adolescents (49 male, 50 female aged from 5 to 15 years (33 children, from 5 to 7 years, 33, from 8 to 11 years, 33, from 12 to 15 years. Expert and device blood pressure measurements were performed in each patient according to the protocols.Results: The MECG-DP-NS-01 upper arm blood pressure monitor was validated and its accuracy in blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents according to ESH-IP2, BHS and AAMI protocols confirmed. According to BHS 1993 protocol, its accuracy corresponded to A/A both in the oscillometry and auscultation modes.Conclusion: According to ESH-IP2, BHS and AAMI protocols, MEGC-DP-NS-01 within the “Soyuz” complex could be recommended for 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents aged from 5 to 15 years, both in the oscillometry and auscultation modes. According to the Declaration of blood pressure Measuring Device Equivalence signed by the manufacturer for the devices MDP-NS-02s “Voshod” and MEGCDPNS-01, and to the equivalence criteria for blood pressure measuring devices, the results of testing and its

  14. Development of a physical activity monitoring tool for Thai medical schools: a protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapisit, Apichai; Vijitpongjinda, Surasak; Saengow, Udomsak; Amaek, Waluka; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Petchuay, Prachyapan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is important in promoting health, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, insufficient PA is still a global health problem and it is also a problem in medical schools. PA training in medical curricula is still sparse or non-existent. There is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of PA in medical schools through several indicators, including people, places and policies. This study includes a survey of the PA prevalence in a medical school and development of a tool, the Medical School Physical Activity Report Card (MSPARC), which will contain concise and understandable infographics and information for exploring, monitoring and reporting information relating to PA prevalence. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will run from January to September 2017. We will involve the School of Medicine, Walailak University, Thailand, and its medical students (n=285). Data collection will consist of both primary and secondary data, divided into four parts: general information, people, places and policies. We will investigate the PA metrics about (1) people: the prevalence of PA and sedentary behaviours; (2) place: the quality and accessibility of walkable neighbourhoods, bicycle facilities and recreational areas; and (3) policy: PA promotion programmes for medical students, education metrics and investments related to PA. The MSPARC will be developed using simple symbols, infographics and short texts to evaluate the PA metrics of the medical school. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Walailak University (protocol number: WUEC-16-005-01). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. The MSPARC and full report will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders, policymakers, staff and clients. PMID:28963299

  15. Development of a physical activity monitoring tool for Thai medical schools: a protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapisit, Apichai; Vijitpongjinda, Surasak; Saengow, Udomsak; Amaek, Waluka; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Petchuay, Prachyapan

    2017-09-27

    Physical activity (PA) is important in promoting health, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, insufficient PA is still a global health problem and it is also a problem in medical schools. PA training in medical curricula is still sparse or non-existent. There is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of PA in medical schools through several indicators, including people, places and policies. This study includes a survey of the PA prevalence in a medical school and development of a tool, the Medical School Physical Activity Report Card (MSPARC), which will contain concise and understandable infographics and information for exploring, monitoring and reporting information relating to PA prevalence. This mixed methods study will run from January to September 2017. We will involve the School of Medicine, Walailak University, Thailand, and its medical students (n=285). Data collection will consist of both primary and secondary data, divided into four parts: general information, people, places and policies. We will investigate the PA metrics about (1) people: the prevalence of PA and sedentary behaviours; (2) place: the quality and accessibility of walkable neighbourhoods, bicycle facilities and recreational areas; and (3) policy: PA promotion programmes for medical students, education metrics and investments related to PA. The MSPARC will be developed using simple symbols, infographics and short texts to evaluate the PA metrics of the medical school. This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Walailak University (protocol number: WUEC-16-005-01). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. The MSPARC and full report will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders, policymakers, staff and clients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  16. Cassandra - D6.3 - final protocol : Seventh Framework Programme THEME Monitoring and Tracking of Shipping Containers Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenstein, J.; Schewe, W.; Zomer, G.; Klievink, A.J.; Nijdam, M.; Visscher, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cassandra project addressed procedures and methods (protocols) for government supervision of international trade lanes. Specifically, it looked at the impact of the Cassandra innovations on the procedures and methods to assess risks (risk assessment protocols). This covers the way in which the

  17. Validation of the Medipro MediCare 100f upper arm blood pressure monitor, for self-measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jun; Wan, Yi; Pan, Feng; Yu, Xiaorong; Zhao, Huadong; Shang, Fujun; Xu, Yongyong

    2011-08-01

    The validation of sphygmomanometer is important in accurate blood pressure measurement. This study presents the validation results by the Medipro MediCare 100f upper arm blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010. The ESH-IP revision 2010 for the validation of blood pressure measuring devices in adults was followed precisely. A total of 99 couples of test device and reference blood pressure measurements were obtained during the study (three pairs for each of the 33 participants). The device produced 73, 93, and 98 measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 79, 93, and 96 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. The mean standard deviation device-observer difference was 1.4 ± 5.2 mmHg for SBP and 0.02±5.8 mmHg for DBP. The number of participants with two or three of the device-observer differences within 5 mmHg was 24 for SBP and 30 for DBP, whereas there was no participant with none of the device-observer differences within 5 mmHg. According to the results of the validation study based on the ESH-IP revision 2010, the Medipro MediCare 100f can be recommended for self-measurement in an adult population.

  18. The reinterpretation of standard deviation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Existing mathematical theory interprets the concept of standard deviation as the dispersion degree. Therefore, in measurement theory, both uncertainty concept and precision concept, which are expressed with standard deviation or times standard deviation, are also defined as the dispersion of measurement result, so that the concept logic is tangled. Through comparative analysis of the standard deviation concept and re-interpreting the measurement error evaluation principle, this paper points o...

  19. Voice deviation, dysphonia risk screening and quality of life in individuals with various laryngeal diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Cota, Ariane; Tsuji, Domingos; Simões-Zenari, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the voice quality of individuals with dysphonia and to investigate possible correlations between the degree of voice deviation (D) and scores on the Dysphonia Risk Screening Protocol-General (DRSP), the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) measure and the Voice Handicap Index, short version (VHI-10). METHODS: The sample included 200 individuals with dysphonia. Following laryngoscopy, the participants completed the DRSP, the V-RQOL measure, and the VHI-10; subsequently, voice samples were recorded for auditory-perceptual and acoustic analyses. The correlation between the score for each questionnaire and the overall degree of vocal deviation was analyzed, as was the correlation among the scores for the three questionnaires. RESULTS: Most of the participants (62%) were female, and the mean age of the sample was 49 years. The most common laryngeal diagnosis was organic dysphonia (79.5%). The mean D was 59.54, and the predominance of roughness had a mean of 54.74. All the participants exhibited at least one abnormal acoustic aspect. The mean questionnaire scores were DRSP, 44.7; V-RQOL, 57.1; and VHI-10, 16. An inverse correlation was found between the V-RQOL score and D; however, a positive correlation was found between both the VHI-10 and DRSP scores and D. CONCLUSION: A predominance of adult women, organic dysphonia, moderate voice deviation, high dysphonia risk, and low to moderate quality of life impact characterized our sample. There were correlations between the scores of each of the three questionnaires and the degree of voice deviation. It should be noted that the DRSP monitored the degree of dysphonia severity, which reinforces its applicability for patients with different laryngeal diagnoses. PMID:29538494

  20. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  1. 48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2) of...

  2. 48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An individual...

  3. 48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  4. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order, or other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48...

  5. 48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations. The...

  6. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the...

  7. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations. Individual...

  8. Validation of the Artsana CSI 610 automated blood pressure monitor in adults according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Claudio; Pastori, Marco; Baccheschi, Jordan; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence that blood pressure measurement outside the doctor's office can provide valuable information for the diagnostic evaluation of hypertensive patients and for monitoring their response to treatment. Home blood pressure monitoring devices have a major role in this setting, provided that their accuracy in measuring blood pressure is demonstrated by validation studies. This study aimed at verifying whether the automatic electronic oscillometric blood pressure measuring device Artsana CSI 610 complied with the standard of accuracy indicated by the ESH International Protocol. Sequential measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were obtained in 33 participants using the mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the test device (one supervisor). A standard adult cuff was always employed during the study. According to the ESH validation protocol, 99 couples of test device and reference blood pressure measurements were obtained during the two phases of the study (three pairs for each of the 33 participants). The Artsana CSI 610 device successfully passed phase 1 of study validation with the number of absolute differences between test and reference device never validation study with a mean (+/-SD) device-observer difference of -1.4+/-4.8 mmHg for systolic and -0.9+/-3.5 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. According to the results of the validation study on the basis of the ESH International Protocol, the Artsana CSI 610 can be recommended for clinical use in adults.

  9. Validation of Transtek blood pressure monitor TMB-1491 for self-measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huiyong; Zeng, Sijian; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Gong, Wei; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-10-01

    Transtek blood pressure monitor TMB-1491 is an automatic upper arm device designed for self/home measurement in adult populations. This study aimed to evaluate its accuracy according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. The protocol requirements were followed precisely with the recruitment of 33 adult individuals on whom same-left-arm sequential systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. According to the validation protocol, 99 pairs of test device and reference blood pressure measurements were obtained in this study (three pairs for each of the 33 participants). The device produced 74, 95 and 99 measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for SBP and 85, 97, and 99 for DBP, respectively. The mean±SD device-observer difference was -0.6±4.4 mmHg for SBP and -0.6±3.4 mmHg for DBP. The number of participants with two or three device-observer difference within 5 mmHg was 24 for SBP and 29 for DBP. In addition, none of the participants had a device-observer difference within 5 mmHg for SBP, and three of the participants had the same for DBP. Transtek TMB-1491 has passed all phases of European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 and can be recommended for self/home measurement in adult populations.

  10. The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Isam

    2005-01-01

    Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.

  11. Comparison of the BPLab® sphygmomanometer for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with mercury sphygmomanometry in pregnant women: validation study according to the British Hypertension Society protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorogova IV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inna V Dorogova, Elena S Panina Penza Institute of Advanced Training for Physicians, Penza, RussiaAbstract: The purpose of this study was to validate the automated BPLab® sphygmomanometer for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM in pregnant women according to Part II of the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol. Pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were randomly asked to participate (n=30. The BPLab sphygmomanometer was tested on pregnant women in this study and achieved A/A ratings according to the BHS protocol when compared with the “gold” standard of mercury sphygmomanometry. The device can therefore be recommended for use in pregnancy.Keywords: pregnancy, BPLab, blood pressure measuring

  12. INDICATIVE MODEL OF DEVIATIONS IN PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of constructing the project deviations indicator model. It based on a conceptual model of project deviations integrated management (PDIM. During the project different causes (such as risks, changes, problems, crises, conflicts, stress lead to deviations of integrated project indicators - time, cost, quality, and content. For a more detailed definition of where in the project deviations occur and how they are dangerous for the whole project, it needs to develop an indicative model of project deviations. It allows identifying the most dangerous deviations that require PDIM. As a basis for evaluation of project's success has been taken famous model IPMA Delta. During the evaluation, IPMA Delta estimated project management competence of organization in three modules: I-Module ("Individuals" - a self-assessment personnel, P-module ("Projects" - self-assessment of projects and/or programs, and O-module ("Organization" - used to conduct interviews with selected people during auditing company. In the process of building an indicative model of deviations in the project, the first step is the assessment of project management in the organization by IPMA Delta. In the future, built cognitive map and matrix of system interconnections of the project, which conducted simulations and built a scale of deviations for the selected project. They determined a size and place of deviations. To identify the detailed causes of deviations in the project management has been proposed to use the extended system of indicators, which is based on indicators of project management model Project Excellence. The proposed indicative model of deviations in projects allows to estimate the size of variation and more accurately identify the place of negative deviations in the project and provides the project manager information for operational decision making for the management of deviations in the implementation of the project

  13. Physical activity monitors to enhance the daily amount of physical activity in elderly-a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the use of physical activity monitors (PAMs) for the elderly, the scientific literature should be systematically reviewed and the effect quantified, as the evidence seems inconclusive. Randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials, with participants with a mean age...... above 65 years, comparing any PAM intervention with other control interventions or no intervention, will be included. This protocol is detailed according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook, and it is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta...

  14. Deviations from thermal equilibrium in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burm, K.T.A.L.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma system in local thermal equilibrium can usually be described with only two parameters. To describe deviations from equilibrium two extra parameters are needed. However, it will be shown that deviations from temperature equilibrium and deviations from Saha equilibrium depend on one another. As a result, non-equilibrium plasmas can be described with three parameters. This reduction in parameter space will ease the plasma describing effort enormously

  15. Background of the implementation of the Protocol the Convention against Torture: Monitoring places of detention and prevention of torture in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Garcé García y Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ratification of the Optional Protocol of the Convention against Torture had for our country, the significance of an ethical and juridical commitment of giving priority to the prevention of abuses for all the people deprived from liberty who are in jails or in other places of detention, as a consequence of a judicial decision or by virtue of an administrative mandate. Among the obligations established by the said Protocol it is found the one of setting up a National Mechanism of Prevention, technically and economically independent, in charge of the systematic monitoring of the detention centers. The creation of the National Institution of Human Rights, together with the legal mandate the same bears to coordinate its duties with the pre-existing Parliamentary Commissioner, finally brings the certain possibility of fulfilling with the obligations arising from the Protocol. At the same time, the original national solution, unparalleled in the region, implies a series of juridical complexities approached in this work. The cooperation between the two State Institutions involved in the matter, so as to avoid a useless overlapping of duties, brings up a promising future in relation to the prevention of torture in Uruguay.

  16. Engagement Strategies for Self-Monitoring Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder With Mobile and Wearable Technology: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Amy; Belman-Wells, Livia; McInnis, Melvin

    2018-05-10

    Monitoring signs and symptoms in bipolar disorder (BP) is typically based on regular assessments from patient-clinician interactions. Mobile and wearable technology promises to make monitoring symptoms in BP easier, but little is known about how best to engage individuals with BP in monitoring symptoms. The objective of this study was to provide the rationale and protocol for a randomized controlled trial that investigates engagement strategies for monitoring symptoms of BP, including the strategies of using activity trackers compared with self-reports and reviewing recorded symptoms weekly with an interviewer. A total of 50 individuals with BP will be recruited from the Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder at the University of Michigan to participate in a 6-week study. Participants will monitor their symptoms through an activity tracker (Fitbit Alta HR) and a mobile phone app designed for this study. In addition to monitoring symptoms, participants have a 50-50 chance of being assigned to an arm that reviews self-reports and activity information weekly. Statistical tests will be performed to test hypotheses that participants adhere to activity tracking significantly more than self-reporting, prefer activity tracking significantly more than self-reporting, and better adhere to both activity tracking and self-reporting when reviewing collected information weekly. Recruitment commenced in November 2017. The first group of participants began the study in January 2018. This study aims to establish strategies to engage individuals with BP in monitoring their symptoms with mobile and wearable technology. Better engagement strategies are expected to aid current efforts in bipolar research and clinical care, from the development of new mobile phone apps to providing the right intervention to the right individual at the right moment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03358238; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03358238 (Archived by WebCite at http

  17. Validation of the Beurer BM 44 upper arm blood pressure monitor for home measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüders, Stephan; Krüger, Ralf; Zemmrich, Claudia; Forstner, Klaus; Sturm, Claus-Dieter; Bramlage, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to validate the automated upper arm blood pressure (BP) measuring device BM 44 for home BP monitoring according to the 2002 Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. The most important new feature of the new device was an integrated 'WHO indicator', which categorizes the patient's individual result within the WHO recommendations for target BP by a coloured scale. Systolic and diastolic BPs were measured sequentially in 35 adult participants (16 men, 19 women) using a standard mercury y-tubed reference sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the BM 44 device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of comparisons were obtained from 15 participants in phase 1 and a further 18 participants in phase 2 of the validation study. The BM 44 device passed phase 1 of the validation study successfully with a number of absolute differences between device and observers of 5, 10 and 15 mmHg for at least 28 out of 25, 35 out of 35 and 40 out of 40 measurements, respectively. The device also achieved the targets for phases 2.1 and 2.2, with 23 and 26 participants having had at least two of three device-observers differences within 5 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The Beurer BM 44 upper arm BP monitor has passed the International Protocol requirements, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  18. Comparing Standard Deviation Effects across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Ben; Gangopadhyaya, Anuj; Schiman, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Studies using tests scores as the dependent variable often report point estimates in student standard deviation units. We note that a standard deviation is not a standard unit of measurement since the distribution of test scores can vary across contexts. As such, researchers should be cautious when interpreting differences in the numerical size of…

  19. FINDING STANDARD DEVIATION OF A FUZZY NUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Fokrul Alom Mazarbhuiya

    2017-01-01

    Two probability laws can be root of a possibility law. Considering two probability densities over two disjoint ranges, we can define the fuzzy standard deviation of a fuzzy variable with the help of the standard deviation two random variables in two disjoint spaces.

  20. Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…

  1. 48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403 Individual...

  2. 22 CFR 226.4 - Deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for...

  3. 41 CFR 115-1.110 - Deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 115-1.110 Section 115-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1.110 Deviations...

  4. 41 CFR 105-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation. (a...

  5. 41 CFR 101-1.110 - Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...

  6. Validation of the Somnotouch-NIBP noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilo, Grzegorz; Zorzi, Cristina; Ochoa Munera, Juan E; Torlasco, Camilla; Giuli, Valentina; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Somnotouch-NIBP noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were sequentially measured in 33 adults (11 women, mean age 63.5±11.9 years) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the Somnotouch-NIBP device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the validation requirements were fulfilled. The Somnotouch-NIBP device fulfilled the requirements of the part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 75/99, 90/99, and 96/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 90/99, 99/99, and 99/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Twenty-seven and 31 participants had at least two of the three device-observers differences less than or equal to 5 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. All three device-observer differences were greater than 5 mmHg in two participants for systolic and in one participant for diastolic blood pressure. The Somnotouch-NIBP noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitor has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010, and hence can be recommended for blood pressure monitoring in adults, at least under conditions corresponding to those investigated in our study.

  7. Entanglement transitions induced by large deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Udaysinh T.

    2017-12-01

    The probability of large deviations of the smallest Schmidt eigenvalue for random pure states of bipartite systems, denoted as A and B , is computed analytically using a Coulomb gas method. It is shown that this probability, for large N , goes as exp[-β N2Φ (ζ ) ] , where the parameter β is the Dyson index of the ensemble, ζ is the large deviation parameter, while the rate function Φ (ζ ) is calculated exactly. Corresponding equilibrium Coulomb charge density is derived for its large deviations. Effects of the large deviations of the extreme (largest and smallest) Schmidt eigenvalues on the bipartite entanglement are studied using the von Neumann entropy. Effect of these deviations is also studied on the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2, obtained by further partitioning the subsystem A , using the properties of the density matrix's partial transpose ρ12Γ. The density of states of ρ12Γ is found to be close to the Wigner's semicircle law with these large deviations. The entanglement properties are captured very well by a simple random matrix model for the partial transpose. The model predicts the entanglement transition across a critical large deviation parameter ζ . Log negativity is used to quantify the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2. Analytical formulas for it are derived using the simple model. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical results.

  8. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  9. TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DEVIATIONS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews new approaches to managing projects deviations (risks, changes, problems. By offering integrated control these parameters of the project and by analogy with medical terminological systems building a new system for managing terminological variations in the projects. With an improved method of triads system definitions are analyzed medical terms that make up terminological basis. Using the method of analogy proposed new definitions for managing deviations in projects. By using triad integrity built a new system triad in project management, which will subsequently also analogous to develop a new methodology of deviations in projects.

  10. Improving Neuromuscular Monitoring and Reducing Residual Neuromuscular Blockade With E-Learning: Protocol for the Multicenter Interrupted Time Series INVERT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jakob Louis Demant; Mathiesen, Ole; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Østergaard, Doris; Engbaek, Jens; Gätke, Mona Ring

    2017-10-06

    -learning module was implemented in 6 anesthesia departments on 21 November 2016. Currently, we are collecting postintervention data. The final dataset will include data from more than 10,000 anesthesia procedures. We expect to publish the results in late 2017 or early 2018. With a dataset consisting of thousands of general anesthesia procedures, the INVERT study will assess whether an e-learning module can increase anesthetists' use of neuromuscular monitoring. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02925143; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02925143 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6s50iTV2x). ©Jakob Louis Demant Thomsen, Ole Mathiesen, Daniel Hägi-Pedersen, Lene Theil Skovgaard, Doris Østergaard, Jens Engbaek, Mona Ring Gätke. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 06.10.2017.

  11. Screening protocols to monitor respiratory status in primary immunodeficiency disease : Findings from a European survey and subclinical infection working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolles, S.; Sánchez-Ramón, S.; Quinti, I.; Soler-Palacín, P.; Agostini, C.; Florkin, B.; Couderc, L.J.; Brodszki, N.; Jones, A.; Longhurst, H.; Warnatz, K.; Haerynck, F.; Matucci, A.; de Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres

  12. Bridge scour monitoring technologies : development of evaluation and selection protocols for application on river bridges in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Bridge failure or loss of structural integrity can result from scour of riverbed sediment near bridge abutments or : piers during high-flow events in rivers. In the past 20 years, several methods of monitoring bridge scour have been : developed spann...

  13. Design and Implementation of a Web-based Greenhouse Remote Monitoring System with Zigbee Protocol and GSM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Tabatabaeifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern and big greenhouses, it is necessary to measure several climate parameters to automate and control the greenhouse properly. Monitoring and transmitting by cable may lead to an expensive and stiff measurement system. Since, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a distributed system that consists of small-size wireless sensor nodes equipped with radio and one or several sensors; it is a low cost option to build the required monitoring system. In this paper, we introduce and implement an intelligent monitoring system based on WSN by using Xbee modules. The Xbee Series 2 hardware uses a microchip from Ember Networks that enables several different flavors of standards-based ZigBee mesh networking. All gathered information by sensors, are sent to a remote center in form of GPRS packets through a GSM network and viewed by monitoring software. The proposed system has low power consumption, low cost and simple driver circuits. Furthermore, it can support various types of digital and analog sensors.

  14. Validation of A&D TM-2430 upper-arm blood pressure monitor for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents, according to the British Hypertension Society protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Gabriel Wai-Kwok; So, Hung-Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Tomlinson, Brian; Wong, Sik-Nin; Sung, Rita Yn-Tz

    2012-04-01

    The A&D TM-2430 ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitor has been validated in adults but not in a young population. We sought to validate the device monitoring in children and adolescents, according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocol. The A&D TM-2430 is an automated oscillometric upper-arm device for ambulatory BP monitoring. Nine consecutive measurements were taken in 61 children (mean age, 9.8 years; range, 5-15 years) according to the BHS criteria. Overseen by an independent supervisor, measurements were recorded by two observers blinded from each other's readings and from the device readings. The mean difference ± SD between the observers and device measurements was 0.73 ± 1.64 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and -1.23 ± 1.65 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively, with an interobserver difference of 4 mmHg. The cumulative percentages of differences within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg were 89, 95, and 98% for SBP and 67, 88, and 98% for DBP. The device achieved a grade A rating for SBP and a B grade for DBP. The A&D TM-2430 upper-arm BP monitor has fulfilled the required BHS standards and can be recommended for measuring ambulatory BP in children and adolescent populations.

  15. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chloe Ya; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate th...

  16. An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorard, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...

  17. The large deviations theorem and ergodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems are studied. For a continuous map f from a compact metric space X into itself, we show that if f satisfies the large deviations theorem then it is topologically ergodic. Moreover, we introduce the topologically strong ergodicity, and prove that if f is a topologically strongly ergodic map satisfying the large deviations theorem then it is sensitively dependent on initial conditions

  18. Simultaneous validation of the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor by the British Hypertension Society and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/the International Organization for Standardization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhua; Wang, Yun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor by the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI)/the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocols. A total of 85 participants were included for evaluation based on the requirements of the BHS and the AAMI/ISO protocols. The validation procedure and data analysis followed the protocols precisely. The device achieved A/A grading for the BHS protocol and maintained A/A grading throughout the low, medium and high blood pressure ranges. The device also fulfilled the requirement of the AAMI/ISO protocol with device-observer differences of -0.9±5.6 and 0.8±5.2 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, for criterion 1, and -0.9±4.7 and 0.8±4.2 mmHg, respectively, for criterion 2. The Grandway MD2301 digital automatic blood pressure monitor achieved A/A grade of the BHS protocol and passed the requirements of the AAMI/ISO protocol in adults.

  19. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  20. The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.

  1. Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the

  2. From Hype to an Operational Tool: Efforts to Establish a Long-Term Monitoring Protocol of Alluvial Sandbars using 'Structure-from-Motion' Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the use of 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM) photogrammetry to accurately map landforms, its utility for reliably detecting and monitoring geomorphic change from repeat surveys remains underexplored in fluvial environments. It is unclear how the combination of various image acquisition platforms and techniques, survey scales, vegetation cover, and terrain complexities translate into accuracy and precision metrics for SfM-based construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of fluvial landforms. Although unmanned aerial vehicles offer the potential to rapidly image large areas, they can be relatively costly, require skilled operators, are vulnerable in adverse weather conditions, and often rely on GPS-positioning to improve their stability. This research details image acquisition techniques for an underrepresented SfM platform: the pole-mounted camera. We highlight image acquisition and post-processing limitations of the SfM method for alluvial sandbars (10s to 100s m2) located in Marble and Grand Canyons in a remote, fluvial landscape with limited field access, strong light gradients, highly variable surface texture and limited ground control. We recommend a pole-based SfM protocol and evaluate it by comparing SfM-derived DEMs against concurrent, total station surveys and TLS derived DEMs. Error models of the sandbar surfaces are developed for a variety of surface characteristics (e.g., bare sand, steep slopes, and areas of shadow). The Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) Software is used to compare SfM DEMs from before and after the 2014 high flow release from Glen Canyon Dam. Complementing existing total-station based sandbar surveys with potentially more efficient and cost-effective SfM methods will contribute to the understanding of morphodynamic responses of sandbars to high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam. In addition, the development and implementation of a SfM-based operational protocol for monitoring geomorphic change will provide

  3. Efficacy of T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay in Monitoring Candidemia after Initiation of Antifungal Therapy: the Serial Therapeutic and Antifungal Monitoring Protocol (STAMP) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong; Pappas, Peter G

    2018-04-01

    The performance of blood culture for monitoring candidemia clearance is hampered by its low sensitivity, especially during antifungal therapy. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay combines magnetic resonance with nanotechnology to identify whole Candida species cells. A multicenter clinical trial studied the performance of T2MR in monitoring candidemia clearance compared to blood culture. Adults with a blood culture positive for yeast were enrolled and had blood cultures and T2MR testing performed on prespecified days. Thirty-one patients completed the trial. Thirteen of the 31 patients (41.9%) had at least one positive surveillance T2MR and/or blood culture result. All positive blood cultures (7/7 [100%]) had an accompanying positive T2MR result with concordance in the identified Candida sp., while only 7/23 (30.4%) T2MR results had an accompanying positive blood culture. There was one case of discordance in species identification between T2MR and the preenrollment blood culture with evidence to support deep-seated infection by the Candida spp. detected by the T2MR assay. Based on the log rank test, there was a statistically significant improvement in posttreatment surveillance using the T2MR assay compared to blood culture ( P = 0.004). Limitations of the study include the small sample size and lack of outcome data. In conclusion, the T2MR assay significantly outperformed blood cultures for monitoring the clearance of candidemia in patients receiving antifungal therapy and may be useful in determining adequate source control, timing for deescalation, and optimal duration of treatment. However, further studies are needed to determine the viability of Candida species cells detected by the T2MR assay and correlate the results with patient outcomes. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02163889.). Copyright © 2018 Mylonakis et al.

  4. Development of an acoustic measurement protocol to monitor acetabular implant fixation in cementless total hip Arthroplasty: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Quentin; Leuridan, Steven; Henyš, Petr; Roosen, Jorg; Pastrav, Leonard; Mulier, Michiel; Desmet, Wim; Denis, Kathleen; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2017-11-01

    In cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA), the initial stability is obtained by press-fitting the implant in the bone to allow osseointegration for a long term secondary stability. However, finding the insertion endpoint that corresponds to a proper initial stability is currently based on the tactile and auditory experiences of the orthopedic surgeon, which can be challenging. This study presents a novel real-time method based on acoustic signals to monitor the acetabular implant fixation in cementless total hip arthroplasty. Twelve acoustic in vitro experiments were performed on three types of bone models; a simple bone block model, an artificial pelvic model and a cadaveric model. A custom made beam was screwed onto the implant which functioned as a sound enhancer and insertor. At each insertion step an acoustic measurement was performed. A significant acoustic resonance frequency shift was observed during the insertion process for the different bone models; 250 Hz (35%, second bending mode) to 180 Hz (13%, fourth bending mode) for the artificial bone block models and 120 Hz (11%, eighth bending mode) for the artificial pelvis model. No significant frequency shift was observed during the cadaveric experiment due to a lack of implant fixation in this model. This novel diagnostic method shows the potential of using acoustic signals to monitor the implant seating during insertion. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of Omron RS8, RS6, and RS3 home blood pressure monitoring devices, in accordance with the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hakuo; Yoshika, Masamichi; Yokoi, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Allowing patients to measure their blood pressure at home is recognized as being of clinical value. However, it is not known how often these measurements are taken correctly. Blood pressure monitors for home use fall into two types based on the position of the cuff, ie, at the upper arm or the wrist. The latter is particularly convenient, as measurements can be taken fully clothed. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the wrist-type blood pressure monitors Omron RS8 (HEM-6310F-E), Omron RS6 (HEM-6221-E), and Omron RS3 (HEM-6130-E). A team of three trained doctors validated the performance of these devices by comparing the measurements obtained from these devices with those taken using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. All the devices met the validation requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. The difference in blood pressure readings between the tested device and the standard mercury sphygmomanometer was within 3 mmHg, which is acceptable according to the European Society of Hypertension guidelines. All the home devices tested were found to be suitable for measuring blood pressure at home because their performance fulfilled the requirement of the guidelines.

  6. Validation of the iHealth BP7 wrist blood pressure monitor, for self-measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhao, Huadong; Chen, Wan; Li, Ni; Wan, Yi

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the iHealth BP7 wireless wrist blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010. A total of 99 pairs of test device and reference blood pressure measurements (three pairs for each of the 33 participants) were obtained for validation. The ESH-IP revision 2010 for the validation of blood pressure measuring devices in adults was followed precisely. The device produced 66, 87, and 97 measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 72, 93, and 99 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. The mean±SD device-observer difference was -0.7±6.9 mmHg for SBP and -1.0±5.1 mmHg for DBP. The number of participants with two or three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg was 25 for SBP and 26 for DBP; furthermore, there were three participants for SBP and one participant for DBP, with none of the device-observer differences within 5 mmHg. On the basis of the validation results, the iHealth BP7 wireless wrist blood pressure monitor can be recommended for self-measurement in an adult population.

  7. Validation of the Andon KD-5851 upper arm blood pressure monitor, for self-measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lili; Jiao, Yinghui; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Lei; Di, Dalin; Zhang, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to validate the Andon KD-5851 upper arm blood pressure (BP) monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010. A total of 33 eligible participants were included in the study. Sequential measurements of BPs were performed using a mercury sphygmomanometer and the device, and the data analysis was carried out following precisely the ESH-IP revision 2010. The device had 82, 98, and 99 measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 85, 95, and 99 measurements for diastolic blood pressure, respectively. The average device-observer difference was -0.53±4.00 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and -1.15±4.06 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The device passed all the criteria according to the ESH-IP revision 2010. According to the validation results on the basis of the ESH-IP revision 2010, the Andon KD-5851 upper arm BP monitor can be recommended for self/home measurement in adults. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Ya Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  9. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David

    2017-10-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  10. Blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecking Manfred

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data generated with the body composition monitor (BCM, Fresenius show, based on bioimpedance technology, that chronic fluid overload in hemodialysis patients is associated with poor survival. However, removing excess fluid by lowering dry weight can be accompanied by intradialytic and postdialytic complications. Here, we aim at testing the hypothesis that, in comparison to conventional hemodialysis, blood volume-monitored regulation of ultrafiltration and dialysate conductivity (UCR and/or regulation of ultrafiltration and temperature (UTR will decrease complications when ultrafiltration volumes are systematically increased in fluid-overloaded hemodialysis patients. Methods/design BCM measurements yield results on fluid overload (in liters, relative to extracellular water (ECW. In this prospective, multicenter, triple-arm, parallel-group, crossover, randomized, controlled clinical trial, we use BCM measurements, routinely introduced in our three maintenance hemodialysis centers shortly prior to the start of the study, to recruit sixty hemodialysis patients with fluid overload (defined as ≥15% ECW. Patients are randomized 1:1:1 into UCR, UTR and conventional hemodialysis groups. BCM-determined, ‘final’ dry weight is set to normohydration weight −7% of ECW postdialysis, and reached by reducing the previous dry weight, in steps of 0.1 kg per 10 kg body weight, during 12 hemodialysis sessions (one study phase. In case of intradialytic complications, dry weight reduction is decreased, according to a prespecified algorithm. A comparison of intra- and post-dialytic complications among study groups constitutes the primary endpoint. In addition, we will assess relative weight reduction, changes in residual renal function, quality of life measures, and predialysis levels of various laboratory parameters including C-reactive protein, troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, before and after the first study

  11. Development of monitoring protocols to detect change in rocky intertidal communities of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gail V.

    2010-01-01

    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in southeastern Alaska includes extensive coastlines representing a major proportion of all coastlines held by the National Park Service. The marine plants and invertebrates that occupy intertidal shores form highly productive communities that are ecologically important to a number of vertebrate and invertebrate consumers and that are vulnerable to human disturbances. To better understand these communities and their sensitivity, it is important to obtain information on species abundances over space and time. During field studies from 1997 to 2001, I investigated probability-based rocky intertidal monitoring designs that allow inference of results to similar habitat within the bay and that reduce bias. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope less than or equal to 30 degrees was rare. This finding illustrated the value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to more mixed rocky habitat with steeper slopes. Subsequently, I investigated different sampling methods and strategies for their relative power to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles -Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. I found that lower-intensity sampling of 25 randomly selected sites (= coarse-grained sampling) provided a greater ability to detect changes in the abundances of these taxa than did more intensive sampling of 6 sites (= fine-grained sampling). Because of its greater power, the coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years. This report provides detailed analyses of the 4 years of data and evaluates the relative effect of different sampling attributes and management-set parameters on the ability of the sampling to detect changes in the abundances of these taxa. The intent was to provide managers with information

  12. Validation of the G.LAB MD2200 wrist blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension, the British Hypertension Society, and the International Organization for Standardization Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Yu; Zhang, Qing-Han; Ye, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Da-Peng; Cheng, Kang; Zhang, Chun-Hai; Wan, Yi

    2017-04-01

    To validate the G.LAB MD2200 automated wrist blood pressure (BP) monitors according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010, the British Hypertension Society (BHS), and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 81060-2:2013 protocols. The device was assessed on 33 participants according to the ESH requirements and was then tested on 85 participants according to the BHS and ISO 81060-2:2013 criteria. The validation procedures and data analysis followed the protocols precisely. The G.LAB MD2200 devices passed all parts of ESH-IP revision 2010 for both systolic and diastolic BP, with a device-observer difference of 2.15±5.51 and 1.51±5.16 mmHg, respectively. The device achieved A/A grading for the BHS protocol and it also fulfilled the criteria of ISO 81060-2:2013, with mean differences of systolic and diastolic BP between the device and the observer of 2.19±5.21 and 2.11±4.70 mmHg, respectively. The G.LAB MD2200 automated wrist BP monitor passed the ESH-IP revision 2010 and the ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol, and achieved the A/A grade of the BHS protocol, which can be recommended for self-measurement in the general population.

  13. Validation of the Pangao PG-800B26 upper arm blood pressure monitor in the general population according to the European Society of Hypertension and the British Hypertension Society protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Li, Jiyu; Wen, Jing; Guo, Changfeng; Zhang, Jingying; Yu, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper arm blood pressure monitor Pangao PG-800B26 for home blood pressure monitoring according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010 and the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocols. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured sequentially in 33 and 85 adults, respectively, on the basis of the ESH-IP and BHS protocols using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the device (one supervisor). The procedures and analysis methods of the protocols were followed precisely. The device fulfilled the criteria of the ESH-IP, with device-observer differences of 1.01±5.16 and -0.58±4.17 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Furthermore, the A/A grade of the BHS protocol was also achieved for overall grading and for the three pressure levels, with average differences of 0.85±6.35 and -0.15±5.65 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, which also fulfilled the requirements of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. The Pangao PG-800B26 fulfilled the criteria of the ESH-IP 2010 and achieved the A/A grade of the BHS protocol, and hence can be recommended for home use in adults.

  14. Linked symptom monitoring and depression treatment programmes for specialist cancer services: protocol for a mixed-methods implementation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jane; Burke, Katy; Sevdalis, Nick; Richardson, Alison; Mulick, Amy; Frost, Chris; Sharpe, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing awareness that cancer services need to address patients’ well-being as well as treating their cancer. We developed systematic approaches to (1) monitoring patients’ symptoms including depression using a ‘Symptom Monitoring Service’ and (2) providing treatment for those with major depression using a programme called ‘Depression Care for People with Cancer’. Used together, these two programmes were found to be highly effective and cost-effective in clinical trials. The overall aims of this project are to: (1) study the process of introducing these programmes into routine clinical care in a large cancer service, (2) identify the challenges associated with implementation and how these are overcome, (3) determine their effectiveness in a routine non-research setting and (4) describe patients’ and clinicians’ experience of the programmes. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods longitudinal implementation study. We will study the process of implementation in three phases (April 2016–December 2018): ‘Pre-implementation’ (setting up of the new programmes), ‘Early Implementation’ (implementation of the programmes in a small number of clinics) and ‘Implementation and Maintenance’ (implementation in the majority of clinics). We will use the following methods of data collection: (1) contemporaneous logs of the implementation process, (2) interviews with healthcare professionals and managers, (3) interviews with patients and (4) routinely collected clinical data. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed by a joint committee of Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust Research and Development Department and the University of Oxford’s Clinical Trials and Research Governance Department and judged to be service evaluation, not requiring ethics committee approval. The findings of this study will guide the scaling up implementation of the programmes across the UK and will enable

  15. Linked symptom monitoring and depression treatment programmes for specialist cancer services: protocol for a mixed-methods implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, Marta; Walker, Jane; Burke, Katy; Sevdalis, Nick; Richardson, Alison; Mulick, Amy; Frost, Chris; Sharpe, Michael

    2017-07-02

    There is growing awareness that cancer services need to address patients' well-being as well as treating their cancer. We developed systematic approaches to (1) monitoring patients' symptoms including depression using a 'Symptom Monitoring Service' and (2) providing treatment for those with major depression using a programme called 'Depression Care for People with Cancer'. Used together, these two programmes were found to be highly effective and cost-effective in clinical trials. The overall aims of this project are to: (1) study the process of introducing these programmes into routine clinical care in a large cancer service, (2) identify the challenges associated with implementation and how these are overcome, (3) determine their effectiveness in a routine non-research setting and (4) describe patients' and clinicians' experience of the programmes. This is a mixed-methods longitudinal implementation study. We will study the process of implementation in three phases (April 2016-December 2018): 'Pre-implementation' (setting up of the new programmes), 'Early Implementation' (implementation of the programmes in a small number of clinics) and 'Implementation and Maintenance' (implementation in the majority of clinics). We will use the following methods of data collection: (1) contemporaneous logs of the implementation process, (2) interviews with healthcare professionals and managers, (3) interviews with patients and (4) routinely collected clinical data. The study has been reviewed by a joint committee of Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust Research and Development Department and the University of Oxford's Clinical Trials and Research Governance Department and judged to be service evaluation, not requiring ethics committee approval. The findings of this study will guide the scaling up implementation of the programmes across the UK and will enable us to construct an implementation toolkit. We will disseminate our findings in

  16. PoDMan: Policy Deviation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Bakshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whenever an unexpected or exceptional situation occurs, complying with the existing policies may not be possible. The main objective of this work is to assist individuals and organizations to decide in the process of deviating from policies and performing a non-complying action. The paper proposes utilizing software agents as supportive tools to provide the best non-complying action while deviating from policies. The article also introduces a process in which the decision on the choice of non-complying action can be made. The work is motivated by a real scenario observed in a hospital in Norway and demonstrated through the same settings.

  17. Validation of a real-time wireless telemedicine system, using bluetooth protocol and a mobile phone, for remote monitoring patient in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Jasemian; Lars, A N

    2005-06-22

    This paper validates the integration of a generic real-time wireless telemedicine system utilising Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), BLUETOOTH protocol and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for cellular network in clinical practice. In the first experiment, the system was tested on 24 pacemaker patients at Aalborg Hospital (Denmark), in order to see if the pacemaker implant would be affected by the system. I the second experiment, the system was tested on 15 non risky arrhythmia heart patients, in order to evaluate and validate the system application in clinical practice, for patient monitoring. Electrocardiograms were selected as the continuously monitored parameter in the present study. The results showed that the system had no negative effects on the pacemaker implants. The experiment results showed, that in a realistic environment for the patients, the system had 96.1 % up-time, 3.2 (kbps) throughput, 10(-3) (packet/s) Packet Error Rate and 10(-3) (packet/s) Packet Lost Rate. During 24 hours test the network did not respond for 57 minutes, from which 83.1 % was in the range of 0-3 minutes, 15.4 % was in the range of 3-5 minutes, and only 0.7 % of the down-time was > or = 5 and < or = 6 minutes. By a subjective evaluation, it was demonstrated that the system is applicable and the patients as well as the healthcare personals were highly confident with the system. Moreover, the patients had high degree of mobility and freedom, employing the system. In conclusion, this generic telemedicine system showed a high reliability, quality and performance, and the design can provide a basic principle for real-time wireless remote monitoring systems used in clinical practice.

  18. Protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial of the use of Physical ACtivity monitors in an Exercise Referral Setting: the PACERS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jemma; Edwards, Michelle; Charles, Joanna; Jago, Russell; Kelson, Mark; Morgan, Kelly; Murphy, Simon; Oliver, Emily; Simpson, Sharon; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Moore, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Exercise referral schemes are recommended by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) for physical activity promotion among inactive patients with health conditions or risk factors. Whilst there is evidence for the initial effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such schemes for increasing physical activity, evidence of long-term effects is limited. Techniques such as goal setting, self-monitoring and personalised feedback may support motivation for physical activity. Technologies such as activity monitoring devices provide an opportunity to enhance delivery of motivational techniques. This paper describes the PACERS study protocol, which aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of implementing an activity monitor within the existing Welsh National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS) and proposed evaluation methodology for a full-scale randomised controlled trial. The PACERS study consists of a pilot randomised controlled trial, process evaluation and exploratory economic analyses. Participants will be recruited from the generic pathway of the Welsh NERS and will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention or usual practice. Usual practice is a 16-week structured exercise programme; the intervention consists of an accelerometry-based activity monitor (MyWellnessKey) and an associated web platform (MyWellnessCloud). The primary outcomes are predefined progression criteria assessing the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and feasibility of the proposed evaluation methodology. Postal questionnaires will be completed at baseline (time 0: T0), 16 weeks after T0 (T1) and 12 months after T0 (T2). Routinely collected data will also be accessed at the same time points. A sub-sample of intervention participants and exercise referral staff will be interviewed following initiation of intervention delivery and at the end of the study. The PACERS study seeks to assess the feasibility of adding a novel motivational component to an existing

  19. SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION(s) CHART UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF MODERATENESS AND ITS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpesh S. Tailor

    2017-01-01

    Moderate distribution proposed by Naik V.D and Desai J.M., is a sound alternative of normal distribution, which has mean and mean deviation as pivotal parameters and which has properties similar to normal distribution. Mean deviation (δ) is a very good alternative of standard deviation (σ) as mean deviation is considered to be the most intuitively and rationally defined measure of dispersion. This fact can be very useful in the field of quality control to construct the control limits of the c...

  20. Phase Transition in Protocols Minimizing Work Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2018-05-01

    For two canonical examples of driven mesoscopic systems—a harmonically trapped Brownian particle and a quantum dot—we numerically determine the finite-time protocols that optimize the compromise between the standard deviation and the mean of the dissipated work. In the case of the oscillator, we observe a collection of protocols that smoothly trade off between average work and its fluctuations. However, for the quantum dot, we find that as we shift the weight of our optimization objective from average work to work standard deviation, there is an analog of a first-order phase transition in protocol space: two distinct protocols exchange global optimality with mixed protocols akin to phase coexistence. As a result, the two types of protocols possess qualitatively different properties and remain distinct even in the infinite duration limit: optimal-work-fluctuation protocols never coalesce with the minimal-work protocols, which therefore never become quasistatic.

  1. A robust standard deviation control chart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse

  2. Evolutionary implications of genetic code deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1986-07-01

    By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, we propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans and Gram positive bacteria. A possible range of further alternative coding, still within the context of universality, is pointed out. (author)

  3. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201...) Diminish any preference given small business concerns by the FAR or DFARS; or (D) Extend to requirements imposed by statute or by regulations of other agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the...

  4. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  5. The monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and verification of climate change mitigation projects: Discussion of issues and methodologies and review of existing protocols and guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; Sathaye, J.

    1997-12-01

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the US and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations (i.e., joint implementation), climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG impacts (i.e., environmental, economic, and social impacts). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects in order to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits; (2) provide real-time data so that mid-course corrections can be made; (3) introduce consistency and transparency across project types and reporters; and (4) enhance the credibility of the projects with stakeholders. In this paper, the authors review the issues and methodologies involved in MERV activities. In addition, they review protocols and guidelines that have been developed for MERV of GHG emissions in the energy and non-energy sectors by governments, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies. They comment on their relevance and completeness, and identify several topics that future protocols and guidelines need to address, such as (1) establishing a credible baseline; (2) accounting for impacts outside project boundaries through leakage; (3) net GHG reductions and other impacts; (4) precision of measurement; (5) MERV frequency; (6) persistence (sustainability) of savings, emissions reduction, and carbon sequestration; (7) reporting by multiple project participants; (8) verification of GHG reduction credits; (9) uncertainty and risk; (10) institutional capacity in conducting MERV; and (11) the cost of MERV.

  6. Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

    2013-12-01

    Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.

  7. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  8. Using smartphones to decrease substance use via self-monitoring and recovery support: study protocol for a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christy K; Dennis, Michael L; Gustafson, David H

    2017-08-10

    Alcohol abuse, other substance use disorders, and risk behaviors associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent three of the top 10 modifiable causes of mortality in the US. Despite evidence that continuing care is effective in sustaining recovery from substance use disorders and associated behaviors, patients rarely receive it. Smartphone applications (apps) have been effective in delivering continuing care to patients almost anywhere and anytime. This study tests the effectiveness of two components of such apps: ongoing self-monitoring through Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) and immediate recovery support through Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMIs). The target population, adults enrolled in substance use disorder treatment (n = 400), are being recruited from treatment centers in Chicago and randomly assigned to one of four conditions upon discharge in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants receive (1) EMAs only, (2) EMIs only, (3) combined EMAs + EMIs, or (4) a control condition without EMA or EMI for 6 months. People in the experimental conditions receive smartphones with the apps (EMA and/or EMI) specific to their condition. Phones alert participants in the EMA and EMA + EMI conditions at five random times per day and present participants with questions about people, places, activities, and feelings that they experienced in the past 30 min and whether these factors make them want to use substances, support their recovery, or have no impact. Those in the EMI and EMA + EMI conditions have continual access to a suite of support services. In the EMA + EMI condition, participants are prompted to use the EMI(s) when responses to the EMA(s) indicate risk. All groups have access to recovery support as usual. The primary outcome is days of abstinence from alcohol and other drugs. Secondary outcomes are number of HIV risk behaviors and whether abstinence mediates the effects of EMA, EMI, or EMA + EMI on HIV

  9. Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija

    2011-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.

  10. Clinical Feasibility of Continuously Monitored Data for Heart Rate, Physical Activity, and Sleeping by Wearable Activity Trackers in Patients with Thyrotoxicosis: Protocol for a Prospective Longitudinal Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Eun; Lee, Dong Hwa; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moon, Jae Hoon

    2018-02-21

    Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease caused by an excess of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis about 2% and 70-90% of thyrotoxicosis cases are caused by Graves' disease, an autoimmune disease, which has a high recurrence rate when treated with antithyroid drugs such as methimazole or propylthiouracil. The clinical symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis include palpitation, weight loss, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping. Although these clinical changes in thyrotoxicosis can be detected by currently available wearable activity trackers, there have been few trials of the clinical application of wearable devices in patients with thyrotoxicosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical applicability of wearable device-generated data to the management of thyrotoxicosis. We are analyzing continuously monitored data for heart rate, physical activity, and sleep in patients with thyrotoxicosis during their clinical course after treatment. Thirty thyrotoxic patients and 10 control subjects were enrolled in this study at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Heart rate, physical activity, and sleep are being monitored using a Fitbit Charge HR or Fitbit Charge 2. Clinical data including anthropometric measures, thyroid function test, and hyperthyroidism symptom scale are recorded. Study enrollment began in December 2016, and the intervention and follow-up phases are ongoing. The results of the data analysis are expected to be available by September 2017. This study will provide a foundational feasibility trial of the clinical applications of biosignal measurements to the differential diagnosis, prediction of clinical course, early detection of recurrence, and treatment in patients with thyrotoxicosis. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03009357; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03009357 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wh4MWPm2). ©Jie-Eun Lee, Dong Hwa Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Do

  11. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Peter Bramlage,1 Cornelia Deutsch,1 Ralf Krüger,1 Andreas Wolf,2 Peter Müller,2 Thomas Zwingers,1,4 Beate Beime,1 Thomas Mengden31Institut für Pharmakologie und Präventive Medizin, Cloppenburg, 2Müller and Sebastiani, Ottobrunn, 3Kerckhoff-Klinik, Bad Nauheim, 4Estimate, Augsburg, GermanyObjective: The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP. The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours.Materials and methods: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers. A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained.Results: The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was −0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and −0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP.Conclusion: The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.Keywords: validation, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ESH

  12. Validation of the Beneware model ABP-021 ambulatory blood pressure monitor according to the revised 2010 European Society of hypertension international protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Telmo; Guimarães, João

    2018-06-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Beneware model ABP-021 oscillometric blood pressure monitor in the general population according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP). The accuracy of the device was assessed in relation to various clinical variables, including age, sex, BMI, and arm circumference. Thirty-three individuals (18 men and 15 women), with a mean age of 36±14 years (age range: 20-68 years), were studied according to the recommendations of the ESH-IP. Sequential same-arm blood pressure measurements were performed, alternating between a mercury standard and the automatic device. The differences among the test-control measurements were assessed and divided into categorization zones of 5, 10, and 15 mmHg discrepancy. The device complied with the quality requirements of the ESH-IP. The device-observer disagreement was -1.2±4.7 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and -1.7±4.3 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The device produced 77, 93, and 98 measurements, respectively, within the 5, 10, and 15 mmHg discrepancy limits for SBP. For DBP, 80, 97, and 99 measurements were observed within the 5, 10, and 15 mmHg discrepancy limits. The number of participants with two or three of the device-observer differences within 5 mmHg was 26 for SBP and 29 for DBP, whereas there were only two participants with no device-observer differences within 5 mmHg for DBP. These data show that the Beneware model ABP-021 monitor meets the requirements of the ESH-IP, in static conditions, indicating its suitability for measuring blood pressure in the general adult population.

  13. Protocol for the melatools skin self-monitoring trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of an intervention for primary care patients at higher risk of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katie; Emery, Jon; Lantaff, Rebecca; Radford, Michael; Pannebakker, Merel; Hall, Per; Burrows, Nigel; Williams, Kate; Saunders, Catherine L; Murchie, Peter; Walter, Fiona M

    2017-11-28

    Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer in the UK. Incidence rates have quadrupled over the last 30 years and continue to rise, especially among younger people. As routine screening of the general population is not currently recommended in the UK, a focus on secondary prevention through early detection and prompt treatment in individuals at increased risk of melanoma could make an important contribution to improve melanoma outcomes. This paper describes the protocol for a phase II, multisite, randomised controlled trial, in the primary care setting, for patients at increased risk of melanoma. A skin self-monitoring (SSM) smartphone 'App' was used to improve symptom appraisal and encourage help seeking in primary care, thereby promoting early presentation with skin changes suspicious of melanoma. We aim to recruit 200 participants from general practice waiting rooms in the East of England. Eligible patients are those identified at higher melanoma risk (using a real-time risk assessment tool), without a personal history of melanoma, aged 18 to 75 years. Participants will be invited to a primary care nurse consultation, and randomised to the intervention group (standard written advice on skin cancer detection and sun protection, loading of an SSM 'App' onto the participant's smartphone and instructions on use including self-monitoring reminders) or control group (standard written advice alone). The primary outcomes are consultation rates for changes to a pigmented skin lesion, and the patient interval (time from first noticing a skin change to consultation). Secondary outcomes include patient sun protection behaviours, psychosocial outcomes, and measures of trial feasibility and acceptability. NHS ethical approval has been obtained from Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire research ethics committee (REC reference 16/EE/0248). The findings from the MelaTools SSM Trial will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and scientific conferences. ISCTRN16061621

  14. From Hype to an Operational Tool: Efforts to Establish a Long-Term Monitoring Protocol of Alluvial Sandbars using `Structure-from-Motion' Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, R.; Buscombe, D.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wheaton, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the use of `Structure-from-Motion' (SfM) photogrammetry to accurately map landforms, its utility for reliably detecting and monitoring geomorphic change from repeat surveys remains underexplored in fluvial environments. It is unclear how the combination of various image acquisition platforms and techniques, survey scales, vegetation cover, and terrain complexities translate into accuracy and precision metrics for SfM-based construction of digital elevation models (DEMs) of fluvial landforms. Although unmanned aerial vehicles offer the potential to rapidly image large areas, they can be relatively costly, require skilled operators, are vulnerable in adverse weather conditions, and often rely on GPS-positioning to improve their stability. This research details image acquisition techniques for an underrepresented SfM platform: the pole-mounted camera. We highlight image acquisition and post-processing limitations of the SfM method for alluvial sandbars (10s to 100s m2) located in Marble and Grand Canyons in a remote, fluvial landscape with limited field access, strong light gradients, highly variable surface texture and limited ground control. We recommend a pole-based SfM protocol and evaluate it by comparing SfM-derived DEMs against concurrent, total station surveys. Error models of the sandbar surfaces are developed for a variety of surface characteristics (e.g., bare sand, steep slopes, and areas of shadow). The Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD) Software is used to compare SfM DEMs from before and after the 2014 high flow release from Glen Canyon Dam. Complementing existing total-station based sandbar surveys with potentially more efficient and cost-effective SfM methods will contribute to the understanding of morphodynamic responses of sandbars to high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam. In addition, the development and implementation of a SfM-based operational method for monitoring geomorphic change will provide a methodological

  15. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)

  16. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  17. Validation of the Microlife BP A200 Comfort and W2 Slim automated blood pressure monitors in a general adult population according to the European Society of Hypertension and the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2: 2013 protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Sen; Chen, Kang; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Weijuan; Li, Linyi; Wei, Jiao; Shu, Chang; Wan, Yi

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of the Microlife BP A200 Comfort and W2 Slim automated blood pressure monitors according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 and the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocols. The devices were assessed on 33 participants according to the European Society of Hypertension requirements and were then tested on 85 participants according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 criteria. Procedures and data analysis were carried out following protocol guidelines precisely. The Microlife BP A200 Comfort and W2 Slim devices passed the criteria of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 for both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. The devices also fulfilled the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 criteria, with mean differences of SBP and DPB between the devices and observers of 0.38±5.12 and 0.28±4.29 mmHg for the BP A200 Comfort and 1.01±6.80 and 0.34±5.62 mmHg for the W2 Slim, respectively. The Microlife BP A200 Comfort and W2 Slim automated blood pressure monitors fulfilled the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010 and the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocols, and can be recommended for self-measurement in the general population.

  18. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  19. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  20. Hearing protector performance and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W; Dillon, H

    2005-01-01

    The attenuation performance of a hearing protector is used to estimate the protected exposure level of the user. The aim is to reduce the exposed level to an acceptable value. Users should expect the attenuation to fall within a reasonable range of values around a norm. However, an analysis of extensive test data indicates that there is a negative relationship between attenuation performance and the standard deviation. This result is deduced using a variation in the method of calculating a single number rating of attenuation that is more amenable to drawing statistical inferences. As performance is typically specified as a function of the mean attenuation minus one or two standard deviations from the mean to ensure that greater than 50% of the wearer population are well protected, the implication of increasing standard deviation with decreasing attenuation found in this study means that a significant number of users are, in fact, experiencing over-protection. These users may be disinclined to use their hearing protectors because of an increased feeling of acoustic isolation. This problem is exacerbated in areas with lower noise levels.

  1. Top Yukawa deviation in extra dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Oda, Kin-ya; Takahashi, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    We suggest a simple one-Higgs-doublet model living in the bulk of five-dimensional spacetime compactified on S 1 /Z 2 , in which the top Yukawa coupling can be smaller than the naive standard-model expectation, i.e. the top quark mass divided by the Higgs vacuum expectation value. If we find only single Higgs particle at the LHC and also observe the top Yukawa deviation, our scenario becomes a realistic candidate beyond the standard model. The Yukawa deviation comes from the fact that the wave function profile of the free physical Higgs field can become different from that of the vacuum expectation value, due to the presence of the brane-localized Higgs potentials. In the Brane-Localized Fermion scenario, we find sizable top Yukawa deviation, which could be checked at the LHC experiment, with a dominant Higgs production channel being the WW fusion. We also study the Bulk Fermion scenario with brane-localized Higgs potential, which resembles the Universal Extra Dimension model with a stable dark matter candidate. We show that both scenarios are consistent with the current electroweak precision measurements.

  2. Validation of the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring device according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Peter; Deutsch, Cornelia; Krüger, Ralf; Wolf, Andreas; Müller, Peter; Zwingers, Thomas; Beime, Beate; Mengden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the custo screen 400 ambulatory blood pressure-monitoring (ABPM) device according to the 2010 International Protocol revision of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP). The device can be used for ABPM for up to 72 hours. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) were sequentially measured in 33 adult subjects (13 males and 20 females) and compared with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers). A total of 99 comparison pairs were obtained. The custo screen 400 met the requirements of parts 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP revision 2010. The mean difference between the device and reference sphygmomanometer readings was -0.5±4.5 mmHg for SBP and -0.1±3.3 mmHg for DBP. All but one measurement were within the absolute difference of 10 mmHg between the device and the observers for SBP and DBP. The number of absolute differences between the device and the observers within a range of 5 mmHg was 84 of 99 readings for SBP, and 93 of 99 readings for DBP. The custo screen 400 ABPM device met the requirements of the 2010 ESH-IP revision, and hence can be recommended for ABPM in adults. To our knowledge, the custo screen 400 is the first device to pass the revised ESH-IP 2010.

  3. Spatial analysis of trace elements in a moss bio-monitoring data over France by accounting for source, protocol and environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequy, Emeline; Saby, Nicolas P A; Ilyin, Ilia; Bourin, Aude; Sauvage, Stéphane; Leblond, Sébastien

    2017-07-15

    Air pollution in trace elements (TE) remains a concern for public health in Europe. For this reasons, networks of air pollution concentrations or exposure are deployed, including a moss bio-monitoring programme in Europe. Spatial determinants of TE concentrations in mosses remain unclear. In this study, the French dataset of TE in mosses is analyzed by spatial autoregressive model to account for spatial structure of the data and several variables proven or suspected to affect TE concentrations in mosses. Such variables include source (atmospheric deposition and soil concentrations), protocol (sampling month, collector, and moss species), and environment (forest type and canopy density, distance to the coast or the highway, and elevation). Modeled atmospheric deposition was only available for Cd and Pb and was one of the main explanatory variables of the concentrations in mosses. Predicted soil content was also an important explanatory variable except for Cr, Ni, and Zn. However, the moss species was the main factor for all the studied TE. The other environmental variables affected differently the TE. In particular, the forest type and canopy density were important in most cases. These results stress the need for further research on the effect of the moss species on the capture and retention of TE, as well as for accounting for several variables and the spatial structure of the data in statistical analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Tensoval Duo Control II blood pressure monitor for clinic use and self-measurement according to the British Hypertension Society protocol and the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol Revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Annemarie; Shennan, Andrew H

    2013-06-01

    The Tensoval Duo Control II is an automated upper arm device that uses a combination of oscillometric and auscultatory technology to determine blood pressure noninvasively. The accuracy of this device was assessed according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) protocol and the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP2) in an adult population. Ethical approval was obtained. Eighty-five and 33 adult individuals, respectively, were recruited to fulfil the requirements of each protocol. Trained observers took nine sequential same-arm measurements alternating between a mercury sphygmomanometer and the device. The device had to achieve at least a B grade for both systolic and diastolic pressures to pass the BHS protocol and had to fulfil the criteria of all three phases of the ESH-IP2 protocol to receive recommendation. The device achieved an A/A grading for the BHS protocol and passed all three phases of the ESH-IP2 protocol. The mean difference±SD for the BHS/ESH protocols, respectively, was -1.8±6.5/-0.7±5.7 mmHg for systolic pressure and 1.9±5.1/2.4±4.5 mmHg for diastolic pressure. The device maintained its A/A grading throughout the low-pressure, medium-pressure and high-pressure ranges. The Tensoval Duo Control II device is recommended for clinical and home use according to both the BHS and the ESH-IP2 standard.

  5. Standard deviation of scatterometer measurements from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The standard deviation of scatterometer measurements has been derived under assumptions applicable to spaceborne scatterometers. Numerical results are presented which show that, with sufficiently long integration times, input signal-to-noise ratios below unity do not cause excessive degradation of measurement accuracy. The effects on measurement accuracy due to varying integration times and changing the ratio of signal bandwidth to IF filter-noise bandwidth are also plotted. The results of the analysis may resolve a controversy by showing that in fact statistically useful scatterometer measurements can be made from space using a 20-W transmitter, such as will be used on the S-193 experiment for Skylab-A.

  6. Allan deviation analysis of financial return series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2012-05-01

    We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

  7. Computation of standard deviations in eigenvalue calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, E.M.; Prael, R.

    1990-01-01

    In Brissenden and Garlick (1985), the authors propose a modified Monte Carlo method for eigenvalue calculations, designed to decrease particle transport biases in the flux and eigenvalue estimates, and in corresponding estimates of standard deviations. Apparently a very similar method has been used by Soviet Monte Carlo specialists. The proposed method is based on the generation of ''superhistories'', chains of histories run in sequence without intervening renormalization of the fission source. This method appears to have some disadvantages, discussed elsewhere. Earlier numerical experiments suggest that biases in fluxes and eigenvalues are negligibly small, even for very small numbers of histories per generation. Now more recent experiments, run on the CRAY-XMP, tend to confirm these earlier conclusions. The new experiments, discussed in this paper, involve the solution of one-group 1D diffusion theory eigenvalue problems, in difference form, via Monte Carlo. Experiments covered a range of dominance ratios from ∼0.75 to ∼0.985. In all cases flux and eigenvalue biases were substantially smaller than one standard deviation. The conclusion that, in practice, the eigenvalue bias is negligible has strong theoretical support. (author)

  8. A Digital App to Aid Detection, Monitoring, and Management of Dyslexia in Young Children (DIMMAND): Protocol for a Digital Health and Education Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mariam R; Toornstra, Annet; Sereno, Martin I; Boland, Mark; Filaretti, Daniele; Sood, Anuj

    2018-05-17

    Dyslexia, a specific learning difficulty and a disability as defined in the Equality Act 2010, is a lifelong condition that affects a child from the start of education. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in language processing (reading, spelling, and writing) which do not correspond with the child's general intellectual abilities. Although dyslexia cannot be cured, there is a consensus that interventions are more effective and have greater impact the earlier they are administered. Effective interventions start with diagnosis. Currently, formal diagnosis requires an assessment by a dyslexia specialist or educational psychologist. These assessments are expensive and are not easy for a non-specialist teacher or parent to interpret. Consequently, formal assessments are normally performed at a much later age, when interventions are less likely to be effective. Combining the latest in scientific research, expertise of dyslexia practitioners and real-time interactivity facilitated by digital technologies, we aim to provide a cost-effective and convenient solution that focuses on early dyslexia detection and management. We discuss the rationale and protocol for the design and development of a digital health solution aimed at improving the early detection, monitoring and management of dyslexia (DIMMAND) in young children (4-8 years). The primary objective is to create a game-based digital solution aimed at children, parents, and teachers that firstly assesses, then monitors and manages progress in a convenient, cost-effective and private environment. The proposed solution will be designed and developed in phases. In the initial phase, the full functional specification of the games that constitute the app will be designed, together with the overall architecture of the solution. Prototype proof-of-concept implementation for few of these games, and commercialization strategies will also be developed. The follow-on phases will see the design implemented into a validated

  9. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  10. A new protocol in La Spezia for elementary and secondary school students for monitoring Perception towards Science and Performance in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroobant, Mascha; Mori, Anna; Merlino, Silvia; Bianucci, Marco; Delfanti, Roberta; Furia, Stefania; Carmisciano, Cosmo; Locritani, Marina; Muccini, Filippo; La Tassa, Hebert; Talamoni, Roberta; Nacini, Francesca; Benedetti, Alessandro; Nardi, Elisabetta; Parodi, Alice; Giacomazzi, Fabio; Mioni, Erika; Associazione Festival della Scienza

    2014-05-01

    Technological and scientific research in La Spezia (an Italian town with a population of 95.378) is, unfortunately, unknown to most people and often the existence of excellent research Centres (such as CNR-ISMAR, CNR-IENI, ENEA-UTMAR, INGV, CMRE, CSSN and University) is barely known, even just outside the La Spezia area. The current economic crisis has played a major role in determining the decline in maritime business (affecting all companies in the area and particularly SMEs). Therefore it is important to re-establish the relationship with the traditional maritime culture of the city. This objective can be achieved by enhancing research visibility (national and european) by dissemination of the activities carried out by research institutions, university and local enterprises. La Spezia has a long maritime tradition and it is vital for these customs to be kept alive and cultivated within the community. The cultural scene is positive: in fact, in the last decade the general public's perception on the importance of science in the context of human activities has been considerably strengthened. In La Spezia, especially since 2007, an increasing number of disseminating activities (carried out by CNR-ISMAR, CNR-IENI, ENEA-UTMAR, INGV, CMRE, CSSN, LABTER - the La Spezia association for environmental education- ASSOCIAZIONE FESTIVAL DELLA SCIENZA - the association that organizes the Genoa Science Festival- Genoa University and ISA 2 - "2 GIUGNO" - a local primary and secondary public school that has started a pilot project for marine biology), has revealed an educational and cultural path which now requires a monitoring protocol to be carried out for at least two years. In this paper we will present a new test that will be administered to the entire student population (aged 6 to 18 years) with the aim to fully understand the effectiveness of initiatives for popularizing science and the impact that they are having on new generations (professional choices, scientific

  11. Validation of the TONOPORT VI ambulatory blood pressure monitor in adults according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Dakn, M; Döhmen, C; Wenzel, S

    2017-02-01

    The present study aims to examine the performance of the TONOPORT VI ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitor in the inflation and deflation measurement methods, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP 2010). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, respectively) of 33 subjects (23 female, 10 male) were sequentially measured and compared with reference measurements obtained by two observers using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The subjects were selected according to the recruitment instructions of the ESH-IP 2010. Three comparative readings were performed per subject. Among the 99 readings in the inflation measurement method were 92/94 (SBP/DBP) with differences ⩽5, 97/99 ⩽10 and 98/99 ⩽15 mm Hg. All of the 33 subjects had at least 2 out of 3 comparative readings with differences ⩽5 mm Hg and 0/0 of the subjects had no reading ⩽15 mm Hg. The validation of the deflation measurement method resulted in differences where 93/91 were ⩽5, 98/98 were ⩽10, and 99/99 were ⩽15 mm Hg. Thirty-two of the 33 subjects had at least 2 out of 3 comparative readings ⩽5 mm Hg and 0/0 of the subjects had no reading ⩽15 mm Hg. In conclusion, the TONOPORT VI, respectively, in the inflation and deflation measurement methods met all requirements of Part 1 and 2 of the ESH-IP 2010. Based on the study results, the TONOPORT VI can be recommended for BP measurements in adults.

  12. Towards a Clinical Trial Protocol to Evaluate Health Information Systems: Evaluation of a Computerized System for Monitoring Tuberculosis from a Patient Perspective in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaldi, Nathalia Yukie; de Lima, Inacia Bezerra; Vicentine, Fernanda Bergamini; Rodrigues, Lídia Maria Lourençon; Sanches, Tiago Lara Michelin; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Alves, Domingos; Rijo, Rui Pedro Charters Lopes

    2018-05-08

    Assessment of health information systems consider different aspects of the system itself. They focus or on the professional who will use the software or on its usability or on the software engineering metrics or on financial and managerial issues. The existent approaches are very resources consuming, disconnected, and not standardized. As the software becomes more critical in the health organizations and in patients, becoming used as a medical device or a medicine, there is an urgency to identify tools and methods that can be applied in the development process. The present work is one of the steps of a broader study to identify standardized protocols to evaluate the health information systems as medicines and medical devices are evaluated by clinical trials. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the introduction of an information system for monitoring tuberculosis treatment (SISTB) in a Brazilian municipality from the patients' perspective. The Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems were answered by the patients before and after the SISTB introduction, for comparison. Patients from an outpatient clinic, formed the control group, that is, at this site was not implanted the SISTB. Descriptive statistics and mixed effects model were used for data analysis. Eighty-eight interviews were conducted in the study. The questionnaire's results presented better averages after the system introduction but were not considered statistically significant. Therefore, it was not possible to associate system implantation with improved patient satisfaction. The HIS evaluation need be complete, the technical and managerial evaluation, the safety, the impact on the professionals and direct and/or indirect impact on patients are important. Developing the right tools and methods that can evaluate the software in its entirety, from the beginning of the development cycle with a normalized scale, are

  13. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-04-29

    Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700,000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood development action and policies, using the database as a tool

  14. Surgical Success Rates for Horizontal Concomitant Deviations According to the Type and Degree of Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çaça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.

  15. Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment

  16. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    Since Shlesinger (1989) discussed the applicability of translational norms to the field of interpreting, a number of scholars have advocated the use of this concept as a frame of reference in interpreting research (e.g. Harris 1990, Schjoldager 1994, 1995, Jansen 1995, Gile 1999, Garzone 2002). Due...... for the study, we intend to conduct interviews instead. The purpose of the study is to investigate deviations from translational norms in court interpreting. More specifically, we aim to identify and describe instances of deviant behaviour on the part of the interpreters, discuss signs of possible deviant...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...

  17. Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2017-06-19

    Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.

  18. Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...

  19. 14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are compensated for by factors or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21...

  20. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de

  1. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  2. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches

  3. Validation of the Andon KD-5917 automatic upper arm blood pressure monitor, for clinic use and self-measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wan-Gang; Li, Bing-Ling; He, Yong; Xue, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Qiang-Sun; Xiang, Ding-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    To validate the Andon KD-5917 automatic upper arm blood pressure monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. Sequential same-left-arm measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were obtained in 33 participants using the mercury sphygmomanometer and the test device. According to the validation protocol, 99 pairs of test device and reference blood pressure measurements (three pairs for each of the 33 participants) were obtained in the study. The device produced 73, 98, and 99 measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for SBP and 86, 98, and 99 for DBP, respectively. The mean ± SD device-observer difference was 3.07 ± 3.68 mmHg for SBP and -0.89 ± 3.72 mmHg for DBP. The number of patients with two or three of the device-observer difference within 5 mmHg was 26 for SBP and 29 for DBP, and no patient had a device-observer difference within 5 mmHg. The Andon KD-5917 automatic upper arm blood pressure monitor can be recommended for clinical use and self-measurement in an adult population on the basis of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

  4. Development and operation of a quality assurance system for deviations from standard operating procedures in a clinical cell therapy laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J

    2003-01-01

    Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in

  5. Evaluation of dynamic electromagnetic tracking deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Johann; Figl, Michael; Bax, Michael; Shahidi, Ramin; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Electromagnetic tracking systems (EMTS's) are widely used in clinical applications. Many reports have evaluated their static behavior and errors caused by metallic objects were examined. Although there exist some publications concerning the dynamic behavior of EMTS's the measurement protocols are either difficult to reproduce with respect of the movement path or only accomplished at high technical effort. Because dynamic behavior is of major interest with respect to clinical applications we established a simple but effective modal measurement easy to repeat at other laboratories. We built a simple pendulum where the sensor of our EMTS (Aurora, NDI, CA) could be mounted. The pendulum was mounted on a special bearing to guarantee that the pendulum path is planar. This assumption was tested before starting the measurements. All relevant parameters defining the pendulum motion such as rotation center and length are determined by static measurement at satisfactory accuracy. Then position and orientation data were gathered over a time period of 8 seconds and timestamps were recorded. Data analysis provided a positioning error and an overall error combining both position and orientation. All errors were calculated by means of the well know equations concerning pendulum movement. Additionally, latency - the elapsed time from input motion until the immediate consequences of that input are available - was calculated using well-known equations for mechanical pendulums for different velocities. We repeated the measurements with different metal objects (rods made of stainless steel type 303 and 416) between field generator and pendulum. We found a root mean square error (eRMS) of 1.02mm with respect to the distance of the sensor position to the fit plane (maximum error emax = 2.31mm, minimum error emin = -2.36mm). The eRMS for positional error amounted to 1.32mm while the overall error was 3.24 mm. The latency at a pendulum angle of 0° (vertical) was 7.8ms.

  6. Estimating maize water stress by standard deviation of canopy temperature in thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new crop water stress index using standard deviation of canopy temperature as an input was developed to monitor crop water status. In this study, thermal imagery was taken from maize under various levels of deficit irrigation treatments in different crop growing stages. The Expectation-Maximizatio...

  7. 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may

  8. 9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  9. 7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall advise the Corporation immediately if the Contractor deviates from the requirements of these standards...

  10. A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.

  11. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph that...

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best interest of the Government; (3) If applicable, the name of the contractor and identification of... background information which will contribute to a full understanding of the desired deviation. (b)(1... authorized to grant deviations to the DOE-PMR. (d) Requests for deviations from the FPMR will be coordinated...

  13. Validation of the Omron HEM-7201 upper arm blood pressure monitor, for self-measurement in a high-altitude environment, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K; Tian, M; Lan, Y; Zhao, X; Yan, L L

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have been conducted on blood pressure monitors and their use at high altitude. This study is the first to evaluate the accuracy of an automatic blood pressure monitor in a high-altitude environment following a standard validation protocol. The Omron HEM-7201 upper arm blood pressure monitor was tested for accuracy in Lhasa, Tibet, China (3650 m above sea level) according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 (ESH-IP2). Thirty-three participants received 9-10 sequential blood pressure measurements alternating between a mercury sphygmomanometer and the device. The mean device-observer measurement difference was 1.0±5.9 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and -3.1±4.6 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Of the 99 measurement pairs analyzed, 72, 90 and 97 device readings were within 5, 10 and 15 mm Hg, respectively, of the observer measurements for SBP, and 68, 92 and 99 readings for DBP. The number of participants with at least two out of three measurements within 5 mm Hg was 27 for SBP and 25 for DBP. Three participants had no measurements within 5 mm Hg for either SBP or DBP. As a result, the Omron HEM-7201 passes the ESH-IP2 validation criteria and can therefore be recommended for use in adults in this setting.

  14. Connecting Smartphone and Wearable Fitness Tracker Data with a Nationally Used Electronic Health Record System for Diabetes Education to Facilitate Behavioral Goal Monitoring in Diabetes Care: Protocol for a Pragmatic Multi-Site Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Coleman, Deidra Carroll; Kanter, Justin; Ummer, Brad; Siminerio, Linda

    2018-04-02

    Mobile and wearable technology have been shown to be effective in improving diabetes self-management; however, integrating data from these technologies into clinical diabetes care to facilitate behavioral goal monitoring has not been explored. The objective of this paper is to report on a study protocol for a pragmatic multi-site trial along with the intervention components, including the detailed connected health interface. This interface was developed to integrate patient self-monitoring data collected from a wearable fitness tracker and its companion smartphone app to an electronic health record system for diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) to facilitate behavioral goal monitoring. A 3-month multi-site pragmatic clinical trial was conducted with eligible patients with diabetes mellitus from DSMES programs. The Chronicle Diabetes system is currently freely available to diabetes educators through American Diabetes Association-recognized DSMES programs to set patient nutrition and physical activity goals. To integrate the goal-setting and self-monitoring intervention into the DSMES process, a connected interface in the Chronicle Diabetes system was developed. With the connected interface, patient self-monitoring information collected from smartphones and wearable fitness trackers can facilitate educators' monitoring of patients' adherence to their goals. Feasibility outcomes of the 3-month trial included hemoglobin A 1c levels, weight, and the usability of the connected system. An interface designed to connect data from a wearable fitness tracker with a companion smartphone app for nutrition and physical activity self-monitoring into a diabetes education electronic health record system was successfully developed to enable diabetes educators to facilitate goal setting and monitoring. A total of 60 eligible patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized into either group 1) standard diabetes education or 2) standard education enhanced with

  15. Daily electronic self-monitoring of subjective and objective symptoms in bipolar disorder—the MONARCA trial protocol (MONitoring, treAtment and pRediCtion of bipolAr disorder episodes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Electronic self-monitoring of affective symptoms using cell phones is suggested as a practical and inexpensive way to monitor illness activity and identify early signs of affective symptoms. It has never been tested in a randomised clinical trial whether electronic self-monitoring improves outcomes...... in bipolar disorder. We are conducting a trial testing the effect of using a Smartphone for self-monitoring in bipolar disorder....

  16. Changes in deviation of absorbed dose to water among users by chamber calibration shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayose, Tetsurou; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Igari, Mitsunobu; Chang, Weishan; Hashimoto, Shimpei; Morioka, Mie

    2017-07-01

    The JSMP01 dosimetry protocol had adopted the provisional 60 Co calibration coefficient [Formula: see text], namely, the product of exposure calibration coefficient N C and conversion coefficient k D,X . After that, the absorbed dose to water D w  standard was established, and the JSMP12 protocol adopted the [Formula: see text] calibration. In this study, the influence of the calibration shift on the measurement of D w among users was analyzed. The intercomparison of the D w using an ionization chamber was annually performed by visiting related hospitals. Intercomparison results before and after the calibration shift were analyzed, the deviation of D w among users was re-evaluated, and the cause of deviation was estimated. As a result, the stability of LINAC, calibration of the thermometer and barometer, and collection method of ion recombination were confirmed. The statistical significance of standard deviation of D w was not observed, but that of difference of D w among users was observed between N C and [Formula: see text] calibration. Uncertainty due to chamber-to-chamber variation was reduced by the calibration shift, consequently reducing the uncertainty among users regarding D w . The result also pointed out uncertainty might be reduced by accurate and detailed instructions on the setup of an ionization chamber.

  17. Design and implementation of a telemedicine system using Bluetooth protocol and GSM/GPRS network, for real time remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Nielsen, Lars Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a generic wireless and Real-time Multi-purpose Health Care Telemedicine system applying Bluetooth protocol, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The paper explores the factors that should be considered when evaluating different technologies for application in telemedicine system. The design and implementation of an embedded wireless communication platform utilising Bluetooth protocol is described, and the implementation problems and limitations are investigated. The system is tested and its telecommunication general aspects are verified. The results showed that the system has (97.9 +/- 1.3)% Up-time, 2.5 x 10(-5) Bit Error Rate, 1% Dropped Call Rate, 97.4% Call Success Rate, 5 second transmission delay in average, (3.42 +/- 0.11) kbps throughput, and the system may have application in electrocardiography.

  18. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  19. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  20. A newly designed radiation therapy protocol in combination with prednisolone as treatment for meningoencephalitis of unknown origin in dogs: a prospective pilot study introducing magnetic resonance spectroscopy as monitor tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katrin; Carrera, Inés; Steffen, Frank; Golini, Lorenzo; Kircher, Patrick R; Schneider, Uwe; Bley, Carla Rohrer

    2015-01-31

    A plethora of treatment options have been described for canine meningoencephalitis of unknown origin (MUO), yet a gold standard has not been established. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to document the effect of a newly designed 30 Gray (Gy) radiation therapy (RT) protocol plus corticosteroids as treatment for focal and multifocal MUO, to monitor clinical and imaging changes during the course of the disease with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton MR Spectroscopy (H-1 MRS) and to detect the occurrence of radiation related side effects. Six dogs (3 with focal and 3 with multifocal lesions) were included in the study. The RT protocol used consisted of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The neurological status of all six dogs improved during RT, with 3 of 6 cases returning to a normal condition. One dog was euthanized early during follow-up (dog and improved in 3 dogs and H-1 MRS normalized in 4. In the dog without improvement of the MRI lesions, the N-acetyl aspartate continued to decrease, while choline and creatine concentrations remained stable during that time. This dog was euthanized 18 month after the end of RT due to relapse. One dog was lost to follow up 12 month after completion of RT. The other 3 dogs are still alive at the time of writing. RT with 30 Gy in 10 fractions can provide an additional option for anti-inflammatory treatment of focal and multifocal MUO. The protocol used for treatment monitoring was feasible while no side effects of RT could be observed during the follow up period. Moreover, H-1 MRS could represent a new and non-invasive tool to control the progression of the disease during the treatment course.

  1. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.

  2. Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hung Chiu; Jia-Ze Shen; Jian-Ming Huang

    2016-01-01

    We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. ...

  3. Large deviations for noninteracting infinite-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donsker, M.D.; Varadhan, S.R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A large deviation property is established for noninteracting infinite particle systems. Previous large deviation results obtained by the authors involved a single I-function because the cases treated always involved a unique invariant measure for the process. In the context of this paper there is an infinite family of invariant measures and a corresponding infinite family of I-functions governing the large deviations

  4. Quantum uncertainty relation based on the mean deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Gautam; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjib; Sazim, Sk; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Traditional forms of quantum uncertainty relations are invariably based on the standard deviation. This can be understood in the historical context of simultaneous development of quantum theory and mathematical statistics. Here, we present alternative forms of uncertainty relations, in both state dependent and state independent forms, based on the mean deviation. We illustrate the robustness of this formulation in situations where the standard deviation based uncertainty relation is inapplica...

  5. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  6. Evaluation of Standard Versus Nonstandard Vital Signs Monitors in the Prehospital and Emergency Departments: Results and Lessons Learned from a Trauma Patient Care Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    preference nor the us- ability of the WVSM could be assessed. A seconddrawbackwas thatLSIswere recorded onlywhen the nurse /paramedic manually pressed a...Lovett PB, Buchwald JM, Sturmann K, Bijur P. The vexatious vital: neither clinical measurements by nurses nor an electronic monitor provides...Bayard D, Demetriades D, Jelliffe RW. Noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring for combat casu- alties. Mil Med. 2006;171(9):813 820. 8. Garner A, LeeA

  7. Self-monitoring and psychoeducation in bipolar patients with a smart-phone application (SIMPLe) project: design, development and studies protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Mateu, Ainoa; Reinares, Mar?a; Undurraga, Juan; Bonn?n, Caterina del Mar; S?nchez-Moreno, Jos?; Vieta, Eduard; Colom, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Background: New technologies have recently been used for monitoring signs and symptoms of mental health illnesses and particularly have been tested to improve the outcomes in bipolar disorders. Web-based psychoeducational programs for bipolar disorders have also been implemented, yet to our knowledge, none of them have integrated both approaches in one single intervention. The aim of this project is to develop and validate a smartphone application to monitor symptoms and signs and empower the...

  8. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  9. Application of Allan Deviation to Assessing Uncertainties of Continuous-measurement Instruments, and Optimizing Calibration Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits

  10. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  11. A Novel Morphometry-Based Protocol of Automated Video-Image Analysis for Species Recognition and Activity Rhythms Monitoring in Deep-Sea Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Menesatti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of ecosystem dynamics in deep-sea areas is to date limited by technical constraints on sampling repetition. We have elaborated a morphometry-based protocol for automated video-image analysis where animal movement tracking (by frame subtraction is accompanied by species identification from animals’ outlines by Fourier Descriptors and Standard K-Nearest Neighbours methods. One-week footage from a permanent video-station located at 1,100 m depth in Sagami Bay (Central Japan was analysed. Out of 150,000 frames (1 per 4 s, a subset of 10.000 was analyzed by a trained operator to increase the efficiency of the automated procedure. Error estimation of the automated and trained operator procedure was computed as a measure of protocol performance. Three displacing species were identified as the most recurrent: Zoarcid fishes (eelpouts, red crabs (Paralomis multispina, and snails (Buccinum soyomaruae. Species identification with KNN thresholding produced better results in automated motion detection. Results were discussed assuming that the technological bottleneck is to date deeply conditioning the exploration of the deep-sea.

  12. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jamille Barros; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo da; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation.

  13. Statistics as Unbiased Estimators: Exploring the Teaching of Standard Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Casey, Stephanie; Champion, Joe; Huey, Maryann

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents findings from a study about the knowledge for and planned teaching of standard deviation. We investigate how understanding variance as an unbiased (inferential) estimator--not just a descriptive statistic for the variation (spread) in data--is related to teachers' instruction regarding standard deviation, particularly…

  14. Moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide pointwise and uniform moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of a nonrandom regression function. Moreover, we give an application of these moderate deviations principles to the construction of condence regions for the regression function. Resume. L'objectif de ...

  15. Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...

  16. 38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate the...

  17. The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen-Schrijner, P.; van Doorn, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a

  18. The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; van Doorn, Erik A.

    2002-01-01

    he deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Deviation Source for Fast Assembly Precision Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly precision optimization of complex product has a huge benefit in improving the quality of our products. Due to the impact of a variety of deviation source coupling phenomena, the goal of assembly precision optimization is difficult to be confirmed accurately. In order to achieve optimization of assembly precision accurately and rapidly, sensitivity analysis of deviation source is proposed. First, deviation source sensitivity is defined as the ratio of assembly dimension variation and deviation source dimension variation. Second, according to assembly constraint relations, assembly sequences and locating, deviation transmission paths are established by locating the joints between the adjacent parts, and establishing each part’s datum reference frame. Third, assembly multidimensional vector loops are created using deviation transmission paths, and the corresponding scalar equations of each dimension are established. Then, assembly deviation source sensitivity is calculated by using a first-order Taylor expansion and matrix transformation method. Finally, taking assembly precision optimization of wing flap rocker as an example, the effectiveness and efficiency of the deviation source sensitivity analysis method are verified.

  20. Towards a large deviation theory for strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Guiomar; Tsallis, Constantino

    2012-01-01

    A large-deviation connection of statistical mechanics is provided by N independent binary variables, the (N→∞) limit yielding Gaussian distributions. The probability of n≠N/2 out of N throws is governed by e −Nr , r related to the entropy. Large deviations for a strong correlated model characterized by indices (Q,γ) are studied, the (N→∞) limit yielding Q-Gaussians (Q→1 recovers a Gaussian). Its large deviations are governed by e q −Nr q (∝1/N 1/(q−1) , q>1), q=(Q−1)/(γ[3−Q])+1. This illustration opens the door towards a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics. -- Highlights: ► We introduce the formalism of relative entropy for a single random binary variable and its q-generalization. ► We study a model of N strongly correlated binary random variables and their large-deviation probabilities. ► Large-deviation probability of strongly correlated model exhibits a q-exponential decay whose argument is proportional to N, as extensivity requires. ► Our results point to a q-generalized large deviation theory and suggest a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics.

  1. Limiting values of large deviation probabilities of quadratic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, Gerardus A.M.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Application of exact Bahadur efficiencies in testing theory or exact inaccuracy rates in estimation theory needs evaluation of large deviation probabilities. Because of the complexity of the expressions, frequently a local limit of the nonlocal measure is considered. Local limits of large deviation

  2. 45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...

  3. Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)

  4. Comparison of IAEA protocols for clinical electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Soukup, M.

    2002-01-01

    In most beam calibration protocols so far used in clinical practice, the method recommended for the determination of absorbed dose to water in high-energy electron beams is based on either an exposure or an air kerma calibration factor of an ionisation chamber in a C0 60 gamma-ray or 2 MV x-ray beam. These protocols are complex and the overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose to water under reference conditions is about 3-4%. The new generation of protocols, namely IAEA TRS 398, are based on absorbed dose-to-water standards in photon beams from Co 60 and accelerator beams. The possible errors in absorbed dose determination in reference conditions in practical clinical dosimetry caused by replacement of TRS 277 and TRS 381 protocols for a new TRS 398 protocol were carefully studied for clinical electron beams in energy range 6-20 MeV. All measurements were performed on Varian CLINAC 2100 C linear accelerator. The electron beam energy ranged from 6 to 20 MeV. Basically three different detectors were used for measurements: PTW Roos plane-parallel ionization chamber, calibrated PTW 30002 Farmer type, ionization, Scanditronix electron diode detector. Measurements of central axis percentage depth doses were made by diode using Wellhoefer WP700 beam scanner in 40 cm x 40 cm x 50 cm water phantom. A reference chamber or semiconductor diode mounted on electron treatment cone was used to correct beam output variations for a chamber or diode measurements during scanning. Absolute dose measurements were carried out with Roos plane-parallel chamber connected to PTW UNIDOS electrometer always for preselected number of monitor units. In a new IAEA dosimetry protocol clinical reference dosimetry for electron beam is performed at depth of d ref = 0.6R 50 - 0.1 [cm] instead of d max as in previous ones. To check the stability of electron beams for energy and to establish d ref and standard deviation for reference depth position, the depth dose curves obtained during the quality

  5. A mobile and web-based clinical decision support and monitoring system for diabetes mellitus patients in primary care: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kart, Özge; Mevsim, Vildan; Kut, Alp; Yürek, İsmail; Altın, Ayşe Özge; Yılmaz, Oğuz

    2017-11-29

    Physicians' guideline use rates for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of diabetes mellitus (DM) is very low. Time constraints, patient overpopulation, and complex guidelines require alternative solutions for real time patient monitoring. Rapidly evolving e-health technology combined with clinical decision support and monitoring systems (CDSMS) provides an effective solution to these problems. The purpose of the study is to develop a user-friendly, comprehensive, fully integrated web and mobile-based Clinical Decision Support and Monitoring System (CDSMS) for the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of DM diseases which is used by physicians and patients in primary care and to determine the effectiveness of the system. The CDSMS will be based on evidence-based guidelines for DM disease. A web and mobile-based application will be developed in which the physician will remotely monitor patient data through mobile applications in real time. The developed CDSMS will be tested in two stages. In the first stage, the usability, understandability, and adequacy of the application will be determined. Five primary care physicians will use the developed application for at least 16 DM patients. Necessary improvements will be made according to physician feedback. In the second phase, a parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial will be implemented. DM diagnosed patients will be recruited for the CDSMS trial by their primary care physicians. Ten physicians and their 439 patients will be involved in the study. Eligible participants will be assigned to intervention and control groups with simple randomization. The significance level will be accepted as p system will make recommendations on patient monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment. These recommendations will be implemented at the physician's discretion. Patients in the control group will be treated by physicians according to current DM treatment standards. Patients in both groups will be monitored for 6

  6. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  7. Protocol for the "Michigan Awareness Control Study": A prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing electronic alerts based on bispectral index monitoring or minimum alveolar concentration for the prevention of intraoperative awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avidan Michael S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of intraoperative awareness with explicit recall is 1-2/1000 cases in the United States. The Bispectral Index monitor is an electroencephalographic method of assessing anesthetic depth that has been shown in one prospective study to reduce the incidence of awareness in the high-risk population. In the B-Aware trial, the number needed to treat in order to prevent one case of awareness in the high-risk population was 138. Since the number needed to treat and the associated cost of treatment would be much higher in the general population, the efficacy of the Bispectral Index monitor in preventing awareness in all anesthetized patients needs to be clearly established. This is especially true given the findings of the B-Unaware trial, which demonstrated no significant difference between protocols based on the Bispectral Index monitor or minimum alveolar concentration for the reduction of awareness in high risk patients. Methods/Design To evaluate efficacy in the general population, we are conducting a prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the Bispectral Index monitor to a non-electroencephalographic gauge of anesthetic depth. The total recruitment for the study is targeted for 30,000 patients at both low and high risk for awareness. We have developed a novel algorithm that is capable of real-time analysis of our electronic perioperative information system. In one arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive an electronic page if the Bispectral Index value is >60. In the other arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive a page if the age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration is Discussion Awareness during general anesthesia is a persistent problem and the role of the Bispectral Index monitor in its prevention is still unclear. The Michigan Awareness Control Study is the largest prospective trial of awareness prevention ever conducted. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00689091

  8. Monitoring of chemotherapy successfulness of Platina/Taxol chemotherapy protocol by using determination of serum urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR in patients with ovarian carcinoma FIGO II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dženita Ljuca

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In about 70% of cases, ovarian carcinoma has been diagnosed at an advanced stage. Invasion and metastasis of solid tumors request protease activity resulting in basal membrane destruction and surrounding matrix. In that process, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its receptor, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR play a key role, that via plasmin activation lead to basal membrane and matrix degradation in surrounding of the tumor, enable to its invasion and metastasis. Determination of serum concentration of those tumor markers can be useful in preoperative as well as in postoperative period. Their serum concentrations in ovarian cancer patients may help in good monitoring of remission or progression during chemotherapy treatment. In late 1950s and eariy 1960s, when it was found out that malignant ovarian tumors were chemosensitive, their chemotherapy treatment has begun. In the beginning it was used only mono-therapy, and by discovering new cytostatics it was replaced by poly-chemotherapy. Now days, in the therapy of advanced stages of ovarian carcinoma combination of cisplatine or carboplatine with paclitaxel is considering as standard treatment. Aim of this study was to determine serum uPA, suPAR and CEA in FIGO II and III patients with different histo-logical type (serous, mucinous, clear cell tumor before and after PT chemotherapy protocol during following three cycles. In this prospective study we have analyzed 17 patients with ovarian carcinoma, those have been after surgery treated by chemotherapy. Serum levels of uPA and suPAR have been determined by ELISA-test (Imubind uPA, Imubind uPAR, American Diagnostica, and CEA by OPUS Imunoassay method. Results of this study have shown that uPA, suPAR and CEA met criteria for prognostic markers for monitoring of successful-ness of platina/taxol chemotherapy protocol for serous, mucinous and clear cell tumor FIGO II and III stage of ovarian carcinoma. In case of PT chemotherapy

  9. A comparison of the performance and compatibility of protocols used by seven monitoring groups to measure stream habitat in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett B. Roper; John M. Buffington; Stephen Bennett; Steven H. Lanigan; Eric Archer; Scott T. Downie; John Faustini; Tracy W. Hillman; Shannon Hubler; Kim Jones; Chris Jordan; Philip R. Kaufmann; Glenn Merritt; Chris Moyer; Allen Pleus

    2010-01-01

    To comply with legal mandates, meet local management objectives, or both, many federal, state, and tribal organizations have monitoring groups that assess stream habitat at different scales. This myriad of groups has difficulty sharing data and scaling up stream habitat assessments to regional or national levels because of differences in their goals and data collection...

  10. The effectiveness of a life style modification and peer support home blood pressure monitoring in control of hypertension: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed; Azizan, Nurul Ain; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Thangiah, Nithiah; Dahlui, Maznah; Bulgiba, Awang; Murray, Liam J

    2014-01-01

    Death rates due to hypertension in low and middle income countries are higher compared to high income countries. The present study is designed to combine life style modification and home blood pressure monitoring for control of hypertension in the context of low and middle income countries. The study is a two armed, parallel group, un-blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial undertaken within lower income areas in Kuala Lumpur. Two housing complexes will be assigned to the intervention group and the other two housing complexes will be allocated in the control group. Based on power analysis, 320 participants will be recruited. The participants in the intervention group (n = 160) will undergo three main components in the intervention which are the peer support for home blood pressure monitoring, face to face health coaching on healthy diet and demonstration and training for indoor home based exercise activities while the control group will receive a pamphlet containing information on hypertension. The primary outcomes are systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Secondary outcome measures include practice of self-blood pressure monitoring, dietary intake, level of physical activity and physical fitness. The present study will evaluate the effect of lifestyle modification and peer support home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control, during a 6 month intervention period. Moreover, the study aims to assess whether these effects can be sustainable more than six months after the intervention has ended.

  11. Protocols for collection of streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data to describe stream quality for the Hydrobiological Monitoring Program, Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery Program, city of Wichita, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Wichita, Kansas uses the Equus Beds aquifer, one of two sources, for municipal water supply. To meet future water needs, plans for artificial recharge of the aquifer have been implemented in several phases. Phase I of the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Program began with injection of water from the Little Arkansas River into the aquifer for storage and subsequent recovery in 2006. Construction of a river intake structure and surface-water treatment plant began as implementation of Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR Program in 2010. An important aspect of the ASR Program is the monitoring of water quality and the effects of recharge activities on stream conditions. Physical, chemical, and biological data provide the basis for an integrated assessment of stream quality. This report describes protocols for collecting streamflow, water-quality, streambed-sediment, periphyton, macroinvertebrate, fish, and habitat data as part of the city of Wichita's hydrobiological monitoring program (HBMP). Following consistent and reliable methods for data collection and processing is imperative for the long-term success of the monitoring program.

  12. Developing human rights based indicators to support country monitoring of rehabilitation services and programmes for people with disabilities: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skempes, Dimitrios; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2015-09-24

    Rehabilitation care is fundamental to health and human dignity and a human right enshrined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The provision of rehabilitation is important for reducing the need for formal support and enabling persons with disabilities to lead an independent life. Increasingly scholars and advocacy groups voice concerns over the significant barriers facing people with disabilities in accessing appropriate and quality rehabilitation. A growing body of research highlights a "respond-need" gap in the provision of rehabilitation and assistive technologies and underscore the lack of indicators for assessing performance of rehabilitation systems and monitoring States compliance with human rights standards in rehabilitation service planning and programming. While research on human rights and health monitoring has increased exponentially over the last decade far too little attention has been paid to rehabilitation services. The proposed research aims to reduce this knowledge gap by developing a human rights based monitoring framework with indicators to support human rights accountability and performance assessment in rehabilitation. Concept mapping, a stakeholder-driven approach will be used as the core method to identify rights based indicators and develop the rehabilitation services monitoring framework. Concept mapping requires participants from various stakeholders groups to generate a list of the potential indicators through on line brainstorming, sort the indicators for conceptual similarity into clusters and rate them against predefined criteria. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster data analysis will be performed to develop the monitoring framework while bridging analysis will provide useful insights about patterns of agreement or disagreement among participants views on indicators. This study has the potential to influence future practices on data collection and measurement of compliance with

  13. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ma, Shiwei; Ma, Maode

    2014-01-01

    Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock. PMID:25120163

  14. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock.

  15. Validation of the iHealth BP3 upper-arm blood pressure monitor, for clinic use and self-measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Can; Shang, Fujun; Wang, Jiepin; Chen, Jianghong; Ji, Na; Wan, Yi

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the iHealth BP3 upper-arm blood pressure monitor, which is designed for clinic use and self-measurement of blood pressure using Apple touch devices as an interface. The European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010 for the validation of blood pressure measuring devices in adults was followed precisely. Ninty-nine couples of test device and reference blood pressure measurements were obtained during the study (three pairs for each of the 33 participants). The 33 participants, age 47.1±12.3 years (age range 27-69 years) and arm circumference 30.0±4.4 cm, had a mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 143.9±27.4 mmHg and a mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90.1±18.3 mmHg. The device passed all of the requirements fulfilling the standards of the protocol, and the mean±SD device-observer difference was 2.8±4.2 mmHg for SBP and -0.4±3.5 mmHg for DBP. According to the results of the validation study on the basis of the ESH-IP revision 2010, the iHealth BP3 can be recommended for clinic use and self-measurement in an adult population. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  16. Protocol for a randomised controlled implementation trial of point-of-care viral load testing and task shifting: the Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring (STREAM) study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorward, Jienchi; Garrett, Nigel; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Samsunder, Natasha; Ngobese, Hope; Ngomane, Noluthando; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Mlisana, Koleka; Schaafsma, Torin; Donnell, Deborah; Barnabas, Ruanne; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Salim; Celum, Connie; Drain, Paul K

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets requires models of HIV care that expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage without overburdening health systems. Point-of-care (POC) viral load (VL) testing has the potential to efficiently monitor ART treatment, while enrolled nurses may be able to provide safe and cost-effective chronic care for stable patients with HIV. This study aims to demonstrate whether POC VL testing combined with task shift...

  17. Monitoring of clinical strains and environmental fungal aerocontamination to prevent invasive aspergillosis infections in hospital during large deconstruction work: a protocol study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffert, Sophie Tiphaine; Melloul, Elise; Dananché, Cédric; Hénaff, Laetitia; Bénet, Thomas; Cassier, Pierre; Dupont, Damien; Guillot, Jacques; Botterel, Françoise; Wallon, Martine; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-25

    Monitoring fungal aerocontamination is an essential measure to prevent severe invasive aspergillosis (IA) infections in hospitals. One central block among 32 blocks of Edouard Herriot Hospital (EHH) was entirely demolished in 2015, while care activities continued in surrounding blocks. The main objective was to undertake broad environmental monitoring and clinical surveillance of IA cases to document fungal dispersion during major deconstruction work and to assess clinical risk. A daily environmental survey of fungal loads was conducted in eight wards located near the demolition site. Air was collected inside and outside selected wards by agar impact samplers. Daily spore concentrations were monitored continuously by volumetric samplers at a flow rate of 10 L.min -1 . Daily temperature, wind direction and speed as well as relative humidity were recorded by the French meteorological station Meteociel. Aspergillus fumigatus strains stored will be genotyped by multiple-locus, variable-number, tandem-repeat analysis. Antifungal susceptibility will be assessed by E-test strips on Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium supplemented with agar. Ascertaining the adequacy of current environmental monitoring techniques in hospital is of growing importance, considering the rising impact of fungal infections and of curative antifungal costs. The present study could improve the daily management of IA risk during major deconstruction work and generate new data to ameliorate and redefine current guidelines. This study was approved by the clinical research and ethics committees of EHH. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Large deviations in the presence of cooperativity and slow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelam, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We study simple models of intermittency, involving switching between two states, within the dynamical large-deviation formalism. Singularities appear in the formalism when switching is cooperative or when its basic time scale diverges. In the first case the unbiased trajectory distribution undergoes a symmetry breaking, leading to a change in shape of the large-deviation rate function for a particular dynamical observable. In the second case the symmetry of the unbiased trajectory distribution remains unbroken. Comparison of these models suggests that singularities of the dynamical large-deviation formalism can signal the dynamical equivalent of an equilibrium phase transition but do not necessarily do so.

  19. Self-monitoring and psychoeducation in bipolar patients with a smart-phone application (SIMPLe) project: design, development and studies protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Mateu, Ainoa; Reinares, María; Undurraga, Juan; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Vieta, Eduard; Colom, Francesc

    2015-03-20

    New technologies have recently been used for monitoring signs and symptoms of mental health illnesses and particularly have been tested to improve the outcomes in bipolar disorders. Web-based psychoeducational programs for bipolar disorders have also been implemented, yet to our knowledge, none of them have integrated both approaches in one single intervention. The aim of this project is to develop and validate a smartphone application to monitor symptoms and signs and empower the self-management of bipolar disorder, offering customized embedded psychoeducation contents, in order to identify early symptoms and prevent relapses and hospitalizations. The project will be carried out in three complementary phases, which will include a feasibility study (first phase), a qualitative study (second phase) and a randomized controlled trial (third phase) comparing the smartphone application (SIMPLe) on top of treatment as usual with treatment as usual alone. During the first phase, feasibility and satisfaction will be assessed with the application usage log data and with an electronic survey. Focus groups will be conducted and technical improvements will be incorporated at the second phase. Finally, at the third phase, survival analysis with multivariate data analysis will be performed and relationships between socio-demographic, clinical variables and assessments scores with relapses in each group will be explored. This project could result in a highly available, user-friendly and not costly monitoring and psychoeducational intervention that could improve the outcome of people suffering from bipolar disorders in a practical and secure way. Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02258711 (October 2014).

  20. Validation of the YuWell YE690A upper-arm blood pressure monitor, for clinic use and self-measurement, according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the automated oscillometric upper-arm blood pressure monitor YuWell YE690A for blood pressure measurement according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension revision 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured sequentially in 33 adult Chinese (12 women, 44.2 years of mean age) using a mercury sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the YE690A device (one supervisor). A total of 99 pairs of comparisons were obtained from 33 participants for judgments in two parts with three grading phases. All the blood pressure requirements were fulfilled. The YuWell YE690A device achieved the targets in part 1 of the validation study. The number of absolute differences between device and observers within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg was 79/99, 96/99, and 97/99, respectively, for systolic blood pressure and 72/99, 95/99, and 98/99, respectively, for diastolic blood pressure. The device also fulfilled the criteria in part 2 of the validation study. Thirty-one and 25 participants for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, had at least two of the three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg (required ≥24). No participant for systolic and two participants for diastolic blood pressure had all the three device-observer comparisons greater than 5 mmHg. The YuWell blood pressure monitor YE690A has passed the requirements of the International Protocol revision 2010 and hence can be recommended for blood pressure measurement in adults.

  1. Protocol for a randomised controlled implementation trial of point-of-care viral load testing and task shifting: the Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring (STREAM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, Jienchi; Garrett, Nigel; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Samsunder, Natasha; Ngobese, Hope; Ngomane, Noluthando; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Mlisana, Koleka; Schaafsma, Torin; Donnell, Deborah; Barnabas, Ruanne; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Salim; Celum, Connie; Drain, Paul K

    2017-09-27

    Achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets requires models of HIV care that expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage without overburdening health systems. Point-of-care (POC) viral load (VL) testing has the potential to efficiently monitor ART treatment, while enrolled nurses may be able to provide safe and cost-effective chronic care for stable patients with HIV. This study aims to demonstrate whether POC VL testing combined with task shifting to enrolled nurses is non-inferior and cost-effective compared with laboratory-based VL monitoring and standard HIV care. The STREAM (Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring) study is an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled implementation trial. HIV-positive adults, clinically stable at 6 months after ART initiation, will be recruited in a large urban clinic in South Africa. Approximately 396 participants will be randomised 1:1 to receive POC HIV VL monitoring and potential task shifting to enrolled nurses, versus laboratory VL monitoring and standard South African HIV care. Initial clinic follow-up will be 2-monthly in both arms, with VL testing at enrolment, 6 months and 12 months. At 6 months (1 year after ART initiation), stable participants in both arms will qualify for a differentiated care model involving decentralised ART pickup at community-based pharmacies. The primary outcome is retention in care and virological suppression at 12 months from enrolment. Secondary outcomes include time to appropriate entry into the decentralised ART delivery programme, costs per virologically suppressed patient and cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared with standard care. Findings will inform the scale up of VL testing and differentiated care in HIV-endemic resource-limited settings. Ethical approval has been granted by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (BFC296/16) and University of Washington Institutional Review Board (STUDY

  2. Study protocol for the translating research in elder care (TREC: building context – an organizational monitoring program in long-term care project (project one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Greta G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is a growing awareness of the importance of organizational context (or the work environment/setting to successful knowledge translation, and successful knowledge translation to better patient, provider (staff, and system outcomes, little empirical evidence supports these assumptions. Further, little is known about the factors that enhance knowledge translation and better outcomes in residential long-term care facilities, where care has been shown to be suboptimal. The project described in this protocol is one of the two main projects of the larger five-year Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC program. Aims The purpose of this project is to establish the magnitude of the effect of organizational context on knowledge translation, and subsequently on resident, staff (unregulated, regulated, and managerial and system outcomes in long-term care facilities in the three Canadian Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the details of a multi-level – including provinces, regions, facilities, units within facilities, and individuals who receive care (residents or work (staff in facilities – and longitudinal (five-year research project. A stratified random sample of 36 residential long-term care facilities (30 urban and 6 rural from the Canadian Prairie Provinces will comprise the sample. Caregivers and care managers within these facilities will be asked to complete the TREC survey – a suite of survey instruments designed to assess organizational context and related factors hypothesized to be important to successful knowledge translation and to achieving better resident, staff, and system outcomes. Facility and unit level data will be collected using standardized data collection forms, and resident outcomes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set version 2.0 instrument. A variety of analytic techniques will be employed including descriptive

  3. Management of Contract Waivers and Deviations for Defense Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    This report is the fourth and final in a series of reports resulting from our audit of management of contract waivers and deviations for Defense systems and summarizes our overall evaluation. Report...

  4. New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).

  5. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  6. An explicit local uniform large deviation bound for Brownian bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, O.

    2005-01-01

    By comparing curve length in a manifold and a standard sphere, we prove a local uniform bound for the exponent in the Large Deviation formula that describes the concentration of Brownian bridges to geodesics.

  7. Prosthodontic management of mandibular deviation using palatal ramp appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmental resection of the mandible generally results in deviation of the mandible to the defective side. This loss of continuity of the mandible destroys the balance of the lower face and leads to decreased mandibular function by deviation of the residual segment toward the surgical site. Prosthetic methods advocated to reduce or eliminate mandibular deviation include intermaxillary fixation, removable mandibular guide flange, palatal ramp, implant-supported prosthesis and palatal guidance restorations which may be useful in reducing mandibular deviation and improving masticatory performance and efficiency. These methods and restorations would be combined with a well organized mandibular exercise regimen. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.

  8. Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.

  9. The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Shoichi Hisa

    2008-01-01

    Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...

  10. Monitoring of multiple bacteriocins through a developed dual extraction protocol and comparison of HPLC-DAD with turbidometry as their quantification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharopoulos, Efstathios; Touloupi, Katerina; Touraki, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The present study describes the development of a simple and efficient screening system that allows identification and quantification of nine bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis. Cell-free L. lactis extracts presented a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, including Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi. The characterization of their sensitivity to pH, and heat, showed that the extracts retained their antibacterial activity at extreme pH values and in a wide temperature range. The loss of antibacterial activity following treatment of the extracts with lipase or protease suggests a lipoproteinaceous nature of the produced antimicrobials. The extracts were subjected to a purification protocol that employs a two phase extraction using ammonium sulfate precipitation and organic solvent precipitation, followed by ion exchange chromatography, solid phase extraction and HPLC. In the nine fractions that presented antimicrobial activity, bacteriocins were quantified by the turbidometric method using a standard curve of nisin and by the HPLC method with nisin as the external standard, with both methods producing comparable results. Turbidometry appears to be unique in the qualitative determination of bacteriocins but the only method suitable to both separate and quantify the bacteriocins providing increased sensitivity, accuracy, and precision is HPLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Monitoring of a protocol for the adequacy of the pharmaceutical form of the oral medication to the degree of dysphagia in patients hospitalized in an internal medicine service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Aparicio, J; Herrero Herrero, J I; Moreno Gómez, A Ma; Martínez Sotelo, J; González del Valle, E; Fernández de la Fuente, Ma A

    2011-01-01

    The oral route is the most convenient way of administering medication, although it may not be safe. Dysphagia is one of the factors rendering difficult a proper feeding and administration of medication. to improve the administration of oral medication in patients with dysphagia by changing the pharmaceutical formulation of the principles prescribed to tolerable textures. Pilot project for the application of a dysphagia protocol that included the patients admitted to the Internal Medicine Unit at Los Montalvos Center for 4 months. After detecting the suspicion of dysphagia, a dysphagia-viscosity test was applied to know the tolerated textures. Then, the pharmaceutical formulations were adapted and the manipulation instructions for the drugs were indicated for their proper administration. 23 out of 627 admitted patients were included, with a mean age of 85 years (σ±7.4). The pathologies implicated in dysphagia were: dementia (65.2%); cerebrovascular disease (30.4%), and Parkinson's disease (4.4%). The best texture for drug intake was a "pudding" in 48.0%. 43 active ingredients were reviewed and 134 interventions were performed: in 41% of the cases, swallowing was made easier by mixing the drug with the food and in 59% water and a thickener were used. 94% of the recommendations were considered to be appropriate. the adaptation of the pharmaceutical formulations to the degree of dysphagia impacts on the improvement of healthcare quality by implementing safety in drug prescription and administration processes.

  12. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Stephansson, Ove; Stenberg, Leif; Plenkers, Katrin; Specht, Sebastian; Milkereit, Claus; Schill, Eva; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Zimmermann, Günter; Dahm, Torsten; Weber, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multistage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, that is, seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocentres obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multistage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broad-band recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events are found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with

  13. Physical activity monitors to enhance the daily amount of physical activity in elderly—a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Juhl, Carsten B

    2018-01-01

    Background: To investigate the use of physical activity monitors (PAMs) for the elderly, the scientific literature should be systematically reviewed and the effect quantified, as the evidence seems inconclusive. Methods and design: Randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials...... table. Discussion: This paper will explore and analyze the heterogeneity of the results and try to identify variables that will enhance the effect of PAMs in elderly. The results will be useful to researchers working with elderly and/or PAMs, health care professionals working with elderly, and relatives...... together with the elderly themselves. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42018083648....

  14. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  15. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  16. Validation of the iHealth BP5 wireless upper arm blood pressure monitor for self-measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Fujun; Zhu, Yizheng; Zhu, Zhenlai; Liu, Lei; Wan, Yi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the iHealth BP5 wireless upper arm blood pressure (BP) monitor according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) revision 2010. The ESH-IP revision 2010 for validation of BP measuring devices in adults was followed precisely. A total of 99 pairs of test device and reference BP measurements (three pairs for each of the 33 participants) were obtained in the study. The device produced 71, 89, and 97 measurements within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 73, 90, and 99 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. The mean ± SD device-observer difference was -1.21 ± 5.87 mmHg for SBP and -1.04 ± 5.28 mmHg for DBP. The number of participants with two or three device-observer differences within 5 mmHg was 25 for SBP and 28 for DBP. In addition, three participants had no device-observer difference within 5 mmHg for SBP and none of the participants had the same for DBP. According to the validation results on the basis of the ESH-IP revision 2010, the iHealth BP5 wireless upper arm BP monitor can be recommended for self/home measurement in an adult population.

  17. Compliance with PET acquisition protocols for therapeutic monitoring of erlotinib therapy in an international trial for patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, David S.; Callahan, Jason; Mileshkin, Linda; Pirzkall, Andrea; Yu, Wei; Fine, Bernard M.; Conti, Peter; Scott, Andrew M.; Macfarlane, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are widely used but have recognized limitations. Molecular imaging assessments, including changes in 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG) or 18 F-deoxythymidine (FLT) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET), may provide earlier, more robust evaluation of treatment efficacy. A prospective trial evaluated on-treatment changes in FDG and FLT PET imaging among patients with relapsed or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer treated with erlotinib to assess the relationship between PET-evaluated response and clinical outcomes. We describe an audit of compliance with the study imaging charter, to establish the feasibility of achieving methodological consistency in a multicentre setting. Patients underwent PET scans at baseline and approximately day 14 and day 56 of treatment (n = 73, 66 and 51 studies, and n = 73, 63 and 50 studies for FDG PET and FLT PET, respectively). Blood glucose levels were within the target range for all FDG PET scans. Charter-specified uptake times were achieved in 86% (63/73) and 89% (65/73) of baseline FDG and FLT scans, respectively. On-treatment scans were less consistent: 72% (84/117) and 68% (77/113), respectively, achieved the target of ±5 min of baseline uptake time. However, 96% (112/117) and 94% (106/113) of FDG and FLT PET studies, respectively, were within ±15 min. Bland-Altman analysis of intra-individual hepatic average standardized uptake value (SUV ave ), to assess reproducibility, showed only a small difference in physiological uptake (-0.006 ± 0.224 in 118 follow-up FDG scans and 0.09 ± 0.81 in 111 follow-up FLT scans). It is possible to achieve high reproducibility of scan acquisition methodology, provided that strict imaging compliance guidelines are mandated in the study protocol. (orig.)

  18. Compliance with PET acquisition protocols for therapeutic monitoring of erlotinib therapy in an international trial for patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, David S.; Callahan, Jason; Mileshkin, Linda [The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Pirzkall, Andrea; Yu, Wei; Fine, Bernard M. [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Conti, Peter [University of Southern California Kenneth Norris Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Scott, Andrew M. [The University of Melbourne and The Austin Hospital, Centre for PET, and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Macfarlane, David [Queensland PET Service, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [The University of Melbourne and The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) are widely used but have recognized limitations. Molecular imaging assessments, including changes in {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose (FDG) or {sup 18}F-deoxythymidine (FLT) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET), may provide earlier, more robust evaluation of treatment efficacy. A prospective trial evaluated on-treatment changes in FDG and FLT PET imaging among patients with relapsed or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer treated with erlotinib to assess the relationship between PET-evaluated response and clinical outcomes. We describe an audit of compliance with the study imaging charter, to establish the feasibility of achieving methodological consistency in a multicentre setting. Patients underwent PET scans at baseline and approximately day 14 and day 56 of treatment (n = 73, 66 and 51 studies, and n = 73, 63 and 50 studies for FDG PET and FLT PET, respectively). Blood glucose levels were within the target range for all FDG PET scans. Charter-specified uptake times were achieved in 86% (63/73) and 89% (65/73) of baseline FDG and FLT scans, respectively. On-treatment scans were less consistent: 72% (84/117) and 68% (77/113), respectively, achieved the target of {+-}5 min of baseline uptake time. However, 96% (112/117) and 94% (106/113) of FDG and FLT PET studies, respectively, were within {+-}15 min. Bland-Altman analysis of intra-individual hepatic average standardized uptake value (SUV{sub ave}), to assess reproducibility, showed only a small difference in physiological uptake (-0.006 {+-} 0.224 in 118 follow-up FDG scans and 0.09 {+-} 0.81 in 111 follow-up FLT scans). It is possible to achieve high reproducibility of scan acquisition methodology, provided that strict imaging compliance guidelines are mandated in the study protocol. (orig.)

  19. Generic DART-MS platform for monitoring the on-demand continuous-flow production of pharmaceuticals: Advancing the quantitative protocol for caffeates in microfluidic biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Dong-Yang; Meng, Xiang-Yun; Liu, Xi; Sheng, Sheng; Wu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Jun; Wu, Fu-An

    2017-04-15

    Today, continuous processing is regarded as an effective on-demand production technique of pharmaceuticals. Homemade microreactors packed with immobilized lipase under continuous-flow conditions were first applied to tailor the production of high-value caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from methyl caffeate (MC) and 2-phenylethanol (PE) in cyclohexane via transesterification; however, this method is challenging due to the lack of a rapid platform for monitoring caffeates in microfluidic biocatalysis. The reactants were directly analyzed using Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS), and the corresponding ionization parameters were investigated. Special ions produced from MC (parent ion m/z 192.87 and product ion m/z 133.44) and CAPE (parent ion m/z 282.93 and product ion m/z 178.87) were determined using DART-MS 2 in the negative ion mode. The peak areas of the select reaction monitoring (SRM) signals were calculated to develop the standard curves for quantitative analyses of the concentration. Reasonable linear regression equations of MC and CAPE were obtained in the range of 3.125-50.000mg/L, with linear coefficients (R 2 ) of 0.9515 and 0.9973, limits of detection (LOD) of 0.005 and 0.003mg/L, limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 and 0.01mg/L, and recovery ranges of 92.50-97.11% and 90.11-97.60%, respectively. The results using DART-MS 2 were in good agreement with those using conventional High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with a UV detector (HPLC-UV) and were successfully applied to monitor the kinetics constants and mass transfer coefficients in a continuous-flow packed bed microreactor. Thus, the DART-MS 2 method is an efficient tool for analyzing caffeates in microfluidic biocatalysis with limited sample preparation and short operating time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The development of a Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action (SELMA) tool for Better Outcomes in Labour Difficulty (BOLD): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João Paulo; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Bohren, Meghan A; Mugerwa, Kidza; Fawole, Bukola; Moscovici, Leonardo; Alves, Domingos; Perdona, Gleici; Oliveira-Ciabati, Livia; Vogel, Joshua P; Tunçalp, Özge; Zhang, Jim; Hofmeyr, Justus; Bahl, Rajiv; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2015-05-26

    The partograph is currently the main tool available to support decision-making of health professionals during labour. However, the rate of appropriate use of the partograph is disappointingly low. Apart from limitations that are associated with partograph use, evidence of positive impact on labour-related health outcomes is lacking. The main goal of this study is to develop a Simplified, Effective, Labour Monitoring-to-Action (SELMA) tool. The primary objectives are: to identify the essential elements of intrapartum monitoring that trigger the decision to use interventions aimed at preventing poor labour outcomes; to develop a simplified, monitoring-to-action algorithm for labour management; and to compare the diagnostic performance of SELMA and partograph algorithms as tools to identify women who are likely to develop poor labour-related outcomes. A prospective cohort study will be conducted in eight health facilities in Nigeria and Uganda (four facilities from each country). All women admitted for vaginal birth will comprise the study population (estimated sample size: 7,812 women). Data will be collected on maternal characteristics on admission, labour events and pregnancy outcomes by trained research assistants at the participating health facilities. Prediction models will be developed to identify women at risk of intrapartum-related perinatal death or morbidity (primary outcomes) throughout the course of labour. These predictions models will be used to assemble a decision-support tool that will be able to suggest the best course of action to avert adverse outcomes during the course of labour. To develop this set of prediction models, we will use up-to-date techniques of prognostic research, including identification of important predictors, assigning of relative weights to each predictor, estimation of the predictive performance of the model through calibration and discrimination, and determination of its potential for application using internal validation

  1. Protocol adherence for continuously titrated interventions in randomized trials: an overview of the current methodology and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lauzier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard definition for protocol adherence is the proportion of all scheduled doses that are delivered. In clinical research, this definition has several limitations when evaluating protocol adherence in trials that study interventions requiring continuous titration. Discussion Building upon a specific case study, we analyzed a recent trial of a continuously titrated intervention to assess the impact of different definitions of protocol deviations on the interpretation of protocol adherence. The OVATION pilot trial was an open-label randomized controlled trial of higher (75–80 mmHg versus lower (60–65 mmHg mean arterial pressure (MAP targets for vasopressor therapy in shock. In this trial, potential protocol deviations were defined as MAP values outside the targeted range for >4 consecutive hours during vasopressor therapy without synchronous and consistent adjustments of vasopressor doses. An adjudication committee reviewed each potential deviation to determine if it was clinically-justified or not. There are four reasons for this contextual measurement and reporting of protocol adherence. First, between-arm separation is a robust measure of adherence to complex protocols. Second, adherence assessed by protocol deviations varies in function of the definition of deviations and the frequency of measurements. Third, distinguishing clinically-justified vs. not clinically-justified protocol deviations acknowledges clinically sensible bedside decision-making and offers a clear terminology before the trial begins. Finally, multiple metrics exist to report protocol deviations, which provides different information but complementary information on protocol adherence. Conclusions In trials of interventions requiring continuous titration, metrics used for defining protocol deviations have a considerable impact on the interpretation of protocol adherence. Definitions for protocol deviations should be prespecified and correlated

  2. Protocol adherence for continuously titrated interventions in randomized trials: an overview of the current methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, F; Adhikari, N K; Seely, A; Koo, K K Y; Belley-Côté, E P; Burns, K E A; Cook, D J; D'Aragon, F; Rochwerg, B; Kho, M E; Oczkowksi, S J W; Duan, E H; Meade, M O; Day, A G; Lamontagne, F

    2017-07-17

    The standard definition for protocol adherence is the proportion of all scheduled doses that are delivered. In clinical research, this definition has several limitations when evaluating protocol adherence in trials that study interventions requiring continuous titration. Building upon a specific case study, we analyzed a recent trial of a continuously titrated intervention to assess the impact of different definitions of protocol deviations on the interpretation of protocol adherence. The OVATION pilot trial was an open-label randomized controlled trial of higher (75-80 mmHg) versus lower (60-65 mmHg) mean arterial pressure (MAP) targets for vasopressor therapy in shock. In this trial, potential protocol deviations were defined as MAP values outside the targeted range for >4 consecutive hours during vasopressor therapy without synchronous and consistent adjustments of vasopressor doses. An adjudication committee reviewed each potential deviation to determine if it was clinically-justified or not. There are four reasons for this contextual measurement and reporting of protocol adherence. First, between-arm separation is a robust measure of adherence to complex protocols. Second, adherence assessed by protocol deviations varies in function of the definition of deviations and the frequency of measurements. Third, distinguishing clinically-justified vs. not clinically-justified protocol deviations acknowledges clinically sensible bedside decision-making and offers a clear terminology before the trial begins. Finally, multiple metrics exist to report protocol deviations, which provides different information but complementary information on protocol adherence. In trials of interventions requiring continuous titration, metrics used for defining protocol deviations have a considerable impact on the interpretation of protocol adherence. Definitions for protocol deviations should be prespecified and correlated with between-arm separation, if it can be measured.

  3. Effect of nasal deviation on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Ramos, Sueli; Hochman, Bernardo; Gomes, Heitor Carvalho; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Juliano, Yara; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2011-07-01

    Nasal deviation is a common complaint in otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery. This condition not only causes impairment of nasal function but also affects quality of life, leading to psychological distress. The subjective assessment of quality of life, as an important aspect of outcomes research, has received increasing attention in recent decades. Quality of life is measured using standardized questionnaires that have been tested for reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and depression in patients with nasal deviation. Sixty patients were selected for the study. Patients with nasal deviation (n = 32) were assigned to the study group, and patients without nasal deviation (n = 28) were assigned to the control group. The diagnosis of nasal deviation was made by digital photogrammetry. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/Federal University of São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Scale; and the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire. There were significant differences between groups in the physical functioning and general health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p < 0.05). Depression was detected in 11 patients (34.4 percent) in the study group and in two patients in the control group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Nasal deviation is an aspect of rhinoplasty of which the surgeon should be aware so that proper psychological diagnosis can be made and suitable treatment can be planned because psychologically the patients with nasal deviation have significantly worse quality of life and are more prone to depression. Risk, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  4. Prospective Register Of patients undergoing repeated OFfice and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (PROOF-ABPM): protocol for an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, James P; Martin, Una; Gill, Paramjit; Stevens, Richard; McManus, Richard J

    2016-10-31

    The diagnosis and management of hypertension depends on accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) in order to target antihypertensive treatment appropriately. Most BP measurements take place in a clinic setting, but it has long been recognised that readings taken out-of-office (via home or ambulatory monitoring) estimate true underlying BP more accurately. Recent studies have shown that the change in clinic BP over multiple readings is a significant predictor of the difference between clinic and out-of-office BP. Used in combination with patient characteristics, this change has been shown to accurately predict a patient's out-of-office BP level. The present study proposes to collect real-life BP data to prospectively validate this new prediction tool in routine clinical practice. A prospective, multicentre observational cohort design will be used, recruiting patients from primary and secondary care. All patients attending participating centres for ambulatory BP monitoring will be eligible to participate. Anonymised clinical data will be collected from all eligible patients, who will be invited to give informed consent to permit identifiable data to be collected for data linkage to external outcome registries. Descriptive statistics will be used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the out-of-office BP prediction tool. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve statistics will be used to examine model performance. Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the National Research. Ethics Service Committee South Central-Oxford A (reference; 15/SC/0184), and site-specific R&D approval has been acquired from the relevant NHS trusts. All findings will be presented at relevant conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals, on the study website and disseminated in lay and social media where appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  5. Clinical Feasibility of Continuously Monitored Data for Heart Rate, Physical Activity, and Sleeping by Wearable Activity Trackers in Patients with Thyrotoxicosis: Protocol for a Prospective Longitudinal Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Eun; Lee, Dong Hwa; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul

    2018-01-01

    Background Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease caused by an excess of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of thyrotoxicosis about 2% and 70-90% of thyrotoxicosis cases are caused by Graves' disease, an autoimmune disease, which has a high recurrence rate when treated with antithyroid drugs such as methimazole or propylthiouracil. The clinical symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis include palpitation, weight loss, restlessness, and difficulty sleeping. Although these clinical changes in thyrotoxicosis can be detected by currently available wearable activity trackers, there have been few trials of the clinical application of wearable devices in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical applicability of wearable device-generated data to the management of thyrotoxicosis. We are analyzing continuously monitored data for heart rate, physical activity, and sleep in patients with thyrotoxicosis during their clinical course after treatment. Methods Thirty thyrotoxic patients and 10 control subjects were enrolled in this study at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Heart rate, physical activity, and sleep are being monitored using a Fitbit Charge HR or Fitbit Charge 2. Clinical data including anthropometric measures, thyroid function test, and hyperthyroidism symptom scale are recorded. Results Study enrollment began in December 2016, and the intervention and follow-up phases are ongoing. The results of the data analysis are expected to be available by September 2017. Conclusions This study will provide a foundational feasibility trial of the clinical applications of biosignal measurements to the differential diagnosis, prediction of clinical course, early detection of recurrence, and treatment in patients with thyrotoxicosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03009357; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03009357 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wh4MWPm2) PMID:29467121

  6. Study protocol for Log2Lose: A feasibility randomized controlled trial to evaluate financial incentives for dietary self-monitoring and interim weight loss in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voils, Corrine I; Levine, Erica; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Pendergast, Jane; Hale, Sarah L; McVay, Megan A; Reed, Shelby D; Yancy, William S; Bennett, Gary; Strawbridge, Elizabeth M; White, Allison C; Shaw, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    The obesity epidemic has negative physical, psychological, and financial consequences. Despite the existence of effective behavioral weight loss interventions, many individuals do not achieve adequate weight loss, and most regain lost weight in the year following intervention. We report the rationale and design for a 2×2 factorial study that involves financial incentives for dietary self-monitoring (yes vs. no) and/or interim weight loss (yes vs. no). Outpatients with obesity participate in a 24-week, group-based weight loss intervention. All participants are asked to record their daily dietary and liquid intake on a smartphone application (app) and to weigh themselves daily at home on a study-provided cellular scale. An innovative information technology (IT) solution collates dietary data from the app and weight from the scale. Using these data, an algorithm classifies participants weekly according to whether they met their group's criteria to receive a cash reward ranging from $0 to $30 for dietary self-monitoring and/or interim weight loss. Notice of the reward is provided via text message, and credit is uploaded to a gift card. This pilot study will provide information on the feasibility of using this novel IT solution to provide variable-ratio financial incentives in real time via its effects on recruitment, intervention adherence, retention, and cost. This study will provide the foundation for a comprehensive, adequately-powered, randomized controlled trial to promote short-term weight loss and long-term weight maintenance. If efficacious, this approach could reduce the prevalence, adverse outcomes, and costs of obesity for millions of Americans. Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT02691260. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Investigating the application of motion accelerometers as a sleep monitoring technique and the clinical burden of the intensive care environment on sleep quality: study protocol for a prospective observational study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Lori J; Currie, Marian J; Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Litton, Edward; Wibrow, Bradley; Lopez, Violeta; Haren, Frank Van

    2018-01-21

    prehospital discharge survey regarding patients' perception of sleep quality and disturbing factors using the Little Sleep Questionnaire will be undertaken. Associations between sleep disturbance, noise and light levels, and the frequency of clinical interactions will also be investigated. Sound and luminance levels will be recorded at 1 s epochs via Extech SDL600 and SDL400 monitoring devices. Clinical interactions will be logged via the electronic patient record system Metavision which documents patient monitoring and clinical care. The relevant institutions have approved the study protocol and consent procedures. The findings of the study will contribute to the understanding of sleep disturbance, and the ability to implement sleep monitoring methods within ICUs. Understanding the contribution of a clinical environment on sleep disturbance may provide insight into the need to address clinical environmental issues that may positively influence patient outcomes, and could dispel notions that the environment is a primary factor in sleep disturbance. The research findings will be disseminated via presentations at national and international conferences, proceedings and published articles in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12615000945527; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Research Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Weststrate (Johanna); A.G. Dijkstra (Geske); J. Eshuis (Jasper); A. Gianoli (Alberto); M. Rusca (Maria)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractTarget 7c of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG 7c) aimed to halve the population that had no sustainable access to water and basic sanitation before 2015. According to the data collected by the Joint Monitoring Programme in charge of measuring progress towards MDG 7c, 2.6 billion

  9. Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case

  10. Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2018-05-02

    To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Complexity analysis based on generalized deviation for financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a new modified method is proposed as a measure to investigate the correlation between past price and future volatility for financial time series, known as the complexity analysis based on generalized deviation. In comparison with the former retarded volatility model, the new approach is both simple and computationally efficient. The method based on the generalized deviation function presents us an exhaustive way showing the quantization of the financial market rules. Robustness of this method is verified by numerical experiments with both artificial and financial time series. Results show that the generalized deviation complexity analysis method not only identifies the volatility of financial time series, but provides a comprehensive way distinguishing the different characteristics between stock indices and individual stocks. Exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the volatility curves and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Then we study the influence for negative domain of deviation coefficient and differences during the volatile periods and calm periods. after the data analysis of the experimental model, we found that the generalized deviation model has definite advantages in exploring the relationship between the historical returns and future volatility.

  12. Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose in Non-Insulin Treated Type 2 Diabetes (The SMBG Study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sharon; Luzio, Stephen; Bain, Stephen; Harvey, John; McKenna, Jillian; Khan, Atir; Rice, Sam; Watkins, Alan; Owens, David R

    2017-01-26

    The benefit of Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) in people with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes remains unclear with inconsistent evidence from randomised controlled trials fuelling the continued debate. Lack of a consistent finding has been attributed to variations in study population and design, including the SMBG intervention. There is a growing consensus that structured SMBG, whereby the person with diabetes and health care provider are educated to detect patterns of glycaemic abnormality and take appropriate action according to the blood glucose profiles, can prove beneficial in terms of lowering HbA1c and improving overall well-being. Despite this, many national health agencies continue to issue guidelines restricting the use of SMBG in non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes. The SMBG Study is a 12 month, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial in people with type 2 diabetes not on insulin therapy who have poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥58 mmol/mol / 7.5%). The participants will be randomised into three comparative groups: Group 1 will act as a control group and receive their usual diabetes care; Group 2 will undertake structured SMBG with clinical review every 3 months; Group 3 will undertake structured SMBG with additional monthly telecare support from a trained study nurse. A total of 450 participants will be recruited from 16 primary and secondary care sites across Wales and England. The primary outcome measure will be HbA1c at 12 months with secondary measures to include weight, BMI, total cholesterol and HbA1c levels at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Participant well-being and attitude towards SMBG will be monitored throughout the course of the study. Recruitment began in December 2012 with the last participant visit due in September 2016. This study will attempt to answer the question of whether structured SMBG provides any benefits to people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who are not being treated with insulin. The data will also

  13. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  14. A Cross-Layer Wireless Sensor Network Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Real-Time Monitoring of the Long-Distance Electric Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes has become a critical link that constrains the engineering application of the smart grid due to the fact that the smart grid is characterized by long-distance transmission in a special environment. The paper proposes a linear hierarchical network topological structure specific to WSN energy conservation in environmental monitoring of the long-distance electric transmission lines in the smart grid. Based on the topological structural characteristics and optimization of network layers, the paper also proposes a Topological Structure be Layered Configurations (TSLC routing algorithm to improve the quality of WSN data transmission performance. Coprocessing of the network layer and the media access control (MAC layer is achieved by using the cross-layer design method, accessing the status for the nodes in the network layer and obtaining the status of the network nodes of the MAC layer. It efficiently saves the energy of the whole network, improves the quality of the network service performance, and prolongs the life cycle of the network.

  15. Clinical assessment of blood glucose homeostasis in horses: comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a combined intravenous glucose and insulin test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Wiedmeyer, C E; LaCarrubba, A; Messer, N T; Dingfelder, H A; Cogswell, A M; Amorim, J R R; Ganjam, V K

    2011-01-01

    The combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) is helpful for evaluating insulin sensitivity. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) reports changes in interstitial glucose concentrations as they occur in the blood. Use of the CGMS minimizes animal contact and may be useful when performing a CGIT. Results obtained using a CGMS are useful for the evaluation of glucose responses during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity in equids. Seven mature, obese ponies. Ponies were equipped with CGMS for determination of interstitial glucose concentrations. Glucose (150 mg/kg, i.v.) and insulin (0.1 U/kg, i.v.) were administered and blood glucose concentrations determined at (minutes after time zero) 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 with a hand-held glucometer. Blood chemistry results were compared with simultaneously obtained results using CGMS. Concordance coefficients determined for comparison of blood glucose concentrations determined by a hand-held glucometer and those determined by CGMS after the zero time point were 0.623, 0.764, 0.834, 0.854, and 0.818 (for delays of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively). Interstitial glucose concentrations obtained by the CGMS compared favorably to blood glucose concentrations. CGMS may be useful for assessment of glucose dynamics in the CGIT. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Valaitis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod's foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.

  18. Implementation of an Algorithm for Prosthetic Joint Infection: Deviations and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Pohlig, Florian; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian; Toepfer, Andreas; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    The outcome of revision surgery in arthroplasty is based on a precise diagnosis. In addition, the treatment varies based on whether the prosthetic failure is caused by aseptic or septic loosening. Algorithms can help to identify periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) and standardize diagnostic steps, however, algorithms tend to oversimplify the treatment of complex cases. We conducted a process analysis during the implementation of a PJI algorithm to determine problems and deviations associated with the implementation of this algorithm. Fifty patients who were treated after implementing a standardized algorithm were monitored retrospectively. Their treatment plans and diagnostic cascades were analyzed for deviations from the implemented algorithm. Each diagnostic procedure was recorded, compared with the algorithm, and evaluated statistically. We detected 52 deviations while treating 50 patients. In 25 cases, no discrepancy was observed. Synovial fluid aspiration was not performed in 31.8% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1%-45.6%), while white blood cell counts (WBCs) and neutrophil differentiation were assessed in 54.5% of patients (95% CI, 39.8%-69.3%). We also observed that the prolonged incubation of cultures was not requested in 13.6% of patients (95% CI, 3.5%-23.8%). In seven of 13 cases (63.6%; 95% CI, 35.2%-92.1%), arthroscopic biopsy was performed; 6 arthroscopies were performed in discordance with the algorithm (12%; 95% CI, 3%-21%). Self-critical analysis of diagnostic processes and monitoring of deviations using algorithms are important and could increase the quality of treatment by revealing recurring faults.

  19. Effect of density deviations of concrete on its attenuation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymendera, L.; Wincel, K.; Blociszewski, S.; Kordyasz, D.; Sobolewska, I.

    In the work, the influence of concrete density deviation on shield thickness and total dose ratio outside the reactor shield, has--on the basis of numerical analysis--been considered. It has been noticed the possibility of introducing flexible corrections--without additional shielding calculation--to the design thickness of the shield. It has been also found that in common cases of shield design, where any necessity of minimizing the shield thickness does not exist, the tendency to minimize the value of this deviation is hardly substantiable

  20. Deviation from Covered Interest Rate Parity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Lee

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tested the factors which cause deviation from covered interest rate parity (CIRP in Korea, using regression and VAR models. The empirical evidence indicates that the difference between the swap rate and interest rate differential exists and is greatly affected by variables which represent the currency liquidity situation of foreign exchange banks. In other words, the deviation from CIRP can easily occur due to the lack of foreign exchange liquidity of banks in a thin market, despite few capital constraints, small transaction costs, and trivial default risk in Korea.

  1. Technology-Enabled Remote Monitoring and Self-Management - Vision for Patient Empowerment Following Cardiac and Vascular Surgery: User Testing and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillion, Michael; Yost, Jennifer; Turner, Andrew; Bender, Duane; Scott, Ted; Carroll, Sandra; Ritvo, Paul; Peter, Elizabeth; Lamy, Andre; Furze, Gill; Krull, Kirsten; Dunlop, Valerie; Good, Amber; Dvirnik, Nazari; Bedini, Debbie; Naus, Frank; Pettit, Shirley; Henry, Shaunattonie; Probst, Christine; Mills, Joseph; Gossage, Elaine; Travale, Irene; Duquette, Janine; Taberner, Christy; Bhavnani, Sanjeev; Khan, James S; Cowan, David; Romeril, Eric; Lee, John; Colella, Tracey; Choinière, Manon; Busse, Jason; Katz, Joel; Victor, J Charles; Hoch, Jeffrey; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Ladak, Salima; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Parry, Monica; Sessler, Daniel I; Stacey, Michael; Stevens, Bonnie; Stremler, Robyn; Thabane, Lehana; Watt-Watson, Judy; Whitlock, Richard; MacDermid, Joy C; Leegaard, Marit; McKelvie, Robert; Hillmer, Michael; Cooper, Lynn; Arthur, Gavin; Sider, Krista; Oliver, Susan; Boyajian, Karen; Farrow, Mark; Lawton, Chris; Gamble, Darryl; Walsh, Jake; Field, Mark; LeFort, Sandra; Clyne, Wendy; Ricupero, Maria; Poole, Laurie; Russell-Wood, Karsten; Weber, Michael; McNeil, Jolene; Alpert, Robyn; Sharpe, Sarah; Bhella, Sue; Mohajer, David; Ponnambalam, Sem; Lakhani, Naeem; Khan, Rabia; Liu, Peter; Devereaux, P J

    2016-08-01

    Tens of thousands of cardiac and vascular surgeries (CaVS) are performed on seniors in Canada and the United Kingdom each year to improve survival, relieve disease symptoms, and improve health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), undetected or delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise, complications, and related poor functional status are major problems for substantial numbers of patients during the recovery process. To tackle this problem, we aim to refine and test the effectiveness of an eHealth-enabled service delivery intervention, TecHnology-Enabled remote monitoring and Self-MAnagemenT-VIsion for patient EmpoWerment following Cardiac and VasculaR surgery (THE SMArTVIEW, CoVeRed), which combines remote monitoring, education, and self-management training to optimize recovery outcomes and experience of seniors undergoing CaVS in Canada and the United Kingdom. Our objectives are to (1) refine SMArTVIEW via high-fidelity user testing and (2) examine the effectiveness of SMArTVIEW via a randomized controlled trial (RCT). CaVS patients and clinicians will engage in two cycles of focus groups and usability testing at each site; feedback will be elicited about expectations and experience of SMArTVIEW, in context. The data will be used to refine the SMArTVIEW eHealth delivery program. Upon transfer to the surgical ward (ie, post-intensive care unit [ICU]), 256 CaVS patients will be reassessed postoperatively and randomly allocated via an interactive Web randomization system to the intervention group or usual care. The SMArTVIEW intervention will run from surgical ward day 2 until 8 weeks following surgery. Outcome assessments will occur on postoperative day 30; at week 8; and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The primary outcome is worst postop pain intensity upon movement in the previous 24 hours (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form), averaged across the previous 14 days. Secondary outcomes include a composite of postoperative

  2. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    species. In 2007, the Partners Program and Coastal Program developed a Strategic Plan to guide program operations and more efficiently conserve habitat by focusing partnership building and habitat improvement actions within 35 Partners Program Focus Areas and 9 Coastal Program Focus Areas (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010). The Strategic Plan also contains four other goals: broaden and strengthen partnerships; improve information sharing and communications; enhance workforce; and increase accountability to ensure that program resources are used efficiently and effectively. This protocol will help achieve all goals of the Strategic Plan.

  3. 48 CFR 552.252-6 - Authorized Deviations in Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 5). (2) This... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation by the addition of “(DEVIATION (FAR... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552...

  4. A Positional Deviation Sensor for Training of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Dessen

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available A device for physically guiding a robot manipulator through its task is described. It consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors. The sensor will be used in high performance sensory control systems. The paper describes problems concerning multi-dimensional, non-linear measurement functions and the design of the servo control system.

  5. Oscillations in deviating difference equations using an iterative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Chatzarakis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper deals with the oscillation of the first-order linear difference equation with deviating argument and nonnegative coefficients. New sufficient oscillation conditions, involving limsup, are given, which essentially improve all known results, based on an iterative technique. We illustrate the results and the improvement over other known oscillation criteria by examples, numerically solved in Matlab.

  6. Large deviations for Gaussian processes in Hoelder norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatalov, V R

    2003-01-01

    Some results are proved on the exact asymptotic representation of large deviation probabilities for Gaussian processes in the Hoeder norm. The following classes of processes are considered: the Wiener process, the Brownian bridge, fractional Brownian motion, and stationary Gaussian processes with power-law covariance function. The investigation uses the method of double sums for Gaussian fields

  7. Patterns of deviation in Niyi Osundare's poetry | Dick | Mgbakoigba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A critical stylistic study of the poetry of Niyi Osundare from Nigeria reveals that he has made an exemplary ... deviate from norms and conventions of language thereby creating aesthetics ...

  8. International asset pricing under segmentation and PPP deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of both purchasing power parity (PPP) deviations and market segmentation on asset pricing and investor's portfolio holdings. The freely traded securities command a world market risk premium and an inflation risk premium. The securities that can be held by only a subset of

  9. 9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...

  10. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  11. Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, R.; van Zanten, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  12. Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…

  13. Sample-path large deviations in credit risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekker, V.J.G.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Spreij, P.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the probabilities involved. We first derive a

  14. Analysis of form deviation in non-isothermal glass molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreilkamp, H.; Grunwald, T.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2018-02-01

    Especially in the market of sensors, LED lighting and medical technologies, there is a growing demand for precise yet low-cost glass optics. This demand poses a major challenge for glass manufacturers who are confronted with the challenge arising from the trend towards ever-higher levels of precision combined with immense pressure on market prices. Since current manufacturing technologies especially grinding and polishing as well as Precision Glass Molding (PGM) are not able to achieve the desired production costs, glass manufacturers are looking for alternative technologies. Non-isothermal Glass Molding (NGM) has been shown to have a big potential for low-cost mass manufacturing of complex glass optics. However, the biggest drawback of this technology at the moment is the limited accuracy of the manufactured glass optics. This research is addressing the specific challenges of non-isothermal glass molding with respect to form deviation of molded glass optics. Based on empirical models, the influencing factors on form deviation in particular form accuracy, waviness and surface roughness will be discussed. A comparison with traditional isothermal glass molding processes (PGM) will point out the specific challenges of non-isothermal process conditions. Furthermore, the underlying physical principle leading to the formation of form deviations will be analyzed in detail with the help of numerical simulation. In this way, this research contributes to a better understanding of form deviations in non-isothermal glass molding and is an important step towards new applications demanding precise yet low-cost glass optics.

  15. Linguistics deviation, a tool for teaching English grammar: evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have always advocated that those teaching the Use of English must seek out novel ways of teaching the grammar of English to take out the drudgery of the present approach. Here, we proposed using Linguistic deviation as a tool for teaching English grammar. This approach will produce students who are both strong in ...

  16. Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.

  17. On asymptotically efficient simulation of large deviation probabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieker, A.B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often impractical, particularly if the

  18. Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...

  19. The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...

  20. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.

    2018-03-01

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  1. Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T

    2018-03-28

    Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.

  2. Lack of validation of the Dixtal (DX 2020) upper arm blood pressure monitor, in oscillometric mode, for clinical use in an intensive care unit, according to the European Society of Hypertension-International Protocol revision 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothardo, Ana C L O; Savioli, Amanda F; Santos, Dayanna S; Lamas, José L T

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the oscillometric blood pressure section in the DX 2020 Dixtal multiparametric monitor in adults according to the European Society of Hypertension-International Protocol as revised in 2010 (ESH-IP 2010). The blood pressure was sequentially verified in 33 individuals admitted to an adult ICU (18 men, mean age 44 years) with a mercury column sphygmomanometer (two observers) and the DX 2020 test device (one supervisor). Ninety-nine pairs of differences were obtained. Data analysis followed the ESH-IP 2010 requirements. In the first requirement, the DX 2020 device failed in the validation study in the 5, 10, and 15 mmHg ranges. From the 99 pairs of differences, only 43/73, 69/87, and 81/96 were obtained for systolic blood pressure and 29/65, 56/81, and 71/93 were obtained for diastolic blood pressure. In the second requirement, at least 24 individuals should have, from their comparisons, two under 0-5 mmHg ranges, which was observed only with 16 individuals in the systolic and nine in the diastolic range. Moreover, at maximum, only three readings could have differences of more than 5 mmHg, and this was observed in 10 individuals in the systolic range and 17 individuals in the diastolic range. The DX 2020 automatic multiparametric monitor for blood pressure measurement has not been recommended for clinical use according to the ESH-IP 2010. It is important to highlight that this work refers only to a blood pressure measurement module and that the same conclusion cannot be drawn for its other functions.

  3. Multiplicative surrogate standard deviation: a group metric for the glycemic variability of individual hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Susan S; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    Group metrics are described to quantify blood glucose (BG) variability of hospitalized patients. The "multiplicative surrogate standard deviation" (MSSD) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the standard deviations (SDs) of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. The "geometric group mean" (GGM) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the means of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. Before reverse transformation is performed, the mean of means and mean of SDs each has its own SD, which becomes a multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) after reverse transformation. Statistical predictions and comparisons of parametric or nonparametric tests remain valid after reverse transformation. A subset of a previously published BG data set of 20 critically ill patients from the first 72 h of treatment under the SPRINT protocol was transformed logarithmically. After rank ordering according to the SD of the logarithmically transformed BG data of each patient, the cohort was divided into two equal groups, those having lower or higher variability. For the entire cohort, the GGM was 106 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, and MSSD was 1.24 (÷/× 1.07). For the subgroups having lower and higher variability, respectively, the GGM did not differ, 104 (÷/× 1.07) versus 109 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, but the MSSD differed, 1.17 (÷/× 1.03) versus 1.31 (÷/× 1.05), p = .00004. By using the MSSD with its MSD, groups can be characterized and compared according to glycemic variability of individual patient members. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)], E-mail: jporitz@gmail.com

    2009-05-04

    Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

  5. Moderate Deviation Analysis for Classical Communication over Quantum Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Tan, Vincent Y. F.; Tomamichel, Marco

    2017-11-01

    We analyse families of codes for classical data transmission over quantum channels that have both a vanishing probability of error and a code rate approaching capacity as the code length increases. To characterise the fundamental tradeoff between decoding error, code rate and code length for such codes we introduce a quantum generalisation of the moderate deviation analysis proposed by Altŭg and Wagner as well as Polyanskiy and Verdú. We derive such a tradeoff for classical-quantum (as well as image-additive) channels in terms of the channel capacity and the channel dispersion, giving further evidence that the latter quantity characterises the necessary backoff from capacity when transmitting finite blocks of classical data. To derive these results we also study asymmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing in the moderate deviations regime. Due to the central importance of the latter task, we expect that our techniques will find further applications in the analysis of other quantum information processing tasks.

  6. Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2013-01-01

    Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....

  7. Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric

    CERN Document Server

    Colistete, R J; Kerner, R

    2002-01-01

    Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).

  8. Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malaescu, I

    2000-01-01

    Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.

  9. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  10. OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.

  11. Complex service recovery processes: how to avoid triple deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edvardsson, Bo; Tronvoll, Bård; Höykinpuro, Ritva

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This article seeks to develop a new framework to outline factors that influence the resolution of unfavourable service experiences as a result of double deviation. The focus is on understanding and managing complex service recovery processes. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive, explorative and narrative approach was selected. Data were collected in the form of narratives from the field through interviews with actors at various levels in organisations as well as with custo...

  12. Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, Harold J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.

  13. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  14. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Jonge, de, R.; Zanten, van, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...

  15. Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution

  16. [Deviation in psychosexual development in the pre-puberty children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liavshina, G Kh

    2002-01-01

    Psychosexual health of 308 children, aged 2-11 years, as well as that of their families, was studied. Deviations in psychosexual development were found in 34.6% of the children examined. The following types were detected: difficulties in formation of gender-determined behavior features--64.4%, precocious psychosexual development--13.7%, delayed psychosexual development--12.3%, obsessive masturbation--9.6%. Risk factors for deviant psychosexual development were found.

  17. Direct training of robots using a positional deviation sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dessen, Fredrik

    1988-01-01

    A device and system for physically guiding a manipulator through its task is described. The device consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors, enabling the rcbot to track a motion marker. Factors limiting the tracking performance are the kinematics of the sensor device and the bartdwidth of the servo system. Means for improving it includes the use of optimal motion coordination and force and velocity feedback. This enables real-time manual training o...

  18. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  19. Dose deviations caused by positional inaccuracy of multileaf collimator in intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.C.; Chui, C.S.; Tsai, H.Y.; Chen, C.H.; Tsai, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    the dose errors. The algorithms generating more segments result more errors. However, the dose error distributions really relate to the irradiated angles. Conclusions: Each department should figure out the dose errors from MLC positional inaccuracy with the treatment machines and the clinical protocols in their institute. To ensure the dose deviations within acceptance level, the criteria setting of MLC accuracy is necessary

  20. Moderate Deviation Principles for Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    N ŕ’"(dt; dy) and the controls ’" : X [0; T ] ! [0;1) are predictable processes satisfying LT (’") Ma2 (") for some constantM . Here LT denotes...space. Although in the moderate deviations problem one has the stronger bound LT (’") Ma2 (") on the cost of controls, the mere tightness of ’" does not...suitable quadratic form. For " > 0 and M ə, consider the spaces SM+;" : = f’ : X [0; T ]! R+j LT (’) Ma2 (")g (2.5) SM" : = f : X [0; T ]! Rj

  1. Quality Assessment of Vertical Angular Deviations for Photometer Calibration Benches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A Silva; Santos, A Costa; E Sousa, J Alves; Forbes, A B

    2015-01-01

    Lighting, both natural and electric, constitutes one of the most important aspects of the life of human beings, allowing us to see and perform our daily tasks in outdoor and indoor environments. The safety aspects of lighting are self-evident in areas such as road lighting, urban lighting and also indoor lighting. The use of photometers to measure lighting levels requires traceability obtained in accredited laboratories, which must provide an associated uncertainty. It is therefore relevant to study the impact of known uncertainty sources like the vertical angular deviation of photometer calibration benches, in order to define criteria to its quality assessment

  2. Efficient characterisation of large deviations using population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Tobias; Clark, Stephen R.; Bradford, Russell; Jack, Robert L.

    2018-05-01

    We consider population dynamics as implemented by the cloning algorithm for analysis of large deviations of time-averaged quantities. We use the simple symmetric exclusion process with periodic boundary conditions as a prototypical example and investigate the convergence of the results with respect to the algorithmic parameters, focussing on the dynamical phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous states, where convergence is relatively difficult to achieve. We discuss how the performance of the algorithm can be optimised, and how it can be efficiently exploited on parallel computing platforms.

  3. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  4. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  5. Distribution of Standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of in...

  6. Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series

  7. Deviation-based spam-filtering method via stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daekyung; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2018-03-01

    In the presence of a huge number of possible purchase choices, ranks or ratings of items by others often play very important roles for a buyer to make a final purchase decision. Perfectly objective rating is an impossible task to achieve, and we often use an average rating built on how previous buyers estimated the quality of the product. The problem of using a simple average rating is that it can easily be polluted by careless users whose evaluation of products cannot be trusted, and by malicious spammers who try to bias the rating result on purpose. In this letter we suggest how trustworthiness of individual users can be systematically and quantitatively reflected to build a more reliable rating system. We compute the suitably defined reliability of each user based on the user's rating pattern for all products she evaluated. We call our proposed method as the deviation-based ranking, since the statistical significance of each user's rating pattern with respect to the average rating pattern is the key ingredient. We find that our deviation-based ranking method outperforms existing methods in filtering out careless random evaluators as well as malicious spammers.

  8. Adaptive behaviors of experts in following standard protocol in trauma management: implications for developing flexible guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankipuram, Mithra; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Patel, Vimla L

    2012-01-01

    Critical care environments are complex and dynamic. To adapt to such environments, clinicians may be required to make alterations to their workflows resulting in deviations from standard procedures. In this work, deviations from standards in trauma critical care are studied. Thirty trauma cases were observed in a Level 1 trauma center. Activities tracked were compared to the Advance Trauma Life Support standard to determine (i) if deviations had occurred, (ii) type of deviations and (iii) whether deviations were initiated by individuals or collaboratively by the team. Results show that expert clinicians deviated to innovate, while deviations of novices result mostly in error. Experts' well developed knowledge allows for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealing with standards, resulting in innovative deviations while minimizing errors made. Providing informatics solution, in such a setting, would mean that standard protocols would have be flexible enough to "learn" from new knowledge, yet provide strong support for the trainees.

  9. Establishing treatment protocols for clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Jerry R

    2003-03-01

    Each farm has a unique mix of mastitis pathogens and management procedures that have evolved over time. The herd veterinarian should work with the manager/owner to systematically develop treatment protocols that meet the needs and management of the farm. To establish a mastitis treatment protocol, it is necessary to develop a system to routinely identify clinical mastitis cases, develop a herd-specific severity level assessment system, manage the clinical mastitis cases based on severity level and culture result (when available), avoid antibiotic residues, and monitor the success of the system and alter the protocol as necessary.

  10. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  11. Rancang Bangun Instrumen Sistem Buoy Menggunakan A-Wsn Protokol Zigbee Untuk Pengamatan Ekosistem Pesisir (Development of Buoy System Instrument using A-WSN ZigBee Protocol for Coastal Ecosystem Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acta Withamana

    2013-12-01

    resolution of sampling. Mooring buoy has been used as one of the options to carry out the task. However the big dimension in the existing buoy system is not suitable for coastal ecosystem monitoring. Rapid development in semiconductor technology has brought wireless sensor network (WSN. ZigBee communication protocol has the advantage of energy efficient and ease of implementation. This research was conducted to developing mooring buoy platform as well as analyzes the possibility of WSN to be implemented in coastal environment. The test on performance of developed mooring buoy was good and stable as the platform of instrument. The network performance of ZigBee radio gave 100% data transmitting and receiving success ratio in the static test. Using four Ni-MH batteries, the instrument can be operated for roughly 39 hours for coordinator and router, and 89 hours for end device. The sea field test shows that the worst is 84.94% success ratio on E1 and the greatest is 100% success ratio on R1 and E3. The received temperature data also accurate to describe the distribution of sea surface temperature at Panggang Island. Results of this study suggest that application of Buoy System instrument using  ZigBee-WSN protocol has the potential to be used in the observation activities of coastal ecosystems. Keywords: mooring buoy, instrument, WSN, ZigBee, coastal observation

  12. Image contrast enhancement based on a local standard deviation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dah-Chung; Wu, Wen-Rong

    1996-01-01

    The adaptive contrast enhancement (ACE) algorithm is a widely used image enhancement method, which needs a contrast gain to adjust high frequency components of an image. In the literature, the gain is usually inversely proportional to the local standard deviation (LSD) or is a constant. But these cause two problems in practical applications, i.e., noise overenhancement and ringing artifact. In this paper a new gain is developed based on Hunt's Gaussian image model to prevent the two defects. The new gain is a nonlinear function of LSD and has the desired characteristic emphasizing the LSD regions in which details are concentrated. We have applied the new ACE algorithm to chest x-ray images and the simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm

  13. Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K.

    2017-07-01

    Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.

  14. Deviations from scale invariance near a general conformal background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichenko, A.; Elitzur, S.

    1994-01-01

    Deviations from scale invariance resulting from small perturbations of a general two-dimensional conformal field theory are studied. They are expressed in terms of β-functions for the renormalization of general couplings under a local change of scale. The β-functions for a homogeneous background are given perturbatively in terms of the data of the original conformal theory without any specific assumptions on its nature. The renormalization of couplings to primary operators and to first descendents is considered as well as that of couplings of a dilatonic type which involve explicit dependence on world sheet curvature. The first descendent couplings are interpreted as gauge degrees of freedom in the string field action and the corresponding gauge transformation is spelled out. (orig.)

  15. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination.

  16. Total focusing method (TFM) robustness to material deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painchaud-April, Guillaume; Badeau, Nicolas; Lepage, Benoit

    2018-04-01

    The total focusing method (TFM) is becoming an accepted nondestructive evaluation method for industrial inspection. What was a topic of discussion in the applied research community just a few years ago is now being deployed in critical industrial applications, such as inspecting welds in pipelines. However, the method's sensitivity to unexpected parametric changes (material and geometric) has not been rigorously assessed. In this article, we investigate the robustness of TFM in relation to unavoidable deviations from modeled nominal inspection component characteristics, such as sound velocities and uncertainties about the parts' internal and external diameters. We also review TFM's impact on the standard inspection modes often encountered in industrial inspections, and we present a theoretical model supported by empirical observations to illustrate the discussion.

  17. Deviations from uniform power law scaling in nonstationary time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, G. M.; Peng, C. K.; Stanley, H. E.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    A classic problem in physics is the analysis of highly nonstationary time series that typically exhibit long-range correlations. Here we test the hypothesis that the scaling properties of the dynamics of healthy physiological systems are more stable than those of pathological systems by studying beat-to-beat fluctuations in the human heart rate. We develop techniques based on the Fano factor and Allan factor functions, as well as on detrended fluctuation analysis, for quantifying deviations from uniform power-law scaling in nonstationary time series. By analyzing extremely long data sets of up to N = 10(5) beats for 11 healthy subjects, we find that the fluctuations in the heart rate scale approximately uniformly over several temporal orders of magnitude. By contrast, we find that in data sets of comparable length for 14 subjects with heart disease, the fluctuations grow erratically, indicating a loss of scaling stability.

  18. The Effects of Marginal Deviations on Behavioral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pastorelli, Concetta; Zelli, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conceptually framed within the theory of marginal deviations (Caprara & Zimbardo, 1996) and sought evidence for the general hypothesis that some children who initially show marginal behavioral problems may, over time, develop more serious problems depending partly on other personal and behavioral characteristics. To this end, the findings of two studies conducted, respectively, with American elementary school children and Italian middle school students are reviewed. These two studies show that hyperactivity, cognitive difficulties, low special preference, and lack of prosocial behavior increase a child's risk for growth in aggressive behavior over several school years. More importantly, they also show that equivalent levels of these risk factors have a greater impact on the development of children who, early on, were marginally aggressive.

  19. Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .

  20. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  1. The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extremes of 2d Coulomb gas: universal intermediate deviation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix-A-Chez-Toine, Bertrand; Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the extreme statistics in the complex Ginibre ensemble of N × N random matrices with complex Gaussian entries, but with no other symmetries. All the N eigenvalues are complex random variables and their joint distribution can be interpreted as a 2d Coulomb gas with a logarithmic repulsion between any pair of particles and in presence of a confining harmonic potential v(r) \\propto r2 . We study the statistics of the eigenvalue with the largest modulus r\\max in the complex plane. The typical and large fluctuations of r\\max around its mean had been studied before, and they match smoothly to the right of the mean. However, it remained a puzzle to understand why the large and typical fluctuations to the left of the mean did not match. In this paper, we show that there is indeed an intermediate fluctuation regime that interpolates smoothly between the large and the typical fluctuations to the left of the mean. Moreover, we compute explicitly this ‘intermediate deviation function’ (IDF) and show that it is universal, i.e. independent of the confining potential v(r) as long as it is spherically symmetric and increases faster than \\ln r2 for large r with an unbounded support. If the confining potential v(r) has a finite support, i.e. becomes infinite beyond a finite radius, we show via explicit computation that the corresponding IDF is different. Interestingly, in the borderline case where the confining potential grows very slowly as v(r) ∼ \\ln r2 for r \\gg 1 with an unbounded support, the intermediate regime disappears and there is a smooth matching between the central part and the left large deviation regime.

  3. Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J. [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: rauljimenez@g.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-01

    Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.

  4. Evaluating deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana Cravo; Peres, Ana; Pereira, Mónica; Coelho, Carina Marques; Monsanto, Fátima; Macedo, Ana; Lamas, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the deviations in prostatectomy patients treated with IMRT in order to calculate appropriate margins to create the PTV. Defining inappropriate margins can lead to underdosing in target volumes and also overdosing in healthy tissues, increasing morbidity. 223 CBCT images used for alignment with the CT planning scan based on bony anatomy were analyzed in 12 patients treated with IMRT following prostatectomy. Shifts of CBCT images were recorded in three directions to calculate the required margin to create PTV. The mean and standard deviation (SD) values in millimetres were -0.05 ± 1.35 in the LR direction, -0.03 ± 0.65 in the SI direction and -0.02 ± 2.05 the AP direction. The systematic error measured in the LR, SI and AP direction were 1.35 mm, 0.65 mm, and 2.05 mm with a random error of 2.07 mm; 1.45 mm and 3.16 mm, resulting in a PTV margin of 4.82 mm; 2.64 mm, and 7.33 mm, respectively. With IGRT we suggest a margin of 5 mm, 3 mm and 8 mm in the LR, SI and AP direction, respectively, to PTV1 and PTV2. Therefore, this study supports an anisotropic margin expansion to the PTV being the largest expansion in the AP direction and lower in SI.

  5. Morphologic changes of the anal sphincter musculature during and after temporary stool deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, M; Fein, M; Fuchs, K H; Bussen, D; Grun, C; Thiede, A

    2001-04-01

    Temporary stool deviation, using a stoma, is a well-known surgical principle to protect low colorectal or coloanal anastomoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any morphologic changes with regard to the anal sphincter muscles during and after temporary ileostomy. Forty-four patients with rectal carcinomas were studied prospectively. All patients underwent low anterior resection. Reconstruction was performed using either a coloanal pouch or a straight end-to-end anastomosis. A protective stoma was fashioned in all 44 patients (ileostomy n=41; colostomy n=3). Stoma closure was carried out after a median of 85 days (41-330 days). Using a standard protocol, anal-sphincter thickness [m. puborectalis, external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal (IAS) sphincter] was assessed by means of endoanal ultrasonography preoperatively, at the time of stoma closure, and every 3 months thereafter for 1 year. The diameter of the puborectal muscle decreased from a median preoperative value of 6.3 mm to 5.7 mm at the time of stoma closure (P=0.03). After 3 months, 6.2 mm was measured. This value remained stable for the complete follow-up period. Similar results were recorded for the EAS. The IAS thickness remained stable throughout the study period, measuring between 2.1 mm and 2.4 mm. Temporary stool deviation does lead to morphologic changes of the anal sphincter. While the smooth muscle remains unchanged, the striated counterpart undergoes atrophic transformation. However, after passage reconstruction, i.e., stoma closure, a rapid regeneration of the voluntary muscles is observed.

  6. Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Fullman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

  7. DEVIATION OF STELLAR ORBITS FROM TEST PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES AROUND SGr A* DUE TO TIDES AND WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Li, Gongjie; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the orbits of stars around Sgr A* offers the possibility of detecting the precession of their orbital planes due to frame dragging, of measuring the spin and quadrupole moment of the black hole, and of testing the no-hair theorem. Here we investigate whether the deviations of stellar orbits from test-particle trajectories due to wind mass loss and tidal dissipation of the orbital energy compromise such measurements. We find that the effects of stellar winds are, in general, negligible. On the other hand, for the most eccentric orbits (e > 0.96) for which an optical interferometer, such as GRAVITY, will detect orbital plane precession due to frame dragging, the tidal dissipation of orbital energy occurs at timescales comparable to the timescale of precession due to the quadrupole moment of the black hole. As a result, this non-conservative effect is a potential source of systematic uncertainty in testing the no-hair theorem with stellar orbits

  8. DEVIATION OF STELLAR ORBITS FROM TEST PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES AROUND SGr A* DUE TO TIDES AND WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Li, Gongjie; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: gli@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring the orbits of stars around Sgr A* offers the possibility of detecting the precession of their orbital planes due to frame dragging, of measuring the spin and quadrupole moment of the black hole, and of testing the no-hair theorem. Here we investigate whether the deviations of stellar orbits from test-particle trajectories due to wind mass loss and tidal dissipation of the orbital energy compromise such measurements. We find that the effects of stellar winds are, in general, negligible. On the other hand, for the most eccentric orbits (e > 0.96) for which an optical interferometer, such as GRAVITY, will detect orbital plane precession due to frame dragging, the tidal dissipation of orbital energy occurs at timescales comparable to the timescale of precession due to the quadrupole moment of the black hole. As a result, this non-conservative effect is a potential source of systematic uncertainty in testing the no-hair theorem with stellar orbits.

  9. Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini

    2014-10-01

    A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.

  10. Deviation of a Jet at a T junction at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Pascal; Engl, Wilfried; Ohata, Kouske; Colin, Annie

    2006-03-01

    We study the hydrodynamic behaviour of a laminar jet flowing through a channel when it reaches a junction. We observe the existence of two possible flow regimes, namely the splitting and deviation of a jet in the most simple microfluidic configuration, namely a T junction. The transition between the two regimes is not monitored by the shape of the T junction nor by capillary effects, but can be easily anticipated in terms of the hydrodynamic properties of the flow. We present a simple hydrodynamic model which is in very good agreement with observed experimental jet behaviour. The transition between both regime acts as a flow or viscosity comparator. We show how this effect can be used for the design of digital and integrated microfluidic devices

  11. EMS Adherence to a Pre-hospital Cervical Spine Clearance Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, David

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the degree of adherence to a cervical spine (c-spine clearance protocol by pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS personnel by both self-assessment and receiving hospital assessment, to describe deviations from the protocol, and to determine if the rate of compliance by paramedic self-assessment differed from receiving hospital assessment. Methods: A retrospective sample of pre-hospital (consecutive series and receiving hospital (convenience sample assessments of the compliance with and appropriateness of c-spine immobilization. The c-spine clearance protocol was implemented for Orange County EMS just prior to the April-November 1999 data collection period. Results: We collected 396 pre-hospital and 162 receiving hospital data forms. From the pre-hospital data sheet. the percentage deviation from the protocol was 4.096 (16/396. Only one out of 16 cases that did not comply with the protocol was due to over immobilization (0.2%. The remaining 15 cases were under immobilized, according to protocol. Nine of the under immobilized cases (66% that should have been placed in c-spine precautions met physical assessment criteria in the protocol, while the other five cases met mechanism of injury criteria. The rate of deviations from protocol did not differ over time. The receiving hospital identified 8.0% (13/162; 6/16 over immobilized, 7/16 under immobilized of patients with deviations from the protocol; none was determined to have actual c-spine injury. Conclusion: The implementation of a pre-hospital c-spine clearance protocol in Orange County was associated with a moderate overall adherence rate (96% from the pre-hospital perspective, and 92% from the hospital perspective, p=.08 for the two evaluation methods. Most patients who deviated from protocol were under immobilized, but no c-spine injuries were missed. The rate of over immobilization was better than previously reported, implying a saving of resources.

  12. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    performance data. These standard protocols and representations must support tasks such as profiling parallel applications, monitoring the status of computers and networks, and monitoring the performance of services provided by a computational grid. This paper describes a proposed protocol and data representation for the exchange of events in a distributed system. The protocol exchanges messages formatted in XML and it can be layered atop any low-level communication protocol such as TCP or UDP Further, we describe Java and C++ implementations of this protocol and discuss their performance. The next section will provide some further background information. Section 3 describes the main communication patterns of our protocol. Section 4 describes how we represent events and related information using XML. Section 5 describes our protocol and Section 6 discusses the performance of two implementations of the protocol. Finally, an appendix provides the XML Schema definition of our protocol and event information.

  13. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  14. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-06-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.

  15. Vertical dispersion generated by correlated closed orbit deviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewisch, J.; Limberg, T.; Rossbach, J.; Willeke, F.

    1986-02-01

    Vertical displacement of quadrupole magnets is one of the main causes of a vertical dispersion in a flat storage ring and thus a major contributor to the height of an electron beam. Computer simulations of the beam height in the HERA electron ring give a value of the ratio ε z /ε x of more than 10 percent. This large value occurs even for an rms value of the quadrupole vertical displacements Δz as small as 0.01 mm. Such a vertical emittance is much larger than one expects on the base of a theoretical estimate and it is clearly necessary to investigate the origin of the disagreements especially since the beam height has such an important influence on the machine performance. The key to the understanding of this discrepancy lies in the correlations of the closed orbit deviations at different position of the machine. This is investigated in the next section and in the section which follows we derive the expression for the rms value of dispersion and the vertical emittance. Finally the theoretical results are compared with computer simulations. (orig.)

  16. Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10 −160 . We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)

  17. Phage display peptide libraries: deviations from randomness and correctives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Arie; Ashkenazy, Haim; Weiss-Ottolenghi, Yael; Piller, Chen; Pupko, Tal; Gershoni, Jonathan M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Peptide-expressing phage display libraries are widely used for the interrogation of antibodies. Affinity selected peptides are then analyzed to discover epitope mimetics, or are subjected to computational algorithms for epitope prediction. A critical assumption for these applications is the random representation of amino acids in the initial naïve peptide library. In a previous study, we implemented next generation sequencing to evaluate a naïve library and discovered severe deviations from randomness in UAG codon over-representation as well as in high G phosphoramidite abundance causing amino acid distribution biases. In this study, we demonstrate that the UAG over-representation can be attributed to the burden imposed on the phage upon the assembly of the recombinant Protein 8 subunits. This was corrected by constructing the libraries using supE44-containing bacteria which suppress the UAG driven abortive termination. We also demonstrate that the overabundance of G stems from variant synthesis-efficiency and can be corrected using compensating oligonucleotide-mixtures calibrated by mass spectroscopy. Construction of libraries implementing these correctives results in markedly improved libraries that display random distribution of amino acids, thus ensuring that enriched peptides obtained in biopanning represent a genuine selection event, a fundamental assumption for phage display applications. PMID:29420788

  18. Standard deviation and standard error of the mean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; In, Junyong; Lee, Sangseok

    2015-06-01

    In most clinical and experimental studies, the standard deviation (SD) and the estimated standard error of the mean (SEM) are used to present the characteristics of sample data and to explain statistical analysis results. However, some authors occasionally muddle the distinctive usage between the SD and SEM in medical literature. Because the process of calculating the SD and SEM includes different statistical inferences, each of them has its own meaning. SD is the dispersion of data in a normal distribution. In other words, SD indicates how accurately the mean represents sample data. However the meaning of SEM includes statistical inference based on the sampling distribution. SEM is the SD of the theoretical distribution of the sample means (the sampling distribution). While either SD or SEM can be applied to describe data and statistical results, one should be aware of reasonable methods with which to use SD and SEM. We aim to elucidate the distinctions between SD and SEM and to provide proper usage guidelines for both, which summarize data and describe statistical results.

  19. Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Miao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion. Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions. Monoclonality is a major characteristic of most tumors, whereas normal tissue and reactive hyperplasia are polyclonal. Methods The clinicopathological features and clonality of MDA were investigated using laser microdissection and a clonality assay based on the polymorphism of androgen receptor (AR and X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism in female somatic tissues. Results The results demonstrated that the glands were positive for CEA, Ki-67, and p53 and negative for estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV DNA. The index of proliferation for Ki-67 was more than 50%. However, the stromal cells were positive for ER, PR, vimentin, and SM-actin. The clonal assay showed that MDA was monoclonal. Thus, our findings indicate that MDA is a true neoplasm but is not associated with high-risk HPV. Conclusions Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.

  20. WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch

    2017-01-01

    Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work. (topical review)

  1. Obtaining TEM images with a uniform deviation parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, Alwyn

    2006-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopes made during the last quarter of a century, it has been impossible to take images in which the diffraction contrast conditions are uniform across the field of view. This is inconvenient when, for example, imaging dislocations at a relatively low magnification. The problem arises because modern microscopes use immersion lenses in which the sample sits in a high magnetic field. The resulting helical trajectories of the electrons at the sample plane mean that it is not possible to make a beam that is parallel at the sample. Results of a method to overcome this problem are presented. It is shown that a simple modification to the microscope (which, on a computer-controlled microscope, could be implemented in software) can be used to produce images in which the deviation parameter is essentially constant across many microns of image. By a happy accident, this method can be used, not only to correct for the helicity imparted by immersion lenses, but also to correct for buckling of the sample (up to a point)

  2. Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N; Bohigas, Oriol

    2007-01-01

    We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X T X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value (λ) = N/c decreases for large N as ∼exp[-β/2 N 2 Φ - (2√c + 1: c)], where β = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M ≤ 1 and Φ - (x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions

  3. Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo [School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom) ; Majumdar, Satya N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-04-20

    We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X{sup T}X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value ({lambda}) = N/c decreases for large N as {approx}exp[-{beta}/2 N{sup 2}{phi}{sub -} (2{radical}c + 1: c)], where {beta} = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M {<=} 1 and {phi}{sub -}(x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.

  4. Large-deviation theory for diluted Wishart random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Metz, Fernando L.

    2018-03-01

    Wishart random matrices with a sparse or diluted structure are ubiquitous in the processing of large datasets, with applications in physics, biology, and economy. In this work, we develop a theory for the eigenvalue fluctuations of diluted Wishart random matrices based on the replica approach of disordered systems. We derive an analytical expression for the cumulant generating function of the number of eigenvalues IN(x ) smaller than x ∈R+ , from which all cumulants of IN(x ) and the rate function Ψx(k ) controlling its large-deviation probability Prob[IN(x ) =k N ] ≍e-N Ψx(k ) follow. Explicit results for the mean value and the variance of IN(x ) , its rate function, and its third cumulant are discussed and thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization, showing very good agreement. The present work establishes the theoretical framework put forward in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 104101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.104101] as an exact and compelling approach to deal with eigenvalue fluctuations of sparse random matrices.

  5. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kindregan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  6. Wind power limit calculation basedon frequency deviation using Matlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Salgado Duarte, Yorlandis; MejutoFarray, Davis

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of the wind energy for the production of electricity it’s a technology that has promoted itself in the last years, like an alternative before the environmental deterioration and the scarcity of the fossil fuels. When the power generation of wind energy is integrated into the electrical power systems, maybe take place problems in the frequency stability due to, mainly, the stochastic characteristic of the wind and the impossibility of the wind power control on behalf of the dispatchers. In this work, is make an analysis of frequency deviation when the wind power generation rise in an isolated electrical power system. This analysis develops in a computerized frame with the construction of an algorithm using Matlab, which allowed to make several simulations in order to obtain the frequency behavior for different loads and wind power conditions. Besides, it was determined the wind power limit for minimum, medium and maximum load. The results show that the greatest values on wind power are obtained in maximum load condition. However, the minimum load condition limit the introduction of wind power into the system. (author)

  7. Deviations from excitation equilibrium in optically thick mercury arc plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Up to date mercury arcs at pressure greater than 1 atm have been investigated as plasma systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state. These studies have been motivated by the applications of mercury arcs, e.g., in the lighting industry. The LTE-assumption simplifies the use of spectroscopic diagnostics and the performance of species-concentration calculations. A high pressure mercury arc of about 1 atm had been considered in two possibilities: excitation and gas temperatures are the same, the electron temperature is higher and excitation and electron temperatures are the same, the gas temperature is lower. Recent measurements in mercury arcs reveal the existence of severe departures from thermal equilibrium and suggest the absence of excitation equilibrium in the axis and in the periphery in such an arc. The deviation from equilibrium leads to complicated distributions, such that the system cannot be described correctly by any single temperature. This becomes quite complicated when plasma inhomogeneity and strong reabsorption of the radiation are present

  8. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  9. Protocol for the management of rheumatic diseases in the insured population of the CCSS, attached to the Hospital Mexico, presentation of a proposal for the management and monitoring of the most prevalent rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Guevara, Erick

    2013-01-01

    The protocols for the care of rheumatic diseases are designed to disseminate guidelines for early diagnosis and timely referral, for application in networks and for patient access to early treatment. A protocol of clinical practice is presented following the institutional guidelines, based on bibliography that could be implemented in the Costa Rican social security, these documents were discussed and validated locally by the Rheumatology service of the Hospital Mexico allowing protocolarizing the attention of the Rheumatoid Arthritis. For the construction of a clinical care protocol, the methodological manual of the DDSS code M.GM.DDSS.007 Version 01 CCSS, 2013 was used. The evidence was searched and selected from the following places: Medline, Tripdatabase, GIN network; This selection was made based on critical reading under the methodology of the Caspe Group, and the best available evidence was used, after discussing it in the sessions of the rheumatology service [es

  10. Comparative Analysis of Different Protocols to Manage Large Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Rao Pimplapure; Dr Jayant Dubey; Prashant Sen

    2013-01-01

    In recent year the numbers, complexity and size is increased in Large Scale Network. The best example of Large Scale Network is Internet, and recently once are Data-centers in Cloud Environment. In this process, involvement of several management tasks such as traffic monitoring, security and performance optimization is big task for Network Administrator. This research reports study the different protocols i.e. conventional protocols like Simple Network Management Protocol and newly Gossip bas...

  11. Direct data access protocols benchmarking on DPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furano, Fabrizio; Devresse, Adrien; Keeble, Oliver; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager is an example of a multi-protocol, multi-VO system for data access on the Grid that went though a considerable technical evolution in the last years. Among other features, its architecture offers the opportunity of testing its different data access frontends under exactly the same conditions, including hardware and backend software. This characteristic inspired the idea of collecting monitoring information from various testbeds in order to benchmark the behaviour of the HTTP and Xrootd protocols for the use case of data analysis, batch or interactive. A source of information is the set of continuous tests that are run towards the worldwide endpoints belonging to the DPM Collaboration, which accumulated relevant statistics in its first year of activity. On top of that, the DPM releases are based on multiple levels of automated testing that include performance benchmarks of various kinds, executed regularly every day. At the same time, the recent releases of DPM can report monitoring information about any data access protocol to the same monitoring infrastructure that is used to monitor the Xrootd deployments. Our goal is to evaluate under which circumstances the HTTP-based protocols can be good enough for batch or interactive data access. In this contribution we show and discuss the results that our test systems have collected under the circumstances that include ROOT analyses using TTreeCache and stress tests on the metadata performance.

  12. Outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery for horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Blanco Domínguez, I; Gómez de Liaño, P

    2016-02-01

    To study the outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) for treating horizontal deviation Case Series of the first 26 consecutive patients operated on using the MISS technique in our hospital from February 2010 to March 2014. A total of 40 eyes were included: 26 patients (mean age: 7.7 years old ± 4.9); 34.61%: male. A total of 43 muscles were operated on: 20 medial, and 23 lateral recti; 28 recessions (range: 3-7.5mm), 6 resections (6-7 mm), and 9 plications (6.5-7.5 mm) were performed. No significant difference was found (P>0.05) for visual acuity at postoperative day 1, and 6 months after surgery. A mild hyperaemia was observed in 29.27%, moderate in 48.78%, and severe in 21.95% at postoperative day 1 and in 63.41%, 31.70% and 4.87%, respectively, at 4 days after surgery. The complications observed were 4 intraoperative conjunctival haemorrhages, 1 scleral perforation, and 2 Tenon's prolapses. A conversion from MISS to a fornix approach was necessary in 1 patient because of bad visualization. The operating time range decreased from 30 to 15 minutes. The MISS technique has obtained good results in horizontal strabismus surgery. The conjunctival inflammation was mild in most of the cases at postoperative day 4. The visual acuity was stable during follow-up, and operating time decreased after a 4-year learning curve. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Petrothermal heat extraction using a single deviated well (Horstberg, revisited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Vogt, Esther; Bartetzko, Anne; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The single-well tracer test conducted (Behrens et al. 2006) in conjunction with waterfrac experiments at Horstberg is re-examined with a view at four basic issues: why single-well? why fracturing? why tracers? does this only work at Horstberg, or can it work almost anywhere else in the Northern-German sedimentary basin? Heat and tracer transport within a composite reservoir (impermeable matrix + waterfrac + permeable layer), as accessed by a single deviated well, turn out to fit into a surprisingly simple description, as the plain (arithmetic) sum of certain petrothermal-type and aquifer-type contributions, whose weighting relative to each other can vary from site to site, depending upon stratigraphy and upon wellbore geometry. At Horstberg, within the particular formations tested ('Volpriehausen', 'Detfurth', 'Solling', comprising mainly claystone and sandstone layers), thermal lifetime results to be petrothermally-dominated, while tracer residence times prove to be 'aquifer'-dominated. Despite this disparity, the reservoir's thermal lifetime can reliably be predicted from tracer test results. What cannot be determined from waterfrac flow-path tracing is the very waterfrac's aperture. Aperture uncertainty, however, does not impede upon thermal lifetime predictability. The results of the semi-analytical approach are confirmed by numerical simulations using a FE model that includes more details of hydrogeological heterogeneity for the Horstberg site. They are complemented by a parameter sensitivity analysis. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: This study is funded by MWK Niedersachsen (Lower-Saxony's Science and Culture Ministry) and by Baker Hughes (Celle) within task unit G6 of the Collaborative Research Project 'gebo' ('Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling').

  14. A deviation based assessment methodology for multiple machine health patterns classification and fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Jin, Chao; Buzza, Matt; Di, Yuan; Siegel, David; Lee, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Successful applications of Diffusion Map (DM) in machine failure detection and diagnosis have been reported in several recent studies. DM provides an efficient way to visualize the high-dimensional, complex and nonlinear machine data, and thus suggests more knowledge about the machine under monitoring. In this paper, a DM based methodology named as DM-EVD is proposed for machine degradation assessment, abnormality detection and diagnosis in an online fashion. Several limitations and challenges of using DM for machine health monitoring have been analyzed and addressed. Based on the proposed DM-EVD, a deviation based methodology is then proposed to include more dimension reduction methods. In this work, the incorporation of Laplacian Eigen-map and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are explored, and the latter algorithm is named as PCA-Dev and is validated in the case study. To show the successful application of the proposed methodology, case studies from diverse fields are presented and investigated in this work. Improved results are reported by benchmarking with other machine learning algorithms.

  15. Two Phases Authentication Level (TPAL) protocol for nodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... node may contain sensitive informations such as military data and monitoring data. ... LLN is a kind of Internet of Things (IoT) network with limited power source ... Current authentication Internet protocols cannot be adopted directly into LLN ...

  16. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  17. Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.

  18. Large deviations for Markov chains in the positive quadrant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovkov, A A; Mogul' skii, A A [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-10-31

    The paper deals with so-called N-partially space-homogeneous time-homogeneous Markov chains X(y,n), n=0,1,2,..., X(y,0)=y, in the positive quadrant. These Markov chains are characterized by the following property of the transition probabilities P(y,A)=P(X(y,1) element of A): for some N{>=}0 the measure P(y,dx) depends only on x{sub 2}, y{sub 2}, and x{sub 1}-y{sub 1} in the domain x{sub 1}>N, y{sub 1}>N, and only on x{sub 1}, y{sub 1}, and x{sub 2}-y{sub 2} in the domain x{sub 2}>N, y{sub 2}>N. For such chains the asymptotic behaviour is found for a fixed set B as s{yields}{infinity}, |x|{yields}{infinity}, and n{yields}{infinity}. Some other conditions on the growth of parameters are also considered, for example, |x-y|{yields}{infinity}, |y|{yields}{infinity}. A study is made of the structure of the most probable trajectories, which give the main contribution to this asymptotics, and a number of other results pertaining to the topic are established. Similar results are obtained for the narrower class of 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under less restrictive moment conditions on the transition probabilities P(y,dx). Moreover, exact asymptotic expressions for the probabilities P(X(0,n) element of x+B) are found for 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under some additional conditions. The interest in partially homogeneous Markov chains in positive octants is due to the mathematical aspects (new and interesting problems arise in the framework of general large deviation theory) as well as applied issues, for such chains prove to be quite accurate mathematical models for numerous basic types of queueing and communication networks such as the widely known Jackson networks, polling systems, or communication networks associated with the ALOHA algorithm. There is a vast literature dealing with the analysis of these objects. The present paper is an attempt to find the extent to which an asymptotic analysis is possible for Markov chains of this type in their general

  19. Deviation equation in spaces with affine connection. Pts. 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, B.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of a parallel transport is used to define a class of displacement vectors in spaces with affine connection. The nonlocal deviation equation in such spaces is introduced using a definition of the deviation vector based on the displacement vector. It turns out to be a special of the generalized deviation equation, but having an appropriate physical interpretation. The equation of geodesic deviation is presented as an example

  20. Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, M.; van Eijsden, P.; Ferrier, C. H.; Kho, K. H.; van Rijen, P. C.; Leijten, F. S. S.

    Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze deviation, while non-versive head deviation is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporoparietal area. Almost all non-versive head deviations occurring during

  1. 7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards... Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates from...

  2. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance...

  3. 48 CFR 1352.219-71 - Notification to delay performance (Deviation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... performance (Deviation). 1352.219-71 Section 1352.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....219-71 Notification to delay performance (Deviation). As prescribed in 48 CFR 1319.811-3(b), insert the following clause: Notification To Delay Performance (Deviation) (APR 2010) The contractor shall...

  4. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  5. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  6. Scaphoid and lunate movement in different ranges of carpal radioulnar deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jin Bo; Xu, Jing; Xie, Ren Guo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate scaphoid and lunate movement in radial deviation and in slight and moderate ulnar deviation ranges in vivo. We obtained computed tomography scans of the right wrists from 20° radial deviation to 40° ulnar deviation in 20° increments in 6 volunteers. The 3-dimensional bony structures of the wrist, including the distal radius and ulna, were reconstructed with customized software. The changes in position of the scaphoid and lunate along flexion-extension motion (FEM), radioulnar deviation (RUD), and supination-pronation axes in 3 parts--radial deviation and slight and moderate ulnar deviation--of the carpal RUD were calculated and analyzed. During carpal RUD, scaphoid and lunate motion along 3 axes--FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation--were the greatest in the middle third of the measured RUD (from neutral position to 20° ulnar deviation) and the smallest in radial deviation. Scaphoid motion along the FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation axes in the middle third was about half that in the entire motion range. In the middle motion range, lunate movement along the FEM and RUD axes was also the greatest. During carpal RUD, the greatest scaphoid and lunate movement occurs in the middle of the arc--slight ulnar deviation--which the wrist frequently adopts to accomplish major hand actions. At radial deviation, scaphoid and lunate motion is the smallest. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of the Microlife BP A3 PC upper arm blood pressure monitor in patients with diabetes mellitus according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2: 2013 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beime, Beate; Krüger, Ralf; Hammel, Gertrud; Bramlage, Peter; Deutsch, Cornelia

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the blood pressure (BP) measurement device, Microlife BP A3 PC, in patients with diabetes mellitus, according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol. In 85 individuals aged 56-88 years, with predefined criteria for diabetes mellitus, BP measurements on the upper arm were performed alternately using the Microlife BP A3 PC and a standard mercury reference sphygmomanometer. A total of 333 comparisons were included for analysis. The mean difference between the Microlife BP A3 PC and the reference was -1.5±6.3 mmHg for systolic BP (SBP) and -1.3±5.2 mmHg for diastolic BP (DBP) according to criterion 1 of the protocol. For SBP, a total of 209 of the 333 measurements were within the range of 5 mmHg (62.8%), whereas the corresponding numbers for DBP were 232 of 333 (69.7%). For criterion 2, the intraindividual differences for the test device and the reference were -1.50±4.73 mmHg for SBP and -1.30±4.55 mmHg for DBP, thus being within the defined ranges provided by the protocol. The Microlife BP A3 PC fulfilled the requirements of criteria 1 and 2 of the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 protocol and can also be recommended for BP measurement in diabetic patients.

  8. Statistical monitoring of linear antenna arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the problem of monitoring linear antenna arrays using the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test. When an abnormal event (fault) affects an array of antenna elements, the radiation pattern changes and significant deviation from

  9. Ground-based photo monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based photo monitoring is repeat photography using ground-based cameras to document change in vegetation or soil. Assume those installing the photo location will not be the ones re-photographing it. This requires a protocol that includes: (1) a map to locate the monitoring area, (2) another map diagramming the photographic layout, (3) type and make of film such...

  10. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  11. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  12. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  13. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  14. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  15. The efficacy and stability of an information and communication technology-based centralized monitoring system of adherence to immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Yeon; Seong, Sook Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Yoon, Young-Ran; Kim, Hyung-Kee; Huh, Seung; Yoon, Se-Hee; Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2017-10-16

    Immunosuppression non-adherence in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) not only increases the risk of medical intervention due to acute rejection and graft loss but burdens the socioeconomic system in the form of increased healthcare costs. An aggressive preemptive effort by healthcare professionals, geared to ensure adherence to immunosuppressants in KTRs, is significant and imperative. This study was designed as a prospective, open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and stability of an information and communication technology (ICT)-based centralized monitoring system in boosting medication adherence in KTRs. One hundred fourteen KTRs registered throughout the year 2017 to 2018 are randomized into either the ICT-based centralized home monitoring system or to ambulatory follow-up. The planned follow-up duration is 6 months. The ICT-based centralized home monitoring system described consists of a smart pill box equipped with personal identification system, a home monitoring system, an electronic Case Report Form (eCRF) system, and a comprehensive clinical trial management system (CTMS). It alerts both patients and medical staff with texts and pill box alarms if there is a dosage/dosing time error or a missed dose. Medication adherence and transplant outcomes for the follow-up period are compared between the two groups, while patient satisfaction as well as the stability and cost-effectiveness of the ICT-based monitoring system are to be evaluated. This on-going study is expected to determine if consistent use of the ICT-based centralized monitoring system described could maximize mediation adherence and subsequently enhance transplant outcomes in KTRs. Further, it would lay the foundation for successful implementation of this ICT-based monitoring system for effective management of medication adherence in KTRs. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03136588 . Registered on 20 April 2017.

  16. Targets of operation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.

    1997-01-01

    The condition monitoring system of a nuclear power plant should be an assurance for the user and the authorities that the safety of the installation constantly corresponds to the nominal condition. As soon as deviations from these conditions occur, it should quickly provide fundamentals for corrective measures. It contributes to a high degree of availability of the installation and makes safe and economical operation throughout the whole life of the installation possible. (author) 1 fig

  17. RadNet: Open network protocol for radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, B.; Olson, K.; Beckes-Talcott, J.; Kadner, S.; Wenderlich, T.; Hoy, M.; Doyle, W.; Koskelo, M.

    1998-01-01

    Safeguards instrumentation is increasingly being incorporated into remote monitoring applications. In the past, vendors of radiation monitoring instruments typically provided the tools for uploading the monitoring data to a host. However, the proprietary nature of communication protocols lends itself to increased computer support needs and increased installation expenses. As a result, a working group of suppliers and customers of radiation monitoring instruments defined an open network protocol for transferring packets on a local area network from radiation monitoring equipment to network hosts. The protocol was termed RadNet. While it is now primarily used for health physics instruments, RadNet's flexibility and strength make it ideal for remote monitoring of nuclear materials. The incorporation of standard, open protocols ensures that future work will not render present work obsolete; because RadNet utilizes standard Internet protocols, and is itself a non-proprietary standard. The use of industry standards also simplifies the development and implementation of ancillary services, e.g. E-main generation or even pager systems

  18. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  19. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  20. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz Dan Mean Absolute Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartono, R. Agus; Setiawan, Arie Andika

    2006-01-01

    Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952) used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991) introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR) is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attem...